The provisions of this chapter shall govern special building construction including membrane structures, temporary structures, pedestrian walkways and tunnels, automatic vehicular gates, awnings and canopies, marquees, signs, and towers and antennas.
The provisions of Sections 3102.1 through 3102.8 shall apply to air-supported, air-inflated, membrane-covered cable, membrane-covered frame and tensile membrane structures, collectively known as membrane structures, erected for a period of 180 days or longer. Those erected for a shorter period of time shall comply with the Florida Fire Prevention Code. Membrane structures covering water storage facilities, water clarifiers, water treatment plants, sewage treatment plants, greenhouses and similar facilities not used for human occupancy are required to meet only the requirements of Sections 3102.3.1 and 3102.7. Membrane structures erected on a building, balcony, deck or other structure for any period of time shall comply with this section.
3102.1.1 Tensile membrane structures.
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:
CABLE-RESTRAINED, AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE.
MEMBRANE-COVERED CABLE STRUCTURE.
MEMBRANE-COVERED FRAME STRUCTURE.
NONCOMBUSTIBLE MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. TENSILE MEMBRANE STRUCTURE.
3102.3 Type of construction.
Noncombustible membrane structures shall be classified as Type IIB construction. Noncombustible frame or cable-supported structures covered by an approved membrane in accordance with Section 3102.3.1 shall be classified as Type IIB construction. Heavy timber frame-supported structures covered by an approved membrane in accordance with Section 3102.3.1 shall be classified as Type IV construction. Other membrane structures shall be classified as Type V construction.
Exception: Plastic less than 30 feet (9144 mm) above any floor used in greenhouses, where occupancy by the general public is not authorized, and for aquaculture pond covers is not required to meet the fire propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701.
3102.3.1 Membrane and interior liner material.
Membranes and interior liners shall be either noncombustible as set forth in Section 703.5 or meet the fire propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701 and the manufacturer’s test protocol.
Exception: Plastic less than 20 mil (0.5 mm) in thickness used in greenhouses, where occupancy by the general public is not authorized, and for aquaculture pond covers is not required to meet the fire propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701.
3102.4 Allowable floor areas.
The area of a membrane structure shall not exceed the limitations specified in Section 506.
3102.5 Maximum height.
Membrane structures shall not exceed one story nor shall such structures exceed the height limitations in feet specified in Section 504.3.
Exception: Noncombustible membrane structures serving as roofs only.
3102.6 Mixed construction.
Membrane structures shall be permitted to be utilized as specified in this section as a portion of buildings of other types of construction. Height and area limits shall be as specified for the type of construction and occupancy of the building.
3102.6.1 Noncombustible membrane.
A noncombustible membrane shall be permitted for use as the roof or as a skylight of any building or atrium of a building of any type of construction provided the membrane is not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) above any floor, balcony or gallery.
A membrane meeting the fire propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701 shall be permitted to be used as the roof or as a skylight on buildings of Type IIB, III, IV and V construction, provided the membrane is not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) above any floor, balcony or gallery.
3102.7 Engineering design.
The structure shall be designed and constructed to sustain dead loads; loads due to tension or inflation; live loads including wind, snow or flood and seismic loads and in accordance with Chapter 16.
3102.7.1 Lateral restraint.
For membrane-covered frame structures, the membrane shall not be considered to provide lateral restraint in the calculation of the capacities of the frame members.
3102.8 Inflation systems.
3102.8.1 Equipment requirements.
This inflation system shall consist of one or more blowers and shall include provisions for automatic control to maintain the required inflation pressures. The system shall be so designed as to prevent overpressurization of the system.
322.214.171.124 Auxiliary inflation system.
In addition to the primary inflation system, in buildings larger than 1,500 square feet (140 m2) in area, an auxiliary inflation system shall be provided with sufficient capacity to maintain the inflation of the structure in case of primary system failure. The auxiliary inflation system shall operate automatically when there is a loss of internal pressure and when the primary blower system becomes inoperative.
3126.96.36.199 Blower equipment.
Blower equipment shall meet all of the following requirements:
1.Blowers shall be powered by continuous-rated motors at the maximum power required for any flow condition as required by the structural design.
2.Blowers shall be provided with inlet screens, belt guards and other protective devices as required by the building official to provide protection from injury.
3.Blowers shall be housed within a weather-protecting structure.
4.Blowers shall be equipped with backdraft check dampers to minimize air loss when inoperative.
5.Blower inlets shall be located to provide protection from air contamination. The location of inlets shall be approved.
3102.8.2 Standby power.
Wherever an auxiliary inflation system is required, an approved standby power-generating system shall be provided. The system shall be equipped with a suitable means for automatically starting the generator set upon failure of the normal electrical service and for automatic transfer and operation of all of the required electrical functions at full power within 60 seconds of such service failure. Standby power shall be capable of operating independently for not less than 4 hours.
3102.8.3 Support provisions.
A system capable of supporting the membrane in the event of deflation shall be provided for in air-supported and air-inflated structures having an occupant load of 50 or more or where covering a swimming pool regardless of occupant load. The support system shall be capable of maintaining membrane structures used as a roof for Type I construction not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) above floor or seating areas. The support system shall be capable of maintaining other membranes not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) above the floor, seating area or surface of the water.
The provisions of Sections 3103.1 through 3103.4 shall apply to structures erected for a period of less than 180 days. Tents and other membrane structures erected for a period of less than 180 days shall comply with the Florida Fire Prevention Code. Those erected for a longer period of time shall comply with applicable sections of this code.
Temporary structures and uses shall conform to the structural strength, fire safety, means of egress, accessibility, light, ventilation and sanitary requirements of this code as necessary to ensure public health, safety and general welfare.
3103.1.2 Permit required.
Temporary structures that cover an area greater than 120 square feet (11.16 m2), including connecting areas or spaces with a common means of egress or entrance that are used or intended to be used for the gathering together of 10 or more persons, shall not be erected, operated or maintained for any purpose without obtaining a permit from the building official.
3103.2 Construction documents.
A permit application and construction documents shall be submitted for each installation of a temporary structure. The construction documents shall include a site plan indicating the location of the temporary structure and information delineating the means of egress and the occupant load.
Temporary structures shall be located in accordance with the requirements of Table 602 based on the fire-resistance rating of the exterior walls for the proposed type of construction.
3103.4 Means of egress.
Temporary structures shall conform to the means of egress requirements of Chapter 10 and shall have an exit access travel distance of 100 feet (30 480 mm) or less.
PEDESTRIAN WALKWAYS AND TUNNELS
This section shall apply to connections between buildings such as pedestrian walkways or tunnels, located at, above or below grade level, that are used as a means of travel by persons. The pedestrian walkway shall not contribute to the building area or the number of stories or height of connected buildings.
3104.2 Separate structures.
Buildings connected by pedestrian walkways or tunnels shall be considered to be separate structures.
1.Buildings that are on the same lot and considered as portions of a single building in accordance with Section 503.1.2.
The pedestrian walkway shall be of noncombustible construction.
1.Combustible construction shall be permitted where connected buildings are of combustible construction.
2.Fire-retardant-treated wood, in accordance with Section 603.1, Item 1.3, shall be permitted for the roof construction of the pedestrian walkway where connected buildings are a minimum of Type I or II construction.
Only materials and decorations approved by the building official shall be located in the pedestrian walkway.
3104.5 Connections of pedestrian walkways to buildings.
Exception: Buildings that are on the same lot and considered as portions of a single building in accordance with Section 503.1.2.
3104.5.1 Fire barriers.
3188.8.131.52 Exterior walls.
Exterior walls of buildings connected to pedestrian walkways shall be 2-hour fire-resistance rated. This protection shall extend not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) in every direction surrounding the perimeter of the pedestrian walkway.
3184.108.40.206 Openings in exterior walls of connected buildings.
Openings in exterior walls required to be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Section 3220.127.116.11 shall be equipped with opening protectives providing a not less than 3/4-hour fire protection rating in accordance with Section 716.
318.104.22.168 Supporting construction.
The fire barrier shall be supported by construction as required by Section 707.5.1.
3104.5.2 Alternative separation.
1.The distance between the connected buildings is more than 10 feet (3048 mm).
2.The pedestrian walkway and connected buildings are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, and the roof of the walkway is not more than 55 feet (16 764 mm) above grade connecting to the fifth, or lower, story above grade plane, of each building.
Exception: Open parking garages need not be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system.
322.214.171.124 Passage of smoke.
The wall shall be capable of resisting the passage of smoke.
The wall shall be constructed of a tempered, wired or laminated glass wall and doors or glass separating the interior of the building from the pedestrian walkway. The glass shall be protected by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 that, when actuated, shall completely wet the entire surface of interior sides of the wall or glass. Obstructions shall not be installed between the sprinkler heads and the wall or glass. The glass shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in such a manner that the framing system will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler operates.
3104.5.3 Open sides on walkway.
Where the distance between the connected buildings is more than 10 feet (3048 mm), the walls at the intersection of the pedestrian walkway and each building need not be fire-resistance rated provided both sidewalls of the pedestrian walkway are not less than 50 percent open with the open area uniformly distributed to prevent the accumulation of smoke and toxic gases. The roof of the walkway shall be located not more than 40 feet (12 160 mm) above grade plane, and the walkway shall only be permitted to connect to the third or lower story of each building.
Exception: Where the pedestrian walkway is protected with a sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the roof of the walkway shall be located not more than 55 feet (16 764 mm) above grade plane and the walkway shall only be permitted to connect to the fifth or lower story of each building.
3104.5.4 Exterior walls greater than 2 hours.
Where exterior walls of connected buildings are required by Section 705 to have a fire-resistance rating greater than 2 hours, the walls at the intersection of the pedestrian walkway and each building need not be fire-resistance rated provided:
1.The pedestrian walkway is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
2.The roof of the walkway is not located more than 55 feet (16 764 mm) above grade plane and the walkway connects to the fifth, or lower, story above grade plane of each building.
3104.6 Public way.
Pedestrian walkways over a public way shall comply with Chapter 32.
Access shall be provided at all times to a pedestrian walkway that serves as a required exit.
The unobstructed width of pedestrian walkways shall be not less than 36 inches (914 mm). The total width shall be not greater than 30 feet (9144 mm).
3104.9 Exit access travel.
The length of exit access travel shall be 200 feet (60 960 mm) or less.
1.Exit access travel distance on a pedestrian walkway equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall be 250 feet (76 200 mm) or less.
2.Exit access travel distance on a pedestrian walkway constructed with both sides not less than 50 percent open shall be 300 feet (91 440 mm) or less.
3.Exit access travel distance on a pedestrian walkway constructed with both sides not less than 50 percent open, and equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, shall be 400 feet (122 m) or less.
3104.10 Tunneled walkway.
Separation between the tunneled walkway and the building to which it is connected shall be not less than 2-hour fire-resistant construction and openings therein shall be protected in accordance with Table 716.5.
AWNINGS AND CANOPIES
The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:
3105.3 Design and construction.
Awnings and canopies shall be designed and constructed to withstand wind or other lateral loads and live loads as required by Chapter 16 and in accordance with Section 3105.4 of this code with due allowance for shape, open construction and similar features that relieve the pressures or loads. Structural members shall be protected to prevent deterioration. Awnings shall have frames of noncombustible material, fire-retardant-treated wood, wood of Type IV size, or 1-hour construction with combustible or noncombustible covers and shall be either fixed, retractable, folding or collapsible.
Fabric awnings and fabric-covered frames located over public property or in areas accessible to the general public shall be constructed so that no rigid part of such fabric awnings or fabric-covered frames shall be less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm) from the grade directly below, and no part of the cloth drop shall be less than 7 feet (2134 mm).
A fixed fabric awning or fabric-covered frame shall not extend over public property more than two-thirds the distance from the property line to the nearest curb line in front of the building site as measured from the exterior face of the building, nor shall any portion be closer than 18 inches (457 mm) to the curb line.
1.If installed over 14 feet (4267 mm) in height, it may occupy the entire width of the sidewalk.
2.Unless otherwise regulated by local zoning requirements.
Fabric-covered framework in whole or in part of fabric, erected in connection with gasoline service stations may not be erected within 15 feet (4572 mm) of where flammable liquids are transferred.
Movable fabric awnings or fabric covered frames may extend over public property for a distance of not more than 5 feet (1524 mm), provided such awnings or any part thereof maintain a clear height of 8 feet (2438 mm) above the sidewalk. All such movable awnings shall be supported on metal frames attached to the building.
Every fabric awning or fabric-covered frame shall be located as not to interfere with the operation of any exterior standpipe, stairway, fire escape or any means of egress to and from the building.
No fabric awning or fabric-covered frame shall exceed the area of the building to which it is attached.
Fabric used for awnings or fabric-covered frames shall meet the flame propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701 or have a flame spread index not greater than 25 when tested in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723.
Exception: Awnings or fabric-covered frames used in conjunction with Group R-3 occupancies.
Supports for fabric awnings and fabric-covered frame shall be of metal or similar durable material.
Design of the framing members shall not be based on removal or repositioning of parts, or the whole, during periods of 75 mph wind velocity.
Design of the structural framing members shall be based on rational analysis, using the applicable wind loads of Chapter 16 as shown below:
The wind design loads for any fabric or membrane-covered structure designed with a quick removal or breakaway membrane or fabric at wind velocities of 75 mph, shall be based on the following criteria:
1.Minimum wind speed 105 mph
2.Exposure Category B, C or D as defined in Chapter 16.
The wind design loads for any fabric or membrane covered structure designed with a permanent or nonremovable fabric or membrane, shall be based on the following criteria:
The fabric portions of awnings fabric covered frames shall be securely laced, tied or otherwise fastened to the frame; no rafter or front bar will be permitted in pockets; and in no case shall a rolling curtain be caused to operate over a canopy frame.
The horizontal projection of cantilevered portions shall not be greater than two times the height, except where the building construction does not permit a proper installation; in which case, variance may be permitted by the building official, based on special design and construction.
3105.5 Rigid awnings and canopy shutters.
Rigid awnings and canopy shutters shall be designed to resist the loads set forth in Chapter 16 of this code except that structures or parts thereof which are intended to be removed or repositioned during periods of high wind velocity shall be designed in their open or extended position to design pressures based on a basic wind speed of minimum 115 mph, 3-second wind gust with applicable shape factors and to resist not less than 10 psf (478 Pa) roof live load.
Where such structure is intended to be folded or otherwise repositioned to close an opening when the building is unattended or act as a storm shutter, the design in the closed position shall also comply with Chapter 16 and shall be impact resistant in accordance with Section 1609.1.2 or 1626 for HVHZ.
Structures designed to be readily removed or repositioned during periods of high wind velocity shall be posted with a legible and readily visible decal or painted instructions to the owner or tenant to remove or reposition the structure or part thereof during such periods of time as are designated by the U.S. Weather Bureau as being a hurricane warning or alert.
3105.6 Awnings and canopy materials.
Awnings and canopies shall be constructed of a rigid framework and shall be provided with an approved covering that meets the fire propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701 or has a flame spread index not greater than 25 when tested in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723.
Exception: The fire propagation performance and flame spread index requirements shall not apply to awnings installed on detached one- and two-family dwellings.
The height or thickness of a marquee measured vertically from its lowest to its highest point shall be not greater than 3 feet (914 mm) where the marquee projects more than two-thirds of the distance from the lot line to the curb line, and shall be not greater than 9 feet (2743 mm) where the marquee is less than two-thirds of the distance from the lot line to the curb line.
3106.3 Roof construction.
Where the roof or any part thereof is a skylight, the skylight shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 24. Every roof and skylight of a marquee shall be sloped to downspouts that shall conduct any drainage from the marquee in such a manner so as not to spill over the sidewalk.
3106.4 Location prohibited.
Every marquee shall be so located as not to interfere with the operation of any exterior standpipe, and such that the marquee does not obstruct the clear passage of stairways or exit discharge from the building or the installation or maintenance of street lighting.
A marquee shall be supported entirely from the building and constructed of noncombustible materials. Marquees shall be designed as required in Chapter 16. Structural members shall be protected to prevent deterioration.
Signs shall be designed, constructed and maintained in accordance with this code.
Towers shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of TIA-222. Towers shall be designed for seismic loads; exceptions related to seismic design listed in Section 2.7.3 of TIA-222 shall not apply. In Section 126.96.36.199 of TIA 222, the horizontal extent of Topographic Category 2, escarpments, shall be 16 times the height of the escarpment.
Exception: Single free-standing poles used to support antennas not greater than 75 feet (22 860 mm), measured from the top of the pole to grade, shall not be required to be noncombustible.
[BS]3108.2 Location and access.
Towers shall be located such that guy wires and other accessories shall not cross or encroach upon any street or other public space, or over above-ground electric utility lines, or encroach upon any privately owned property without the written consent of the owner of the encroached-upon property, space or above-ground electric utility lines. Towers shall be equipped with climbing and working facilities in compliance with TIA-222. Access to the tower sites shall be limited as required by applicable OSHA, FCC and EPA regulations.
STRUCTURES SEAWARD OF A COASTAL
CONSTRUCTION CONTROL LINE
The provisions of this section shall apply to the design and construction of habitable structures, and substantial improvement or repair of substantial damage of such structures, that are entirely seaward of, and portions of such structures that extend seaward of, the coastal construction control line or seaward of the 50-foot setback line, whichever is applicable. This section does not apply to structures that are not habitable structures, as defined in this section. Section 1612 shall apply to habitable structures and structures that are not habitable structures if located in whole or in part in special flood hazard areas established in Section 1612.3.
3109.1.1 Modification, maintenance or repair of existing habitable structures.
The requirements of Section 3109 do not apply to the modification, maintenance or repair of existing habitable structures, provided all of the following apply to the modification, maintenance, or repair:
1.Is within the limits of the existing foundation.
2.Does not require, involve or include any additions to, or repair or modification of, the existing foundation.
3.Does not include any additions or enclosures added, constructed, or installed below the lowest floor or deck.
Advisory Note. If the modification or repair is determined to be substantial improvement or substantial damage, and if the building is located in a special flood hazard area (Zone A and Zone V) established in Section 1612.3, the requirements of Florida Building Code, Existing Building applicable to flood hazard areas shall apply.
3109.1.2 Approval prior to construction.
An environmental permit from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection is required prior to the start of construction. When issued, a copy of the environmental permit shall be submitted to the building official. The environmental permit may impose special siting considerations to protect the beach-dune system, proposed or existing structures, and public beach access, and may condition the nature, timing and sequence of construction of permitted activities to provide protection to nesting sea turtles and hatchlings and their habitat, including submittal and approval of lighting plans.
3109.1.3 Elevation certification.
As part of the permit process, upon placement of the lowest horizontal structural member of the lowest floor and prior to further vertical construction, certification of the elevation of the bottom of the lowest horizontal structural member of the lowest floor shall be submitted to the building official. Any work undertaken prior to submission of the certification or subsequent to submission and prior to the building official’s review shall be at the applicant’s risk.
The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this section, have the indicated meanings shown herein.
ALLOWED USE. For the purpose of Section 3109.3.4, use of enclosures above, or with dry flood proofing to, the elevation specified in ASCE 24 and below the 100-year storm elevation, includes, but is not limited to use for parking of vehicles, storage, building access, small mechanical and electrical rooms, retail shops, commercial pool bars and other bars, snack bars, commercial grills with portable cooking equipment, commercial dining areas where the permanent kitchen is located landward of the coastal construction control line or above the 100-year storm elevation, toilet rooms and bathrooms, cabanas, recreational spaces such as gyms and card rooms, commercial service/storage/back-of-house facilities; and uses of a similar nature that are not spaces for living, sleeping or cooking.
COASTAL A ZONE. See Section 202.
COASTAL CONSTRUCTION CONTROL LINE. The line established by the State of Florida pursuant to Section 161.053, Florida Statutes, and recorded in the official records of the respective county and which defines that portion of the beach-dune system subject to severe fluctuations based on a 100-year storm surge, storm waves or other predictable weather conditions.
COASTAL HIGH HAZARD AREA. See Section 202.
COMBINED TOTAL STORM TIDE ELEVATION (VALUE). The elevation of combined total tides including storm surges, astronomical tide and dynamic wave setup which occurs primarily inside the wave breaking zone. The combined total storm tide elevations (values) for various return periods are determined by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection for each coastal county with an established coastal construction control lines and published in reports for each county titled “Revised Combined Total Storm Tide Frequency Analysis.”
DESIGN GRADE. The predicted eroded grade, accounting for erosion and localized scour resulting from the presence of structural components, used in the calculation of flood loads, pile reactions and bearing capacities. The design grade shall be determined by a site-specific analysis prepared by a qualified registered design professional or the design grade may be determined by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection in the report titled “One-Hundred-Year Storm Elevation Requirements for Habitable Structures Located Seaward of a Coastal Construction Control Line” (1999).
DRY FLOODPROOFING. See Section 202.
FIFTY-FOOT SETBACK LINE. A line of jurisdiction, established pursuant to the provisions of Section 161.052, Florida Statutes, in which construction is prohibited within 50 feet (15.13 m) of the line of mean high water at any riparian coastal location fronting the Gulf of Mexico or the Atlantic coast shoreline.
FLOOD HAZARD AREA. See Section 202.
HABITABLE STRUCTURE. Structures designed primarily for human occupancy. Typically included within this category are residences, hotels and restaurants.
LOW-RISE BUILDING. A structure with mean roof height less than or equal to 60 feet.
LOWEST FLOOR. For the purpose of Section 3109, the lowest floor of the lowest enclosed area, excluding any enclosure that complies with the requirements and limitations of Section 3109.3.4 applicable to enclosures below the flood elevation.
LOWEST HORIZONTAL STRUCTURAL MEMBER. A horizontal structural member that supports floor, wall or column loads and transmits the loads to the foundation.
100-YEAR STORM ELEVATION. The height of the breaking wave crest or wave approach as superimposed on the storm surge with dynamic wave setup of a 100-year (one-percent-annual chance) storm. The 100-year storm elevation is determined by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection based on studies published as part of the Coastal Construction Control Line establishment process and an analysis of topographic and other site specific data and found in the report “One-Hundred-Year Storm Elevation Requirements for Habitable Structures Located Seaward of a Coastal Construction Control Line” (1999). An applicant may request the Department of Environmental Protection to determine a site-specific 100-year storm elevation for the location of the applicant’s proposed structure as part of the environmental permit application process.
SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD AREA. See Section 202.
SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE. See Section 202.
SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT. See Section 202.
3109.3 Design and construction.
The design and construction of habitable structures, including substantial improvement and repair of substantial damage to such structures, shall be in accordance with this section and with Section 1612 and ASCE 24, as applicable. Habitable structures subject to this section shall be designed to minimize the potential for wind and water-borne debris during storms.
Exception: Additions, repairs, and alterations that, when combined with all other work on a structure, do not constitute substantial improvement or repair of substantial damage, and provided all of the following apply:
a.The work does not violate the terms of previously issued permits.
b.Any addition does not advance the seaward limits of the existing structure.
3109.3.1 Flood loads.
Flood loads shall be determined according to Chapter 5 of ASCE 7, where the stillwater depth shall be the difference between the design grade at the location and the higher of:
1.The stillwater elevation specified in the applicable Flood Insurance Study referenced to the datum on the Flood Insurance Rate Map, if the structure is also in a coastal high hazard area (Zone V); or
2.The combined total storm tide elevation (value) for the 100-year return period identified by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection in reports titled “Revised Combined Total Storm Tide Frequency Analysis” prepared for each county with an established coastal construction control lines.
Habitable structures shall be elevated and supported on piles or columns that are designed to comply with this section. The space below elevated habitable structures shall be free of obstructions and walls, if any, shall comply with Section 3109.3.4. Foundations shall be designed to comply with ASCE 24 Section 4.5, except shallow foundations and stemwalls are not permitted.
3188.8.131.52 Piles and columns.
In addition to the requirements of ASCE 24 Section 4.5 for pile and columns foundations:
1.The design ratio or pile spacing to pile diameter, or column spacing to column diameter, shall be not less than 8:1 for individual piles or columns extending above the design grade, unless justified by a geotechnical analysis and the foundation design.
2.The tops of grade beams and pile caps shall be at or below the natural grade and below the design grade unless designed to resist increased flood loads associated with setting the grade beam or pile cap above the design grade.
3.Pile penetration shall take into consideration the anticipated loss of soil above the design grade.
3184.108.40.206 Shear walls.
Shear walls shall comply with one of the following:
1.Shear walls are permitted perpendicular to the shoreline where perpendicular shall mean less than or equal to ±20 degrees from a line drawn normal to the shoreline.
2.Shear walls not perpendicular to the shoreline shall be limited to a maximum of 20 percent of the building length in the direction running parallel to the shore, and wall segments, spacing between wall segments, and elevator shafts shall be located and positioned to allow floodwater to flow easily around the walls and elevator shafts.
Exception: Habitable structures other than lowrise buildings are permitted to have shear walls that are not perpendicular to the shoreline and that exceed 20 percent of the total building length provided the design requires a length greater than 20 percent, wall segments, spacing between wall segments, and elevator shafts are located and positioned to allow floodwater to flow easily around the walls and elevator shafts, and the following design documentation is submitted:
a.A hydraulic analysis conducted and certified by a Florida-registered professional engineer qualified to evaluate the potential impact of flow increase on the subject parcel and adjacent properties and demonstrates the increased shear wall length will not result in substantial increase of flow velocities and drag forces on the structural components of the proposed structure and neighboring structures.
b.The certified design documentation shall include a statement that the increased length of shear walls over 20 percent of total building length is located landward of the predicted 100-year storm erosion limit.
3109.3.3 Elevation standards.
The bottom of the lowest horizontal structural member of the lowest floor shall be at or above the higher of the following:
1.The elevation specified in ASCE 24 Chapter 4 if the structure is in a coastal high hazard area or Coastal A Zone;
2.The elevation specified by the jurisdiction; or
3.The 100-year storm elevation determined by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection in the report titled “One-Hundred-Year Storm Elevation Requirements for Habitable Structures Located Seaward of a Coastal Construction Control Line” (1999). An applicant may request determination of a site-specific 100-year storm elevation (see definition).
3109.3.4 Walls and enclosures below the flood elevation.
Walls and enclosures below the elevation required by Section 3109.3.3 and above the design grade elevation shall comply with all of the following, as applicable:
2.Elevator shafts and stairways shall comply with ASCE 24.
3.For nonresidential buildings located outside of a coastal high hazard area (Zone V):
a.Small mechanical and electrical rooms with dry floodproofing to the elevation specified in ASCE 24 or by the jurisdiction are not required to be breakaway.
b.Stairwells are not required to be breakaway provided the walls have flood openings in accordance with this section.
4.In special flood hazard areas (Zone V and Zone A), all breakaway walls below the elevation specified in ASCE 24 or the elevation specified by the jurisdiction shall have flood openings in accordance with ASCE 24 Section 4.6.2. Flood openings are not required in:
a.Shear walls designed in accordance with Section 3220.127.116.11.
b.Walls of enclosures below buildings not located in special flood hazard areas (Zone X).
c.Walls that are designed and constructed in conformance with the dry floodproofing requirements of ASCE 24 in areas other than coastal high hazard areas.
5.In special flood hazard areas (Zone V and Zone A):
a.Enclosures below the elevation specified in ASCE 24 or the elevation specified by the jurisdiction shall be used solely for parking of vehicles, building access, or storage unless enclosures are designed and constructed in accordance with the dry floodproofing requirements of ASCE 24.
b.Enclosures above the elevation specified in ASCE 24 or by the jurisdiction and below the 100-year storm elevation, or enclosures with dry floodproofing to the elevation specified in ASCE 24 or by the jurisdiction, shall be limited to allowed use as defined in this section.
6.In habitable structures not located in special flood hazard areas (Zone X), uses of enclosures below the 100-year storm elevation shall be limited to allowed use as defined in this section.
3109.3.5 Structural slabs below the 100-year storm elevation.
Structural slabs below the 100-year storm elevation and below the lowest floor are not required to be breakaway provided the slabs are designed by a qualified Florida-registered professional engineer to withstand the flood loads specified by Section 3109.3.1.
In addition to documentation specified in Section 1612.5, where applicable the following documentation shall be prepared, signed, and sealed by a qualified Florida-registered professional engineer and submitted to the building official:
1.For site-specific determination of design grade, a report of the assumptions and methods used.
2.For shear walls, the certifications required in Section 3109.3.2.
AUTOMATIC VEHICULAR GATES
The following term is defined in Chapter 2:
3110.3 Vehicular gates intended for automation.
Vehicular gates intended for automation shall be designed, constructed and installed to comply with the requirements of ASTM F2200.
3110.4 Vehicular gate openers.
Vehicular gate openers, where provided, shall be listed in accordance with UL 325.
PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS AND MODULES
Photovoltaic panels and modules shall comply with the requirements of this code and the Florida Fire Prevention Code.
3111.1.1 Rooftop-mounted photovoltaic panels and modules.
DEPOSIT OF MATERIAL IN TIDEWATER
It is not lawful for any person to discharge or cause to be discharged or deposit or cause to be deposited, in the tide or salt waters of any bay, port, harbor or river of this state, any ballast or material of any kind other than clear stone or rock, free from gravel or pebbles, which said clear stone or rock shall be deposited or discharged only in the construction of enclosures in connection with wharves, piers, quays, jetties or in the construction of permanent bulkheads connecting the solid and permanent portion of wharves. It is lawful to construct three characters of bulkheads for retention of material in solid wharves.
1.First, clear stone or rock enclosures, or bulkheads, may be built upon all sides to a height not less than 21/2 feet (762 mm) above high watermark; and after the enclosures have been made so solid, tight and permanent as to prevent any sand, mud, gravel or other material that may be discharged or deposited in them from drifting or escaping through such enclosures, any kind of ballast may be discharged or deposited within the enclosures. The enclosures may be constructed of wood, stone and rock combined, the stone and rocks to be placed on the outside of the wood to a height not less at any point than 21/2 feet (762 mm) above high watermark; and after the enclosures have been made so solid, tight and permanent as to prevent any sand, mud gravel or other material that may be discharged or deposited in them from drifting or escaping through such enclosures, any kind of ballast may be discharged or deposited within the enclosures.
2.Second, a bulkhead may be built by a permanent wharf consisting of thoroughly creosoted piles not less than 12 inches (305 mm) in diameter at the butt end, to be driven close together and to be capped with timber not less than 10 or 14 inches drift (254 or 302 mm), bolted to each pile, and one or more longitudinal stringers to be placed on the outside of the bulkhead and securely anchored by means of iron rods to piles driven within the bulkheads, clear rock to be on the inside of the bulkhead, to a height of not less than 21/2 feet (762 mm) above high water; and after this is done, ballast or other material may be deposited within the permanent enclosure so constructed.
3.Third, a bulkhead may be constructed to consist of creosoted piles, as described herein, driven not exceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) apart from center to center, inside of which two or more longitudinal stringers may be placed and securely bolted to the piles. Inside of these longitudinal pieces, two thicknesses of creosoted sheet piling are to be driven, each course of the sheet piling to make a joint with the other to form an impenetrable wharf; and within this permanent bulkhead so constructed, any ballast or other material may be deposited.
4.No such enclosure, pier, quay or jetty shall be begun until the point where it is to be built shall have been connected by a substantial wharf with a shore or with a permanent wharf; except that the owners of wharves may at any time, with the consent of the Board of Pilot Commissioners of the Division of Professions of the Department of Business and Professional Regulation, build wharves of clear stone or rock, or creosoted walls as hereinafter provided, on each side of their wharves from the shore to a point at which the water is not more than 15 feet (4.6 m) deep, and when such walls have attained a height of 21/2 feet (762 mm) above high watermark and have been securely closed at the deepwater end by stone or creosoted walls of the same height, any kind of ballast may be deposited in them.
5.Nothing contained in this section shall interfere with any rights or privileges now enjoyed by riparian owners. While this section empowers those who desire to construct the several characters of wharves, piers, quays, jetties and bulkheads provided for and described herein, nothing in this section shall be so construed as to require any person not desiring to construct a permanent wharf by filling up with ballast, stone or other material to construct under the specifications contained herein; and nothing in this chapter shall be so construed as to prevent any person from constructing any wharf or placing any pilings, logs or lumber in any waters where the person would have heretofore had the right so to do.
This section shall not prohibit Escambia County from placing in Pensacola Bay, on the Escambia County side, beside the old Pensacola Bay Bridge, certain materials, as recommended by the Department of Environmental Protection, in coordination with the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, to increase the number of fish available for persons fishing from the old Pensacola Bay Bridge.
This section shall not prohibit Manatee County from placing in the Manatee County portions of Sarasota Bay and Tampa Bay and in the Manatee River, certain materials, as recommended by the Department of Environmental Protection, in coordination with the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, to increase the number of fish available for persons fishing in the above areas.
This section shall not prohibit Pinellas County from placing in Tampa Bay certain materials as recommended by the Department of Environmental Protection, in coordination with the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, to increase the number of fish available for persons fishing in the bay. Deposit of material on a wharf or quay is regulated. It is not lawful for any person to deposit or cause to be deposited on any wharf or quay, any ballast, stone, earth or like material, except such wharf or quay may be so secured as to prevent such ballast or other material from washing into the waters of the harbor.
LIGHTING, MIRRORS, LANDSCAPING
Each operator of an automated teller machine that controls the access area or defined parking area to be lighted shall comply with Sections (2), (3), and (4) no later than one year after October 1, 1994. If the access area or defined parking area to be lighted is controlled by a person other than the operator, such other person shall comply with Sections (2), (3), and (4) no later than one year after October 1, 1994.
Each operator, or other person responsible for an automated teller machine pursuant to Sections 655.960 through 655.965, shall provide lighting during the hours of darkness with respect to an open and operating automated teller machine and any defined parking area, access area and the exterior of an enclosed automated teller machine installation, as follows:
1.There shall be a minimum of 10 footcandle (108 lux) power at the face of the automated teller machine and extending in an unobstructed direction outward 5 feet (1.5 m).
2.There shall be a minimum of 2 footcandle (21.5 lux) power within 50 feet (15.25 m) in all unobstructed directions from the face of the automated teller machine. If the automated teller machine is located within 10 feet (3 m) of the corner of the building and the automated teller machine is generally accessible from the adjacent side, there shall be a minimum of 2 footcandle (21.5 lux) power along the first 40 unobstructed feet (12 m) of the adjacent side of the building.
3.There shall be a minimum of 2 footcandle (12.5 lux) power in that portion of the defined parking area within 60 feet (18 m) of the automated teller machine.
4.The operator shall provide reflective mirrors or surfaces at each automated teller machine which provide the customer with a rear view while the customer is engaged in using the automated teller machine.
5.The operator, or other person responsible pursuant to Sections 655.960 through 655.965 for an automated teller machine, shall ensure that the height of any landscaping, vegetation or other physical obstructions in the area required to be lighted pursuant to Section (2) for any open and operating automated teller machine shall not exceed 3 feet (914 mm), except that trees trimmed to a height of 10 feet (3 m) and whose diameters are less than 2 feet (610 mm) and manmade physical obstructions required by statute, law, code, ordinance or other governmental regulation shall not be affected by this section.
3114.1 Airport noise study guidelines.
The Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act of 1979 14 CFR Part 150 (US Department of Transportation) including revisions through January 2005 and hereby adopted as a guideline for establishing airport noise control. When required by a local government by local ordinance to provide noise attenuation in a new structure or addition to an existing structure near an airport in the area of the local government, the applicant must provide either:
1.A testing certificate from an accredited noise testing lab that a new structure or addition to existing structure built to the submitted engineering plans will achieve an average minimum dBA reduction equal to or greater than the reduction required,
2.An engineering judgment signed and sealed by an engineer licensed in the State of Florida that the structure or addition built to the submitted engineering plans will achieve an average minimum dBA reduction equal to or greater than the reduction required, or
3.Plans using the standards contained in “Guidelines for Sound Insulation of Residences Exposed to Aircraft Operations” prepared for the Department of the Navy by Wyle Research and Consulting, Arlington, Virginia, April 2005 on file with the Florida Building Commission.
2017 Florida Building Code - Building, Sixth Edition