• CHAPTER4
    SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED
    ON USE AND OCCUPANCY

    SECTION401
    SCOPE

    401.1Detailed use and occupancy requirements.

    In addition to the occupancy and construction requirements in this code, the provisions of this chapter apply to the special uses and occupancies described herein.

    401.2Additional design criteria.

    401.2.1Scope.

    In addition to the provisions of this chapter, the following special occupancies, standards, requirements and codes shall conform to the following sections:

    Section 449:Hospitals
    Section 450:Nursing homes
    Section 451:Ambulatory surgical centers
    Section 452:Birthing centers
    Section 453:State requirements for educational facilities
    Section 454:Swimming pools and bathing places
    Section 455:Public lodging establishments
    Section 456:Public food service establishments
    Section 457:Mental health programs
    Section 458:Manufactured buildings
    Section 459:Boot camps for children
    Section 460:Mausoleums and columbariums
    Section 461:Transient public lodging establishments
    Section 462:Use of asbestos in new public buildings orbuildings newly constructed for lease to government entities–prohibition
    Section 463:Adult day care
    Section 464:Assisted living facilities
    Section 465:Control of radiation hazards
    Section 466:Day care occupancies
    Section 467:Hospice inpatient facilities and units and hospice residences.
    Section 468:Schools, colleges and universities
    Section 469:Office surgery suite Chapter 30: Elevators and conveying systems
    Section 3109:Structures seaward of a coastal construction control line

    401.2.2General.

    Where in any specific case, Sections 449 through 469 specify different materials, methods of construction, design criteria or other requirements than found in this code, the requirements of Sections 449 through 469 shall be applicable.

    401.2.3Referenced standards.

    Further information concerning the requirements for licensing, maintenance, equipment or other items not related to design and construction may be obtained for all state codes, rules and standards from the State of Florida Bureau of Administrative Codes.

    SECTION402
    COVERED MALL AND OPEN MALL BUILDINGS

    402.1Applicability.

    The provisions of this section shall apply to buildings or structures defined herein as covered or open mall buildings not exceeding three floor levels at any point nor more than three stories above grade plane. Except as specifically required by this section, covered and open mall buildings shall meet applicable provisions of this code.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Foyers and lobbies of Groups B, R-1 and R-2 are not required to comply with this section.

    2. 2.Buildings need not comply with the provisions of this section where they totally comply with other applicable provisions of this code.

    402.1.1Open space.

    A covered mall building and attached anchor buildings and parking garages shall be surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space or not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm). An open mall building and anchor buildings and parking garages adjoining the perimeter line shall be surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space of not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm).

    Exception: The permanent open space of 60 feet (18 288 mm) shall be permitted to be reduced to not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm), provided the following requirements are met:

    1. 1.The reduced open space shall not be allowed for more than 75 percent of the perimeter of the covered or open mall building and anchor buildings;

    2. 2.The exterior wall facing the reduced open space shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 3 hours;

    3. 3.Openings in the exterior wall facing the reduced open space shall have opening protectives with a fire protection rating of not less than 3 hours; and

    4. 4.Group E, H, I or R occupancies are not located within the covered or open mall building or anchor buildings.

    402.1.2Open mall building perimeter line.

    For the purpose of this code, a perimeter line shall be established. The perimeter line shall encircle all buildings and structures that comprise the open mall building and shall encompass any open-air interior walkways, open-air courtyards or similar open-air spaces. The perimeter line shall define the extent of the open mall building. Anchor buildings and parking structures shall be outside of the perimeter line and are not considered as part of the open mall building.

    402.2Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    ANCHOR BUILDING.

    COVERED MALL BUILDING.

    • Mall.

    • Open mall.

    • Open mall building.

    FOOD COURT.

    GROSS LEASABLE AREA.

    402.3Lease plan.

    Each owner of a covered mall building or of an open mall building shall provide both the building and fire departments with a lease plan showing the location of each occupancy and its exits after the certificate of occupancy has been issued. No modifications or changes in occupancy or use shall be made from that shown on the lease plan without prior approval of the building official.

    402.4Construction.

    The construction of covered and open mall buildings, anchor buildings and parking garages associated with a mall building shall comply with Sections 402.4.1 through 402.4.3.

    402.4.1Area and types of construction.

    The building area and type of construction of covered mall or open mall buildings, anchor buildings and parking garages shall comply with this section.

    402.4.1.1Covered and open mall buildings.

    The building area of any covered mall or open mall building shall not be limited provided the covered mall or open mall building does not exceed three floor levels at any point nor three stories above grade plane, and is of Type I, II, III or IV construction.

    402.4.1.2Anchor buildings.

    The building area and building height of any anchor building shall be based on the type of construction as required by Section 503 as modified by Sections 504 and 506.

    Exception: The building area of any anchor building shall not be limited provided the anchor building is not more than three stories above grade plane, and is of Type I, II, III or IV construction.

    402.4.1.3Parking garage.

    The building area and building height of any parking garage, open or enclosed, shall be based on the type of construction as required by Sections 406.5 and 406.6, respectively.

    402.4.2Fire-resistance-rated separation.

    Fire-resistance-rated separation is not required between tenant spaces and the mall. Fire-resistance-rated separation is not required between a food court and adjacent tenant spaces or the mall.

    402.4.2.1Tenant separations.

    Each tenant space shall be separated from other tenant spaces by a fire partition complying with Section 708. A tenant separation wall is not required between any tenant space and the mall.

    402.4.2.2Anchor building separation.

    An anchor building shall be separated from the covered or open mall building by fire walls complying with Section 706.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Anchor buildings of not more than three stories above grade plane that have an occupancy classification the same as that permitted for tenants of the mall building shall be separated by 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barriers complying with Section 707.

    2. 2.The exterior walls of anchor buildings separated from an open mall building by an open mall shall comply with Table 602.

    402.4.2.2.1Openings between anchor building and mall.

    Except for the separation between Group R-1 sleeping units and the mall, openings between anchor buildings of Type IA, IB, IIA or IIB construction and the mall need not be protected.

    402.4.2.3Parking garages.

    An attached garage for the storage of passenger vehicles having a capacity of not more than nine persons and open parking garages shall be considered as a separate building where it is separated from the covered or open mall building or anchor building by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

    Parking garages, open or enclosed, which are separated from covered mall buildings, open mall buildings or anchor buildings, shall comply with the provisions of Table 602.

    Pedestrian walkways and tunnels that connect garages to mall buildings or anchor buildings shall be constructed in accordance with Section 3104.

    402.4.3Open mall construction.

    Floor assemblies in, and roof assemblies over, the open mall of an open mall building shall be open to the atmosphere for not less than 20 feet (9096 mm), measured perpendicular from the face of the tenant spaces on the lowest level, from edge of balcony to edge of balcony on upper floors and from edge of roof line to edge of roof line. The openings within, or the unroofed area of, an open mall shall extend from the lowest/grade level of the open mall through the entire roof assembly. Balconies on upper levels of the mall shall not project into the required width of the opening.

    402.4.3.1Pedestrian walkways.

    Pedestrian walkways connecting balconies in an open mall shall be located not less than 20 feet (9096 mm) from any other pedestrian walkway.

    [F]402.5Automatic sprinkler system.

    Covered and open mall buildings and buildings connected shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, which shall comply with all of the following:

    1. 1.The automatic sprinkler system shall be complete and operative throughout occupied space in the mall building prior to occupancy of any of the tenant spaces. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly protected unless provided with approved alternative protection.

    2. 2.Sprinkler protection for the mall of a covered mall building shall be independent from that provided for tenant spaces or anchor buildings.

    3. 3.Sprinkler protection for the tenant spaces of an open mall building shall be independent from that provided for anchor buildings.

    4. 4.Sprinkler protection shall be provided beneath exterior circulation balconies located adjacent to an open mall.

    5. 5.Where tenant spaces are supplied by the same system, they shall be independently controlled.

      Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in spaces or areas of open parking garages separated from the covered or open mall building in accordance with Section 402.4.2.3 and constructed in accordance with Section 406.5.

    402.6Interior finishes and features.

    Interior finishes within the mall and installations within the mall shall comply with Sections 402.6.1 through 402.6.4.

    402.6.1Interior finish.

    Interior wall and ceiling finishes within the mall of a covered mall building and within the exits of covered or open mall buildings shall have a minimum flame spread index and smoke-developed index of Class B in accordance with Chapter 8. Interior floor finishes shall meet the requirements of Section 804.

    402.6.2Kiosks.

    Kiosks and similar structures (temporary or permanent) located within the mall of a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building shall meet the following requirements:

    1. 1.Combustible kiosks or other structures shall not be located within a covered or open mall unless constructed of any of the following materials:

      1. 1.1.Fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Section 2303.2.

      2. 1.2.Foam plastics having a maximum heat release rate not greater than 100 kW (105 Btu/h) when tested in accordance with the exhibit booth protocol in UL 1975 or when tested in accordance with NFPA 289 using the 20 kW ignition source.

      3. 1.3.Aluminum composite material (ACM) meeting the requirements of Class A interior finish in accordance with Chapter 8 when tested as an assembly in the maximum thickness intended.

    2. 2.Kiosks or similar structures located within the mall shall be provided with approved automatic sprinkler system and detection devices.

    3. 3.The horizontal separation between kiosks or groupings thereof and other structures within the mall shall be not less than 20 feet (6096 mm).

    4. 4.Each kiosk or similar structure or groupings thereof shall have an area not greater than 300 square feet (28 m2).

    402.6.3Children’s play structures.

    Children’s play structures located within the mall of a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building shall comply with Section 424. The horizontal separation between children’s play structures, kiosks and similar structures within the mall shall be not less than 20 feet (6096 mm).

    402.6.4Plastic signs.

    Plastic signs affixed to the storefront of any tenant space facing a mall or open mall shall be limited as specified in Sections 402.6.4.1 through 402.6.4.5.

    402.6.4.1Area.

    Plastic signs shall be not more than 20 percent of the wall area facing the mall.

    402.6.4.2Height and width.

    Plastic signs shall be not greater than 36 inches (914 mm) in height, except that where the sign is vertical, the height shall be not greater than 96 inches (2438 mm) and the width shall be not greater than 36 inches (914 mm).

    402.6.4.3Location.

    Plastic signs shall be located not less than 18 inches (457 mm) from adjacent tenants.

    402.6.4.4Plastics other than foam plastics.

    Plastics other than foam plastics used in signs shall be light-transmitting plastics complying with Section 2606.4 or shall have a self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343°C) or greater when tested in accordance with ASTM D1929, and a flame spread index not greater than 75 and smoke-developed index not greater than 450 when tested in the manner intended for use in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723 or meet the acceptance criteria of Section 803.1.2.1 when tested in accordance with NFPA 286.

    402.6.4.4.1Encasement.

    Edges and backs of plastic signs in the mall shall be fully encased in metal.

    402.6.4.5Foam plastics.

    Foam plastics used in signs shall have flame-retardant characteristics such that the sign has a maximum heat-release rate of 150 kilowatts when tested in accordance with UL 1975 or when tested in accordance with NFPA 289 using the 20 kW ignition source, and the foam plastics shall have the physical characteristics specified in this section. Foam plastics used in signs installed in accordance with Section 402.6.4 shall not be required to comply with the flame spread and smoke-developed indices specified in Section 2603.3.

    402.6.4.5.1Density.

    The density of foam plastics used in signs shall be not less than 20 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (320 kg/ m3).

    402.6.4.5.2Thickness.

    The thickness of foam plastic signs shall not be greater than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).

    [F]402.7Emergency systems.

    Covered and open mall buildings, anchor buildings and associated parking garages shall be provided with emergency systems complying with Sections 402.7.1 through 402.7.5.

    [F]402.7.1Standpipe system.

    Covered and open mall buildings shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system as required by Section 905.3.3.

    [F]402.7.2Smoke control.

    Where a covered mall building contains an atrium, a smoke control system shall be provided in accordance with Section 404.5.

    Exception: A smoke control system is not required in covered mall buildings where an atrium connects only two stories.

    [F]402.7.3Emergency power.

    Covered mall buildings greater than 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) in area and open mall buildings greater than 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) within the established perimeter line shall be provided with emergency power that is capable of operating the emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 2702.

    [F]402.7.4Emergency voice/alarm communication system.

    Where the total floor area is greater than 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) within either a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building, an emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided.

    Emergency voice/alarm communication systems serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be accessible to the fire department. The systems shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

    [F]402.7.5Fire department access to equipment.

    Rooms or areas containing controls for air-conditioning systems, automatic fire-extinguishing systems, automatic sprinkler systems or other detection, suppression or control elements shall be identified for use by the fire department.

    402.8Means of egress.

    Covered mall buildings, open mall buildings and each tenant space within a mall building shall be provided with means of egress as required by this section and this code. Where there is a conflict between the requirements of this code and the requirements of Sections 402.8.1 through 402.8.8, the requirements of Sections 402.8.1 through 402.8.8 shall apply.

    402.8.1Mall width.

    For the purpose of providing required egress, malls are permitted to be considered as corridors but need not comply with the requirements of Section 1005.1 of this code where the width of the mall is as specified in this section.

    402.8.1.1Minimum width.

    The aggregate clear egress width of the mall in either a covered or open mall building shall be not less than 20 feet (6096 mm). The mall width shall be sufficient to accommodate the occupant load served. No portion of the minimum required aggregate egress width shall be less than 10 feet (3048 mm) measured to a height of 8 feet (2438 mm) between any projection of a tenant space bordering the mall and the nearest kiosk, vending machine, bench, display opening, food court or other obstruction to means of egress travel.

    402.8.2Determination of occupant load.

    The occupant load permitted in any individual tenant space in a covered or open mall building shall be determined as required by this code. Means of egress requirements for individual tenant spaces shall be based on the occupant load thus determined.

    402.8.2.1Occupant formula.

    In determining required means of egress of the mall, the number of occupants for whom means of egress are to be provided shall be based on gross leasable area of the covered or open mall building (excluding anchor buildings) and the occupant load factor as determined by Equation 4-1.

    Eq0001.jpg
    (Equation 4-1)

    where:

    OLF = The occupant load factor (square feet per person).

    GLA = The gross leasable area (square feet).

    Exception: Tenant spaces attached to a covered or open mall building but with a means of egress system that is totally independent of the open mall of an open mall building or of a covered mall building shall not be considered as gross leasable area for determining the required means of egress for the mall building.

    402.8.2.2OLF range.

    The occupant load factor (OLF) is not required to be less than 30 and shall not exceed 50.

    402.8.2.3Anchor buildings.

    The occupant load of anchor buildings opening into the mall shall not be included in computing the total number of occupants for the mall.

    402.8.2.4Food courts.

    The occupant load of a food court shall be determined in accordance with Section 1004. For the purposes of determining the means of egress requirements for the mall, the food court occupant load shall be added to the occupant load of the covered or open mall building as calculated above.

    402.8.3Number of means of egress.

    Wherever the distance of travel to the mall from any location within a tenant space used by persons other than employees is greater than 75 feet (22 860 mm) or the tenant space has an occupant load of 50 or more, no fewer than two means of egress shall be provided.

    402.8.4Arrangements of means of egress.

    Assembly occupancies with an occupant load of 500 or more located within a covered mall building shall be so located such that their entrance will be immediately adjacent to a principal entrance to the mall and shall have not less than one-half of their required means of egress opening directly to the exterior of the covered mall building. Assembly occupancies located within the perimeter line of an open mall building shall be permitted to have their main exit open to the open mall.

    402.8.4.1Anchor building means of egress.

    Required means of egress for anchor buildings shall be provided independently from the mall means of egress system. The occupant load of anchor buildings opening into the mall shall not be included in determining means of egress requirements for the mall. The path of egress travel of malls shall not exit through anchor buildings. Malls terminating at an anchor building where no other means of egress has been provided shall be considered as a dead-end mall.

    402.8.5Distance to exits.

    Within each individual tenant space in a covered or open mall building, the distance of travel from any point to an exit or entrance to the mall shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm).

    The distance of travel from any point within a mall of a covered mall building to an exit shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm). The maximum distance of travel from any point within an open mall to the perimeter line of the open mall building shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm).

    402.8.6Access to exits.

    Where more than one exit is required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to travel in either direction from any point in a mall of a covered mall building to separate exits or from any point in an open mall of an open mall building to two separate locations on the perimeter line, provided neither location is an exterior wall of an anchor building or parking garage. The width of an exit passageway or corridor from a mall shall be not less than 66 inches (1676 mm).

    Exception: Access to exits is permitted by way of a dead-end mall that does not exceed a length equal to twice the width of the mall measured at the narrowest location within the dead-end portion of the mall.

    402.8.6.1Exit passageways.

    Where exit passageways provide a secondary means of egress from a tenant space, doorways to the exit passageway shall be protected by 1-hour fire door assemblies that are self- or automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3.

    402.8.7Service areas fronting on exit passageways.

    Mechanical rooms, electrical rooms, building service areas and service elevators are permitted to open directly into exit passageways, provided the exit passageway is separated from such rooms with not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. The fire protection rating of openings in the fire barriers shall be not less than 1 hour.

    402.8.8Security grilles and doors.

    Horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles or doors that are a part of a required means of egress shall conform to the following:

    1. 1.Doors and grilles shall remain in the full open position during the period of occupancy by the general public.

    2. 2.Doors or grilles shall not be brought to the closed position when there are 10 or more persons occupying spaces served by a single exit or 50 or more persons occupying spaces served by more than one exit.

    3. 3.The doors or grilles shall be openable from within without the use of any special knowledge or effort where the space is occupied.

    4. 4.Where two or more exits are required, not more than one-half of the exits shall be permitted to include either a horizontal sliding or vertical rolling grille or door.

    SECTION403
    HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

    403.1Applicability.

    High-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 403.2 through 403.6.

    Exception: The provisions of Sections 403.2 through 403.6 shall not apply to the following buildings and structures:

    1. 1.Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Section 412.3.

    2. 2.Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.5.

    3. 3.The portion of a building containing a Group A-5 occupancy in accordance with Section 303.6.

    4. 4.Special industrial occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1.

    5. 5.Buildings with:

      1. 5.1.A Group H-1 occupancy;

      2. 5.2.A Group H-2 occupancy in accordance with Section 415.8, 415.9.2, 415.9.3 or 426.1; or,

      3. 5.3.A Group H-3 occupancy in accordance with Section 415.8.

    403.2Construction.

    The construction of high-rise buildings shall comply with the provisions of Sections 403.2.1 through 403.2.4.

    403.2.1Reduction in fire-resistance rating.

    The fire-resistance-rating reductions listed in Sections 403.2.1.1 and 403.2.1.2 shall be allowed in buildings that have sprinkler control valves equipped with supervisory initiating devices and water-flow initiating devices for each floor.

    403.2.1.1Type of construction.

    The following reductions in the minimum fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Table 601 shall be permitted as follows:

    1. 1.For buildings not greater than 420 feet (128 000 mm) in building height, the fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Type IA construction shall be permitted to be reduced to the minimum fire-resistance ratings for the building elements in Type IB.

      Exception: The required fire-resistance rating of columns supporting floors shall not be reduced.

    2. 2.In other than Group F-1, M and S-1 occupancies, the fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Type IB construction shall be permitted to be reduced to the fire-resistance ratings in Type IIA.

    3. 3.The building height and building area limitations of a building containing building elements with reduced fire-resistance ratings shall be permitted to be the same as the building without such reductions.

    403.2.1.2Shaft enclosures.

    For buildings not greater than 420 feet (128 000 mm) in building height, the required fire-resistance rating of the fire barriers enclosing vertical shafts, other than interior exit stairway and elevator hoistway enclosures, is permitted to be reduced to 1 hour where automatic sprinklers are installed within the shafts at the top and at alternate floor levels.

    403.2.2Seismic considerations.

    For seismic considerations, see Chapter 16.

    403.2.3Structural integrity of interior exit stairways and elevator hoistway enclosures.

    For high-rise buildings of Risk Category III or IV in accordance with Section 1604.5, and for all buildings that are more than 420 feet (128 000 mm) in building height, enclosures for interior exit stairways and elevator hoistway enclosures shall comply with Sections 403.2.3.1 through 403.2.3.4.

    403.2.3.1Wall assembly.

    The wall assemblies making up the enclosures for interior exit stairways and elevator hoistway enclosures shall meet or exceed Soft Body Impact Classification Level 2 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C1629/C1629M.

    403.2.3.2Wall assembly materials.

    The face of the wall assemblies making up the enclosures for interior exit stairways and elevator hoistway enclosures that are not exposed to the interior of the enclosures for interior exit stairways or elevator hoistway enclosure shall be constructed in accordance with one of the following methods:

    1. 1.The wall assembly shall incorporate no fewer than two layers of impact-resistant construction board each of which meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 2 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C1629/C1629M.

    2. 2.The wall assembly shall incorporate no fewer than one layer of impact-resistant construction material that meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C1629/C1629M.

    3. 3.The wall assembly incorporates multiple layers of any material, tested in tandem, that meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C1629/C1629M.

    403.2.3.3Concrete and masonry walls.

    Concrete or masonry walls shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements of Sections 403.2.3.1 and 403.2.3.2.

    403.2.3.4Other wall assemblies.

    Any other wall assembly that provides impact resistance equivalent to that required by Sections 403.2.3.1 and 403.2.3.2 for Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3, as measured by the test method described in ASTM C1629/C1629M, shall be permitted.

    403.2.4Sprayed fire-resistant materials (SFRM).

    The bond strength of the SFRM installed throughout the building shall be in accordance with Table 403.2.4.

    TABLE 403.2.4

    MINIMUM BOND STRENGTH

    HEIGHT OF BUILDINGaSFRM MINIMUM BOND STRENGTH
    Up to 420 feet430 psf
    Greater than 420 feet1,000 psf

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot (psf) = 0.0479 kW/m2.

    1. a.Above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.

    [F]403.3Automatic sprinkler system.

    Buildings and structures shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and a secondary water supply where required by Section 403.3.3.

    Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in spaces or areas of:

    1. 1.Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.5.

    2. 2.Telecommunications equipment buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided that those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or not less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

    [F]403.3.1Number of sprinkler risers and system design.

    Each sprinkler system zone in buildings that are more than 420 feet (128 000 mm) in building height shall be supplied by no fewer than two risers. Each riser shall supply sprinklers on alternate floors. If more than two risers are provided for a zone, sprinklers on adjacent floors shall not be supplied from the same riser.

    [F]403.3.1.1Riser location.

    Sprinkler risers shall be placed in interior exit stairways and ramps that are remotely located in accordance with Section 1007.1.

    [F]403.3.2Water supply to required fire pumps.

    In buildings that are more than 420 feet (128 000 mm) in building height, required fire pumps shall be supplied by connections to no fewer than two water mains located in different streets. Separate supply piping shall be provided between each connection to the water main and the pumps. Each connection and the supply piping between the connection and the pumps shall be sized to supply the flow and pressure required for the pumps to operate.

    Exception: Two connections to the same main shall be permitted provided the main is valved such that an interruption can be isolated so that the water supply will continue without interruption through no fewer than one of the connections.

    [F]403.3.3Secondary water supply.

    An automatic secondary on-site water supply having a capacity not less than the hydraulically calculated sprinkler demand, including the hose stream requirement, shall be provided for highrise buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F as determined by Section 1613. An additional fire pump shall not be required for the secondary water supply unless needed to provide the minimum design intake pressure at the suction side of the fire pump supplying the automatic sprinkler system. The secondary water supply shall have a duration of not less than 30 minutes.

    [F]403.3.4Fire pump room.

    Fire pumps shall be located in rooms protected in accordance with Section 913.2.1.

    [F]403.4Emergency systems.

    The detection, alarm and emergency systems of high-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 403.4.1 through 403.4.8.

    [F]403.4.1Smoke detection.

    Smoke detection shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13.1.

    [F]403.4.2Fire alarm system.

    A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13.

    [F]403.4.3Standpipe system.

    A high-rise building shall be equipped with a standpipe system as required by Section 905.3.

    [F]403.4.4Emergency voice/alarm communication system.

    An emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

    [F]403.4.5Emergency responder radio coverage.

    Emergency responder radio coverage shall be provided in accordance with the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]403.4.6Fire command.

    A fire command center complying with Section 911 shall be provided in a location approved by the fire department.

    403.4.7Smoke removal.

    To facilitate smoke removal in post-fire salvage and overhaul operations, buildings and structures shall be equipped with natural or mechanical ventilation for removal of products of combustion in accordance with one of the following:

    1. 1.Easily identifiable, manually operable windows or panels shall be distributed around the perimeter of each floor at not more than 50-foot (15 240 mm) intervals. The area of operable windows or panels shall be not less than 40 square feet (3.7 m2) per 50 linear feet (15 240 mm) of perimeter.

      Exceptions:

      1. 1.In Group R-1 occupancies, each sleeping unit or suite having an exterior wall shall be permitted to be provided with 2 square feet (0.19 m2) of venting area in lieu of the area specified in Item 1.

      2. 2.Windows shall be permitted to be fixed provided that glazing can be cleared by fire fighters.

    2. 2.Mechanical air-handling equipment providing one exhaust air change every 15 minutes for the area involved. Return and exhaust air shall be moved directly to the outside without recirculation to other portions of the building.

    3. 3.Any other approved design that will produce equivalent results.

    [F]403.4.8Standby and emergency power.

    A standby power system complying with Section 2702 and Section 3003 shall be provided for the standby power loads specified in Section 403.4.8.3. An emergency power system complying with Section 2702 shall be provided for the emergency power loads specified in Section 403.4.8.4.

    [F]403.4.8.1Equipment room.

    If the standby or emergency power system includes a generator set inside a building, the system shall be located in a separate room enclosed with 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. System supervision with manual start and transfer features shall be provided at the fire command center.

    Exception: In Group I-2, Condition 2, manual start and transfer features for the critical branch of the emergency power are not required to be provided at the fire command center.

    [F]403.4.8.2Fuel line piping protection.

    Fuel lines supplying a generator set inside a building shall be separated from areas of the building other than the room the generator is located in by an approved method or assembly that has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. Where the building is protected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the required fire-resistance rating shall be reduced to 1 hour.

    [F]403.4.8.3Standby power loads.

    The following are classified as standby power loads:

    1. 1.Power and lighting for the fire command center required by Section 403.4.6.

    2. 2.Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment for smokeproof enclosures.

    3. 3.Elevators.

    4. 4.Where elevators are provided in a high-rise building for accessible means of egress, fire service access or occupant self-evacuation, the standby power system shall also comply with Sections 1009, 3007 or 3008, as applicable.

    [F]403.4.8.4Emergency power loads.

    The following are classified as emergency power loads:

    1. 1.Exit signs and means of egress illumination required by Chapter 10.

    2. 2.Elevator car lighting.

    3. 3.Emergency voice/alarm communications systems.

    4. 4.Automatic fire detection systems.

    5. 5.Fire alarm systems.

    6. 6.Electrically powered fire pumps.

    403.5Means of egress and evacuation.

    The means of egress in high-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 403.5.1 through 403.5.6.

    403.5.1Remoteness of interior exit stairways.

    Required interior exit stairways shall be separated by a distance not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) or not less than one-fourth of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served, whichever is less. The distance shall be measured in a straight line between the nearest points of the enclosure surrounding the interior exit stairways. In buildings with three or more interior exit stairways, no fewer than two of the interior exit stairways shall comply with this section. Interlocking or scissor stairways shall be counted as one interior exit stairway.

    403.5.2Additional interior exit stairway.

    For buildings other than Group R-2 that are more than 420 feet (128 000 mm) in building height, one additional interior exit stairway meeting the requirements of Sections 1011 and 1023 shall be provided in addition to the minimum number of exits required by Section 1006.3. The total width of any combination of remaining interior exit stairways with one interior exit stairway removed shall be not less than the total width required by Section 1005.1. Scissor stairways shall not be considered the additional interior exit stairway required by this section.

    Exception: An additional interior exit stairway shall not be required to be installed in buildings having elevators used for occupant self-evacuation in accordance with Section 3008.

    403.5.3Stairway door operation.

    Stairway doors other than the exit discharge doors shall be permitted to be locked from the stairway side. Stairway doors that are locked from the stairway side shall be capable of being unlocked simultaneously without unlatching upon a signal from the fire command center.

    403.5.3.1Stairway communication system.

    A telephone or other two-way communications system connected to an approved constantly attended station shall be provided at not less than every fifth floor in each stairway where the doors to the stairway are locked.

    403.5.4Smokeproof enclosures.

    Every required interior exit stairway serving floors more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access shall be a smokeproof enclosure in accordance with Sections 909.20 and 1023.11.

    403.5.5Luminous egress path markings.

    Luminous egress path markings shall be provided in accordance with Section 1025.

    403.5.6Emergency escape and rescue.

    Emergency escape and rescue openings specified in Section 1030 are not required.

    403.6Elevators.

    Elevator installation and operation in high-rise buildings shall comply with Chapter 30 and Sections 403.6.1 and 403.6.2.

    403.6.1Fire service access elevator.

    In buildings with an occupied floor more than 120 feet (36 576 mm), measured from the elevation of street-level access to the level of the highest occupiable floor, no fewer than two fire service access elevators shall be provided in accordance with Section 3007. All remaining elevators, if any, shall be provided with Phase I and II emergency operation. Each fire service access elevator shall have a capacity of not less than 3,500 pounds (1588 kg).

    403.6.2Occupant evacuation elevators.

    Where installed in accordance with Section 3008, passenger elevators for general public use shall be permitted to be used for occupant self-evacuation.

    SECTION404
    ATRIUMS

    404.1General.

    In other than Group H occupancies, and where permitted by Section 712.1.7, the provisions of Sections 404.1 through 404.10 shall apply to buildings or structures containing vertical openings defined as “Atriums.”

    404.1.1Definition.

    The following term is defined in Chapter 2:

    ATRIUM.

    404.2Use.

    The floor of the atrium shall not be used for other than low fire hazard uses and only approved materials and decorations in accordance with the Florida Fire Prevention Code shall be used in the atrium space.

    Exception: The atrium floor area is permitted to be used for any approved use where the individual space is provided with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    [F]404.3Automatic sprinkler protection.

    An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire building.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.That area of a building adjacent to or above the atrium need not be sprinklered provided that portion of the building is separated from the atrium portion by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

    2. 2.Where the ceiling of the atrium is more than 55 feet (16 764 mm) above the floor, sprinkler protection at the ceiling of the atrium is not required.

    [F]404.4Fire alarm system.

    A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.14.

    404.5Smoke control.

    A smoke control system shall be installed in accordance with Section 909.

    Exception: In other than Group I-2, and Group I-1, Condition 2, smoke control is not required for atriums that connect only two stories.

    404.6Enclosure of atriums.

    Atrium spaces shall be separated from adjacent spaces by a 1-hour fire barrier constructed in accordance with Section 707 or a horizontal assembly constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.A fire barrier is not required where a glass wall forming a smoke partition is provided. The glass wall shall comply with all of the following:

      1. 1.1.Automatic sprinklers are provided along both sides of the separation wall and doors, or on the room side only if there is not a walkway on the atrium side. The sprinklers shall be located between 4 inches and 12 inches (102 mm and 305 mm) away from the glass and at intervals along the glass not greater than 6 feet (1829 mm). The sprinkler system shall be designed so that the entire surface of the glass is wet upon activation of the sprinkler system without obstruction;

      2. 1.2.The glass wall shall be installed in a gasketed frame in a manner that the framing system deflects without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates; and

      3. 1.3.Where glass doors are provided in the glass wall, they shall be either self-closing or automatic-closing.

    2. 2.A fire barrier is not required where a glass-block wall assembly complying with Section 2110 and having a 3/4-hour fire protection rating is provided.

    3. 3.A fire barrier is not required between the atrium and the adjoining spaces of any three floors of the atrium provided such spaces are accounted for in the design of the smoke control system.

    [F]404.7Standby power.

    Equipment required to provide smoke control shall be provided with standby power in accordance with Section 909.11.

    404.8Interior finish.

    The interior finish of walls and ceilings of the atrium shall be not less than Class B with no reduction in class for sprinkler protection.

    404.9Exit access travel distance.

    Exit access travel distance for areas open to an atrium shall comply with the requirements of this section.

    404.9.1Egress not through the atrium.

    Where required access to the exits is not through the atrium, exit access travel distance shall comply with Section 1017.

    404.9.2Exit access travel distance at the level of exit discharge.

    Where the path of egress travel is through an atrium space, exit access travel distance at the level of exit discharge shall be determined in accordance with Section 1017.

    404.9.3Exit access travel distance at other than the level of exit discharge.

    Where the path of egress travel is not at the level of exit discharge from the atrium, that portion of the total permitted exit access travel distance that occurs within the atrium shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm).

    404.10Interior exit stairways.

    A maximum of 50 percent of interior exit stairways are permitted to egress through an atrium on the level of exit discharge in accordance with Section 1028.

    SECTION405
    UNDERGROUND BUILDINGS

    405.1General.

    The provisions of Sections 405.2 through 405.9 apply to building spaces having a floor level used for human occupancy more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge.

    Exceptions: The provisions of Section 405 are not applicable to the following buildings or portions of buildings:

    1. 1.One- and two-family dwellings, sprinklered in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3.

    2. 2.Parking garages provided with automatic sprinkler systems in compliance with Section 405.3.

    3. 3.Fixed guideway transit systems.

    4. 4.Grandstands, bleachers, stadiums, arenas and similar facilities.

    5. 5.Where the lowest story is the only story that would qualify the building as an underground building and has an area not greater than 1,500 square feet (139 m2) and has an occupant load less than 10.

    6. 6.Pumping stations and other similar mechanical spaces intended only for limited periodic use by service or maintenance personnel.

    405.2Construction requirements.

    The underground portion of the building shall be of Type I construction.

    [F]405.3Automatic sprinkler system.

    The highest level of exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building and all levels below shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Water-flow switches and control valves shall be supervised in accordance with Section 903.4.

    405.4Compartmentation.

    Compartmentation shall be in accordance with Sections 405.4.1 through 405.4.3.

    405.4.1Number of compartments.

    A building having a floor level more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge shall be divided into no fewer than two compartments of approximately equal size. Such compartmentation shall extend through the highest level of exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building and all levels below.

    Exception: The lowest story need not be compartmented where the area is not greater than 1,500 square feet (139 m2) and has an occupant load of less than 10.

    405.4.2Smoke barrier penetration.

    The compartments shall be separated from each other by a smoke barrier in accordance with Section 709. Penetrations between the two compartments shall be limited to plumbing and electrical piping and conduit that are firestopped in accordance with Section 714. Doorways shall be protected by fire door assemblies that are automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3 and are installed in accordance with NFPA 105 and Section 716.5.3. Where provided, each compartment shall have an air supply and an exhaust system independent of the other compartments.

    405.4.3Elevators.

    Where elevators are provided, each compartment shall have direct access to an elevator. Where an elevator serves more than one compartment, an elevator lobby shall be provided and shall be separated from each compartment by a smoke barrier in accordance with Section 709. Doors shall be gasketed, have a drop sill and be automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3.

    405.5Smoke control system.

    A smoke control system shall be provided in accordance with Sections 405.5.1 and 405.5.2.

    405.5.1Control system.

    A smoke control system is required to control the migration of products of combustion in accordance with Section 909 and the provisions of this section. Smoke control shall restrict movement of smoke to the general area of fire origin and maintain means of egress in a usable condition.

    405.5.2Compartment smoke control system.

    Where compartmentation is required, each compartment shall have an independent smoke control system. The system shall be automatically activated and capable of manual operation in accordance with Sections 907.2.18 and 907.2.19.

    [F]405.6Fire alarm systems.

    A fire alarm system shall be provided where required by Sections 907.2.18 and 907.2.19.

    405.7Means of egress.

    Means of egress shall be in accordance with Sections 405.7.1 and 405.7.2.

    405.7.1Number of exits.

    Each floor level shall be provided with no fewer than two exits. Where compartmentation is required by Section 405.4, each compartment shall have no fewer than one exit and shall also have no fewer than one exit access doorway into the adjoining compartment.

    405.7.2Smokeproof enclosure.

    Every required stairway serving floor levels more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor of its level of exit discharge shall comply with the requirements for a smokeproof enclosure as provided in Section 1023.11.

    [F]405.8Standby and emergency power.

    A standby power system complying with Section 2702 shall be provided for the standby power loads specified in Section 405.8.1. An emergency power system complying with Section 2702 shall be provided for the emergency power loads specified in Section 405.8.2.

    [F]405.8.1Standby power loads.

    The following loads are classified as standby power loads:

    1. 1.Smoke control system.

    2. 2.Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment for smokeproof enclosures.

    3. 3.Fire pumps.

    4. 4.Elevators, as required in Section 3003.

    [F]405.8.2Emergency power loads.

    The following loads are classified as emergency power loads:

    1. 1.Emergency voice/alarm communications systems.

    2. 2.Fire alarm systems.

    3. 3.Automatic fire detection systems.

    4. 4.Elevator car lighting.

    5. 5.Means of egress and exit sign illumination as required by Chapter 10.

    [F]405.9Standpipe system.

    The underground building shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system in accordance with Section 905.

    SECTION406
    MOTOR-VEHICLE-RELATED OCCUPANCIES

    406.1General.

    Motor-vehicle-related occupancies shall comply with Sections 406.1 through 406.8.

    406.2Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    MECHANICAL-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES.

    OPEN PARKING GARAGE.

    PRIVATE GARAGE.

    RAMP-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES.

    406.3Private garages and carports.

    Private garages and carports shall comply with Sections 406.3.1 through 406.3.6.

    406.3.1Classification.

    Private garages and carports shall be classified as Group U occupancies. Each private garage shall be not greater than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) in area. Multiple private garages are permitted in a building where each private garage is separated from the other private garages by 1-hour fire barriers in accordance with Section 707, or 1-hour horizontal assemblies in accordance with Section 711, or both.

    406.3.2Clear height.

    In private garages and carports, the clear height in vehicle and pedestrian traffic areas shall be not less than 7 feet (2134 mm). Vehicle and pedestrian areas accommodating van-accessible parking shall comply with the Florida Building Code, Accessibility.

    406.3.3Garage floor surfaces.

    Garage floor surfaces shall be of approved noncombustible material. The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway.

    406.3.4Separation.

    For other than private garages adjacent to dwelling units, the separation of private garages from other occupancies shall comply with Section 508. Separation of private garages from dwelling units shall comply with Sections 406.3.4.1 through 406.3.4.3.

    406.3.4.1Dwelling unit separation.

    The private garage shall be separated from the dwelling unit and its attic area by means of gypsum board, not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in thickness, applied to the garage side. Garages beneath habitable rooms shall be separated from all habitable rooms above by not less than a 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board or equivalent and 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board applied to structures supporting the separation from habitable rooms above the garage. Door openings between a private garage and the dwelling unit shall be equipped with either solid wood doors or solid or honeycomb core steel doors not less than 13/8 inches (34.9 mm) in thickness, or doors in compliance with Section 716.5.3 with a fire protection rating of not less than 20 minutes. Doors shall be self-closing and self-latching.

    406.3.4.2Openings prohibited.

    Openings from a private garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted.

    406.3.4.3Ducts.

    Ducts in a private garage and ducts penetrating the walls or ceilings separating the dwelling unit from the garage, including its attic area, shall be constructed of sheet steel of not less than 0.019 inch (0.48 mm) in thickness and shall have no openings into the garage.

    406.3.5Carports.

    Carports shall be open on at least two sides. Carport floor surfaces shall be of an approved noncombustible material. Carports not open on at least two sides shall be considered a garage and shall comply with the requirements for private garages.

    Exception: Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at ground level in carports.

    The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway.

    406.3.5.1Carport separation.

    A separation is not required between a Group R-3 and U carport, provided the carport is entirely open on two or more sides and there are not enclosed areas above.

    406.3.6Automatic garage door openers.

    Automatic garage door openers, where provided, shall be listed in accordance with UL 325.

    406.4Public parking garages.

    Parking garages, other than private garages, shall be classified as public parking garages and shall comply with the provisions of Sections 406.4.2 through 406.4.8 and shall be classified as either an open parking garage or an enclosed parking garage. Open parking garages shall also comply with Section 406.5. Enclosed parking garages shall also comply with Section 406.6. See Section 510 for special provisions for parking garages.

    406.4.1Clear height.

    The clear height of each floor level in vehicle and pedestrian traffic areas shall be not less than 7 feet (2134 mm). Vehicle and pedestrian areas accommodating van-accessible parking shall comply with the Florida Building Code, Accessibility.

    406.4.2Guards.

    Guards shall be provided in accordance with Section 1015. Guards serving as vehicle barriers shall comply with Sections 406.4.3 and 1015.

    406.4.3Vehicle barriers.

    Vehicle barriers not less than 2 feet 9 inches (835 mm) in height shall be placed where the vertical distance from the floor of a drive lane or parking space to the ground or surface directly below is greater than 1 foot (305 mm). Vehicle barriers shall comply with the loading requirements of Section 1607.8.3.

    Exception: Vehicle barriers are not required in vehicle storage compartments in a mechanical access parking garage.

    406.4.4Ramps.

    Vehicle ramps shall not be considered as required exits unless pedestrian facilities are provided. Vehicle ramps that are utilized for vertical circulation as well as for parking shall not exceed a slope of 1:15 (6.67 percent).

    406.4.5Floor surface.

    Parking surfaces shall be of concrete or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materials.

    The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Asphalt parking surfaces shall be permitted at ground level.

    2. 2.Floors of Group S-2 parking garages shall not be required to have a sloped surface.

    406.4.6Mixed occupancy separation.

    Parking garages shall be separated from other occupancies in accordance with Section 508.1.

    406.4.7Special hazards.

    Connection of a parking garage with any room in which there is a fuel-fired appliance shall be by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separation.

    Exception: A single door shall be allowed provided the sources of ignition in the appliance are not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor.

    406.4.8Attached to rooms.

    Openings from a parking garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted.

    406.5Open parking garages.

    Open parking garages shall comply with Sections 406.5.1 through 406.5.11.

    406.5.1Construction.

    Open parking garages shall be of Type I, II or IV construction. Open parking garages shall meet the design requirements of Chapter 16. For vehicle barriers, see Section 406.4.3.

    406.5.2Openings.

    For natural ventilation purposes, the exterior side of the structure shall have uniformly distributed openings on two or more sides. The area of such openings in exterior walls on a tier shall be not less than 20 percent of the total perimeter wall area of each tier. The aggregate length of the openings considered to be providing natural ventilation shall be not less than 40 percent of the perimeter of the tier. Interior walls shall be not less than 20 percent open with uniformly distributed openings.

    Exception: Openings are not required to be distributed over 40 percent of the building perimeter where the required openings are uniformly distributed over two opposing sides of the building.

    406.5.2.1Openings below grade.

    Where openings below grade provide required natural ventilation, the outside horizontal clear space shall be one and one-half times the depth of the opening. The width of the horizontal clear space shall be maintained from grade down to the bottom of the lowest required opening.

    406.5.3Uses.

    Mixed uses shall be allowed in the same building as an open parking garage subject to the provisions of Sections 402.4.2.3, 406.5.11, 508.1, 510.3, 510.4 and 510.7.

    406.5.4Area and height.

    Area and height of open parking garages shall be limited as set forth in Chapter 5 for Group S-2 occupancies and as further provided for in Section 508.1.

    TABLE 406.5.4

    OPEN PARKING GARAGES AREA AND HEIGHT

    TYPE OF CONSTRUCTIONAREA PER TIER (square feet)HEIGHT (in tiers)
    Ramp accessMechanical access
    Automatic sprinkler system
    NoYes
    IAUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited
    IBUnlimited12 tiers12 tiers18 tiers
    IIA50,00010 tiers10 tiers15 tiers
    IIB50,0008 tiers8 tiers12 tiers
    IV50,0004 tiers4 tiers4 tiers

    406.5.4.1Single use.

    Where the open parking garage is used exclusively for the parking or storage of private motor vehicles, with no other uses in the building, the area and height shall be permitted to comply with Table 406.5.4, along with increases allowed by Section 406.5.5.

    Exception: The grade-level tier is permitted to contain an office, waiting and toilet rooms having a total combined area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2). Such area need not be separated from the open parking garage.

    In open parking garages having a spiral or sloping floor, the horizontal projection of the structure at any cross section shall not exceed the allowable area per parking tier. In the case of an open parking garage having a continuous spiral floor, each 9 feet 6 inches (2896 mm) of height, or portion thereof, shall be considered a tier.

    The clear height of a parking tier shall be not less than 7 feet (2134 mm), except that a lower clear height is permitted in mechanical-access open parking garages where approved by the building official.

    406.5.5Area and height increases.

    The allowable area and height of open parking garages shall be increased in accordance with the provisions of this section. Garages with sides open on three-fourths of the building’s perimeter are permitted to be increased by 25 percent in area and one tier in height. Garages with sides open around the entire building’s perimeter are permitted to be increased by 50 percent in area and one tier in height. For a side to be considered open under the above provisions, the total area of openings along the side shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area of the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally distributed along the length of the tier. For purposes of calculating the interior area of the side, the height shall not exceed 7 feet (2134 mm).

    Allowable tier areas in Table 406.5.4 shall be increased for open parking garages constructed to heights less than the table maximum. The gross tier area of the garage shall not exceed that permitted for the higher structure. No fewer than three sides of each such larger tier shall have continuous horizontal openings not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in clear height extending for not less than 80 percent of the length of the sides and no part of such larger tier shall be more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such an opening. In addition, each such opening shall face a street or yard accessible to a street with a width of not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) for the full length of the opening, and standpipes shall be provided in each such tier.

    Open parking garages of Type II construction, with all sides open, shall be unlimited in allowable area where the building height does not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). For a side to be considered open, the total area of openings along the side shall be not less than 50 percent of the interior area of the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally distributed along the length of the tier. For purposes of calculating the interior area of the side, the height shall not exceed 7 feet (2134 mm). All portions of tiers shall be within 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such openings or other natural ventilation openings as defined in Section 406.5.2. These openings shall be permitted to be provided in courts with a minimum dimension of 20 feet (6096 mm) for the full width of the openings.

    406.5.6Fire separation distance.

    Exterior walls and openings in exterior walls shall comply with Tables 601 and 602. The distance to an adjacent lot line shall be determined in accordance with Table 602 and Section 705.

    406.5.7Means of egress.

    Where persons other than parking attendants are permitted, open parking garages shall meet the means of egress requirements of Chapter 10. Where no persons other than parking attendants are permitted, there shall be no fewer than two exit stairways. Each exit stairway shall be not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in width. Lifts shall be permitted to be installed for use of employees only, provided they are completely enclosed by noncombustible materials.

    [F] 406.5.8Standpipe system.

    An open parking garage shall be equipped with a standpipe system as required by Section 905.3.

    406.5.9Enclosure of vertical openings.

    Enclosure shall not be required for vertical openings except as specified in Section 406.5.7.

    406.5.10Ventilation.

    Ventilation, other than the percentage of openings specified in Section 406.5.2, shall not be required.

    406.5.11Prohibitions.

    The following uses and alterations are not permitted:

    1. 1.Vehicle repair work.

    2. 2.Parking of buses, trucks and similar vehicles.

    3. 3.Partial or complete closing of required openings in exterior walls by tarpaulins or any other means.

    4. 4.Dispensing of fuel.

    406.6Enclosed parking garages.

    Enclosed parking garages shall comply with Sections 406.6.1 through 406.6.3.

    406.6.1Heights and areas.

    Enclosed vehicle parking garages and portions thereof that do not meet the definition of open parking garages shall be limited to the allowable heights and areas specified in Sections 504 and 506 as modified by Section 507. Roof parking is permitted.

    406.6.2Ventilation.

    A mechanical ventilation system shall be provided in accordance with the Florida Building Code, Mechanical.

    [F]406.6.3Automatic sprinkler system.

    An enclosed parking garage shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.10.

    406.7Motor fuel-dispensing facilities.

    Motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall comply with the Florida Fire Prevention Code and Sections 406.7.1 and 406.7.2.

    406.7.1Vehicle fueling pad.

    The vehicle shall be fueled on noncoated concrete or other approved paving material having a resistance not exceeding 1 megohm as determined by the methodology in EN 1081.

    406.7.2Canopies.

    Canopies under which fuels are dispensed shall have a clear, unobstructed height of not less than 13 feet 6 inches (4115 mm) to the lowest projecting element in the vehicle drive-through area. Canopies and their supports over pumps shall be of noncombustible materials, fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Chapter 23, wood of Type IV sizes or of construction providing 1-hour fire resistance. Combustible materials used in or on a canopy shall comply with one of the following:

    1. 1.Shielded from the pumps by a noncombustible element of the canopy, or wood of Type IV sizes;

    2. 2.Plastics covered by aluminum facing having a thickness of not less than 0.010 inch (0.30 mm) or corrosion-resistant steel having a base metal thickness of not less than 0.016 inch (0.41 mm). The plastic shall have a flame spread index of 25 or less and a smoke developed index of 450 or less when tested in the form intended for use in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723 and a self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343°C) or greater when tested in accordance with ASTM D1929; or

    3. 3.Panels constructed of light-transmitting plastic materials shall be permitted to be installed in canopies erected over motor vehicle fuel-dispensing station fuel dispensers, provided the panels are located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from any building on the same lot and face yards or streets not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm) in width on the other sides. The aggregate areas of plastics shall be not greater than 1,000 square feet (93 m2). The maximum area of any individual panel shall be not greater than 100 square feet (9.3 m2).

    406.7.2.1Canopies used to support gaseous hydrogen systems.

    Canopies that are used to shelter dispensing operations where flammable compressed gases are located on the roof of the canopy shall be in accordance with the following:

    1. 1.The canopy shall meet or exceed Type I construction requirements.

    2. 2.Operations located under canopies shall be limited to refueling only.

    3. 3.The canopy shall be constructed in a manner that prevents the accumulation of hydrogen gas.

    406.8Repair garages.

    Repair garages shall be constructed in accordance with the Florida Fire Prevention Code and Sections 406.8.1 through 406.8.6. This occupancy shall not include motor fuel-dispensing facilities, as regulated in Section 406.7.

    406.8.1Mixed uses.

    Mixed uses shall be allowed in the same building as a repair garage subject to the provisions of Section 508.1.

    406.8.2Ventilation.

    Repair garages shall be mechanically ventilated in accordance with the Florida Building Code, Mechanical. The ventilation system shall be controlled at the entrance to the garage.

    406.8.3Floor surface.

    Repair garage floors shall be of concrete or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materials.

    Exception: Slip-resistant, nonabsorbent, interior floor finishes having a critical radiant flux not more than 0.45 W/cm2, as determined by NFPA 253, shall be permitted.

    406.8.4Heating equipment.

    Heating equipment shall be installed in accordance with the Florida Building Code, Mechanical.

    [F]406.8.5Gas detection system.

    Repair garages used for the repair of vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases such as hydrogen and nonodorized LNG, shall be provided with a flammable gas detection system.

    [F]406.8.5.1System design.

    The flammable gas detection system shall be listed or approved and shall be calibrated to the types of fuels or gases used by vehicles to be repaired. The gas detection system shall be designed to activate when the level of flammable gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL). Gas detection shall be provided in lubrication or chassis service pits of repair garages used for repairing nonodorized LNG-fueled vehicles.

    [F]406.8.5.1.1Gas detection system components.

    Gas detection system control units shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 864 or UL 2017. Gas detectors shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 2075 for use with the gases and vapors being detected.

    [F]406.8.5.2Operation.

    Activation of the gas detection system shall result in all of the following:

    1. 1.Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm signals in the repair garage.

    2. 2.Deactivation of all heating systems located in the repair garage.

    3. 3.Activation of the mechanical ventilation system, where the system is interlocked with gas detection.

    [F]406.8.5.3Failure of the gas detection system.

    Failure of the gas detection system shall result in the deactivation of the heating system, activation of the mechanical ventilation system where the system is interlocked with the gas detection system and cause a trouble signal to sound in an approved location.

    [F]406.8.6 Automatic sprinkler system.

    A repair garage shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.9.1.

    SECTION407
    GROUP I-2

    407.1General.

    Occupancies in Group I-2 shall comply with the provisions of Sections 407.1 through 407.10 and other applicable provisions of this code.

    407.2Corridors continuity and separation.

    Corridors in occupancies in Group I-2 shall be continuous to the exits and shall be separated from other areas in accordance with Section 407.3 except spaces conforming to Sections 407.2.1 through 407.2.6.

    407.2.1Waiting and similar areas.

    Waiting areas and similar spaces constructed as required for corridors shall be permitted to be open to a corridor, only where all of the following criteria are met:

    1. 1.The spaces are not occupied as care recipient’s sleeping rooms, treatment rooms, incidental uses in accordance with Section 509, or hazardous uses.

    2. 2.The open space is protected by an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.

    3. 3.The corridors onto which the spaces open, in the same smoke compartment, are protected by an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907, or the smoke compartment in which the spaces are located is equipped throughout with quick-response sprinklers in accordance with Section 903.3.2.

    4. 4.The space is arranged so as not to obstruct access to the required exits.

    407.2.2Care providers’ stations.

    Spaces for care providers’, supervisory staff, doctors’ and nurses’ charting, communications and related clerical areas shall be permitted to be open to the corridor, where such spaces are constructed as required for corridors.

    407.2.3Psychiatric treatment areas.

    Areas wherein psychiatric care recipients who are not capable of self-preservation are housed, or group meeting or multipurpose therapeutic spaces other than incidental uses in accordance with Section 509, under continuous supervision by facility staff, shall be permitted to be open to the corridor, where the following criteria are met:

    1. 1.Each area does not exceed 1,500 square feet (140 m2).

    2. 2.The area is located to permit supervision by the facility staff.

    3. 3.The area is arranged so as not to obstruct any access to the required exits.

    4. 4.The area is equipped with an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.2.

    5. 5.Not more than one such space is permitted in any one smoke compartment.

    6. 6.The walls and ceilings of the space are constructed as required for corridors.

    407.2.4Gift shops.

    Gift shops and associated storage that are less than 500 square feet (455 m2) in area shall be permitted to be open to the corridor where such spaces are constructed as required for corridors.

    407.2.5Nursing home housing units.

    In Group I-2, Condition 1, occupancies, in areas where nursing home residents are housed, shared living spaces, group meeting or multipurpose therapeutic spaces shall be permitted to be open to the corridor, where all of the following criteria are met:

    1. 1.The walls and ceilings of the space are constructed as required for corridors.

    2. 2.The spaces are not occupied as resident sleeping rooms, treatment rooms, incidental uses in accordance with Section 509, or hazardous uses.

    3. 3.The open space is protected by an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.

    4. 4.The corridors onto which the spaces open, in the same smoke compartment, are protected by an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907, or the smoke compartment in which the spaces are located is equipped throughout with quick-response sprinklers in accordance with Section 903.3.2.

    5. 5.The space is arranged so as not to obstruct access to the required exits.

    407.2.6Nursing home cooking facilities.

    In Group I-2, Condition 1, occupancies, rooms or spaces that contain a cooking facility with domestic cooking appliances shall be permitted to be open to the corridor where all of the following criteria are met:

    1. 1.The number of care recipients housed in the smoke compartment is not greater than 30.

    2. 2.The number of care recipients served by the cooking facility is not greater than 30.

    3. 3.Only one cooking facility area is permitted in a smoke compartment.

    4. 4.The types of domestic cooking appliances permitted are limited to ovens, cooktops, ranges, warmers and microwaves.

    5. 5.The corridor is a clearly identified space delineated by construction or floor pattern, material or color.

    6. 6.The space containing the domestic cooking facility shall be arranged so as not to obstruct access to the required exit.

    7. 7.A domestic cooking hood installed and constructed in accordance with Section 505 of the Florida Building Code, Mechanical is provided over the cooktop or range.

    8. 8.The domestic cooking hood provided over the cooktop or range shall be equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system of a type recognized for protection of domestic cooking equipment. Preengineered automatic extinguishing systems shall be tested in accordance with UL 300A and listed and labeled for the intended application. The system shall be installed in accordance with this code, its listing and the manufacturer’s instructions.

    9. 9.A manual actuation device for the hood suppression system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 904.12.1 and 904.12.2.

    10. 10.An interlock device shall be provided such that upon activation of the hood suppression system, the power or fuel supply to the cooktop or range will be turned off.

    11. 11.A shut-off for the fuel and electrical power supply to the cooking equipment shall be provided in a location that is accessible only to staff.

    12. 12.A timer shall be provided that automatically deactivates the cooking appliances within a period of not more than 120 minutes.

    13. 13.A portable fire extinguisher shall be installed in accordance with the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    407.3Corridor wall construction.

    Corridor walls shall be constructed as smoke partitions in accordance with Section 710.

    407.3.1Corridor doors.

    Corridor doors, other than those in a wall required to be rated by Section 509.4 or for the enclosure of a vertical opening or an exit, shall not have a required fire protection rating and shall not be required to be equipped with self-closing or automatic-closing devices, but shall provide an effective barrier to limit the transfer of smoke and shall be equipped with positive latching. Roller latches are not permitted. Other doors shall conform to Section 716.5.

    407.4Means of egress.

    Group I-2 occupancies shall be provided with means of egress complying with Chapter 10 and Sections 407.4.1 through 407.4.4. The fire safety and evacuation plans provided in accordance with Section 1001.4 shall identify the building components necessary to support a defend-in-place emergency response in accordance with the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    407.4.1Direct access to a corridor.

    Habitable rooms in Group I-2 occupancies shall have an exit access door leading directly to a corridor.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Rooms with exit doors opening directly to the outside at ground level.

    2. 2.Rooms arranged as care suites complying with Section 407.4.4.

    407.4.1.1Locking devices.

    Locking devices that restrict access to a care recipient’s room from the corridor and that are operable only by staff from the corridor side shall not restrict the means of egress from the care recipient’s room.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.This section shall not apply to rooms in psychiatric treatment and similar care areas.

    2. 2.Locking arrangements in accordance with Section 1010.1.9.6.

    407.4.2Distance of travel.

    The distance of travel between any point in a Group I-2 occupancy sleeping room, not located in a care suite, and an exit access door in that room shall be not greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm).

    407.4.3Projections in nursing home corridors.

    In Group I-2, Condition 1, occupancies, where the corridor width is a minimum of 96 inches (2440 mm), projections shall be permitted for furniture where all of the following criteria are met:

    1. 1.The furniture is attached to the floor or to the wall.

    2. 2.The furniture does not reduce the clear width of the corridor to less than 72 inches (1830 mm) except where other encroachments are permitted in accordance with Section 1005.7.

    3. 3.The furniture is positioned on only one side of the corridor.

    4. 4.Each arrangement of furniture is 50 square feet (4.6 m2) maximum in area.

    5. 5.Furniture arrangements are separated by 10 feet (3048 mm) minimum.

    6. 6.Placement of furniture is considered as part of the fire and safety plans in accordance with Section 1001.4.

    407.4.4Group I-2 care suites.

    Care suites in Group I-2 shall comply with Sections 407.4.4.1 through 407.4.4.4 and either Section 407.4.4.5 or 407.4.4.6.

    407.4.4.1Exit access through care suites.

    Exit access from all other portions of a building not classified as a care suite shall not pass through a care suite. In a care suite required to have more than one exit, one exit access is permitted to pass through an adjacent care suite provided all of the other requirements of Sections 407.4 and 1016.2 are satisfied.

    407.4.4.2Separation.

    Care suites shall be separated from other portions of the building, including other care suites, by a smoke partition complying with Section 710.

    407.4.4.3Access to corridor.

    Movement from habitable rooms shall not require passage through more than three doors and 100 feet (30 480 mm) distance of travel within the suite.

    Exception: The distance of travel shall be permitted to be increased to 125 feet (38 100 mm) where an automatic smoke detection system is provided throughout the care suite and installed in accordance with NFPA 72.

    407.4.4.4Doors within care suites.

    Doors in care suites serving habitable rooms shall be permitted to comply with one of the following:

    1. 1.Manually operated horizontal sliding doors permitted in accordance with Exception 9 to Section 1010.1.2.

    2. 2.Power-operated doors permitted in accordance with Exception 7 to Section 1010.1.2.

    3. 3.Means of egress doors complying with Section 1010.

    407.4.4.5Care suites containing sleeping room areas.

    Sleeping rooms shall be permitted to be grouped into care suites where one of the following criteria is met:

    1. 1.The care suite is not used as an exit access for more than eight care recipient beds.

    2. 2.The arrangement of the care suite allows for direct and constant visual supervision into the sleeping rooms by care providers.

    3. 3.An automatic smoke detection system is provided in the sleeping rooms and installed in accordance with NFPA 72.

    407.4.4.5.1Area.

    Care suites containing sleeping rooms shall be not greater than 7,500 square feet (696 m2) in area.

    Exception: Care suites containing sleeping rooms shall be permitted to be not greater than 10,000 square feet (929 m2) in area where an automatic smoke detection system is provided throughout the care suite and installed in accordance with NFPA 72.

    407.4.4.5.2Exit access.

    Any sleeping room, or any care suite that contains sleeping rooms, of more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) shall have no fewer than two exit access doors from the care suite located in accordance with Section 1007.

    407.4.4.6Care suites not containing sleeping rooms.

    Areas not containing sleeping rooms, but only treatment areas and the associated rooms, spaces or circulation space, shall be permitted to be grouped into care suites and shall conform to the limitations in Sections 407.4.4.6.1 and 407.4.4.6.2.

    407.4.4.6.1Area.

    Care suites of rooms, other than sleeping rooms, shall have an area not greater than 12,500 square feet (1161 m2).

    Exception: Care suites not containing sleeping rooms shall be permitted to be not greater than 15,000 square feet (1394 m2) in area where an automatic smoke detection system is provided throughout the care suite in accordance with Section 907.

    407.4.4.6.2Exit access.

    Care suites, other than sleeping rooms, with an area of more than 2,500 square feet (232 m2) shall have no fewer than two exit access doors from the care suite located in accordance with Section 1007.1.

    407.5Smoke barriers.

    Smoke barriers shall be provided to subdivide every story used by persons receiving care, treatment or sleeping and to divide other stories with an occupant load of 50 or more persons, into no fewer than two smoke compartments. Such stories shall be divided into smoke compartments with an area of not more than 22,500 square feet (2092 m2) in Group I-2, Condition 1, and not more than 40,000 square feet (3716 m2) in Group I-2, Condition 2, and the distance of travel from any point in a smoke compartment to a smoke barrier door shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm). The smoke barrier shall be in accordance with Section 709.

    407.5.1Refuge area.

    Refuge areas shall be provided within each smoke compartment. The size of the refuge area shall accommodate the occupants and care recipients from the adjoining smoke compartment. Where a smoke compartment is adjoined by two or more smoke compartments, the minimum area of the refuge area shall accommodate the largest occupant load of the adjoining compartments. The size of the refuge area shall provide the following:

    1. 1.Not less than 30 net square feet (2.8 m2) for each care recipient confined to bed or stretcher.

    2. 2.Not less than 6 square feet (0.56 m2) for each ambulatory care recipient not confined to bed or stretcher and for other occupants.

    Areas or spaces permitted to be included in the calculation of refuge area are corridors, sleeping areas, treatment rooms, lounge or dining areas and other low-hazard areas.

    407.5.2Independent egress.

    A means of egress shall be provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke barriers without having to return through the smoke compartment from which means of egress originated.

    407.5.3Horizontal assemblies.

    Horizontal assemblies supporting smoke barriers required by this section shall be designed to resist the movement of smoke. Elevator lobbies shall be in accordance with Section 3006.2.

    [F]407.6Automatic sprinkler system.

    Smoke compartments containing sleeping rooms shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sections 903.3.1.1 and 903.3.2.

    [F]407.7Fire alarm system.

    A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.6.

    [F]407.8Automatic fire detection.

    Corridors in Group I-2, Condition 1 occupancies and spaces permitted to be open to the corridors by Section 407.2 shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection system.

    Group I-2, Condition 2 occupancies shall be equipped with smoke detection as required in Section 407.2.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Corridor smoke detection is not required where sleeping rooms are provided with smoke detectors that comply with UL 268. Such detectors shall provide a visual display on the corridor side of each sleeping room and an audible and visual alarm at the care provider’s station attending each unit.

    2. 2.Corridor smoke detection is not required where sleeping room doors are equipped with automatic door-closing devices with integral smoke detectors on the unit sides installed in accordance with their listing, provided that the integral detectors perform the required alerting function.

    407.9Secured yards.

    Grounds are permitted to be fenced and gates therein are permitted to be equipped with locks, provided that safe dispersal areas having 30 net square feet (2.8 m2) for bed and stretcher care recipients and 6 net square feet (0.56 m2) for ambulatory care recipients and other occupants are located between the building and the fence. Such provided safe dispersal areas shall be located not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the building they serve.

    407.10Electrical systems.

    In Group I-2 occupancies, the essential electrical system for electrical components, equipment and systems shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 27 and NFPA 99.

    SECTION408
    GROUP I-3

    408.1General.

    Occupancies in Group I-3 shall comply with the provisions of Sections 408.1 through 408.11 and other applicable provisions of this code (see Section 308.5).

    408.1.1Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    CELL.

    CELL TIER.

    HOUSING UNIT.

    SALLYPORT.

    408.2Other occupancies.

    Buildings or portions of buildings in Group I-3 occupancies where security operations necessitate the locking of required means of egress shall be permitted to be classified as a different occupancy. Occupancies classified as other than Group I-3 shall meet the applicable requirements of this code for that occupancy where provisions are made for the release of occupants at all times.

    Means of egress from detention and correctional occupancies that traverse other use areas shall, as a minimum, conform to requirements for detention and correctional occupancies.

    Exception: It is permissible to exit through a horizontal exit into other contiguous occupancies that do not conform to detention and correctional occupancy egress provisions but that do comply with requirements set forth in the appropriate occupancy, as long as the occupancy is not a Group H use.

    408.3Means of egress.

    Except as modified or as provided for in this section, the means of egress provisions of Chapter 10 shall apply.

    408.3.1Door width.

    Doors to resident sleeping units shall have a clear width of not less than 28 inches (711 mm).

    408.3.2Sliding doors.

    Where doors in a means of egress are of the horizontal-sliding type, the force to slide the door to its fully open position shall be not greater than 50 pounds (220 N) with a perpendicular force against the door of 50 pounds (220 N).

    408.3.3Guard tower doors.

    A hatch or trap door not less than 16 square feet (610 m2) in area through the floor and having dimensions of not less than 2 feet (610 mm) in any direction shall be permitted to be used as a portion of the means of egress from guard towers.

    408.3.4Spiral stairways.

    Spiral stairways that conform to the requirements of Section 1011.10 are permitted for access to and between staff locations.

    408.3.5Ships ladders.

    Ships ladders shall be permitted for egress from control rooms or elevated facility observation rooms in accordance with Section 1011.15.

    408.3.6Exit discharge.

    Exits are permitted to discharge into a fenced or walled courtyard. Enclosed yards or courts shall be of a size to accommodate all occupants, be located not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the building and have an area of not less than 15 square feet (1.4 m2) per person.

    408.3.7Sallyports.

    A sallyport shall be permitted in a means of egress where there are provisions for continuous and unobstructed passage through the sallyport during an emergency egress condition.

    408.3.8Interior exit stairway and ramp construction.

    One interior exit stairway or ramp in each building shall be permitted to have glazing installed in doors and interior walls at each landing level providing access to the interior exit stairway or ramp, provided that the following conditions are met:

    1. 1.The interior exit stairway or ramp shall not serve more than four floor levels.

    2. 2.Exit doors shall be not less than 3/4-hour fire door assemblies complying with Section 716.5.

    3. 3.The total area of glazing at each floor level shall not exceed 5,000 square inches (3.2 m2) and individual panels of glazing shall not exceed 1,296 square inches (0.84 m2).

    4. 4.The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an automatic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system shall be designed to wet completely the entire surface of any glazing affected by fire when actuated.

    5. 5.The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in such a manner that the framing system will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates.

    6. 6.Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse rods, curtains, drapes or similar materials shall not be installed between the automatic sprinklers and the glazing.

    408.4Locks.

    Egress doors are permitted to be locked in accordance with the applicable use condition. Doors from a refuge area to the outside are permitted to be locked with a key in lieu of locking methods described in Section 408.4.1. The keys to unlock the exterior doors shall be available at all times and the locks shall be operable from both sides of the door.

    408.4.1Remote release.

    Remote release of locks on doors in a means of egress shall be provided with reliable means of operation, remote from the resident living areas, to release locks on all required doors. In Occupancy Condition 3 or 4, the arrangement, accessibility and security of the release mechanisms required for egress shall be such that with the minimum available staff at any time, the lock mechanisms are capable of being released within 2 minutes.

    Exception: Provisions for remote locking and unlocking of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not required provided that not more than 10 locks are necessary to be unlocked in order to move occupants from one smoke compartment to a refuge area within 3 minutes. The opening of necessary locks shall be accomplished with not more than two separate keys.

    [F]408.4.2Power-operated doors and locks.

    Poweroperated sliding doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors shall be operable by a manual release mechanism at the door. Emergency power shall be provided for the doors and locks in accordance with Section 2702.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Emergency power is not required in facilities with 10 or fewer locks complying with the exception to Section 408.4.1.

    2. 2.Emergency power is not required where remote mechanical operating releases are provided.

    408.4.3Redundant operation.

    Remote release, mechanically operated sliding doors or remote release, mechanically operated locks shall be provided with a mechanically operated release mechanism at each door, or shall be provided with a redundant remote release control.

    408.4.4Relock capability.

    Doors remotely unlocked under emergency conditions shall not automatically relock when closed unless specific action is taken at the remote location to enable doors to relock.

    408.5Protection of vertical openings.

    Any vertical opening shall be protected by a shaft enclosure in accordance with Section 713, or shall be in accordance with Section 408.5.1.

    408.5.1Floor openings.

    Openings in floors within a housing unit are permitted without a shaft enclosure, provided all of the following conditions are met:

    1. 1.The entire normally occupied areas so interconnected are open and unobstructed so as to enable observation of the areas by supervisory personnel;

    2. 2.Means of egress capacity is sufficient for all occupants from all interconnected cell tiers and areas;

    3. 3.The height difference between the floor levels of the highest and lowest cell tiers shall not exceed 23 feet (7010 mm); and

    4. 4.Egress from any portion of the cell tier to an exit or exit access door shall not require travel on more than one additional floor level within the housing unit.

    408.5.2Shaft openings in communicating floor levels.

    Where a floor opening is permitted between communicating floor levels of a housing unit in accordance with Section 408.5.1, plumbing chases serving vertically staked individual cells contained with the housing unit shall be permitted without a shaft enclosure.

    408.6Smoke barrier.

    Occupancies in Group I-3 shall have smoke barriers complying with Sections 408.7 and 709 to divide every story occupied by residents for sleeping, or any other story having an occupant load of 50 or more persons, into no fewer than two smoke compartments.

    Exception: Spaces having a direct exit to one of the following, provided that the locking arrangement of the doors involved complies with the requirements for doors at the smoke barrier for the use condition involved:

    1. 1.A public way.

    2. 2.A building separated from the resident housing area by a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly or 50 feet (15 240 mm) of open space.

    3. 3.A secured yard or court having a holding space 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the housing area that provides 6 square feet (0.56 m2) or more of refuge area per occupant, including residents, staff and visitors.

    408.6.1Smoke compartments.

    The number of residents in any smoke compartment shall be not more than 200. The distance of travel to a door in a smoke barrier from any room door required as exit access shall be not greater than 150 feet (45 720 mm). The distance of travel to a door in a smoke barrier from any point in a room shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm).

    408.6.2Refuge area.

    Not less than 6 net square feet (0.56 m2) per occupant shall be provided on each side of each smoke barrier for the total number of occupants in adjoining smoke compartments. This space shall be readily available wherever the occupants are moved across the smoke barrier in a fire emergency.

    408.6.3Independent egress.

    A means of egress shall be provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke barriers without having to return through the smoke compartment from which means of egress originates.

    408.7Security glazing.

    In occupancies in Group I-3, windows and doors in 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707, fire partitions constructed in accordance with Section 708 and smoke barriers constructed in accordance with Section 709 shall be permitted to have security glazing installed provided that the following conditions are met.

    1. 1.Individual panels of glazing shall not exceed 1,296 square inches (0.84 m2).

    2. 2.The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an automatic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system shall be designed to, when actuated, wet completely the entire surface of any glazing affected by fire.

    3. 3.The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in such a manner that the framing system will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates.

    4. 4.Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse rods, curtains, drapes or similar materials shall not be installed between the automatic sprinklers and the glazing.

    408.8Subdivision of resident housing areas.

    Sleeping areas and any contiguous day room, group activity space or other common spaces where residents are housed shall be separated from other spaces in accordance with Sections 408.8.1 through 408.8.4.

    408.8.1Occupancy Conditions 3 and 4.

    Each sleeping area in Occupancy Conditions 3 and 4 shall be separated from the adjacent common spaces by a smoke-tight partition where the distance of travel from the sleeping area through the common space to the corridor exceeds 50 feet (15 240 mm).

    408.8.2Occupancy Condition 5.

    Each sleeping area in Occupancy Condition 5 shall be separated from adjacent sleeping areas, corridors and common spaces by a smoketight partition. Additionally, common spaces shall be separated from the corridor by a smoke-tight partition.

    408.8.3Openings in room face.

    The aggregate area of openings in a solid sleeping room face in Occupancy Conditions 2, 3, 4 and 5 shall not exceed 120 square inches (0.77 m2). The aggregate area shall include all openings including door undercuts, food passes and grilles. Openings shall be not more than 36 inches (914 mm) above the floor. In Occupancy Condition 5, the openings shall be closeable from the room side.

    408.8.4Smoke-tight doors.

    Doors in openings in partitions required to be smoke tight by Section 408.8 shall be substantial doors, of construction that will resist the passage of smoke. Latches and door closures are not required on cell doors.

    408.9Windowless buildings.

    For the purposes of this section, a windowless building or portion of a building is one with nonopenable windows, windows not readily breakable or without windows. Windowless buildings shall be provided with an engineered smoke control system to provide a tenable environment for exiting from the smoke compartment in the area of fire origin in accordance with Section 909 for each windowless smoke compartment.

    [F]408.10Fire alarm system.

    A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.6.3.

    [F]408.11Automatic sprinkler system.

    Group I-3 occupancies shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.6.

    SECTION409
    MOTION PICTURE PROJECTION ROOMS

    409.1General.

    The provisions of Sections 409.1 through 409.5 shall apply to rooms in which ribbon-type cellulose acetate or other safety film is utilized in conjunction with electric arc, xenon or other light-source projection equipment that develops hazardous gases, dust or radiation. Where cellulose nitrate film is utilized or stored, such rooms shall comply with NFPA 40.

    409.1.1Projection room required.

    Every motion picture machine projecting film as mentioned within the scope of this section shall be enclosed in a projection room. Appurtenant electrical equipment, such as rheostats, transformers and generators, shall be within the projection room or in an adjacent room of equivalent construction.

    409.2Construction of projection rooms.

    Every projection room shall be of permanent construction consistent with the construction requirements for the type of building in which the projection room is located. Openings are not required to be protected.

    The room shall have a floor area of not less than 80 square feet (7.44 m2) for a single machine and not less than 40 square feet (3.7 m2) for each additional machine. Each motion picture projector, floodlight, spotlight or similar piece of equipment shall have a clear working space of not less than 30 inches by 30 inches (762 mm by 762 mm) on each side and at the rear thereof, but only one such space shall be required between two adjacent projectors. The projection room and the rooms appurtenant thereto shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm). The aggregate of openings for projection equipment shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the wall between the projection room and the auditorium. Openings shall be provided with glass or other approved material, so as to close completely the opening.

    409.3Projection room and equipment ventilation.

    Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with the Florida Building Code, Mechanical.

    409.3.1Supply air.

    Each projection room shall be provided with adequate air supply inlets so arranged as to provide well-distributed air throughout the room. Air inlet ducts shall provide an amount of air equivalent to the amount of air being exhausted by projection equipment. Air is permitted to be taken from the outside; from adjacent spaces within the building, provided the volume and infiltration rate is sufficient; or from the building air-conditioning system, provided it is so arranged as to provide sufficient air when other systems are not in operation.

    409.3.2Exhaust air.

    Projection rooms are permitted to be exhausted through the lamp exhaust system. The lamp exhaust system shall be positively interconnected with the lamp so that the lamp will not operate unless there is the required airflow. Exhaust air ducts shall terminate at the exterior of the building in such a location that the exhaust air cannot be readily recirculated into any air supply system. The projection room ventilation system is permitted to also serve appurtenant rooms, such as the generator and rewind rooms.

    409.3.3Projection machines.

    Each projection machine shall be provided with an exhaust duct that will draw air from each lamp and exhaust it directly to the outside of the building. The lamp exhaust is permitted to serve to exhaust air from the projection room to provide room air circulation. Such ducts shall be of rigid materials, except for a flexible connector approved for the purpose. The projection lamp or projection room exhaust system, or both, is permitted to be combined but shall not be interconnected with any other exhaust or return system, or both, within the building.

    409.4Lighting control.

    Provisions shall be made for control of the auditorium lighting and the means of egress lighting systems of theaters from inside the projection room and from not less than one other convenient point in the building.

    409.5Miscellaneous equipment.

    Each projection room shall be provided with rewind and film storage facilities.

    SECTION410
    STAGES, PLATFORMS AND
    TECHNICAL PRODUCTION AREAS

    410.1Applicability.

    The provisions of Sections 410.1 through 410.8 shall apply to all parts of buildings and structures that contain stages or platforms and similar appurtenances as herein defined.

    410.2Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    PLATFORM.

    PROSCENIUM WALL.

    STAGE.

    TECHNICAL PRODUCTION AREA.

    410.3Stages.

    Stage construction shall comply with Sections 410.3.1 through 410.3.7.

    410.3.1Stage construction.

    Stages shall be constructed of materials as required for floors for the type of construction of the building in which such stages are located.

    Exception: Stages need not be constructed of the same materials as required for the type of construction provided the construction complies with one of the following:

    1. 1.Stages of Type IIB or IV construction with a nominal 2-inch (51 mm) wood deck, provided that the stage is separated from other areas in accordance with Section 410.3.4.

    2. 2.In buildings of Type IIA, IIIA and VA construction, a fire-resistance-rated floor is not required, provided the space below the stage is equipped with an automatic sprinkler system or fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 903 or 904.

    3. 3.In all types of construction, the finished floor shall be constructed of wood or approved noncombustible materials. Openings through stage floors shall be equipped with tight-fitting, solid wood trap doors with approved safety locks.

    410.3.1.1Stage height and area.

    Stage areas shall be measured to include the entire performance area and adjacent backstage and support areas not separated from the performance area by fire-resistance-rated construction. Stage height shall be measured from the lowest point on the stage floor to the highest point of the roof or floor deck above the stage.

    410.3.2 Technical production areas: galleries, gridirons and catwalks.

    Beams designed only for the attachment of portable or fixed theater equipment, gridirons, galleries and catwalks shall be constructed of approved materials consistent with the requirements for the type of construction of the building; and a fire-resistance rating shall not be required. These areas shall not be considered to be floors, stories, mezzanines or levels in applying this code.

    Exception: Floors of fly galleries and catwalks shall be constructed of any approved material.

    410.3.3Exterior stage doors.

    Where protection of openings is required, exterior exit doors shall be protected with fire door assemblies that comply with Section 716. Exterior openings that are located on the stage for means of egress or loading and unloading purposes, and that are likely to be open during occupancy of the theater, shall be constructed with vestibules to prevent air drafts into the auditorium.

    410.3.4Proscenium wall.

    Where the stage height is greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm), all portions of the stage shall be completely separated from the seating area by a proscenium wall with not less than a 2-hour fire-resistance rating extending continuously from the foundation to the roof.

    410.3.5Proscenium curtain.

    Where a proscenium wall is required to have a fire-resistance rating, the stage opening shall be provided with a fire curtain complying with NFPA 80, horizontal sliding doors complying with Section 716.5.2 having a fire protection rating of at least 1 hour, or an approved water curtain complying with Section 903.3.1.1 or, in facilities not utilizing the provisions of smoke-protected assembly seating in accordance with Section 1029.6.2, a smoke control system complying with Section 909 or natural ventilation designed to maintain the smoke level not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the floor of the means of egress.

    410.3.6Scenery.

    Combustible materials used in sets and scenery shall meet the fire propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701, in accordance with Section 806 and the Florida Fire Prevention Code. Foam plastics and materials containing foam plastics shall comply with Section 2603 and the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    410.3.7Stage ventilation.

    Emergency ventilation shall be provided for stages larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) in floor area, or with a stage height greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm). Such ventilation shall comply with Section 410.3.7.1 or 410.3.7.2.

    410.3.7.1Roof vents.

    Two or more vents constructed to open automatically by approved heat-activated devices and with an aggregate clear opening area of not less than 5 percent of the area of the stage shall be located near the center and above the highest part of the stage area. Supplemental means shall be provided for manual operation of the ventilator. Curbs shall be provided as required for skylights in Section 2610.2. Vents shall be labeled.

    [F]410.3.7.2Smoke control.

    Smoke control in accordance with Section 909 shall be provided to maintain the smoke layer interface not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the highest level of the assembly seating or above the top of the proscenium opening where a proscenium wall is provided in compliance with Section 410.3.4.

    410.4Platform construction.

    Permanent platforms shall be constructed of materials as required for the type of construction of the building in which the permanent platform is located. Permanent platforms are permitted to be constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood for Types I, II and IV construction where the platforms are not more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the main floor, and not more than one-third of the room floor area and not more than 3,000 square feet (279 m2) in area. Where the space beneath the permanent platform is used for storage or any purpose other than equipment, wiring or plumbing, the floor assembly shall be not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Where the space beneath the permanent platform is used only for equipment, wiring or plumbing, the underside of the permanent platform need not be protected.

    410.4.1Temporary platforms.

    Platforms installed for a period of not more than 30 days are permitted to be constructed of any materials permitted by this code. The space between the floor and the platform above shall only be used for plumbing and electrical wiring to platform equipment.

    410.5Dressing and appurtenant rooms.

    Dressing and appurtenant rooms shall comply with Sections 410.5.1 and 410.5.2.

    410.5.1Separation from stage.

    The stage shall be separated from dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, workshops, storerooms and compartments appurtenant to the stage and other parts of the building by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. The fire-resistance rating shall be not less than 2 hours for stage heights greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) and not less than 1 hour for stage heights of 50 feet (15 240 mm) or less.

    410.5.2Separation from each other.

    Dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, workshops, storerooms and compartments appurtenant to the stage shall be separated from each other by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

    410.6Means of egress.

    Except as modified or as provided for in this section, the provisions of Chapter 10 shall apply.

    410.6.1Arrangement.

    Where two or more exits or exit access doorways from the stage are required in accordance with Section 1006.2, no fewer than one exit or exit access doorway shall be provided on each side of a stage.

    410.6.2Stairway and ramp enclosure.

    Exit access stairways and ramps serving a stage or platform are not required to be enclosed. Exit access stairways and ramps serving technical production areas are not required to be enclosed.

    410.6.3Technical production areas.

    Technical production areas shall be provided with means of egress and means of escape in accordance with Sections 410.6.3.1 through 410.6.3.5.

    410.6.3.1Number of means of egress.

    No fewer than one means of egress shall be provided from technical production areas.

    410.6.3.2Exit access travel distance.

    The exit access travel distance shall be not greater than 300 feet (91 440 mm) for buildings without a sprinkler system and 400 feet (121 900 mm) for buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    410.6.3.3Two means of egress.

    Where two means of egress are required, the common path of travel shall be not greater than 100 feet (30 480 mm).

    Exception: A means of escape to a roof in place of a second means of egress is permitted.

    410.6.3.4Path of egress travel.

    The following exit access components are permitted where serving technical production areas:

    1. 1.Stairways.

    2. 2.Ramps.

    3. 3.Spiral stairways.

    4. 4.Catwalks.

    5. 5.Alternating tread devices.

    6. 6.Permanent ladders.

    410.6.3.5Width.

    The path of egress travel within and from technical support areas shall be not less than 22 inches (559 mm).

    [F]410.7Automatic sprinkler system.

    Stages shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Sprinklers shall be installed under the roof and gridiron and under all catwalks and galleries over the stage. Sprinklers shall be installed in dressing rooms, performer lounges, shops and storerooms accessory to such stages.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Sprinklers are not required under stage areas less than 4 feet (1219 mm) in clear height that are utilized exclusively for storage of tables and chairs, provided the concealed space is separated from the adjacent spaces by Type X gypsum board not less than 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) in thickness.

    2. 2.Sprinklers are not required for stages 1,000 square feet (93 m2) or less in area and 50 feet (15 240 mm) or less in height where curtains, scenery or other combustible hangings are not retractable vertically. Combustible hangings shall be limited to a single main curtain, borders, legs and a single backdrop.

    3. 3.Sprinklers are not required within portable orchestra enclosures on stages.

    [F]410.8Standpipes.

    Standpipe systems shall be provided in accordance with Section 905.

    SECTION411
    SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDINGS

    411.1General.

    Special amusement buildings having an occupant load of 50 or more shall comply with the requirements for the appropriate Group A occupancy and Sections 411.1 through 411.8. Special amusement buildings having an occupant load of less than 50 shall comply with the requirements for a Group B occupancy and Sections 411.1 through 411.8.

    Exception: Special amusement buildings or portions thereof that are without walls or a roof and constructed to prevent the accumulation of smoke need not comply with this section.

    For flammable decorative materials, see the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    411.2Definition.

    The following term is defined in Chapter 2:

    SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING.

    [F]411.3Automatic fire detection.

    Special amusement buildings shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.

    [F]411.4Automatic sprinkler system.

    Special amusement buildings shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where the special amusement building is temporary, the sprinkler water supply shall be of an approved temporary means.

    Exception: Automatic sprinklers are not required where the total floor area of a temporary special amusement building is less than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) and the exit access travel distance from any point to an exit is less than 50 feet (15 240 mm).

    [F]411.5Alarm.

    Actuation of a single smoke detector, the automatic sprinkler system or other automatic fire detection device shall immediately sound an alarm at the building at a constantly attended location from which emergency action can be initiated including the capability of manual initiation of requirements in Section 907.2.12.2.

    [F]411.6Emergency voice/alarm communications system.

    An emergency voice/alarm communications system shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.2.12 and 907.5.2.2, which is also permitted to serve as a public address system and shall be audible throughout the entire special amusement building.

    411.7Exit marking.

    Exit signs shall be installed at the required exit or exit access doorways of amusement buildings in accordance with this section and Section 1013. Approved directional exit markings shall also be provided. Where mirrors, mazes or other designs are utilized that disguise the path of egress travel such that they are not apparent, approved and listed low-level exit signs that comply with Section 1013.5, and directional path markings listed in accordance with UL 1994, shall be provided and located not more than 8 inches (203 mm) above the walking surface and on or near the path of egress travel. Such markings shall become visible in an emergency. The directional exit marking shall be activated by the automatic fire detection system and the automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2.

    411.7.1Photoluminescent exit signs.

    Where photoluminescent exit signs are installed, activating light source and viewing distance shall be in accordance with the listing and markings of the signs.

    411.8Interior finish.

    The interior finish shall be Class A in accordance with Section 803.1.

    SECTION412
    AIRCRAFT-RELATED OCCUPANCIES

    412.1General.

    Aircraft-related occupancies shall comply with Sections 412.1 through 412.8 and the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    412.2Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO).

    HELIPORT.

    HELISTOP.

    RESIDENTIAL AIRCRAFT HANGAR.

    TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT.

    412.3Airport traffic control towers.

    The provisions of Sections 412.3.1 through 412.3.8 shall apply to airport traffic control towers occupied only for the following uses:

    1. 1.Airport traffic control cab.

    2. 2.Electrical and mechanical equipment rooms.

    3. 3.Airport terminal radar and electronics rooms.

    4. 4.Office spaces incidental to the tower operation.

    5. 5.Lounges for employees, including sanitary facilities.

    412.3.1Type of construction.

    Airport traffic control towers shall be constructed to comply with the height limitations of Table 412.3.1.

    TABLE 412.3.1

    HEIGHT LIMITATIONS FOR AIRPORT TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWERS

    TYPE OF CONSTRUCTIONHEIGHTa (feet)
    IAUnlimited
    IB240
    IIA100
    IIB85
    IIIA65

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.

    1. a.Height to be measured from grade plane to cab floor.

    412.3.2Stairways.

    Stairways in airport traffic control towers shall be in accordance with Section 1011. Stairways shall be smokeproof enclosures complying with one of the alternatives provided in Section 909.20.

    Exception: Stairways in airport traffic control towers are not required to comply with Section 1011.12.

    412.3.3Exit access.

    From observation levels, airport traffic control towers shall be permitted to have a single means of exit access for a distance of travel not greater than 100 feet (30 480 mm). Exit access stairways from the observation level need not be enclosed.

    412.3.4Number of exits.

    Not less than one exit stairway shall be permitted for airport traffic control towers of any height provided that the occupant load per floor is not greater than 15 and the area per floor does not exceed 1,500 square feet (140 m2).

    412.3.4.1Interior finish.

    Where an airport traffic control tower is provided with only one exit stairway, interior wall and ceiling finishes shall be either Class A or Class B.

    [F]412.3.5Automatic fire detection systems.

    Airport traffic control towers shall be provided with an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.2.

    412.3.6Automatic sprinkler system.

    Where an occupied floor is located more than 35 feet (10 668 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, airport traffic control towers shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    412.3.7Elevator protection.

    Wires or cables that provide normal or standby power, control signals, communication with the car, lighting, heating, air conditioning, ventilation and fire detecting systems to elevators shall be protected by construction having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour, or shall be circuit integrity cable having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour.

    412.3.7.1Elevators for occupant evacuation.

    Where provided in addition to an exit stairway, occupant evacuation elevators shall be in accordance with Section 3008.

    412.3.8Accessibility.

    Airport traffic control towers need not be accessible as specified in the provisions of Chapter 11.

    412.4Aircraft hangars.

    Aircraft hangars shall be in accordance with Sections 412.4.1 through 412.4.6.

    412.4.1Exterior walls.

    Exterior walls located less than 30 feet (9144 mm) from lot lines or a public way shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than 2 hours.

    412.4.2Basements.

    Where hangars have basements, floors over basements shall be of Type IA construction and shall be made tight against seepage of water, oil or vapors. There shall be no opening or communication between basements and the hangar. Access to basements shall be from outside only.

    412.4.3Floor surface.

    Floors shall be graded and drained to prevent water or fuel from remaining on the floor. Floor drains shall discharge through an oil separator to the sewer or to an outside vented sump.

    Exception: Aircraft hangars with individual lease spaces not exceeding 2,000 square feet (186 m2) each in which servicing, repairing or washing is not conducted and fuel is not dispensed shall have floors that are graded toward the door, but shall not require a separator.

    412.4.4Heating equipment.

    Heating equipment shall be placed in another room separated by 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. Entrance shall be from the outside or by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separation.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Unit heaters and vented infrared radiant heating equipment suspended not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) above the upper surface of wings or engine enclosures of the highest aircraft that are permitted to be housed in the hangar need not be located in a separate room provided they are mounted not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) above the floor in shops, offices and other sections of the hangar communicating with storage or service areas.

    2. 2.Entrance to the separated room shall be permitted by a single interior door provided the sources of ignition in the appliances are not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor.

    412.4.5Finishing.

    The process of “doping,” involving use of a volatile flammable solvent, or of painting, shall be carried on in a separate detached building equipped with automatic fire-extinguishing equipment in accordance with Section 903.

    [F]412.4.6Fire suppression.

    Aircraft hangars shall be provided with a fire suppression system designed in accordance with NFPA 409, based upon the classification for the hangar given in Table 412.4.6.

    Exception: Where a fixed base operator has separate repair facilities on site, Group II hangars operated by a fixed base operator used for storage of transient aircraft only shall have a fire suppression system, but the system is exempt from foam requirements.

    [F] TABLE 412.4.6

    HANGAR FIRE SUPPRESSION REQUIREMENTSa,b,c

    MAXIMUM SINGLEFIRE AREA (square feet)TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION
    IAIBIIAIIBIIIAIIIBIVVAVB
    ≥ 40,001Group IGroup IGroup IGroup IGroup IGroup IGroup IGroup IGroup I
    40,000Group IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup II
    30,000Group IIIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup II
    20,000Group IIIGroup IIIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup II
    15,000Group IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIGroup IIIGroup IIGroup IIIGroup IIGroup II
    12,000Group IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIGroup II
    8,000Group IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup II
    5,000Group IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup III

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.

    1. a.Aircraft hangars with a door height greater than 28 feet shall be provided with fire suppression for a Group I hangar regardless of maximum fire area.

    2. b.Groups shall be as classified in accordance with NFPA 409.

    3. c.Membrane structures complying with Section 3102 shall be classified as a Group IV hangar.

    [F]412.4.6.1Hazardous operations.

    Any Group III aircraft hangar according to Table 412.4.6 that contains hazardous operations including, but not limited to, the following shall be provided with a Group I or II fire suppression system in accordance with NFPA 409 as applicable:

    1. 1.Doping.

    2. 2.Hot work including, but not limited to, welding, torch cutting and torch soldering.

    3. 3.Fuel transfer.

    4. 4.Fuel tank repair or maintenance not including defueled tanks in accordance with NFPA 409, inerted tanks or tanks that have never been fueled.

    5. 5.Spray finishing operations.

    6. 6.Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the unsprinklered single fire area in excess of 1,600 gallons (6057 L).

    7. 7.Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the maximum single fire area in excess of 7,500 gallons (28 390 L) for a hangar with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    [F]412.4.6.2Separation of maximum single fire areas.

    Maximum single fire areas established in accordance with hangar classification and construction type in Table 412.4.6 shall be separated by 2-hour fire walls constructed in accordance with Section 706. In determining the maximum single fire area as set forth in Table 412.4.6, ancillary uses that are separated from aircraft servicing areas by a fire barrier of not less than 1 hour, constructed in accordance with Section 707, shall not be included in the area.

    412.5Residential aircraft hangars.

    Residential aircraft hangars shall comply with Sections 412.5.1 through 412.5.5.

    412.5.1Fire separation.

    A hangar shall not be attached to a dwelling unless separated by a fire barrier having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Such separation shall be continuous from the foundation to the underside of the roof and unpierced except for doors leading to the dwelling unit. Doors into the dwelling unit shall be equipped with self-closing devices and conform to the requirements of Section 716 with a noncombustible raised sill not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in height. Openings from a hangar directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted.

    412.5.2Egress.

    A hangar shall provide two means of egress. One of the doors into the dwelling shall be considered as meeting only one of the two means of egress.

    [F]412.5.3Smoke alarms.

    Smoke alarms shall be provided within the hangar in accordance with Section 907.2.21.

    412.5.4Independent systems.

    Electrical, mechanical and plumbing drain, waste and vent (DWV) systems installed within the hangar shall be independent of the systems installed within the dwelling. Building sewer lines shall be permitted to be connected outside the structures.

    Exception:Smoke detector wiring and feed for electrical subpanels in the hangar.

    412.5.5Height and area limits.

    Residential aircraft hangars shall be not greater than 2,000 square feet (186 m2) in area and 20 feet (6096 mm) in building height.

    [F]412.6Aircraft paint hangars.

    Aircraft painting operations where flammable liquids are used in excess of the maximum allowable quantities per control area listed in Table 307.1(1) shall be conducted in an aircraft paint hangar that complies with the provisions of Sections 412.6.1 through 412.6.6.

    [F]412.6.1Occupancy group.

    Aircraft paint hangars shall be classified as Group H-2. Aircraft paint hangars shall comply with the applicable requirements of this code and the Florida Fire Prevention Code for such occupancy.

    412.6.2Construction.

    The aircraft paint hangar shall be of Type I or II construction.

    [F]412.6.3Operations.

    Only those flammable liquids necessary for painting operations shall be permitted in quantities less than the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Table 307.1(1). Spray equipment cleaning operations shall be conducted in a liquid use, dispensing and mixing room.

    [F]412.6.4Storage.

    Storage of flammable liquids shall be in a liquid storage room.

    [F]412.6.5Fire suppression.

    Aircraft paint hangars shall be provided with fire suppression as required by NFPA 409.

    [F]412.6.6Ventilation.

    Aircraft paint hangars shall be provided with ventilation as required in the Florida Building Code, Mechanical.

    412.7Aircraft manufacturing facilities.

    In buildings used for the manufacturing of aircraft, exit access travel distances indicated in Section 1017.1 shall be increased in accordance with the following:

    1. 1.The building shall be of Type I or II construction.

    2. 2.Exit access travel distance shall not exceed the distances given in Table 412.7.

    TABLE 412.7

    AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURING EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCE

    HEIGHT (feet) bMANUFACTURING AREA (sq. ft.) a
    ≥ 150,000≥ 200,000≥ 250,000≥ 500,000≥ 750,000≥ 1,000,000
    ≥ 25400450500500500500
    ≥ 50400500600700700700
    ≥ 754005007008501,0001,000
    ≥ 1004005007501,0001,2501,500

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    1. a.Contiguous floor area of the aircraft manufacturing facility having the indicated height.

    2. b.Minimum height from finished floor to bottom of ceiling or roof slab or deck.

    412.7.1Ancillary areas.

    Rooms, areas and spaces ancillary to the primary manufacturing area shall be permitted to egress through such area having a minimum height as indicated in Table 412.7. Exit access travel distance within the ancillary room, area or space shall not exceed that indicated in Table 1017.2 based on the occupancy classification of that ancillary area. Total exit access travel distance shall not exceed that indicated in Table 412.7.

    [F]412.8Heliports and helistops.

    Heliports and helistops shall be permitted to be erected on buildings or other locations where they are constructed in accordance with Sections 412.8.1 through 412.8.5.

    [F]412.8.1Size.

    The landing area for helicopters less than 3,500 pounds (1588 kg) shall be not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) in length and width. The landing area shall be surrounded on all sides by a clear area having a minimum average width at roof level of 15 feet (4572 mm) but with no width less than 5 feet (1524 mm).

    [F]412.8.2Design.

    Helicopter landing areas and the supports thereof on the roof of a building shall be noncombustible construction. Landing areas shall be designed to confine any flammable liquid spillage to the landing area itself and provisions shall be made to drain such spillage away from any exit or stairway serving the helicopter landing area or from a structure housing such exit or stairway. For structural design requirements, see Section 1607.6.

    [F]412.8.3Means of egress.

    The means of egress from heliports and helistops shall comply with the provisions of Chapter 10. Landing areas located on buildings or structures shall have two or more means of egress. For landing areas less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in length or less than 2,000 square feet (186 m2) in area, the second means of egress is permitted to be a fire escape, alternating tread device or ladder leading to the floor below.

    [F]412.8.4Rooftop heliports and helistops.

    Rooftop heliports and helistops shall comply with NFPA 418.

    [F]412.8.5Standpipe system.

    In buildings equipped with a standpipe system, the standpipe shall extend to the roof level in accordance with Section 905.3.6.

    SECTION413
    COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE

    413.1General.

    High-piled stock or rack storage in any occupancy group shall comply with the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    413.2Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces.

    Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces used for storage of combustible materials shall be protected on the storage side as required for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Openings shall be protected by assemblies that are self-closing and are of noncombustible construction or solid wood core not less than 13/4 inch (45 mm) in thickness.

    Exception: Neither fire-resistance-rated construction nor opening protectives are required in any of the following locations:

    1. 1.Areas protected by approved automatic sprinkler systems.

    2. 2.Group R-3 and U occupancies.

    SECTION414
    HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

    [F]414.1General.

    The provisions of Sections 414.1 through 414.6 shall apply to buildings and structures occupied for the manufacturing, processing, dispensing, use or storage of hazardous materials.

    [F]414.1.1Other provisions.

    Buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group H shall comply with this section and the applicable provisions of Section 415 and the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]414.1.2Materials.

    The safe design of hazardous material occupancies is material dependent. Individual material requirements are also found in Sections 307 and 415, and in the Florida Building Code, Mechanical and the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]414.1.2.1Aerosols.

    Level 2 and 3 aerosol products shall be stored and displayed in accordance with the Florida Fire Prevention Code. See Section 311.2 and the Florida Fire Prevention Code for occupancy group requirements.

    [F]414.1.3Information required.

    A report shall be submitted to the building official identifying the maximum expected quantities of hazardous materials to be stored, used in a closed system and used in an open system, and subdivided to separately address hazardous material classification categories based on Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2). The methods of protection from such hazards, including but not limited to control areas, fire protection systems and Group H occupancies shall be indicated in the report and on the construction documents. The opinion and report shall be prepared by a qualified person, firm or corporation approved by the building official and provided without charge to the enforcing agency.

    For buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group H, separate floor plans shall be submitted identifying the locations of anticipated contents and processes so as to reflect the nature of each occupied portion of every building and structure.

    [F]414.2Control areas.

    Control areas shall comply with Sections 414.2.1 through 414.2.5 and the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]414.2.1Construction requirements.

    Control areas shall be separated from each other by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

    [F]414.2.2Percentage of maximum allowable quantities.

    The percentage of maximum allowable quantities of hazardous materials per control area permitted at each floor level within a building shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2.

    [F] TABLE 414.2.2

    DESIGN AND NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS

    FLOOR LEVELPERCENTAGE OF THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLEQUANTITY PER CONTROL AREAaNUMBER OF CONTROL AREASPER FLOORFIRE-RESISTANCE RATING FORFIRE BARRIERS IN HOURSb
    Above grade planeHigher than 9512
    7-9522
    612.522
    512.522
    412.522
    35021
    27531
    110041
    Below grade plane17531
    25021
    Lower than 2Not AllowedNot AllowedNot Allowed
    1. a.Percentages shall be of the maximum allowable quantity per control area shown in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2), with all increases allowed in the notes to those tables.

    2. b.Separation shall include fire barriers and horizontal assemblies as necessary to provide separation from other portions of the building.

    [F]414.2.3Number.

    The maximum number of control areas within a building shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2.

    [F]414.2.4Fire-resistance-rating requirements.

    The required fire-resistance rating for fire barriers shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2. The floor assembly of the control area and the construction supporting the floor of the control area shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.

    Exception: The floor assembly of the control area and the construction supporting the floor of the control area are allowed to be 1-hour fire-resistance rated in buildings of Types IIA, IIIA and VA construction, provided that both of the following conditions exist:

    1. 1.The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1; and

    2. 2.The building is three or fewer stories above grade plane.

    [F]414.2.5Hazardous material in Group M display and storage areas and in Group S storage areas.

    The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials permitted within a single control area of a Group M display and storage area, a Group S storage area or an outdoor control area is permitted to exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area specified in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2) without classifying the building or use as a Group H occupancy, provided that the materials are displayed and stored in accordance with the Florida Fire Prevention Code and quantities do not exceed the maximum allowable specified in Table 414.2.5(1).

    In Group M occupancy wholesale and retail sales uses, indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area as indicated in Table 414.2.5(2), provided that the materials are displayed and stored in accordance with the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    The maximum quantity of aerosol products in Group M occupancy retail display areas, storage areas adjacent to retail display areas and retail storage areas shall be in accordance with the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F] TABLE 414.2.5(1)

    MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER INDOOR AND OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA IN GROUP M AND S OCCUPANCIES NONFLAMMABLE SOLIDS AND NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDSd,e,f

    CONDITIONMAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA
    MaterialaClassSolids poundsLiquids gallons
    A. Health-hazard materials—nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids
    1. Corrosivesb,cNot Applicable9,750975
    2. Highly toxicsNot Applicable20b,c2b,c
    3. Toxicsb,cNot Applicable1,000100
    B. Physical-hazard materials—nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids
    1. Oxidizersb,c4Not AllowedNot Allowed
    31,150g115
    22,250h225
    118,000 i, j1,800 i, j
    2. Unstable (reactives)b,c4Not AllowedNot Allowed
    355055
    21,150115
    1Not LimitedNot Limited
    3. Water reactives3b,c55055
    2b,c1,150115
    1Not LimitedNot Limited

    For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

    1. a.Hazard categories are as specified in the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    2. b.Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings that are sprinklered in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. When Note c also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.

    3. c.Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, in accordance with the Florida Fire Prevention Code. When Note b also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.

    4. d.See Table 414.2.2 for design and number of control areas.

    5. e.Allowable quantities for other hazardous material categories shall be in accordance with Section 307.

    6. f.Maximum quantities shall be increased 100 percent in outdoor control areas.

    7. g.Maximum amounts shall be increased to 2,250 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.

    8. h.Maximum amounts shall be increased to 4,500 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.

    9. i.The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    10. j.Quantities are unlimited in an outdoor control area.

    [F] TABLE 414.2.5(2)

    MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY OF FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL SALES OCCUPANCIES PER CONTROL AREAa

    TYPE OF LIQUIDMAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA (gallons)
    Sprinklered in accordance with note b densities and arrangementsSprinklered in accordance with theFlorida Fire Prevention CodeNonsprinklered
    Class IA606030
    Class IB, IC, II and IIIA7,500c15,000c1,600
    Class IIIBUnlimitedUnlimited13,200

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2.

    1. a.Control areas shall be separated from each other by not less than a 1-hour fire barrier wall.

    2. b.To be considered as sprinklered, a building shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system with a design providing minimum densities as follows:

      1. 1.For uncartoned commodities on shelves 6 feet or less in height where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those permitted with a minimum sprinkler design density of Ordinary Hazard Group 2.

      2. 2.For cartoned, palletized or racked commodities where storage is 4 feet 6 inches or less in height and where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those permitted with a minimum sprinkler design density of 0.21 gallon per minute per square foot over the most remote 1,500-square-foot area.

    3. c.Where wholesale and retail sales or storage areas exceed 50,000 square feet in area, the maximum allowable quantities are allowed to be increased by 2 percent for each 1,000 square feet of area in excess of 50,000 square feet, up to a maximum of 100 percent of the table amounts. A control area separation is not required. The cumulative amounts, including amounts attained by having an additional control area, shall not exceed 30,000 gallons.

    [F]414.3Ventilation.

    Rooms, areas or spaces in which explosive, corrosive, combustible, flammable or highly toxic dusts, mists, fumes, vapors or gases are or may be emitted due to the processing, use, handling or storage of materials shall be mechanically ventilated where required by this code, the Florida Fire Prevention Code or the Florida Building Code, Mechanical.

    Emissions generated at workstations shall be confined to the area in which they are generated as specified in the Florida Fire Prevention Code and the Florida Building Code, Mechanical.

    [F]414.4Hazardous material systems.

    Systems involving hazardous materials shall be suitable for the intended application. Controls shall be designed to prevent materials from entering or leaving process or reaction systems at other than the intended time, rate or path. Automatic controls, where provided, shall be designed to be fail safe.

    [F]414.5Inside storage, dispensing and use.

    The inside storage, dispensing and use of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 414.5.1 through 414.5.3 of this code and the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]414.5.1Explosion control.

    Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with the Florida Fire Prevention Code as required by Table 414.5.1 where quantities of hazardous materials specified in that table exceed the maximum allowable quantities in Table 307.1(1) or where a structure, room or space is occupied for purposes involving explosion hazards as required by Section 415 or the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F] TABLE 414.5.1

    EXPLOSION CONTROL REQUIREMENTSa, h

    MATERIALCLASSEXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS
    Barricade constructionExplosion (deflagration) ventingor explosion (deflagration)prevention systemsb
    HAZARD CATEGORY
    Combustible dustscNot RequiredRequired
    Cryogenic flammablesNot RequiredRequired
    ExplosivesDivision 1.1RequiredNot Required
    Division 1.2RequiredNot Required
    Division 1.3Not RequiredRequired
    Division 1.4Not RequiredRequired
    Division 1.5RequiredNot Required
    Division 1.6RequiredNot Required
    Flammable gasGaseousNot RequiredRequired
    LiquefiedNot RequiredRequired
    Flammable liquidIAdNot RequiredRequired
    IBeNot RequiredRequired
    Organic peroxidesURequiredNot Permitted
    IRequiredNot Permitted
    Oxidizer liquids and solids4RequiredNot Permitted
    Pyrophoric gasNot RequiredRequired
    Unstable (reactive)4RequiredNot Permitted
    3 DetonableRequiredNot Permitted
    3 NondetonableNot RequiredRequired
    Water-reactive liquids and solids3Not RequiredRequired
    2gNot RequiredRequired
    SPECIAL USES
    Acetylene generator roomsNot RequiredRequired
    Grain processingNot RequiredRequired
    Liquefied petroleum gas-distribution facilitiesNot RequiredRequired
    Where explosion hazards existfDetonationRequiredNot Permitted
    DeflagrationNot RequiredRequired
    1. a.See Section 414.1.3.

    2. b.See the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    3. c.As generated during manufacturing or processing.

    4. d.Storage or use.

    5. e.In open use or dispensing.

    6. f.Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials when an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process.

    7. g.A method of explosion control shall be provided when Class 2 water-reactive materials can form potentially explosive mixtures.

    8. h.Explosion venting is not required for Group H-5 fabrication areas complying with Section 415.11.1 and the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]414.5.2Emergency or standby power.

    Where required by the Florida Fire Prevention Code or this code, mechanical ventilation, treatment systems, temperature control, alarm, detection or other electrically operated systems shall be provided with emergency or standby power in accordance with Section 2702. For storage and use areas for highly toxic or toxic materials, see the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]414.5.2.1Exempt applications.

    Emergency or standby power is not required for the mechanical ventilation systems provided for any of the following:

    1. 1.Storage of Class IB and IC flammable and combustible liquids in closed containers not exceeding 6.5 gallons (25 L) capacity.

    2. 2.Storage of Class 1 and 2 oxidizers.

    3. 3.Storage of Class II, III, IV and V organic peroxides.

    4. 4.Storage of asphyxiant, irritant and radioactive gases.

    [F]414.5.2.2Fail-safe engineered systems.

    Standby power for mechanical ventilation, treatment systems and temperature control systems shall not be required where an approved fail-safe engineered system is installed.

    [F]414.5.3Spill control, drainage and containment.

    Rooms, buildings or areas occupied for the storage of solid and liquid hazardous materials shall be provided with a means to control spillage and to contain or drain off spillage and fire protection water discharged in the storage area where required in the Florida Fire Prevention Code. The methods of spill control shall be in accordance with the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]414.6Outdoor storage, dispensing and use.

    The outdoor storage, dispensing and use of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]414.6.1Weather protection.

    Where weather protection is provided for sheltering outdoor hazardous material storage or use areas, such areas shall be considered outdoor storage or use when the weather protection structure complies with Sections 414.6.1.1 through 414.6.1.3.

    [F]414.6.1.1Walls.

    Walls shall not obstruct more than one side of the structure.

    Exception: Walls shall be permitted to obstruct portions of multiple sides of the structure, provided that the obstructed area is not greater than 25 percent of the structure’s perimeter.

    [F]414.6.1.2Separation distance.

    The distance from the structure to buildings, lot lines, public ways or means of egress to a public way shall be not less than the distance required for an outside hazardous material storage or use area without weather protection.

    [F]414.6.1.3Noncombustible construction.

    The overhead structure shall be of approved noncombustible construction with a maximum area of 1,500 square feet (140 m2).

    Exception: The maximum area is permitted to be increased as provided by Section 506.

    SECTION415
    GROUPS H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 AND H-5

    [F]415.1Scope.

    The provisions of Sections 415.1 through 415.11 shall apply to the storage and use of hazardous materials in excess of the maximum allowable quantities per control area listed in Section 307.1. Buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group H shall also comply with the applicable provisions of Section 414 and the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]415.2Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM.

    DETACHED BUILDING.

    EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION.

    EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE.

    FABRICATION AREA.

    FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES.

    GAS CABINET.

    GASROOM.

    HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM).

    HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID.

    HPM ROOM.

    IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH (IDLH).

    LIQUID.

    LIQUID STORAGE ROOM.

    LIQUID USE, DISPENSING AND MIXING ROOM.

    LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL).

    NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP).

    PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD LEVEL.

    SERVICE CORRIDOR.

    SOLID.

    STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS.

    USE (MATERIAL).

    WORKSTATION.

    [F]415.3Automatic fire detection systems.

    Group H occupancies shall be provided with an automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2.

    [F]415.4Automatic sprinkler system.

    Group H occupancies shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.5.

    [F]415.5Emergency alarms.

    Emergency alarms for the detection and notification of an emergency condition in Group H occupancies shall be provided as set forth herein.

    [F]415.5.1Storage.

    An approved manual emergency alarm system shall be provided in buildings, rooms or areas used for storage of hazardous materials. Emergency alarm-initiating devices shall be installed outside of each interior exit or exit access door of storage buildings, rooms or areas. Activation of an emergency alarm-initiating device shall sound a local alarm to alert occupants of an emergency situation involving hazardous materials.

    [F]415.5.2Dispensing, use and handling.

    Where hazardous materials having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 are transported through corridors, interior exit stairways or ramps, or exit passageways, there shall be an emergency telephone system, a local manual alarm station or an approved alarm-initiating device at not more than 150-foot (45 720 mm) intervals and at each exit and exit access doorway throughout the transport route. The signal shall be relayed to an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or constantly attended on-site location and shall initiate a local audible alarm.

    [F]415.5.3Supervision.

    Emergency alarm systems shall be supervised by an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or shall initiate an audible and visual signal at a constantly attended on-site location.

    [F]415.5.4Emergency alarm systems.

    Emergency alarm systems shall be provided with emergency power in accordance with Section 2702.

    [F]415.6Fire separation distance.

    Group H occupancies shall be located on property in accordance with the other provisions of this chapter. In Groups H-2 and H-3, not less than 25 percent of the perimeter wall of the occupancy shall be an exterior wall.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Liquid use, dispensing and mixing rooms having a floor area of not more than 500 square feet (46.5 m2) need not be located on the outer perimeter of the building where they are in accordance with the Florida Fire Prevention Code and NFPA 30.

    2. 2.Liquid storage rooms having a floor area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) need not be located on the outer perimeter where they are in accordance with the Florida Fire Prevention Code and NFPA 30.

    3. 3.Spray paint booths that comply with the Florida Fire Prevention Code need not be located on the outer perimeter.

    [F]415.6.1Group H occupancy minimum fire separation distance.

    Regardless of any other provisions, buildings containing Group H occupancies shall be set back to the minimum fire separation distance as set forth in Sections 415.6.1.1 through 415.6.1.4. Distances shall be measured from the walls enclosing the occupancy to lot lines, including those on a public way. Distances to assumed lot lines established for the purpose of determining exterior wall and opening protection are not to be used to establish the minimum fire separation distance for buildings on sites where explosives are manufactured or used when separation is provided in accordance with the quantity distance tables specified for explosive materials in the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]415.6.1.1Group H-1.

    Group H-1 occupancies shall be set back not less than 75 feet (22 860 mm) and not less than required by the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    Exception: Fireworks manufacturing buildings separated in accordance with NFPA 1124.

    [F]415.6.1.2Group H-2.

    Group H-2 occupancies shall be set back not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) where the area of the occupancy is greater than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) and it is not required to be located in a detached building.

    [F]415.6.1.3Groups H-2 and H-3.

    Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies shall be set back not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) where a detached building is required (see Table 415.6.2).

    [F]415.6.1.4Explosive materials.

    Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing materials with explosive characteristics shall be separated as required by the Florida Fire Prevention Code. Where separations are not specified, the distances required shall be determined by a technical report issued in accordance with Section 414.1.3.

    [F]415.6.2Detached buildings for Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 occupancy.

    The storage or use of hazardous materials in excess of those amounts listed in Table 415.6.2 shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of Sections 415.7 and 415.8.

    [F] TABLE 415.6.2

    DETACHED BUILDING REQUIRED

    A DETACHED BUILDING IS REQUIRED WHEN THE QUANTITY OF MATERIAL EXCEEDS THAT LISTED HEREIN
    MaterialClassSolids and Liquids (tons)a, bGases (cubic feet)a, b
    ExplosivesDivision 1.1Maximum Allowable QuantityNot Applicable
    Division 1.2Maximum Allowable Quantity
    Division 1.3Maximum Allowable Quantity
    Division 1.4Maximum Allowable Quantity
    Division 1.4c1
    Division 1.5Maximum Allowable Quantity
    Division 1.6Maximum Allowable Quantity
    OxidizersClass 4Maximum Allowable QuantityMaximum Allowable Quantity
    Unstable (reactives) detonableClass 3 or 4Maximum Allowable QuantityMaximum Allowable Quantity
    Oxidizer, liquids and solidsClass 31,200Not Applicable
    Class 22,000Not Applicable
    Organic peroxidesDetonableMaximum Allowable QuantityNot Applicable
    Class IMaximum Allowable QuantityNot Applicable
    Class II25Not Applicable
    Class III50Not Applicable
    Unstable (reactives) nondetonableClass 312,000
    Class 22510,000
    Water reactivesClass 31Not Applicable
    Class 225Not Applicable
    Pyrophoric gasesNot ApplicableNot Applicable2,000

    For SI: 1 ton = 906 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.

    1. a.For materials that are detonable, the distance to other buildings or lot lines shall be in accordance with the Florida Fire Prevention Code based on trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalence of the material. For materials classified as explosives, see the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    2. b.“Maximum Allowable Quantity” means the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Table 307.1(1).

    3. c.Limited to Division 1.4 materials and articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATF) regulations or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles, provided the net explosive weight of individual articles does not exceed 1 pound.

    [F]415.6.2.1Wall and opening protection.

    Where a detached building is required by Table 415.6.2, there are no requirements for wall and opening protection based on fire separation distance.

    [F]415.7Special provisions for Group H-1 occupancies.

    Group H-1 occupancies shall be in detached buildings used for no other purpose. Roofs shall be of lightweight construction with suitable thermal insulation to prevent sensitive material from reaching its decomposition temperature. Group H-1 occupancies containing materials that are in themselves both physical and health hazards in quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Table 307.1(2) shall comply with requirements for both Group H-1 and H-4 occupancies.

    [F]415.7.1Floors in storage rooms.

    Floors in storage areas for organic peroxides, pyrophoric materials and unstable (reactive) materials shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible construction.

    [F]415.8Special provisions for Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies.

    Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing quantities of hazardous materials in excess of those set forth in Table 415.6.2 shall be in detached buildings used for manufacturing, processing, dispensing, use or storage of hazardous materials. Materials listed for Group H-1 occupancies in Section 307.3 are permitted to be located within Group H-2 or H-3 detached buildings provided the amount of materials per control area do not exceed the maximum allowed quantity specified in Table 307.1(1).

    [F]415.8.1Multiple hazards.

    Group H-2 or H-3 occupancies containing materials that are in themselves both physical and health hazards in quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Table 307.1(2) shall comply with requirements for Group H-2, H-3 or H-4 occupancies as applicable.

    [F]415.8.2Separation of incompatible materials.

    Hazardous materials other than those listed in Table 415.6.2 shall be allowed in manufacturing, processing, dispensing, use or storage areas when separated from incompatible materials in accordance with the provisions of the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]415.8.3Water reactives.

    Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing water-reactive materials shall be resistant to water penetration. Piping for conveying liquids shall not be over or through areas containing water reactives, unless isolated by approved liquid-tight construction.

    Exception: Fire protection piping shall be permitted over or through areas containing water reactives without isolating it with liquid-tight construction.

    [F]415.8.4Floors in storage rooms.

    Floors in storage areas for organic peroxides, oxidizers, pyrophoric materials, unstable (reactive) materials and water-reactive solids and liquids shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible construction.

    [F]415.8.5Waterproof room.

    Rooms or areas used for the storage of water-reactive solids and liquids shall be constructed in a manner that resists the penetration of water through the use of waterproof materials. Piping carrying water for other than approved automatic sprinkler systems shall not be within such rooms or areas.

    [F]415.9Group H-2.

    Occupancies in Group H-2 shall be constructed in accordance with Sections 415.9.1 through 415.9.3 and the Florida Fire Prevention Code

    [F]415.9.1Flammable and combustible liquids.

    The storage, handling, processing and transporting of flammable and combustible liquids in Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies shall be in accordance with Sections 415.9.1.1 through 415.9.1.9, the Florida Building Code, Mechanical and the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]415.9.1.1Mixed occupancies.

    Where the storage tank area is located in a building of two or more occupancies and the quantity of liquid exceeds the maximum allowable quantity for one control area, the use shall be completely separated from adjacent occupancies in accordance with the requirements of Section 508.4.

    [F]415.9.1.1.1Height exception.

    Where storage tanks are located within a building no more than one story above grade plane, the height limitation of Section 504 shall not apply for Group H.

    [F]415.9.1.2Tank protection.

    Storage tanks shall be noncombustible and protected from physical damage. Fire barriers or horizontal assemblies or both around the storage tanks shall be permitted as the method of protection from physical damage.

    [F]415.9.1.3Tanks.

    Storage tanks shall be approved tanks conforming to the requirements of the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]415.9.1.4Leakage containment.

    A liquid-tight containment area compatible with the stored liquid shall be provided. The method of spill control, drainage control and secondary containment shall be in accordance with the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    Exception: Rooms where only double-wall storage tanks conforming to Section 415.9.1.3 are used to store Class I, II and IIIA flammable and combustible liquids shall not be required to have a leakage containment area.

    [F]415.9.1.5Leakage alarm.

    An approved automatic alarm shall be provided to indicate a leak in a storage tank and room. The alarm shall sound an audible signal, 15 dBa above the ambient sound level, at every point of entry into the room in which the leaking storage tank is located. An approved sign shall be posted on every entry door to the tank storage room indicating the potential hazard of the interior room environment, or the sign shall state: WARNING, WHEN ALARM SOUNDS, THE ENVIRONMENT WITHIN THE ROOM MAY BE HAZARDOUS. The leakage alarm shall also be supervised in accordance with Chapter 9 to transmit a trouble signal.

    [F]415.9.1.6Tank vent.

    Storage tank vents for Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall terminate to the outdoor air in accordance with the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]415.9.1.7Room ventilation.

    Storage tank areas storing Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall be provided with mechanical ventilation. The mechanical ventilation system shall be in accordance with the Florida Building Code, Mechanical and the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]415.9.1.8Explosion venting.

    Where Class I liquids are being stored, explosion venting shall be provided in accordance with the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]415.9.1.9Tank openings other than vents.

    Tank openings other than vents from tanks inside buildings shall be designed to ensure that liquids or vapor concentrations are not released inside the building.

    [F]415.9.2Liquefied petroleum gas facilities.

    The construction and installation of liquefied petroleum gas facilities shall be in accordance with the requirements of this code, the Florida Fire Prevention Code, the Florida Building Code, Mechanical, the Florida Building Code, Fuel Gas and NFPA 58.

    [F]415.9.3Dry cleaning plants.

    The construction and installation of dry cleaning plants shall be in accordance with the requirements of this code, the Florida Building Code, Mechanical, the Florida Building Code, Plumbing and NFPA 32. Dry cleaning solvents and systems shall be classified in accordance with the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]415.10Groups H-3 and H-4.

    Groups H-3 and H-4 shall be constructed in accordance with the applicable provisions of this code and the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]415.10.1Flammable and combustible liquids.

    The storage, handling, processing and transporting of flammable and combustible liquids in Group H-3 occupancies shall be in accordance with Section 415.9.1.

    [F]415.10.2Gas rooms.

    Where gas rooms are provided, such rooms shall be separated from other areas by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

    [F]415.10.3Floors in storage rooms.

    Floors in storage areas for corrosive liquids and highly toxic or toxic materials shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible construction.

    [F]415.10.4Separation-highly toxic solids and liquids.

    Highly toxic solids and liquids not stored in approved hazardous materials storage cabinets shall be isolated from other hazardous materials storage by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

    [F]415.11Group H-5.

    In addition to the requirements set forth elsewhere in this code, Group H-5 shall comply with the provisions of Sections 415.11.1 through 415.11.11 and the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]415.11.1Fabrication areas.

    Fabrication areas shall comply with Sections 415.11.1.1 through 415.11.1.8.

    [F]415.11.1.1Hazardous materials.

    Hazardous materials and hazardous production materials (HPM) shall comply with Sections 415.11.1.1.1 and 415.11.1.1.2.

    [F]415.11.1.1.1Aggregate quantities.

    The aggregate quantities of hazardous materials stored and used in a single fabrication area shall not exceed the quantities set forth in Table 415.11.1.1.1.

    Exception: The quantity limitations for any hazard category in Table 415.11.1.1.1 shall not apply where the fabrication area contains quantities of hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area established by Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2).

    [F] TABLE 415.11.1.1.1

    QUANTITY LIMITS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN A SINGLE FABRICATION AREA IN GROUP H-5a

    HAZARD CATEGORYSOLIDS (pounds per square foot)LIQUIDS (gallons per square foot)GAS (cubic feet @ NTP/square foot)
    PHYSICAL-HAZARD MATERIALS
    Combustible dustNote bNot ApplicableNot Applicable
    Combustible fiberLooseNote bNot ApplicableNot Applicable
    BaledNotes b, c
    Combustible liquidIINot Applicable0.01Not Applicable
    IIIA0.02
    IIIBNot Limited
    Combination ClassI, II and IIIA0.04
    Cryogenic gasFlammableNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNote d
    Oxidizing1.25
    ExplosivesNote bNote bNote b
    Flammable gasGaseousNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNote d
    LiquefiedNote d
    Flammable liquidIANot Applicable0.0025Not Applicable
    IB0.025
    IC0.025
    Combination ClassIA, IB and IC0.025
    Combination ClassI, II and IIIA0.04
    Flammable solid0.001Not ApplicableNot Applicable
    Organic peroxideUnclassified detonableNote bNot ApplicableNot Applicable
    Class INote b
    Class II0.025
    Class III0.1
    Class IVNot Limited
    Class VNot Limited
    Oxidizing gasGaseousNot ApplicableNot Applicable1.25
    Liquefied1.25
    Combination of gaseous and liquefied1.25
    OxidizerClass 4Note bNote bNot Applicable
    Class 30.0030.03
    Class 20.0030.03
    Class 10.0030.03
    Combination Class1, 2, 30.0030.03
    Pyrophoric materials0.010.00125Notes d and e
    Unstable (reactive)Class 4Note bNote bNote b
    Class 30.0250.0025Note b
    Class 20.10.01Note b
    Class 1Not LimitedNot LimitedNot Limited
    Water reactiveClass 3Note b0.00125Not Applicable
    Class 20.250.025
    Class 1Not LimitedNot Limited
    HEALTH-HAZARD MATERIALS
    CorrosivesNot LimitedNot LimitedNot Limited
    Highly toxicNot LimitedNot LimitedNote d
    ToxicsNot LimitedNot LimitedNote d

    For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 4.882 kg/m2, 1 gallon per square foot = 40.7 L/m2, 1 cubic foot @ NTP/square foot = 0.305 m3 @ NTP/m2, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3.

    1. a.Hazardous materials within piping shall not be included in the calculated quantities.

    2. b.Quantity of hazardous materials in a single fabrication shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2).

    3. c.Densely packed baled cotton that complies with the packing requirements of ISO 8115 shall not be included in this material class.

    4. d.The aggregate quantity of flammable, pyrophoric, toxic and highly toxic gases shall not exceed 9,000 cubic feet at NTP.

    5. e.The aggregate quantity of pyrophoric gases in the building shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 415.6.2.

    [F]415.11.1.1.2Hazardous production materials.

    The maximum quantities of hazardous production materials (HPM) stored in a single fabrication area shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area established by Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2).

    [F]415.11.1.2Separation.

    Fabrication areas, whose sizes are limited by the quantity of hazardous materials allowed by Table 415.11.1.1.1, shall be separated from each other, from corridors and from other parts of the building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Doors within such fire barrier walls, including doors to corridors, shall be only self-closing fire door assemblies having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour.

    2. 2.Windows between fabrication areas and corridors are permitted to be fixed glazing listed and labeled for a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour in accordance with Section 716.

    [F]415.11.1.3Location of occupied levels.

    Occupied levels of fabrication areas shall be located at or above the first story above grade plane.

    [F]415.11.1.4Floors.

    Except for surfacing, floors within fabrication areas shall be of noncombustible construction.

    Openings through floors of fabrication areas are permitted to be unprotected where the interconnected levels are used solely for mechanical equipment directly related to such fabrication areas (see also Section 415.11.1.5).

    Floors forming a part of an occupancy separation shall be liquid tight.

    [F]415.11.1.5Shafts and openings through floors.

    Elevator hoistways, vent shafts and other openings through floors shall be enclosed where required by Sections 712 and 713. Mechanical, duct and piping penetrations within a fabrication area shall not extend through more than two floors. The annular space around penetrations for cables, cable trays, tubing, piping, conduit or ducts shall be sealed at the floor level to restrict the movement of air. The fabrication area, including the areas through which the ductwork and piping extend, shall be considered a single conditioned environment.

    [F]415.11.1.6Ventilation.

    Mechanical exhaust ventilation at the rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot [0.0051 m3/(s · m2)] of floor area shall be provided throughout the portions of the fabrication area where HPM are used or stored. The exhaust air duct system of one fabrication area shall not connect to another duct system outside that fabrication area within the building.

    A ventilation system shall be provided to capture and exhaust gases, fumes and vapors at workstations.

    Two or more operations at a workstation shall not be connected to the same exhaust system where either one or the combination of the substances removed could constitute a fire, explosion or hazardous chemical reaction within the exhaust duct system.

    Exhaust ducts penetrating fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 shall be contained in a shaft of equivalent fire-resistance-rated construction. Exhaust ducts shall not penetrate fire walls.

    Fire dampers shall not be installed in exhaust ducts.

    [F]415.11.1.7Transporting hazardous production materials to fabrication areas.

    HPM shall be transported to fabrication areas through enclosed piping or tubing systems that comply with Section 415.11.6, through service corridors complying with Section 415.11.3, or in corridors as permitted in the exception to Section 415.11.2. The handling or transporting of HPM within service corridors shall comply with the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]415.11.1.8Electrical.

    Electrical equipment and devices within the fabrication area shall comply with NFPA 70. The requirements for hazardous locations need not be applied where the average air change is at least four times that set forth in Section 415.11.1.6 and where the number of air changes at any location is not less than three times that required by Section 415.11.1.6. The use of recirculated air shall be permitted.

    [F]415.11.1.8.1Workstations.

    Workstations shall not be energized without adequate exhaust ventilation. See Section 415.11.1.6 for workstation exhaust ventilation requirements.

    [F]415.11.2Corridors.

    Corridors shall comply with Chapter 10 and shall be separated from fabrication areas as specified in Section 415.11.1.2. Corridors shall not contain HPM and shall not be used for transporting such materials except through closed piping systems as provided in Section 415.11.6.4

    Exception: Where existing fabrication areas are altered or modified, HPM is allowed to be transported in existing corridors, subject to the following conditions:

    1. 1.Nonproduction HPM is allowed to be transported in corridors if utilized for maintenance, lab work and testing.

    2. 2.Where existing fabrication areas are altered or modified, HPM is allowed to be transported in existing corridors, subject to the following conditions:

      1. 2.1.Corridors. Corridors adjacent to the fabrication area where the alteration work is to be done shall comply with Section 1020 for a length determined as follows:

        1. 2.1.1.The length of the common wall of the corridor and the fabrication area; and

        2. 2.1.2.For the distance along the corridor to the point of entry of HPM into the corridor serving that fabrication area.

      2. 2.2.Emergency alarm system. There shall be an emergency telephone system, a local manual alarm station or other approved alarm-initiating device within corridors at not more than 150-foot (45 720 mm) intervals and at each exit and doorway. The signal shall be relayed to an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or the emergency control station and shall also initiate a local audible alarm.

      3. 2.3.Pass-throughs. Self-closing doors having a fire protection rating of not less than 1 hour shall separate pass-throughs from existing corridors. Pass-throughs shall be constructed as required for the corridors and protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system.

    [F]415.11.3Service corridors.

    Service corridors within a Group H-5 occupancy shall comply with Sections 415.11.3.1 through 415.11.3.4.

    [F]415.11.3.1Use conditions.

    Service corridors shall be separated from corridors as required by Section 415.11.1.2. Service corridors shall not be used as a required corridor.

    [F]415.11.3.2Mechanical ventilation.

    Service corridors shall be mechanically ventilated as required by Section 415.11.1.6 or at not less than six air changes per hour.

    [F]415.11.3.3Means of egress.

    The distance of travel from any point in a service corridor to an exit, exit access corridor or door into a fabrication area shall be not greater than 75 feet (22 860 mm). Dead ends shall be not greater than 4 feet (1219 mm) in length. There shall be not less than two exits, and not more than onehalf of the required means of egress shall require travel into a fabrication area. Doors from service corridors shall swing in the direction of egress travel and shall be self-closing.

    [F]415.11.3.4Minimum width.

    The clear width of a service corridor shall be not less than 5 feet (1524 mm), or 33 inches (838 mm) wider than the widest cart or truck used in the service corridor, whichever is greater.

    [F]415.11.3.5Emergency alarm system.

    Emergency alarm systems shall be provided in accordance with this section and Sections 415.5.1 and 415.5.2. The maximum allowable quantity per control area provisions shall not apply to emergency alarm systems required for HPM.

    [F]415.11.3.5.1Service corridors.

    An emergency alarm system shall be provided in service corridors, with no fewer than one alarm device in each service corridor.

    [F]415.11.3.5.2Corridors and interior exit stairways and ramps.

    Emergency alarms for corridors, interior exit stairways and ramps and exit passageways shall comply with Section 415.5.2.

    [F]415.11.3.5.3Liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms and gas rooms.

    Emergency alarms for liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms and gas rooms shall comply with Section 415.5.1.

    [F]415.11.3.5.4Alarm-initiating devices.

    An approved emergency telephone system, local alarm manual pull stations, or other approved alarm-initiating devices are allowed to be used as emergency alarm-initiating devices.

    [F]415.11.3.5.5Alarm signals.

    Activation of the emergency alarm system shall sound a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control station.

    [F]415.11.4Storage of hazardous production materials.

    Storage of hazardous production materials (HPM) in fabrication areas shall be within approved or listed storage cabinets or gas cabinets or within a workstation. The storage of HPM in quantities greater than those listed in the Florida Fire Prevention Code shall be in liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms or gas rooms as appropriate for the materials stored. The storage of other hazardous materials shall be in accordance with other applicable provisions of this code and the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]415.11.5HPM rooms, gas rooms, liquid storage room construction.

    HPM rooms, gas rooms and liquid shall be constructed in accordance with Sections 415.11.5.1 through 415.11.5.9.

    [F]415.11.5.1HPM rooms and gas rooms.

    HPM rooms and gas rooms shall be separated from other areas by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. The fire-resistance rating shall be not less than 2 hours where the area is 300 square feet (27.9 m2) or more and not less than 1 hour where the area is less than 300 square feet (27.9 m2).

    [F]415.11.5.2Liquid storage rooms.

    Liquid storage rooms shall be constructed in accordance with the following requirements:

    1. 1.Rooms greater than 500 square feet (46.5 m2) in area, shall have no fewer than one exterior door approved for fire department access.

    2. 2.Rooms shall be separated from other areas by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. The fire-resistance rating shall be not less than 1 hour for rooms up to 150 square feet (13.9 m2) in area and not less than 2 hours where the room is more than 150 square feet (13.9 m2) in area.

    3. 3.Shelving, racks and wainscotting in such areas shall be of noncombustible construction or wood of not less than 1-inch (25 mm) nominal thickness or fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Section 2303.2.

    4. 4.Rooms used for the storage of Class I flammable liquids shall not be located in a basement.

    [F]415.11.5.3Floors.

    Except for surfacing, floors of HPM rooms and liquid storage rooms shall be of noncombustible liquid-tight construction. Raised grating over floors shall be of noncombustible materials.

    [F]415.11.5.4Location.

    Where HPM rooms, liquid storage rooms and gas rooms are provided, they shall have no fewer than one exterior wall and such wall shall be not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) from lot lines, including lot lines adjacent to public ways.

    [F]415.11.5.5Explosion control.

    Explosion control shall be provided where required by Section 414.5.1.

    [F]415.11.5.6Exits.

    Where two exits are required from HPM rooms, liquid storage rooms and gas rooms, one shall be directly to the outside of the building.

    [F]415.11.5.7Doors.

    Doors in a fire barrier wall, including doors to corridors, shall be self-closing fire door assemblies having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour.

    [F]415.11.5.8Ventilation.

    Mechanical exhaust ventilation shall be provided in liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms and gas rooms at the rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot (0.044 L/s/m2) of floor area or six air changes per hour.

    Exhaust ventilation for gas rooms shall be designed to operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surrounding areas and direct the exhaust ventilation to an exhaust system.

    [F]415.11.5.9Emergency alarm system.

    An approved emergency alarm system shall be provided for HPM rooms, liquid storage rooms and gas rooms.

    Emergency alarm-initiating devices shall be installed outside of each interior exit door of such rooms.

    Activation of an emergency alarm-initiating device shall sound a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control station.

    An approved emergency telephone system, local alarm manual pull stations or other approved alarm-initiating devices are allowed to be used as emergency alarm-initiating devices.

    [F]415.11.6Piping and tubing.

    Hazardous production materials piping and tubing shall comply with this section and ASME B31.3.

    [F]415.11.6.1HPM having a health-hazard ranking of 3 or 4.

    Systems supplying HPM liquids or gases having a health-hazard ranking of 3 or 4 shall be welded throughout, except for connections, to the systems that are within a ventilated enclosure if the material is a gas, or an approved method of drainage or containment is provided for the connections if the material is a liquid.

    [F]415.11.6.2Location in service corridors.

    Hazardous production materials supply piping or tubing in service corridors shall be exposed to view.

    [F]415.11.6.3Excess flow control.

    Where HPM gases or liquids are carried in pressurized piping above 15 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (103.4 kPa), excess flow control shall be provided. Where the piping originates from within a liquid storage room, HPM room or gas room, the excess flow control shall be located within the liquid storage room, HPM room or gas room. Where the piping originates from a bulk source, the excess flow control shall be located as close to the bulk source as practical.

    [F]415.11.6.4Installations in corridors and above other occupancies.

    The installation of HPM piping and tubing within the space defined by the walls of corridors and the floor or roof above, or in concealed spaces above other occupancies, shall be in accordance with Sections 415.11.6.1 through 415.11.6.3 and the following conditions:

    1. 1.Automatic sprinklers shall be installed within the space unless the space is less than 6 inches (152 mm) in the least dimension.

    2. 2.Ventilation not less than six air changes per hour shall be provided. The space shall not be used to convey air from any other area.

    3. 3.Where the piping or tubing is used to transport HPM liquids, a receptor shall be installed below such piping or tubing. The receptor shall be designed to collect any discharge or leakage and drain it to an approved location. The 1-hour enclosure shall not be used as part of the receptor.

    4. 4.HPM supply piping and tubing and nonmetallic waste lines shall be separated from the corridor and from occupancies other than Group H-5 by fire barriers or by an approved method or assembly that has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Access openings into the enclosure shall be protected by approved fire-protection-rated assemblies.

    5. 5.Readily accessible manual or automatic remotely activated fail-safe emergency shutoff valves shall be installed on piping and tubing other than waste lines at the following locations:

      1. 5.1.At branch connections into the fabrication area.

      2. 5.2.At entries into corridors.

    Exception: Transverse crossings of the corridors by supply piping that is enclosed within a ferrous pipe or tube for the width of the corridor need not comply with Items 1 through 5.

    [F]415.11.6.5Identification.

    Piping, tubing and HPM waste lines shall be identified in accordance with ANSI A13.1 to indicate the material being transported.

    [F]415.11.7Continuous gas detection systems.

    A continuous gas detection system shall be provided for HPM gases where the physiological warning threshold level of the gas is at a higher level than the accepted permissible exposure limit (PEL) for the gas and for flammable gases in accordance with Sections 415.11.7.1 and 415.11.7.2.

    [F]415.11.7.1Where required.

    A continuous gas detection system shall be provided in the areas identified in Sections 415.11.7.1.1 through 415.11.7.1.4.

    [F]415.11.7.1.1Fabrication areas.

    A continuous gas detection system shall be provided in fabrication areas where gas is used in the fabrication area.

    [F]415.11.7.1.2HPM rooms.

    A continuous gas detection system shall be provided in HPM rooms where gas is used in the room.

    [F]415.11.7.1.3Gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures and gas rooms.

    A continuous gas detection system shall be provided in gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided in gas rooms where gases are not located in gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures.

    [F]415.11.7.1.4Corridors.

    Where gases are transported in piping placed within the space defined by the walls of a corridor and the floor or roof above the corridor, a continuous gas detection system shall be provided where piping is located and in the corridor.

    Exception: A continuous gas detection system is not required for occasional transverse crossings of the corridors by supply piping that is enclosed in a ferrous pipe or tube for the width of the corridor.

    [F]415.11.7.2Gas detection system operation.

    The continuous gas detection system shall be capable of monitoring the room, area or equipment in which the gas is located at or below all the following gas concentrations:

    1. 1.Immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) values where the monitoring point is within an exhausted enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas cabinet.

    2. 2.Permissible exposure limit (PEL) levels where the monitoring point is in an area outside an exhausted enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas cabinet.

    3. 3.For flammable gases, the monitoring detection threshold level shall be vapor concentrations in excess of 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL) where the monitoring is within or outside an exhausted enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas cabinet.

    4. 4.Except as noted in this section, monitoring for highly toxic and toxic gases shall also comply with the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]415.11.7.2.1Alarms.

    The gas detection system shall initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control station when a short-term hazard condition is detected. The alarm shall be both visual and audible and shall provide warning both inside and outside the area where the gas is detected. The audible alarm shall be distinct from all other alarms.

    [F]415.11.7.2.2Shutoff of gas supply.

    The gas detection system shall automatically close the shutoff valve at the source on gas supply piping and tubing related to the system being monitored for which gas is detected when a short-term hazard condition is detected. Automatic closure of shutoff valves shall comply with the following:

    1. 1.Where the gas detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure, the shutoff valve in the gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure for the specific gas detected shall automatically close.

    2. 2.Where the gas detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a room and compressed gas containers are not in gas cabinets or an exhausted enclosure, the shutoff valves on all gas lines for the specific gas detected shall automatically close.

    3. 3.Where the gas detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a piping distribution manifold enclosure, the shutoff valve supplying the manifold for the compressed gas container of the specific gas detected shall automatically close.

    Exception: Where the gas detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is at the use location or within a gas valve enclosure of a branch line downstream of a piping distribution manifold, the shutoff valve for the branch line located in the piping distribution manifold enclosure shall automatically close.

    [F]415.11.8Manual fire alarm system.

    An approved manual fire alarm system shall be provided throughout buildings containing Group H-5. Activation of the alarm system shall initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control station. The fire alarm system shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section 907.

    [F]415.11.9Emergency control station.

    An emergency control station shall be provided in accordance with Sections 415.11.9.1 through 415.11.9.3.

    [F]415.11.9.1Location.

    The emergency control station shall be located on the premises at an approved location outside the fabrication area.

    [F]415.11.9.2Staffing.

    Trained personnel shall continuously staff the emergency control station.

    [F]415.11.9.3Signals.

    The emergency control station shall receive signals from emergency equipment and alarm and detection systems. Such emergency equipment and alarm and detection systems shall include, but not be limited to, the following where such equipment or systems are required to be provided either in this chapter or elsewhere in this code:

    1. 1.Automatic sprinkler system alarm and monitoring systems.

    2. 2.Manual fire alarm systems.

    3. 3.Emergency alarm systems.

    4. 4.Continuous gas detection systems.

    5. 5.Smoke detection systems.

    6. 6.Emergency power system.

    7. 7.Automatic detection and alarm systems for pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids required in the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    8. 8.Exhaust ventilation flow alarm devices for pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids cabinet exhaust ventilation systems required in the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]415.11.10Emergency power system.

    An emergency power system shall be provided in Group H-5 occupancies in accordance with Section 2702. The emergency power system shall supply power automatically to the electrical systems specified in Section 415.11.10.1 when the normal electrical supply system is interrupted.

    [F]415.11.10.1Required electrical systems.

    Emergency power shall be provided for electrically operated equipment and connected control circuits for the following systems:

    1. 1.HPM exhaust ventilation systems.

    2. 2.HPM gas cabinet ventilation systems.

    3. 3.HPM exhausted enclosure ventilation systems.

    4. 4.HPM gas room ventilation systems.

    5. 5.HPM gas detection systems.

    6. 6.Emergency alarm systems.

    7. 7.Manual and automatic fire alarm systems.

    8. 8.Automatic sprinkler system monitoring and alarm systems.

    9. 9.Automatic alarm and detection systems for pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids required in the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    10. 10.Flow alarm switches for pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids cabinet exhaust ventilation systems required in the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    11. 11.Electrically operated systems required elsewhere in this code or in the Florida Fire Prevention Code applicable to the use, storage or handling of HPM.

    [F]415.11.10.2Exhaust ventilation systems.

    Exhaust ventilation systems are allowed to be designed to operate at not less than one-half the normal fan speed on the emergency power system where it is demonstrated that the level of exhaust will maintain a safe atmosphere.

    [F]415.11.11Automatic sprinkler system protection in exhaust ducts for HPM.

    An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in exhaust ducts conveying gases, vapors, fumes, mists or dusts generated from HPM in accordance with Sections 415.11.11.1 through 415.10.11.3 and the Florida Building Code, Mechanical.

    [F]415.11.11.1Metallic and noncombustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts.

    An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in metallic and noncombustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts where all of the following conditions apply:

    1. 1.Where the largest cross-sectional diameter is equal to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm).

    2. 2.The ducts are within the building.

    3. 3.The ducts are conveying flammable gases, vapors or fumes.

    [F]415.11.11.2Combustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts.

    Automatic sprinkler system protection shall be provided in combustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts where the largest cross-sectional diameter of the duct is equal to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm).

    Exception: Ducts need not be provided with automatic sprinkler protection as follows:

    1. 1.Ducts listed or approved for applications without automatic sprinkler system protection.

    2. 2.Ducts not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) in length installed below ceiling level.

    [F]415.11.11.3Automatic sprinkler locations.

    Sprinkler systems shall be installed at 12-foot (3658 mm) intervals in horizontal ducts and at changes in direction. In vertical ducts, sprinklers shall be installed at the top and at alternate floor levels.

    SECTION416
    APPLICATION OF FLAMMABLE FINISHES

    [F]416.1General.

    The provisions of this section shall apply to the construction, installation and use of buildings and structures, or parts thereof, for the application of flammable finishes. Such construction and equipment shall comply with the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]416.2Spray rooms.

    Spray rooms shall be enclosed with not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. Floors shall be waterproofed and drained in an approved manner.

    [F]416.2.1Surfaces.

    The interior surfaces of spray rooms shall be smooth and shall be so constructed to permit the free passage of exhaust air from all parts of the interior and to facilitate washing and cleaning, and shall be so designed to confine residues within the room. Aluminum shall not be used.

    [F]416.2.2Ventilation.

    Mechanical ventilation and interlocks with the spraying operation shall be in accordance with the Florida Building Code, Mechanical.

    [F]416.3Spraying spaces.

    Spraying spaces shall be ventilated with an exhaust system to prevent the accumulation of flammable mist or vapors in accordance with the Florida Building Code, Mechanical. Where such spaces are not separately enclosed, noncombustible spray curtains shall be provided to restrict the spread of flammable vapors.

    [F]416.3.1Surfaces.

    The interior surfaces of spraying spaces shall be smooth and continuous without edges; shall be so constructed to permit the free passage of exhaust air from all parts of the interior and to facilitate washing and cleaning; and shall be so designed to confine residues within the spraying space. Aluminum shall not be used.

    [F]416.4Spray booths.

    Spray booths shall be designed, constructed and operated in accordance with the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]416.5Fire protection.

    An automatic sprinkler system or fire-extinguishing system shall be provided in all spray, dip and immersing spaces and storage rooms and shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 9.

    SECTION417
    DRYING ROOMS

    [F]417.1General.

    A drying room or dry kiln installed within a building shall be constructed entirely of approved noncombustible materials or assemblies of such materials regulated by the approved rules or as required in the general and specific sections of this chapter for special occupancies and where applicable to the general requirements of the Florida Building Code, Mechanical.

    [F]417.2Piping clearance.

    Overhead heating pipes shall have a clearance of not less than 2 inches (51 mm) from combustible contents in the dryer.

    [F]417.3Insulation.

    Where the operating temperature of the dryer is 175°F (79°C) or more, metal enclosures shall be insulated from adjacent combustible materials by not less than 12 inches (305 mm) of airspace, or the metal walls shall be lined with 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) insulating mill board or other approved equivalent insulation.

    [F]417.4Fire protection.

    Drying rooms designed for high-hazard materials and processes, including special occupancies as provided for in Chapter 4, shall be protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system complying with the provisions of Chapter 9.

    SECTION418
    ORGANIC COATINGS

    [F]418.1Building features.

    Manufacturing of organic coatings shall be done only in buildings that do not have pits or basements.

    [F]418.2Location.

    Organic coating manufacturing operations and operations incidental to or connected therewith shall not be located in buildings having other occupancies.

    [F]418.3Process mills.

    Mills operating with close clearances and that process flammable and heat-sensitive materials, such as nitrocellulose, shall be located in a detached building or noncombustible structure.

    [F]418.4Tank storage.

    Storage areas for flammable and combustible liquid tanks inside of structures shall be located at or above grade and shall be separated from the processing area by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

    [F]418.5Nitrocellulose storage.

    Nitrocellulose storage shall be located on a detached pad or in a separate structure or a room enclosed with not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

    [F]418.6Finished products.

    Storage rooms for finished products that are flammable or combustible liquids shall be separated from the processing area by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both.

    SECTION419
    LIVE/WORK UNITS

    419.1General.

    A live/work unit shall comply with Sections 419.1 through 419.9.

    Exception: Dwelling or sleeping units that include an office that is less than 10 percent of the area of the dwelling unit are permitted to be classified as dwelling units with accessory occupancies in accordance with Section 508.2.

    419.1.1Limitations.

    The following shall apply to all live/work areas:

    1. 1.The live/work unit is permitted to be not greater than 3,000 square feet (279 m2) in area;

    2. 2.The nonresidential area is permitted to be not more than 50 percent of the area of each live/work unit;

    3. 3.The nonresidential area function shall be limited to the first or main floor only of the live/work unit; and

    4. 4.Not more than five nonresidential workers or employees are allowed to occupy the nonresidential area at any one time.

    419.2Occupancies.

    Live/work units shall be classified as a Group R-2 occupancy. Separation requirements found in Sections 420 and 508 shall not apply within the live/work unit where the live/work unit is in compliance with Section 419. Nonresidential uses that would otherwise be classified as either a Group H or S occupancy shall not be permitted in a live/work unit.

    Exception: Storage shall be permitted in the live/work unit provided the aggregate area of storage in the nonresidential portion of the live/work unit shall be limited to 10 percent of the space dedicated to nonresidential activities.

    419.3Means of egress.

    Except as modified by this section, the means of egress components for a live/work unit shall be designed in accordance with Chapter 10 for the function served.

    419.3.1Egress capacity.

    The egress capacity for each element of the live/work unit shall be based on the occupant load for the function served in accordance with Table 1004.1.2.

    419.3.2Spiral stairways.

    Spiral stairways that conform to the requirements of Section 1011.10 shall be permitted.

    419.4Vertical openings.

    Floor openings between floor levels of a live/work unit are permitted without enclosure.

    [F]419.5Fire protection.

    The live/work unit shall be provided with a monitored fire alarm system where required by Section 907.2.9 and an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.8.

    419.6Structural.

    Floors within a live/work unit shall be designed for the live loads in Table 1607.1, based on the function within the space.

    419.7Accessibility.

    Accessibility shall be designed in accordance with Chapter 11 for the function served.

    419.8Ventilation.

    The applicable ventilation requirements of the Florida Building Code, Mechanical shall apply to each area within the live/work unit for the function within that space.

    419.9Plumbing facilities.

    The nonresidential area of the live/work unit shall be provided with minimum plumbing facilities as specified by Chapter 29, based on the function of the nonresidential area. Where the nonresidential area of the live/work unit is required to be accessible by the Florida Building Code, Accessibility, the plumbing fixtures specified by Chapter 29 shall be accessible.

    SECTION420
    GROUPS I-1, R-1, R-2, R-3 AND R-4

    420.1General.

    Occupancies in Groups I-1, R-1, R-2, R-3 and R-4 shall comply with the provisions of Sections 420.1 through 420.6 and other applicable provisions of this code.

    420.2Separation walls.

    Walls separating dwelling units in the same building, walls separating sleeping units in the same building and walls separating dwelling or sleeping units from other occupancies contiguous to them in the same building shall be constructed as fire partitions in accordance with Section 708.

    420.3Horizontal separation.

    Floor assemblies separating dwelling units in the same buildings, floor assemblies separating sleeping units in the same building and floor assemblies separating dwelling or sleeping units from other occupancies contiguous to them in the same building shall be constructed as horizontal assemblies in accordance with Section 711.

    420.4Smoke barriers in Group I-1, Condition 2.

    Smoke barriers shall be provided in Group I-1, Condition 2, to subdivide every story used by persons receiving care, treatment or sleeping and to provide other stories with an occupant load of 50 or more persons, into no fewer than two smoke compartments. Such stories shall be divided into smoke compartments with an area of not more than 22,500 square feet (2092 m2) and the distance of travel from any point in a smoke compartment to a smoke barrier door shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). The smoke barrier shall be in accordance with Section 709.

    420.4.1Refuge area.

    Refuge areas shall be provided within each smoke compartment. The size of the refuge area shall accommodate the occupants and care recipients from the adjoining smoke compartment. Where a smoke compartment is adjoined by two or more smoke compartments, the minimum area of the refuge area shall accommodate the largest occupant load of the adjoining compartments. The size of the refuge area shall provide the following:

    1. 1.Not less than 15 net square feet (1.4 m2) for each care recipient.

    2. 2.Not less than 6 net square feet (0.56 m2) for other occupants.

    Areas or spaces permitted to be included in the calculation of the refuge area are corridors, lounge or dining areas and other low-hazard areas.

    [F]420.5Automatic sprinkler system.

    Group R occupancies shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.8. Group I-1 occupancies shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.6. Quick-response or residential automatic sprinklers shall be installed in accordance with Section 903.3.2.

    [F]420.6Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms.

    Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be provided in Group I-1, R-1, R-2 and R-4 occupancies in accordance with Sections 907.2.6, 907.2.8, 907.2.9 and 907.2.10, respectively. Single-or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be provided in Groups I-1, R-2, R-3 and R-4 in accordance with Section 907.2.11.

    SECTION421
    HYDROGEN FUEL GAS ROOMS

    [F]421.1General.

    Where required by the Florida Fire Prevention Code, hydrogen fuel gas rooms shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Sections 421.1 through 421.7.

    [F]421.2Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    GASEOUS HYDROGEN SYSTEM.

    HYDROGEN FUEL GAS ROOM.

    [F]421.3Location.

    Hydrogen fuel gas rooms shall not be located below grade.

    [F]421.4Design and construction.

    Hydrogen fuel gas rooms not classified as Group H shall be separated from other areas of the building in accordance with Section 509.1.

    [F]421.4.1Pressure control.

    Hydrogen fuel gas rooms shall be provided with a ventilation system designed to maintain the room at a negative pressure in relation to surrounding rooms and spaces.

    [F]421.4.2Windows.

    Operable windows in interior walls shall not be permitted. Fixed windows shall be permitted where in accordance with Section 716.

    [F]421.5Exhaust ventilation.

    Hydrogen fuel gas rooms shall be provided with mechanical exhaust ventilation in accordance with the applicable provisions of Section 502.16.1 of the Florida Building Code, Mechanical.

    [F]421.6Gas detection system.

    Hydrogen fuel gas rooms shall be provided with an approved flammable gas detection system in accordance with Sections 421.6.1 through 421.6.4.

    [F]421.6.1System design.

    The flammable gas detection system shall be listed for use with hydrogen and any other flammable gases used in the hydrogen fuel gas room. The gas detection system shall be designed to activate when the level of flammable gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower flammability limit (LFL) for the gas or mixtures present at their anticipated temperature and pressure.

    [F]421.6.2Gas detection system components.

    Gas detection system control units shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 864 or UL 2017. Gas detectors shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 2075 for use with the gases and vapors being detected.

    [F]421.6.3Operation.

    Activation of the gas detection system shall result in all of the following:

    1. 1.Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm signals both inside and outside of the hydrogen fuel gas room.

    2. 2.Activation of the mechanical exhaust ventilation system.

    [F]421.6.4Failure of the gas detection system.

    Failure of the gas detection system shall result in activation of the mechanical exhaust ventilation system, cessation of hydrogen generation and the sounding of a trouble signal in an approved location.

    [F]421.7Explosion control.

    Explosion control shall be provided where required by Section 414.5.1.

    [F]421.8Standby power.

    Mechanical ventilation and gas detection systems shall be provided with a standby power system in accordance with Section 2702.

    SECTION422
    AMBULATORY CARE FACIILITIES

    422.1General.

    Occupancies classified as ambulatory care facilities shall comply with the provisions of Sections 422.1 through 422.5 and other applicable provisions of this code.

    422.2Separation.

    Ambulatory care facilities where the potential for four or more care recipients are to be incapable of self-preservation at any time, whether rendered incapable by staff or staff accepted responsibility for a care recipient already incapable, shall be separated from adjacent spaces, corridors or tenants with a fire partition installed in accordance with Section 708.

    422.3Smoke compartments.

    Where the aggregate area of one or more ambulatory care facilities is greater than 10,000 square feet (929 m2) on one story, the story shall be provided with a smoke barrier to subdivide the story into no fewer than two smoke compartments. The area of any one such smoke compartment shall be not greater than 22,500 square feet (2092 m2). The distance of travel from any point in a smoke compartment to a smoke barrier door shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm). The smoke barrier shall be installed in accordance with Section 709 with the exception that smoke barriers shall be continuous from outside wall to an outside wall, a floor to a floor, or from a smoke barrier to a smoke barrier or a combination thereof.

    422.3.1Means of egress.

    Where ambulatory care facilities require smoke compartmentation in accordance with Section 422.3, the fire safety evacuation plans provided in accordance with Section 1001.4 shall identify the building components necessary to support a defend-in-place emergency response in accordance with the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    422.3.2Refuge area.

    Not less than 30 net square feet (2.8 m2) for each nonambulatory care recipient shall be provided within the aggregate area of corridors, care recipient rooms, treatment rooms, lounge or dining areas and other low-hazard areas within each smoke compartment. Each occupant of an ambulatory care facility shall be provided with access to a refuge area without passing through or utilizing adjacent tenant spaces.

    422.3.3Independent egress.

    A means of egress shall be provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke barriers without having to return through the smoke compartment from which means of egress originated.

    [F]422.4Automatic sprinkler systems.

    Automatic sprinkler systems shall be provided for ambulatory care facilities in accordance with Section 903.2.2.

    [F]422.5Fire alarm systems.

    A fire alarm system shall be provided for ambulatory care facilities in accordance with Section 907.2.2.

    SECTION423
    STORM SHELTERS

    423.1General.

    In addition to other applicable requirements in this code, storm shelters shall be constructed in accordance with ICC 500.

    423.1.1Scope.

    This section applies to the construction of storm shelters constructed as separate detached buildings or constructed as safe rooms within buildings for the purpose of providing safe refuge from storms that produce high winds, such as tornados and hurricanes. Such structures shall be designated to be hurricane shelters, tornado shelters, or combined hurricane and tornado shelters.

    423.2Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    STORM SHELTER.

    • Community storm shelter.

    • Residential storm shelter.

    423.3Critical emergency operations.

    In areas where the shelter design wind speed for tornados in accordance with Figure 304.2(1) of ICC 500 is 250 MPH, 911 call stations, emergency operation centers and fire, rescue, ambulance and police stations shall have a storm shelter constructed in accordance with ICC 500.

    Exception: Buildings meeting the requirements for shelter design in ICC 500.

    423.4Group E occupancies.

    In areas where the shelter design wind speed for tornados is 250 MPH in accordance with Figure 304.2(1) of ICC 500, all Group E occupancies with an aggregate occupant load of 50 or more shall have a storm shelter constructed in accordance with ICC 500. The shelter shall be capable of housing the total occupant load of the Group E occupancy.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Group E day care facilities.

    2. 2.Group E occupancies accessory to places of religious worship.

    3. 3.Buildings meeting the requirements for shelter design in ICC 500.

    SECTION424
    CHILDREN’S PLAY STRUCTURES

    424.1Children’s play structures.

    Children’s play structures installed inside all occupancies covered by this code that exceed 10 feet (3048 mm) in height and 150 square feet (14 m2) in area shall comply with Sections 424.2 through 424.5.

    424.2Materials.

    Children’s play structures shall be constructed of noncombustible materials or of combustible materials that comply with the following:

    1. 1.Fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Section 2303.2.

    2. 2.Light-transmitting plastics complying with Section 2606.

    3. 3.Foam plastics (including the pipe foam used in soft-contained play equipment structures) having a maximum heat-release rate not greater than 100 kilowatts when tested in accordance with UL 1975 or when tested in accordance with NFPA 289, using the 20 kW ignition source.

    4. 4.Aluminum composite material (ACM) meeting the requirements of Class A interior finish in accordance with Chapter 8 when tested as an assembly in the maximum thickness intended for use.

    5. 5.Textiles and films complying with the fire propagation performance criteria contained in Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701.

    6. 6.Plastic materials used to construct rigid components of soft-contained play equipment structures (such as tubes, windows, panels, junction boxes, pipes, slides and decks) exhibiting a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 400 kW/m2 when tested in accordance with ASTM E1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m2 in the horizontal orientation at a thickness of 6 mm.

    7. 7.Ball pool balls, used in soft-contained play equipment structures, having a maximum heat-release rate not greater than 100 kilowatts when tested in accordance with UL 1975 or when tested in accordance with NFPA 289, using the 20 kW ignition source. The minimum specimen test size shall be 36 inches by 36 inches (914 mm by 914 mm) by an average of 21 inches (533 mm) deep, and the balls shall be held in a box constructed of galvanized steel poultry netting wire mesh.

    8. 8.Foam plastics shall be covered by a fabric, coating or film meeting the fire propagation performance criteria contained in Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701.

    9. 9.The floor covering placed under the children’s play structure shall exhibit a Class I interior floor finish classification, as described in Section 804, when tested in accordance with NFPA 253.

    [F]424.3Fire protection.

    Children’s play structures shall be provided with the same level of approved fire suppression and detection devices required for other structures in the same occupancy.

    424.4Separation.

    Children’s play structures shall have a horizontal separation from building walls, partitions and from elements of the means of egress of not less than 5 feet (1524 mm). Children’s playground structures shall have a horizontal separation from other children’s play structures of not less than 20 feet (6090 mm).

    424.5Area limits.

    Children’s play structures shall be not greater than 300 square feet (28 m2) in area, unless a special investigation, acceptable to the building official, has demonstrated adequate fire safety.

    SECTION425
    HYPERBARIC FACILITIES

    425.1Hyperbaric facilities.

    Hyperbaric facilities shall meet the requirements contained in Chapter 14 of NFPA 99.

    SECTION[F]426
    COMBUSTIBLE DUSTS,
    GRAIN PROCESSING AND STORAGE

    426.1Combustible dusts, grain processing and storage.

    The provisions of Sections 426.1.1 through 426.1.7 shall apply to buildings in which materials that produce combustible dusts are stored or handled. Buildings that store or handle combustible dusts shall comply with the applicable provisions of NFPA 61, NFPA 85, NFPA 120, NFPA 484, NFPA 654, NFPA 655 and NFPA 664 and the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    [F]426.1.1Type of construction and height exceptions.

    Buildings shall be constructed in compliance with the height, number of stories and area limitations specified in Sections 504 and 506; except that where erected of Type I or II construction, the heights and areas of grain elevators and similar structures shall be unlimited, and where of Type IV construction, the maximum building height shall be 65 feet (19 812 mm) and except further that, in isolated areas, the maximum building height of Type IV structures shall be increased to 85 feet (25 908 mm).

    [F]426.1.2Grinding rooms.

    Every room or space occupied for grinding or other operations that produce combustible dusts in such a manner that the room or space is classified as a Group H-2 occupancy shall be enclosed with fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or both. The fire-resistance rating of the enclosure shall be not less than 2 hours where the area is not more than 3,000 square feet (279 m2), and not less than 4 hours where the area is greater than 3,000 square feet (279 m2).

    [F]426.1.3Conveyors.

    Conveyors, chutes, piping and similar equipment passing through the enclosures of rooms or spaces shall be constructed dirt tight and vapor tight, and be of approved noncombustible materials complying with Chapter 30.

    [F]426.1.4Explosion control.

    Explosion control shall be provided as specified in the Florida Fire Prevention Code, or spaces shall be equipped with the equivalent mechanical ventilation complying with the Florida Building Code, Mechanical.

    [F]426.1.5Grain elevators.

    Grain elevators, malt houses and buildings for similar occupancies shall not be located within 30 feet (9144 mm) of interior lot lines or structures on the same lot, except where erected along a railroad right-of-way.

    [F]426.1.6Coal pockets.

    Coal pockets located less than 30 feet (9144 mm) from interior lot lines or from structures on the same lot shall be constructed of not less than Type IB construction. Where more than 30 feet (9144 mm) from interior lot lines, or where erected along a railroad right-of-way, the minimum type of construction of such structures not more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in building height shall be Type IV.

    [F]426.1.7Tire rebuilding.

    Buffing operations shall be located in a room separated from the remainder of the building housing the tire rebuilding or tire recapping operation by a 1-hour fire barrier.

    Exception: Buffing operations are not required to be separated where all of the following conditions are met:

    1. 1.Buffing operations are equipped with an approved continuous automatic water-spray system directed at the point of cutting action;

    2. 2.Buffing machines are connected to particle-collecting systems providing a minimum air movement of 1,500 cubic feet per minute (cfm) (0.71 m3/s) in volume and 4,500 feet per minute (fpm) (23 m/s) in-line velocity; and

    3. 3.The collecting system shall discharge the rubber particles to an approved outdoor noncombustible or fire-resistant container, which is emptied at frequent intervals to prevent overflow.

    SECTIONS[F]427 through 448
    RESERVED

    SECTION449
    HOSPITALS

    449.1Scope.

    449.1.1

    All newly licensed hospitals, including conversions of existing buildings or newly constructed hospitals, all hospital outpatient facilities and hospital owned or leased mobile and transportable units unless exempted by Chapter 395.0163, Florida Statutes or modified by Chapter 59A-3 Florida Administrative Code, and all additions, alterations or renovations to an existing licensed hospital shall comply with all applicable requirements of this code and the minimum standards of design, construction and specified minimum essential utilities and facilities of this section and shall have plans reviewed and construction surveyed by the state agency authorized to do so by Chapter 553.80(1)(c), Florida Statutes to assure compliance with all applicable requirements of this code.

    449.1.2

    The following are exempt from review under this part:

    449.1.2.1

    Change of ownership of an existing licensed hospital.

    449.1.2.2

    Change to an existing hospital’s license type that has no additional physical plant requirements.

    449.1.2.3

    Change of the functional use of a space, room, or area when no physical plant revisions are made or are required to be made by this code.

    449.1.3

    The Florida Building Code, Existing Building, Section 101.2, Scope exempts state licensed facilities such as hospitals from compliance with that code. Any repair, alteration, change of occupancy, addition or relocation of an existing state licensed hospital shall comply with the applicable requirements of this code and this section.

    449.1.4

    For project submission and fee requirements, and other administrative, licensure, and programmatic provisions for hospitals, see Agency for Health Care Administration (AHCA) Chapter 59A-3 Florida Administrative Code and Chapter 395, Florida Statutes.

    449.1.5

    For state licensure purposes, these codes and standards shall be applicable to the project on the effective date of this code at the time of Stage II preliminary plan approval by the Agency for Health Care Administration (the Agency) as described in Chapter 59A-3 Florida Administrative Code or at the first Stage III construction document review if there has been no previous Stage II preliminary plan approval for that project.

    449.2Additional codes and standards for the design and construction of general, rehabilitative, and psychiatric hospitals, including intensive residential treatment facilities (IRTFs) for children and adolescents, that are located inside of buildings or structures, and unless exempted by Chapter 395.0163, Florida Statutes, all hospital outpatient facilities and hospital owned or leased mobile and transportable units.

    In addition to the minimum standards required by Section 449 of this code, Chapter 59A-3 Florida Administrative Code, or by Chapter 395, Florida Statutes, all new hospital facilities and all additions, alterations or renovations to an existing licensed hospital, as listed in Section 449.2 of this code shall also be in compliance with the following codes and standards on the effective date of this code, as described in Section 449.1.5 of this code.

    449.2.1

    The fire codes described in Chapter 69A-53, Uniform Fire Safety Standards for Hospitals and Nursing Homes, Florida Administrative Code. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 101A, Alternate Approaches to Life Safety shall not apply to new construction.

    449.2.2

    The Guidelines for Design and Construction of Hospitals and Outpatient Facilities (The Guidelines), as referenced in Chapter 35 of this code.

    449.3Additional physical plant requirements for general, rehabilitation, and psychiatric hospitals, including intensive residential treatment facilities (IRTFs) for children and adolescents, and unless exempted by Chapter 395.0163, Florida Statutes, all hospital outpatient facilities and hospital mobile and transportable units.

    In addition to the codes and standards referenced in Section 449.2 of this code, the following minimum standards of construction and specified minimum essential facilities, shall apply to all new hospitals and all additions, alterations or renovations to an existing licensed hospital, as described in Section 449.1 of this code and listed in Section 449.3 of this code.

    449.3.1Critical care units.

    Reference The Guidelines for other requirements.

    449.3.1.1

    Sliding doors used for access to critical care rooms may be either manual or power operated and if located on an exit access corridor shall be smoke resistive and equipped with latching hardware.

    449.3.2Newborn intensive care units.

    Reference The Guidelines for other requirements.

    449.3.2.1

    General categories of neonatal services in the State of Florida are Level I, newborn nursery; Level II, intermediate care unit; and Level III, intensive care unit. Facilities which offer obstetrical services shall provide at a minimum a Level I newborn nursery or a holding nursery that shall meet the requirements of The Guidelines, and facilities that offer neonatal care for Level II and Level III neonatal services shall meet the requirements of The Guidelines for a newborn intensive care unit.

    449.3.3Mobile testing and treatment facilities.

    449.3.3.1

    In addition to any other state of Florida required permits, mobile facilities shall be approved in advance by the Agency for Health Care Administration before they may be utilized for patient services.

    449.3.3.2

    The mobile facility shall comply with the applicable requirements of the Florida Building Code, Building, The Guidelines, Part 3 Outpatient Facilities, Chapter 3.13 Specific Requirements for Mobile, Transportable, and Relocatable Units, and with Section 449 of this code for the type of service to be provided.

    449.3.3.3

    Mobile or transportable units that are limited to providing noninvasive, diagnostic and treatment services without the use of anesthetics shall not be required to comply with other sections of The Guidelines as described in The Guidelines, Part 3 Outpatient Facilities, Chapters 3.13 - 8.2.1.2.

    449.3.3.4

    Electrical connection to the hospital electrical system shall be permitted only when the mobile facility complies with appropriate requirements of the Florida Building Code, Building.

    449.3.3.5

    When units provide critical care procedures, there shall be a “code blue” code call station in the unit connected to an attended location to summon assistance from the hospital emergency resuscitation response team.

    449.3.4Architectural details, surfaces, and furnishings.

    Reference The Guidelines for other requirements.

    449.3.4.1

    Each patient sleeping room, except for newborn nurseries and neonatal intensive care units or rooms, shall have a window(s) with a view, visible from the patient’s bed, to the exterior of the building or to an atrium that is visually open to the exterior of the building. The clear opening of the patient room window’s width and height shall have a minimum of 20 feet (6.10 m) unobstructed vista to any permanent structure or equipment, and a minimum of 15 feet (4.57 m) unobstructed vista to any vehicular parking area or to the property line measured horizontally from the plane of the window.

    449.3.4.2

    Ceilings in rooms with ceiling-mounted surgical light fixtures and in kitchens shall be a minimum height of 9 feet (2.7 m).

    449.3.4.3

    A pair of doors opening to a room or closet that is located on an exit access corridor shall be equipped with automatic positive latching for both the active and inactive door leaf and shall be equipped with rabbets, bevels, or an astragal at the meeting edges of the doors. The inactive door leaf shall be equipped with either an automatic or semiautomatic flush bolt to provide positive latching. Where the doors are not required to be equipped with closers, a door coordinator is not required.

    449.3.4.4

    Toilet compartment partitions and urinal screens shall be constructed of products that do not rust, corrode or delaminate.

    449.3.4.5

    All fire walls, smoke barriers, horizontal exits and exit passageway partitions shall be constructed prior to the construction of all intervening walls. Where rated walls, barriers or partitions intersect, the continuity of the higher priority wall, barrier, or partition shall be maintained through the intersection.

    449.3.4.6

    Smoke barriers shall be constructed so as to provide a continuous smoke-tight membrane from exterior wall to exterior wall and from the floor to the underside of the floor or roof deck above. This includes interstitial space and the area above monolithic firerated ceiling membranes. Roof trusses shall be permitted to penetrate portions of the smoke barrier located above the fire-rated ceiling membrane where the annular space between the penetrating truss member and the smoke barrier is sealed to limit the transfer of smoke.

    449.3.4.7

    Where it is not possible to visually inspect a fire-rated partition, wall or barrier or a smoke barrier that extends through the attic or interstitial space to the roof or floor deck above because of the location of a monolithic ceiling membrane, ceiling access panel(s) shall be installed adjacent to each side of the partition, wall or barrier at intervals not exceeding 30 feet (9.00 m) and in such locations as necessary to view all surfaces of the partition, wall or barrier. Other ceiling access panels shall only be installed as required by other sections of the code. Partitions, walls and barriers requiring protected openings or penetrations shall be identified in accordance with Section 703 of this code.

    449.3.4.8

    Where electrical conduits, cable trays, ducts and utility pipes pass through the smoke barrier, the utilities shall be located so that access is maintained to adjacent wall surfaces and to all damper access panels. The details shall show the studs and reinforcing half studs so that proper support is provided for the wall surfacing material. There shall be a minimum clearance of 4 inches (102 mm) between all conduits, piping and duct work insulation that are located parallel or adjacent to a fire-rated wall or to a smoke barrier to facilitate the inspection of these walls.

    449.3.4.9

    The use of pocket sliding or folding doors to patient use toilet, baths, or shower rooms shall not be permitted. A sliding door equipped with sliding door hardware located on the patient room side of the wall and not equipped with a bottom door track shall be permitted.

    449.3.5Elevators where required.

    (Reference The Guidelines for other requirements.)

    449.3.5.1

    All elevators shall be in compliance with the requirements of Chapter 30 of the Florida Building Code, Building and Chapter 69A-47, Florida Administrative Code, “Uniform Fire Safety Standards for Elevators.”

    449.3.6Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems.

    Reference The Guidelines for other requirements.

    449.3.6.1

    Air-handling equipment shall be installed exterior of the building, to include the roof, in a designated equipment room(s), in an open space(s) of an attic(s) or interstitial space(s) located inside the conditioned envelope of the building, or in an enclosed space located in an unconditioned attic(s). If the equipment serves only one room, it may be located above the ceiling and shall be accessible through an access opening in accordance with the requirements of such openings in this code. Access panels are not required for lay-in ceiling installations, provided the service functions are not obstructed by other above-ceiling construction, such as electrical conduits, piping, audio visual cabling and like equipment components or supports.

    449.3.6.2

    All new hospital, outpatient surgery and cardiac catheterization facility construction, for both inpatients and outpatients, shall have completely ducted airsupply, return, outside air and exhaust systems. In hospital buildings with multiple uses, tenants or occupancies, located on a separate floor or floors within the building, or located in a medical office building, only the licensed health care areas where invasive procedures, as defined by The Guidelines, are performed shall be required to be served by separate ducted mechanical air-supply, return and exhaust systems.

    449.3.6.3

    In new construction, horizontal offsets of duct system risers penetrating more than one floor shall not be allowed.

    449.3.6.4

    Flexible ducts shall be listed and labeled to the UL181 Standard for Factory-Made Air Ducts and Air Connectors and shall be Class 0 or Class 1. Flexible ducts shall meet the following additional performance rating criteria:

    449.3.6.4.1

    The duct shall have a minimum rated air velocity of 4,000 feet per minute, a minimum positive pressure rating of 4 inches water gauge, and a minimum negative pressure rating of 1 inch water gauge.

    449.3.6.4.2

    The outer vapor barrier shall have a perm rating not greater than 0.05 perms when tested in accordance with ASTM E96, Procedure A.

    449.3.6.4.3

    Flexible air connectors shall be limited to 14 feet (4267mm) maximum installed length and shall not pass through any wall, partition, or enclosure of a vertical shaft that is required to have a fire-resistance rating of 1 hour or more. Flexible air ducts shall not be limited in length.

    449.3.6.4.4

    Air ducts and exhaust duct systems shall not be constructed of fiberglass duct board.

    449.3.6.5

    Variable air volume systems shall not be permitted for use in surgical departments, obstetrical departments, laboratories, isolation rooms and critical care units and rooms.

    449.3.6.6

    Filter housing frame blank-off panels shall be permanently attached to the frame, constructed of rigid materials and have sealing surfaces equal to or greater than the filter media installed in the filter frame. All joints between the blank-off panels, filter housing frames and filter support structure shall be caulked airtight.

    449.3.7Fan and damper control during fire alarm.

    449.3.7.1

    During an automatic fire alarm activation or the activation of a duct smoke detector, fan systems and fan equipment serving more than one room shall be stopped to prevent the movement of smoke by mechanical means from the zone in alarm to adjacent smoke zones. Air movement across smoke barriers shall be permitted when the area is not in automatic fire alarm activation.

    449.3.7.2

    Fan control shall be designed so as to minimize the interruption of heating, ventilating and air conditioning in compartments remote from the compartment in alarm.

    449.3.7.3

    Fan control shall not interfere with the continuous operation of exhaust systems conveying ethylene oxide or other hazardous chemicals and fumes or systems required to operate continuously for the health and safety of occupants. Such systems shall include fume hood exhaust deemed by the governing body of the hospital to present a hazard to occupants if exhaust airflow is stopped. Air-handling systems shall be designed to allow for continuous operation of all such systems and to minimize movement of smoke by mechanical means from the zone in alarm.

    449.3.8Carbon monoxide detector.

    See Section 908.7 of this code.

    449.3.9Plumbing.

    Reference The Guidelines for other requirements.

    449.3.9.1

    All plumbing systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with the Florida Building Code, Plumbing.

    449.3.10Fire pump.

    Where required by another section of this code, a new fire pump, except for a replacement fire pump, that is electric motor-driven shall be connected to the Emergency Power Supply System (EPSS) of the hospital. A fire pump(s) that is not electric motor-driven shall meet the requirements of NFPA 20, Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection, alternative power.

    449.3.11Electrical requirements.

    Reference The Guidelines for other requirements.

    449.3.11.1

    All material, including equipment, conductors, controls, and signaling devices, shall be installed to provide a complete electrical system with the necessary characteristics and capacity to supply the electrical facility requirements as shown in the specifications and as indicated on the plans.

    449.3.11.2

    All materials and equipment shall be factory listed as complying with applicable standards of Underwriter’s Laboratories, Inc., or other similarly established standards of a nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL) that has been certified by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for that referenced standard.

    449.3.11.3

    Field labeling of equipment and materials shall be permitted only when provided by a nationally recognized testing laboratory that has been certified by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for that referenced standard.

    449.3.11.4

    Nonmetallic sheathed cable or similar systems are not permitted for power and lighting wiring in any facility.

    449.3.11.5

    Panel boards located in spaces subject to storage shall have the clear working space in accordance with Chapter 27, Florida Building Code, Building. “ELECTRICAL ACCESS - NOT FOR STORAGE” shall be permanently marked on the floor and wall about the panel. Panel boards shall not be located in an exit access corridor or in an unenclosed space or area that is open to an exit access corridor. Panel boards may be located inside of a room or closet that opens into an exit access corridor only when the room or closet is separated from the exit access corridor by a partition and door that comply with this code.

    449.3.11.6

    There shall be documentation for equipotential grounding in all patient care areas, building service ground electrode systems, lightning protection ground terminals and special systems such as fire alarm, nurse call, paging, generator, emergency power, fault analysis and breaker coordination.

    449.3.11.7

    All spaces occupied by people, machinery and equipment within buildings and approaches to buildings shall have electric lighting.

    449.3.11.8

    Operating rooms and delivery rooms shall have general lighting for the room in addition to local high intensity, specialized lighting provided by special fixtures at the surgical and obstetrical tables. Each special lighting unit for local lighting at the tables shall be connected to an independent circuit and shall be powered from the critical branch. A minimum of one general purpose lighting fixture shall be powered from a normal circuit in an operating room, delivery or similar room.

    449.3.11.9

    There shall be a maximum of six duplex receptacles on a circuit in general patient care areas.

    449.3.11.10

    The circuitry of all receptacles required by The Guidelines in critical care areas, in all emergency treatment rooms or areas, and other areas including angiographic laboratories, cardiac catheterization laboratories, coronary care units, human physiology laboratories, intensive care units and postoperative recovery rooms, shall be provided as follows:

    449.3.11.10.1

    All electrical receptacles at the head of the bed shall be connected to the critical branch of the essential electrical system, except two of the required number shall be connected to a normal power circuit or to a critical branch circuit from a different transfer switch.

    449.3.11.10.2

    There shall be no more than two duplex or four single receptacles per circuit.

    449.3.11.11

    All receptacles shall have engraved cover plates to indicate the panel board and circuit numbers powering the device.

    449.3.11.12

    Branch circuit over-current devices shall be readily accessible to nursing staff and other authorized personnel.

    449.3.11.13

    The electrical system shall have coordinated short circuit protection.

    449.3.11.14

    Provide color coding for the junction boxes for the branches of the essential electrical system.

    449.3.12Fire alarm systems.

    Reference The Guidelines for other requirements.

    449.3.12.1Fire alarm systems.

    A fire alarm annunciator panel shall be provided at a 24-hour monitored location. The panel shall indicate visually the zone of actuation of the alarm, and there shall be a system trouble signal indicator. Each smoke compartment shall be annunciated as a separate fire alarm zone. A fire alarm system zone shall not include rooms or spaces in other smoke compartments. A fire alarm zone location map to quickly locate alarm condition shall be provided at the fire alarm control panel.

    449.3.12.2

    In all inpatient care rooms, spaces and areas, including sleeping, treatment, diagnostic, and therapeutic, the private operating mode as permitted and described in NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code, shall be required. Only the attendants and other personnel required to evacuate occupants from a zone, area, room, floor, or building shall be required to be notified.

    449.3.12.3

    The disconnecting device or circuit breaker for the fire alarm control unit shall be clearly identified and secured from unauthorized operation.

    449.3.13Nurse call system.

    Reference The Guidelines for other requirements.

    449.3.13.1

    In addition to the requirements of radiofrequency systems described in The Guidelines, wirelesstype nurse call systems shall be permitted if they have been tested and approved by a national recognized testing laboratory (NRTL) to meet the requirements of UL 1069, 7th edition, Section 49, Wireless Systems published October 12, 2007 as referenced in Chapter 35 of this code.

    449.3.13.2

    In addition to the areas required by The Guidelines, an emergency resuscitation alarm (Code Blue) calling station shall be provided for staff use in each operating and cesarean delivery room.

    449.3.13.3

    An emergency staff assistance station shall be located within each psychiatric seclusion room and shall be of hands-free operation.

    449.3.14Emergency electric service.

    Reference The Guidelines for other requirements.

    449.3.14.1

    A Type 1 essential electrical system shall be provided in all hospitals as described in NFPA 99, Health Care Facilities. The emergency power for this system shall meet the requirements of a Level 1, Type 10, Class 48 generator as described in NFPA 110, Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems.

    449.3.14.2

    In new facility construction, the normal main service equipment shall be separated from the emergency distribution equipment by locating it in a separate room. Transfer switches shall be considered emergency distribution equipment for this purpose.

    449.3.14.3

    There shall be a generator remote alarm annunciator in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 110 located at a designated on-site 24-hour staffed location.

    449.3.14.4

    There shall be illumination of the means of egress in accordance with NFPA 101 and designed for automatic dusk-to-dawn operation. Such illumination shall continue to the public way or to a safe area(s) located at a minimum of 30 feet (9.144 m) from the building and large enough to accommodate the required occupant load of the exit discharge.

    449.3.14.5

    A minimum of one elevator per bank serving any patient use floor shall be connected to the equipment branch of the essential electric system and arranged for manual or automatic operation during loss of normal power.

    449.3.14.6

    If a day tank is provided, it shall be equipped with a dedicated low-level fuel alarm and a manual pump. The alarm shall be located at the generator remote alarm annunciator as described in Section 449.3.14.3.

    449.3.14.7

    Outpatient surgery facilities, cardiac catheterization facilities, or pain management facilities that utilize intravenous (IV) drip sedation located in a separate building or on another campus shall have a Type 1 essential electrical system in compliance with NFPA 99, Health Care Facilities. The emergency power for this system shall meet the requirements of a Level 1, Type 10, Class 8 generator as described in NFPA 110, Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems.

    449.3.14.8

    The generator remote manual stop (sometimes called the “generator emergency stop”) shall be switchable and tamper resistant. It shall be located outside the housing of the generator, adjacent to the opening of the generator enclosure or to the door to the generator room, and viewable from the generator location.

    449.3.15Lightning protection.

    449.3.15.1

    A lightning protection system shall be provided for all new buildings and additions in accordance with NFPA 780, Installation of Lightning Protection Systems.

    449.3.15.2

    Where additions are constructed to existing buildings, the existing building’s lightning protection system, if connected to the new lightning protection system, shall be inspected and brought into compliance with current standards.

    449.3.15.3

    A lightning protection system shall be installed on all buildings in which outpatient surgical procedures, cardiac catherization procedures, or pain management procedures that utilize I.V. drip sedation are provided.

    449.3.15.4

    There shall be surge protection for all normal and emergency electrical services.

    449.3.15.5

    Additional surge protection shall be provided for all low voltage and power connections to all electronic equipment in critical care areas and life safety systems and equipment such as fire alarm, nurse call and other critical systems. Protection shall be in accordance with appropriate IEEE Standards for the type of equipment protected.

    449.3.15.6

    All low-voltage system main or branch circuits entering or exiting the structure shall have surge suppressors installed for each pair of conductors and shall have visual indication for protector failure to the maximum extent feasible.

    449.3.16Inpatient room dialysis.

    449.3.16.1

    If an inpatient requires dialysis due to a chronic condition, it may be accomplished inside the inpatient sleeping room when all of the following are provided:

    449.3.16.1.1

    A portable dialysis machine with portable reverse osmosis.

    449.3.16.1.2

    Dedicated closed connections to a water supply and waste water drain. These connections are permitted to be shared with the water supply and waste water drain of the handwashing facility located inside the inpatient room or inside the inpatient toilet room only when the use of the handwashing facility is unimpeded at all times.

    449.3.16.1.3

    Sufficient electrical circuits and outlets to operate the portable dialysis equipment without overloading the electrical circuit.

    449.3.16.1.4

    A dedicated equipment room for the cleaning and disinfection of the dialysis equipment.

    449.3.16.1.5

    A written hospital protocol for the use and maintenance of the inpatient room dialysis equipment signed by the medical director of acute dialysis services.

    449.4Physical plant requirements for disaster preparedness of new hospital construction.

    449.4.1Definitions.

    The following definitions shall apply specifically to all new facilities as used herein:

    449.4.1.1NEW FACILITY.

    A hospital which has not received a Stage II Preliminary Plan approval from the Agency for Health Care Administration pursuant to this section.

    449.4.1.2NET SQUARE FOOTAGE.

    The clear floor space of an area excluding cabinetry and other fixed furniture or equipment;

    449.4.1.3DURING AND IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING.

    A period of 72 hours following the loss of normal support utilities to the facility.

    449.4.1.4OCCUPIED PATIENT AREA(S).

    The location of patients inside of the new facility or in the addition of a wing or floor to an existing facility during and immediately following a disaster. If these patients are to be relocated into an area of the existing facility during and immediately following a disaster, then for purposes of this code, that location will be defined as the “occupied patient area.”

    449.4.1.5PATIENT SUPPORT AREA(S).

    The area(s) required to ensure the health, safety and wellbeing of patients during and immediately following a disaster, such as a nursing station, clean and soiled utility areas, food preparation area, and other areas as determined by the facility to be kept operational during and immediately following a disaster.

    449.4.1.6ON-SITE.

    Either in, immediately adjacent to, or on the campus of the facility, or addition of a wing or floor to an existing facility.

    449.4.2Disaster preparedness construction standards.

    The following construction standards are in addition to the physical plant requirements described in Sections 449.2 through 449.3. These minimum standards are intended to increase the ability of the facility to be structurally capable of serving as a shelter for patients, staff and the family of patients and staff and equipped to be self-supporting during and immediately following a disaster.

    449.4.2.1Space standards.

    449.4.2.1.1

    For planning purposes, each new facility shall provide a minimum of 30 net square feet (2.79 m2) per patient served in the occupied patient area(s). The number of patients to be served is to be determined by the facility administrator.

    449.4.2.1.2

    As determined by the facility, space for administrative and support activities shall be provided for use by facility staff to allow for care of patients in the occupied patient area(s).

    449.4.2.1.3

    As determined by the facility, space shall be provided for staff and family members of patients and staff.

    449.4.2.2Site standards.

    449.4.2.2.1

    Except as permitted by Section 1612 of this code, the lowest floor of all new facilities shall be elevated to the base flood elevation as defined in Section 1612 of this code, plus 2 feet, or to the height of hurricane Category 3 (Saffir-Simpson scale) surge inundation elevation, as described by the Sea, Lake, and Overland Surge (SLOSH) from Hurricanes model developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and the National Weather Service (NWS), whichever is higher.

    449.4.2.2.2

    For all existing facilities, the lowest floor elevations of all additions, and all patient support areas including food service, and all patient support utilities, including mechanical, and electrical (except fuel storage as noted in Section 449.4.2.9.3 of this code) for the additions shall be at or above the elevation of the existing building, if the existing building was designed and constructed to comply with either the site standards of Section 449.4 of this code or local flood-resistant requirements, in effect at the time of construction, whichever requires the higher elevation, unless otherwise permitted by Section 1612 of this code. If the existing building was constructed prior to the adoption of either the site standards of Section 449.4 of this code or local flood-resistant requirements, then the addition and all patient support areas and utilities for the addition as described in this section shall either be designed and constructed to meet the requirements of Section 449.4.2.2.1 of this code or be designed and constructed to meet the dry flood proofing requirements of Section 1612 of this code.

    449.4.2.2.3

    Substantial improvement, as defined by Section 1612 of this code, to all existing facilities located within flood areas as defined in Section 1612 of this code or within a Category 3 surge inundation zone as described in Section 449.4.2.2.1 of this code, shall be designed and constructed in compliance with Section 1612 of this code.

    449.4.2.2.4

    Where an off-site public access route is available to the new facility at or above the base flood elevation, a minimum of one on-site emergency access route shall be provided that is located at the same elevation as the public access route.

    449.4.2.2.5

    New landscaping elements shall be located so if damaged they will not block the on-site emergency access route to the facility. Outdoor signs and their foundations shall be designed to meet the wind load criteria of the Florida Building Code, Building.

    449.4.2.2.6

    New light standards and their foundations used for lighting the on-site emergency access route shall be designed to meet the wind load criteria of ASCE 7 with wind speeds determined from Figure 26.5-1B with appropriate exposure category dependent on site location.

    449.4.2.3Structural standards.

    Wind load design of the building structure and exterior envelope including exterior wall systems shall be designed in accordance with the code.

    449.4.2.4Roofing standards.

    449.4.2.4.1

    Loose-laid ballasted roofs shall not be permitted.

    449.4.2.4.2

    All new roof appendages such as ducts, tanks, ventilators, receivers, dx condensing units and decorative mansard roofs and their attachment systems shall be structurally engineered to meet the wind load requirements of the applicable building code.

    449.4.2.5Debris impact protection standards.

    449.4.2.5.1

    All exterior window units, skylights, exterior louvers and exterior door units including vision panels and their anchoring systems shall be impact resistant or protected with an impact-resistant covering meeting the requirements of the Testing Application Standards (TAS) 201, 202, and 203 of this code in accordance with the requirements of Sections 1626.2 through 1626.4 of this code or the debris impact requirements of ASTM E1996 as described in Section 1609.1.2.2. For the purposes of this requirement, facilities located in areas where the ultimate design wind speeds are 130 MPH or less as described in Figure 1609.3(2) of this code, shall meet the requirements for Wind Zone 1. The impactresistant coverings may be either permanently attached or may be removable if stored on site of the facility. Facilities located in the high velocity hurricane zone (HVHZ) shall comply with Sections 1626.2 through 1626.4.

    449.4.2.5.2

    The location or application of exterior impact protective systems shall not prevent required exit egress from the building.

    449.4.2.5.3

    When not being utilized to protect the windows, the permanently attached impact-resistant coverings shall not reduce the percentage of the clear window opening below that required by this code for the patient room.

    449.4.2.5.4

    Critical systems and utilities identified in this section shall be protected from debris impact by a housing or enclosure complying with the impact protection standards in Sections 1626.2 through 16.26.4 when located at or below 30 feet above the finished grade of the building. Roof mounted equipment shall have fastening systems designed to meet the wind load requirements of the Florida Building Code.

    449.4.2.6Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) standards.

    449.4.2.6.1

    All new air-moving equipment, dx condensing units, through-wall units and other HVAC equipment located outside of, partially outside of, or on the roof of the facility at or below 30 feet above the finished grade of the building and providing service to the new facility shall be permitted only when either of the following are met:

    449.4.2.6.1.1

    They are located inside a penthouse designed to meet the wind load requirements of the Florida Building Code, Building; or

    449.4.2.6.1.2

    They are protected in accordance with Section 449.4.2.5.4.

    449.4.2.6.2

    As determined by the facility, occupied patient areas and patient support areas shall be supplied with temperature and humidity control during and immediately following a disaster.

    449.4.2.6.3

    Ventilation air change rates in occupied patient areas shall be maintained as specified in this section during and immediately following a disaster by connection to the essential electrical system. The fan systems necessary to provide this service shall receive their power from the emergency power supply system and shall be protected from horizontal impact in accordance with Section 449.4.2.6.1.

    449.4.2.7Plumbing standards.

    449.4.2.7.1

    There shall be an independent on-site supply (i.e., water well) or on-site storage capability (i.e., empty water storage containers or bladders) of potable water at a minimum quantity of 3 gallons (14 L) per in-patient and one gallon (3.7 L) per facility staff and other personnel in the new facility or wing or floor addition to an existing facility per day during and immediately following a disaster. For planning purposes, the number of in-patients, staff and other personnel shall be determined in writing by the facility and submitted to AHCA. Hot water in boilers or tanks shall not be counted to meet this requirement.

    449.4.2.7.2

    The facility shall determine what amount of water will be sufficient to provide for patient services, and shall maintain an on-site supply or on-site storage of the determined amount.

    449.4.2.7.3

    When utilized to meet the minimum requirements of this rule, selected system appurtenances such as water pressure maintenance house pumps, and emergency water supply well pumps shall take power from the emergency power supply system(s).

    449.4.2.8Medical gas systems standards.

    The storage, distribution piping system and appurtenances serving the occupied patient area(s) and patient support area(s) shall be contained within a protected area(s) designed and constructed to meet the structural requirements of the code and debris impact requirements as specified by Sections 1626.2 through 1626.4.

    449.4.2.9

    Emergency electrical generator and essential electrical system standards for hurricane protection.

    449.4.2.9.1

    In addition to the requirements of NFPA 99 Health Care Facilities Code and NFPA 70 National Electrical Code, the on-site Level 1 emergency power supply system shall provide electrical power to the occupied patient area(s) and patient support area(s) for the following additional equipment:

    449.4.2.9.1.1

    Ice-making equipment to produce ice, or freezer storage equipment for the storage of ice.

    449.4.2.9.1.2

    If required by the emergency food plan, refrigerator unit(s) food service equipment, range hood exhaust fans and selected lighting within the kitchen and dry storage areas.

    449.4.2.9.1.3

    Selected heating or air conditioning systems as determined by the facility and ventilation systems as required by this code.

    449.4.2.9.1.4

    Electric lighting required to provide care and service to the patient occupied areas and the necessary patient support areas as defined by this section.

    449.4.2.9.2

    The emergency power system shall be fueled by a fuel supply stored on-site sized to fuel the generator for 100-percent load for 64 hours or for 72 hours of actual demand load of the occupied patient area(s) and patient support area(s) and patient support utilities during and immediately following a disaster, whichever is greater.

    449.4.2.9.3

    The fuel supply and all fuel lines of the emergency power system generator shall either be located below ground or protected in accordance with Section 449.4.2.5.4.

    449.4.2.9.4

    All panel boards, transfer switches, disconnect switches, enclosed circuit breakers or emergency system raceway systems required to support the occupied patient area(s), patient support area(s) or support utilities shall be protected in accordance with Section 449.4.2.5.4, and shall not rely on systems or devices outside of this protected area(s) for their reliability or continuation of service. The equipment system shall be kept entirely independent of all other wiring and equipment and shall not enter the same raceways, boxes, or cabinets with other wiring.

    449.4.2.9.5

    The emergency generator(s) shall be air or self-contained liquid cooled and it and other essential electrical equipment shall be protected in accordance with Section 449.4.2.5.4.

    449.4.2.9.6

    A new facility shall be equipped with either a permanent on-site optional stand-by generator to operate at least the nonessential loads of the electrical system or the entire normal branch of the electrical system, or there shall be a permanently installed predesigned electrical service entry for the electrical system that will allow a quick connection to a temporary electrical generator to operate at least the nonessential loads of the electrical system or the entire normal branch of the electrical system. This quick connection shall be installed inside of a permanent metal enclosure rated for this purpose and may be located on the exterior of the building.

    449.4.2.10

    External emergency communications standards. Reference Chapter 59A-3.081 Florida Administrative Code for requirements.

    SECTION450
    NURSING HOMES

    450.1Scope.

    All newly licensed nursing homes, including conversions of existing buildings or newly constructed nursing homes, and all additions, alterations or renovations to an existing licensed nursing home shall comply with all applicable requirements of this code and the minimum standards of design, construction and specified minimum essential utilities and facilities of this section and shall have plans reviewed and construction surveyed by the state agency authorized to do so by Chapter 553.80(1)(c), Florida Statutes to assure compliance with all applicable requirements of this code.

    450.1.1

    The following are exempt from review under this part:

    450.1.1.1

    Change of ownership of an existing licensed nursing home.

    450.1.1.2

    Change to an existing nursing home’s license type that has no additional physical plant requirements

    450.1.1.3

    Change of the functional use of a space, room, or area when no physical plant revisions are made or are required to be made by this code

    450.1.2

    A facility licensed as a nursing home that only admits children 0 years through 20 years of age shall meet these minimum standards as they are required by the functional program of the facility.

    450.1.3

    The Florida Building Code, Existing Building, Section 101.2, Scope exempts state licensed facilities such as nursing homes from compliance with that code. Any repair, alteration, change of occupancy, addition or relocation of an existing state licensed nursing home shall comply with the applicable requirements of this code and this section.

    450.1.4

    For project submission and fee requirements, and other administrative, licensure, and programmatic provisions for nursing homes, see Agency for Health Care Administration (AHCA) Chapter 59A-4 Florida Administrative Code and Chapter 400 Part II, Florida Statutes.

    450.1.5

    For state licensure purposes, these codes and standards shall be applicable to the project on the effective date of this code at the time of Stage II preliminary plan approval by the Agency for Health Care Administration (the Agency) as described in Chapter 59A-4 Florida Administrative Code or at the first Stage III construction document review if there has been no previous Stage II preliminary plan approval for that project.

    450.2Additional codes and standards for the design and construction of nursing homes.

    In addition to the minimum design and construction standards required by Section 450 of this code, Chapter 59A-4, Minimum Standards for Nursing Homes, Florida Administrative Code or by Chapter 400 Part II, Florida Statutes, the following codes and standards shall also be met on the effective date of this code as described in Section 450.1.5 of this code:.

    450.2.1

    The fire codes described in Chapter 69A-53, Uniform Fire Safety Standards for Hospitals and Nursing Homes, Florida Administrative Code.

    450.2.2

    The Guidelines for Design and Construction of Residential Health, Care, and Support Facilities (The Guidelines), including Chapter 3.2 Specific Requirements for Nursing Homes as referenced in Chapter 35 of this code.

    450.3Additional physical plant requirements for nursing homes.

    In addition to the codes and standards referenced in Section 450.2 the following minimum standards of construction and specified minimum essential facilities shall apply to all new nursing homes, and all additions, alterations or renovations to an existing licensed nursing home, as described in Section 450.1 and listed in this section.

    450.3.1Special considerations:

    450.3.1.1

    Nursing homes designed to serve only for children 0 through 20 years of age may have a maximum room capacity of four persons.

    450.3.1.2

    Skilled nursing units that are part of a hospital and licensed as a hospital bed but certified as a skilled nursing bed shall meet the requirements for a skilled nursing unit in the FGI Guidelines for Design and Construction of Hospitals and Outpatient Facilities as referenced in Chapter 35 of this code.

    450.3.2Resident rooms.

    In addition to the requirements of The Guidelines, Chapter 3.2, each resident room shall meet the following minimum standards:

    450.3.2.1

    In new construction and additions, the maximum room capacity of each resident room shall be two persons. In double occupancy resident rooms, sleeping areas shall be separated from each other by a wall or partition to increase acoustic and visual privacy. Each person lying in bed shall have direct visual access to an exterior window at all times. Either doors or cubicle curtains to these individual resident sleeping areas shall be provided.

    450.3.2.2

    Each resident room shall have a minimum of 100 square feet (9.29 m2) of clear floor area per bed in a double occupancy resident room and 120 square feet (11.15 m2) of clear floor area in a single occupancy resident room, exclusive of the space consumed by the toilet room, closet(s), wardrobe(s), lavatory(ies), alcove(s), and either the space for the door swing(s) into the room or the space for entrance vestibule, whichever is greater. For the purpose of determining the minimum clear floor area, the entrance vestibule is defined as that floor area located between the room entrance door and the room floor area containing the resident bed(s).

    450.3.2.3

    Where renovation work is undertaken that alters the room configuration, every effort shall be made to meet these minimum space standards. When this is not possible due to existing physical conditions or constraints, and with the approval of the Agency, a resident room shall have no less than 80 square feet (7.43 m2) of clear floor area per bed in a double occupancy resident room and 100 square feet (9.29 m2) of clear floor area in a single occupancy resident room.

    450.3.2.4

    The design for privacy shall not restrict resident access at any time to the room entrance, resident armchair, toilet or bathroom, wardrobe, exterior window or closet.

    450.3.2.5

    Each new resident room, and each individual resident sleeping area, as described in Section 450.3.2.1, shall have an exterior window(s) to the outside that is physically accessible to each resident at all times and visible from the resident’s bed. The window shall be sized with a clear opening of 8 percent of the gross square footage of the resident sleeping room or individual resident sleeping area as described in Section 450.3.2.1. The clear opening of the resident room window width and height shall have a minimum of 20 feet (6.10 m) unobstructed vista to any permanent structure, or equipment, and 15 feet (4.57 m) unobstructed vista to any vehicular parking areas or property line measured horizontally from the plane of the window.

    450.3.3Resident support areas and services.

    450.3.3.1Staff work area(s) (nurse station).

    See The Guidelines for requirements.

    450.3.3.2Clean utility room.

    See The Guidelines for requirements.

    450.3.3.3Soiled utility or soiled holding room(s).

    See The Guidelines for requirements.

    450.3.3.4Medication storage and distribution.

    See The Guidelines for requirements.

    450.3.3.5A nourishment room.

    See The Guidelines for requirements.

    450.3.3.6Ice for residents’ consumption.

    See The Guidelines for requirements. Where the icemaker unit is accessible to residents or the public, it shall be a selfdispensing type.

    450.3.4Resident living, social, and treatment areas.

    See The Guidelines for additional requirements.

    450.3.4.1

    Dining, lounges, recreation areas, and social areas for residents shall be provided. The total area of these spaces shall be a minimum of 35 square feet (3.25 m2) per bed with a minimum total area of 225 square feet (20.90 m2). At least 20 square feet (1.86 m2) per resident shall be available for dining. Additional space may be required for resident day care programs. Storage for supplies and equipment shall be provided in the recreation area.

    450.3.4.2

    Storage for supplies, and resident needs, shall be provided. Storage shall be on site but not necessarily in the same building as the resident rooms, provided access is convenient. The minimum required area shall be 5 square feet (0.46 m2) per resident up to 600 square feet (55.74 m2). See The Guidelines for additional requirements.

    450.3.4.3

    Outdoor area(s) shall be provided for the use of all residents and shall include walking paths of durable materials, benches, shaded areas, and visual focusing element(s) such as landscaping, sculpture, or fountain(s). Security fencing if used shall be of a residential design and provide some visual connection to the exterior of the secured area. If an exterior visual connection is not possible or desirable then the interior of the outside area shall be landscaped to be visually interesting. See The Guidelines for additional requirements.

    450.3.4.4

    A barber/beauty room shall be provided with facilities and equipment for resident hair care and grooming. The area of the room shall be a minimum of 120 square feet (11.15 m2) with the least dimension of 10 feet (3.05 m). See The Guidelines for additional requirements.

    450.3.5Details and finishes.

    See The Guidelines for additional requirements.

    450.3.5.1

    Doors to all rooms containing bathtubs, showers, and water closets for resident use located in double occupancy rooms or that are shared between two single occupancy rooms, shall be equipped with privacy hardware that permits emergency access without the use of keys. When such room has only one entrance and is equipped with a swing door, the door shall open outward, or be equipped with emergency release hardware. When emergency release hardware is utilized on a swing door located in a public area, it shall provide visual privacy for the resident and if required by other sections of this code, be smoke resistant. The toilet room door that swings open into the resident room shall not impede the swing of any other door that opens into the resident room.

    450.3.5.2

    Interior corridor doors, except those to small closets, janitor’s closets, electrical or mechanical rooms, housekeeping closets and other small rooms not subject to occupancy, shall not swing into the corridor. A door located on the exit access corridor, and required to swing outward, shall open into an alcove.

    450.3.5.3

    A sliding door equipped with sliding hardware located on the resident room side of the wall and without a bottom track shall be permitted on an individual resident toilet or bathroom. If a sliding door is used on a resident toilet or bathroom, a D-shaped handle at least 4 inches (10.16 cm) long shall be provided to open the door.

    450.3.5.4

    Door thresholds, except where required at exterior doors, and expansion joint covers shall be designed to facilitate use of wheelchairs and carts and to prevent tripping and shall provide a smooth and level transition from surface-to-surface.

    450.3.5.5

    Towel bars shall be provided at each bathing facility.

    450.3.5.6

    Toilet compartment partitions and urinal screens shall be constructed of a product that does not rust, corrode or delaminate.

    450.3. 5.7

    A minimum of one electric drinking fountain or water and cup dispenser shall be provided per resident floor unless drinking water is available from the resident dietary area.

    450.3.5.8

    Wall coverings that promote the growth of mold and mildew shall be avoided on exterior walls or on walls that are located in normally wet locations.

    450.3.5.9

    All fire walls, smoke barriers, horizontal exits and exit passageway partitions shall be constructed prior to the construction of all intervening walls. Where rated walls, barriers or partitions intersect, the continuity of the higher priority wall, barrier, or partition shall be maintained through the intersection.

    450.3.5.10

    Smoke barriers shall be constructed to provide a continuous smoke-tight membrane from exterior wall to exterior wall and from the floor to the underside of the floor or roof deck above. This includes interstitial space and the area above monolithic fire-rated ceiling membranes. Roof trusses shall be permitted to penetrate portions of the smoke barrier located above the fire-rated ceiling membrane where the annular space between the penetrating truss member and the smoke barrier is sealed to limit the transfer of smoke.

    450.3.5.11

    Where it is not possible to visually inspect a fire-rated partition, wall or barrier or a smoke barrier that extends through the attic or interstitial space to the roof or floor deck above because of the location of a monolithic ceiling membrane, ceiling access panel(s) shall be installed adjacent to each side of the partition, wall or barrier at intervals not exceeding 30 feet (9.0 m) and in such locations as necessary to view all surfaces of the partition, fire wall or smoke barrier. Other ceiling access panels shall only be installed as required by other sections of the code. Partitions, walls and barriers requiring protected openings or penetrations shall be identified in accordance with Section 703 of this code.

    450.3.5.12

    Where electrical conduits, cable trays, ducts and utility pipes pass through the smoke partition, the utilities shall be located so that access is maintained to adjacent wall surfaces and to all damper access panels. The details shall show the studs and reinforcing half studs so that proper support is provided for the wall surfacing material. There shall be a minimum clearance of 4 inches (102 mm) between all conduits, piping, and duct work insulation that are located parallel or adjacent to a fire wall or to a smoke barrier to facilitate the inspection of these walls.

    450.3.6Elevators.

    All buildings having resident use areas on more than one floor shall have hospital-type electric or hydraulic elevator(s) that shall be in compliance with the requirements of Chapter 30 of this code and Chapter 69A-47, Florida Administrative Code, Uniform Fire Safety Standards for Elevators. See The Guidelines for additional requirements.

    450.3.7Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems.

    See The Guidelines for additional requirements.

    450.3.7.1

    Air-handling equipment shall be installed exterior of the building, to include the roof, in a designated equipment room(s), in an open space(s) of an attic(s) or interstitial space(s) located inside the conditioned envelop of the building, or in an enclosed space located in an unconditioned attic(s). If the equipment serves only one room, it may be located above the ceiling and shall be accessible through an access opening in accordance with the requirements of such openings in this code. Access panels are not required for lay-in ceiling installations, provided the service functions are not obstructed by other above-ceiling construction, such as electrical conduits, piping, audio visual cabling and like equipment components or supports.

    450.3.7.2

    All outdoor air intakes shall be located a minimum of 3 feet (0.91 m) above surrounding surfaces and a minimum of 10 feet (3.05 m) horizontally from any exhaust air or plumbing vent. This requirement shall take priority over referenced standards.

    450.3.7.3

    The transfer of air quantities through one space to an adjacent space is not permitted except that the transfer of air to maintain space relative pressure by the under cutting of doors is permitted. The maximum allowable air quantity for door undercuts shall be 75 cfm (35.38 L/s) for single door widths up to 44 inches (1117 mm).

    450.3.7.4

    All supply, return and exhaust ventilation fans shall operate continuously. Dietary hood, laundry area, administrative areas that are separated from all resident areas and support areas and maintenance area supply and exhaust fans shall be exempted from continuous operation.

    450.3.7.5

    Cooling coil condensate shall be piped to a roof drain, floor drain or other approved location.

    450.3.7.6

    Each new resident sleeping room or resident sleeping area that is separated by a permanent partition and door shall be provided with a separate thermostat to provide individual adjustment of room or area temperature.

    450.3.8Exhaust.

    See The Guidelines for additional requirements.

    450.3.8.1

    Exhaust fans and other fans operating in conjunction with a negative duct system pressure shall be located at the discharge end of the system. Fans located immediately within the building located at the end of all exhaust ducts shall be permitted. Existing, nonconforming systems need not be brought into compliance when equipment is replaced due to equipment failure.

    450.3.8.2

    Exhaust hoods in food preparation areas shall be listed or certified by a nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL).

    450.3.9Ducts.

    See The Guidelines for additional requirements.

    450.3.9.1

    All new facility construction shall have totally ducted supply, return, exhaust and outside air systems including areas of all occupancy classifications.

    450.3.9.2

    In new construction, duct system risers penetrating more than one floor shall be installed in vertical fire-rated shafts. Horizontal offsets of the risers shall not be allowed. Fire/smoke dampers shall be installed at duct penetrations of the chase. Existing nonconforming systems shall be brought into compliance when remodel or renovation work is proposed.

    450.3.10

    Fan and damper control during fire alarm. See The Guidelines for additional requirements.

    450.3.10.1

    During an automatic fire alarm or the activation of a duct smoke detector, fan systems and fan equipment serving more than one room shall be stopped to prevent the movement of smoke by mechanical means from the zone in alarm to adjacent smoke zones.

    450.3.10.2

    Air-handling and fan coil units serving exit access corridors for the zone in alarm shall shut down upon fire alarm.

    450.3.10.3

    Smoke or fire/smoke dampers shall close upon fire alarm and upon manual shutdown of the associated supply, return or exhaust fan.

    450.3.11Plumbing.

    See The Guidelines for additional requirements.

    450.3.11.1

    Grease interceptors shall be located outside of the building.

    450.3.11.2

    Provide deep seal traps for floor drains in resident showers.

    450.3.11.3

    Food preparation sinks, pot washing, dishwashers, janitor sinks, floor drains, and cart and can wash drains shall run through the grease trap. Garbage disposers shall not run through the grease trap.

    450.3.11.4

    Ice machines, rinse sinks, dishwashers, and beverage dispenser drip receptacles shall be indirectly wasted.

    450.3.11.5

    A backflow preventer shall be installed on the facility main water source(s).

    450.3.11.6

    All piping, except control-line tubing, shall be identified. All valves shall be tagged, and a valve schedule shall be provided to the facility owner for permanent record and reference.

    450.3.11.7

    If eye wash stations are provided, they shall be installed in accordance with American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard Z358.1 for Emergency Eyewash and Shower Equipment as referenced in Chapter 35 of this code.

    450.3.12Medical gas and vacuum systems.

    If provided, a medical gas and vacuum system shall be in conformance with the requirements for a Category 2 Building System as described in NFPA 99, Health Care Facilities Code. See The Guidelines for additional requirements.

    450.3.13Fire pump.

    450.3.13.1

    Where required by another section of this code, a new fire pump, except for a replacement fire pump, that is electric motor-driven shall be connected to the Emergency Power Supply System (EPSS) of the hospital. A fire pump(s) that is not electric motordriven shall meet the requirements of NFPA 20, Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection alternative power.

    450.3.14Electrical requirements.

    See The Guidelines for additional requirements.

    450.3.14.1

    All material, including equipment, conductors, controls, and signaling devices, shall be installed to provide a complete electrical system with the necessary characteristics and capacity to supply the electrical facility requirements as shown in the specifications and as indicated on the plans. All materials and equipment shall be listed as complying with applicable standards of Underwriter’s Laboratories, Inc., or other nationally recognized testing facilities. Field labeling of equipment and materials will be permitted only when provided by a nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL) that has been certified by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for that referenced standard.

    450.3.14.2

    For purposes of electrical requirements, a resident room, a resident therapy area or an examination room that is not equipped with a piped medical gas or vacuum system shall be reviewed as a basic care room or space as defined in NFPA 99 Health Care Facilities Code. A resident room, a resident therapy area or an examination room that is equipped with a piped medical gas or vacuum system shall be reviewed as a general care room or space as defined in NFPA 99 Health Care Facilities Code, and Chapter 27, Electrical Systems, of this code.

    450.3.14.3

    Panels may be located in spaces subject to storage and shall have the clear working space in accordance with Chapter 27, permanently marked “ELECTRICAL—NOT FOR STORAGE” with a line outlining the required clear working space on the floor and wall.

    450.3.14.4

    Panel boards shall not be located in an exit access corridor or in an unenclosed space or area that is open to an exit access corridor. Panel boards may be located inside of a room or closet that opens into an exit access corridor only when the room or closet is separated from the exit access corridor by a partition and door that comply with this code.

    450.3.14.5

    There shall be documentation for equipotential grounding in all patient care areas, building service ground electrode systems, lightning protection ground terminals and special systems such as fire alarm, nurse call, paging, generator, emergency power and breaker coordination.

    450.3.15Lighting.

    See The Guidelines for additional requirements.

    450.3.15.1

    All spaces occupied by people, machinery and equipment within buildings, approaches to buildings and parking lots shall have electric lighting.

    450.3.15.2

    Resident bedrooms shall have general lighting from ceiling mounted fixtures, floor lamp fixtures or table mounted fixtures. Separate fixed night lighting shall be provided. The night-light shall have a switch at the entrance to each resident’s room or separate sleeping area. A reading light shall be provided for each resident. Resident reading lights and other fixed lights not switched at the door shall have switch controls convenient for use at the luminary. Wall-mounted switches for control of lighting in resident areas shall be of quiet operating type.

    450.3.15.3

    All lighting in the resident use areas including corridors, shared spaces, treatment areas, sleeping areas, social areas and living areas shall meet the recommendations of ANSI/IES RP-28-07 Lighting and the Visual Environment for Senior Living as referenced in Chapter 35 of this code.

    450.3.15.4

    All general resident room lighting and all corridor lighting used by residents shall be designed to minimize glare such as indirect lighting.

    450.3.16Fire alarm systems.

    450.3.16.1

    A fire alarm annunciator panel shall be provided at a single designated 24-hour monitored location. The panel shall indicate visually, the zone of actuation of the alarm and audibly and visually system trouble. Each smoke compartment shall be annunciated as a separate fire alarm zone. A fire alarm system zone shall not include rooms or spaces in other smoke compartments. A zone location map to quickly locate alarm condition shall be provided at the fire alarm control panel.

    450.3.16.2

    In all resident care rooms, spaces and areas, including sleeping, treatment, diagnostic and therapeutic, the design and installation of the private operating mode fire alarm as permitted and described in NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code, shall be required. Only the attendants and other personnel required to evacuate occupants from a zone, area, room, floor, or building shall be required to be notified.

    450.3.16.3

    The disconnecting device or circuit breaker for the fire alarm control unit shall be clearly identified and secured from unauthorized operation.

    450.3.17Nurse call systems.

    Wired- or wireless-type nurse call systems shall be permitted if they have been tested and approved by a national recognized testing laboratory (NRTL) to meet the requirements of UL 1069, 7th edition, published October 12, 2007, as referenced in Chapter 35 of this code. All wireless systems shall have been tested and approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL) to meet the requirements of Section 49, Wireless Systems of UL 1069, 7th edition as referenced in Chapter 35 of this code. All nurse call systems whether wired or wireless shall have electronically supervised visual and audible annunciation in accordance with the supervision criteria of UL 1069, 7th edition for nurse call systems and tested and approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL) to meet those requirements.

    450.3.17.1

    A nurse call system shall be provided that will register a call from a call button from each resident bed to the related staff work area(s) by activating a visual signal at the resident room door or wireless pager and activating a visual and audible signal in the clean utility, soiled utility, nourishment station, medication prep or mobile nurse station receiver and the master station of the resident. If a mobile nurse station receiver is utilized to receive the resident call, it will be worn by all staff who are assigned to the resident unit and shall identify the specific resident and or room from which the call was placed. Audible signals may be temporarily silenced, provided subsequent calls automatically reactivate the audible signal. In rooms containing two or more calling stations, indicating lights shall be provided for each calling station. In multicorridor nursing units, corridor zone lights shall be installed at corridor intersections in the vicinity of staff work areas.

    450.3.17.2

    An emergency calling station of the pull cord-type shall be provided and shall be conveniently located for resident use at each exam room (if provided), resident toilet, bath or shower room but not inside of the shower unless the nurse call device is listed for wet locations. The call signal shall be the highest priority and shall be cancelled only at the emergency calling station. The emergency calling station shall activate distinctive audible and visual signals immediately at the resident room door or wireless pager, and activate a visual and audible signal in the clean utility, soiled utility, nourishment station, medication prep or mobile nurse station receiver and the master station of the resident unit. If a mobile nurse station receiver is utilized to receive the resident call, it will be worn by all staff who are assigned to the resident unit and shall identify the specific resident and or room from which the call was placed.

    450.3.17.3

    The nurse call master station shall be located inside the resident unit at a staff administrative area and shall not block any incoming resident calls. The master station control settings shall not prevent the activation of the incoming audible and visual signals. In wireless systems, all orphaned calls to mobile nurse station receivers will register at the nurse call master station.

    450.3.17.4

    Activation of an emergency call shall not cancel a normal call from the same room.

    450.3.17.5

    A corridor dome light shall be located directly outside of any resident care area that is equipped with a wired nurse call system.

    450.3.18Essential electrical system.

    450.3.18.1

    A Type 1 essential electrical system shall be provided in all new nursing homes as described in NFPA 99, Health Care Facilities Code. The emergency power for this system shall meet the requirements of a Level 1, Type 10, Class 48 generator as described in NFPA 110, Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems.

    450.3.18.2

    In new facility construction, the normal main service equipment shall be separated from the emergency distribution equipment by locating it in a separate room. Transfer switches shall be considered emergency distribution equipment for this purpose.

    450.3.18.3

    There shall be a generator remote alarm annunciator in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 110 located at a designated on-site 24-hour staffed location.

    450.3.18.4

    There shall be illumination of the means of egress in accordance with NFPA 101 and designed for automatic dusk-to-dawn operation. Such illumination shall continue to the public way or to a safe area(s) located at a minimum of 30 feet (9.144 m) from the building and large enough to accommodate the required occupant load of the exit discharge.

    450.3.18.5

    A minimum of one elevator per bank serving any patient use floor shall be connected to the equipment branch of the essential electric system and arranged for manual or automatic operation during loss of normal power.

    450.3.18.6

    If a day tank is provided, it shall be equipped with a dedicated low-level fuel alarm and a manual pump. The alarm shall be located at the generator remote alarm annunciator as described in Section 450.3.18.3

    450.3.18.7

    The generator remote manual stop (sometimes called the “generator emergency stop”) shall be tamper resistant. It shall be located outside of the housing of the generator, adjacent to the opening of the generator enclosure or to the door to the generator room, and viewable from the generator.

    450.3.19Lightning protection.

    450.3.19.1

    A lightning protection system shall be provided for all new buildings and additions in accordance with NFPA 780, Installation of Lightning Protection Systems.

    450.3.19.2

    Where additions are constructed to existing buildings, the existing building’s lightning protection system, if connected to the new lightning protection system, shall be inspected and brought into compliance with current standards.

    450.3.19.3

    There shall be surge protection for all normal and emergency electrical services.

    450.3.19.4

    Additional surge protection shall be provided for all low-voltage and power connections to all electronic equipment in critical care areas and life safety systems and equipment such as fire alarm, nurse call and other critical systems. Protection shall be in accordance with appropriate IEEE Standards for the type of equipment protected.

    450.3.19.5

    All low-voltage system main or branch circuits entering or exiting the structure shall have surge suppressors installed for each pair of conductors and shall have visual indication for protector failure to the maximum extent feasible.

    450.4Physical plant requirements for disaster preparedness of new nursing home construction.

    450.4.1Definitions.

    The following definitions shall apply specifically to this section:

    450.4.1.1NEW FACILITY.

    A nursing home which has not received a Stage II preliminary plan approval from the Agency for Health Care Administration pursuant to this section.

    450.4.1.2NET SQUARE FOOTAGE.

    The clear floor space of an area excluding cabinetry and other fixed furniture or equipment.

    450.4.1.3DURING AND IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING.

    A period of 72 hours following the loss of normal support utilities to the facility.

    450.4.1.4OCCUPIED RESIDENT AREA(S).

    The location of residents inside of the new facility or in the addition of a wing or floor to an existing facility during and immediately following a disaster. If these residents are to be relocated into an area of the existing facility during and immediately following a disaster, then for these purposes, that location will be defined as the “occupied resident area.”

    450.4.1.5RESIDENT SUPPORT AREA(S).

    The area(s) required to ensure the health, safety and wellbeing of residents during and immediately following a disaster, such as a staff work area, clean and soiled utility areas, food preparation area and other areas as determined by the facility to be kept operational during and immediately following a disaster.

    450.4.1.6ON SITE.

    Either in, immediately adjacent to, or on the campus of the facility, or addition of a wing or floor to an existing facility.

    450.4.1.7RESIDENTS SERVED.

    The number of residents as determined by the facility that will be served in the occupied resident area(s) during and immediately following a disaster.

    450.4.2Disaster preparedness construction standards.

    The following construction standards are in addition to the physical plant requirements described in Sections 450.2 through 450.3. These minimum standards are intended to increase the ability of the facility to be structurally capable of serving as a shelter for residents, staff and the family of residents and staff and equipped to be self-supporting during and immediately following a disaster:

    450.4.2.1Space standards.

    450.4.2.1.1

    For planning purposes, each new facility shall provide a minimum of 30 net square feet (2.79 m2) per resident served in the occupied resident area(s). The number of residents to be served is to be determined by the facility administration.

    450.4.2.1.2

    As determined by the facility, space for administrative and support activities shall be provided for use by facility staff to allow for care of residents in the occupied resident area(s).

    450.4.2.1.3

    As determined by the facility, space shall be provided for all staff and family members of residents and staff.

    450.4.2.2Site standards.

    450.4.2.2.1

    Except as permitted by Section 1612 of this code, the lowest floor of all new facilities shall be elevated to the base flood elevation as defined in Section 1612 of this code, plus 2 feet (607 mm), or to the height of hurricane Category 3 (Saffir-Simpson scale) surge inundation elevation, as described by the Sea, Lake, and Overland Surge (SLOSH) from Hurricanes model developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and the National Weather Service (NWS), whichever is higher.

    450.4.2.2.2

    For all existing facilities, the lowest floor elevations of all additions, and all resident support areas including food service, and all resident support utilities, including mechanical, and electrical (except fuel storage as noted in Section 450.4.2.9.3 of this code) for the additions shall be at or above the elevation of the existing building, if the existing building was designed and constructed to comply with either the site standards of Section 450.4 of this code or local flood-resistant requirements in effect at the time of construction, whichever requires the higher elevation, unless otherwise permitted by Section 1612 of this code. If the existing building was constructed prior to the adoption of either the site standards of Section 450.4 of this code or local flood-resistant requirements, then the addition and all resident support areas and utilities for the addition as described in this section shall either be designed and constructed to meet the requirements of Section 450.4.2.2.1 of this code or be designed and constructed to meet the dry flood proofing requirements of Section 1612 of this code.

    450.4.2.2.3

    Substantial improvement, as defined by Section 1612 of this code, to all existing facilities located within flood areas as defined in Section 1612 of this code or within a Category 3 surge inundation zone as described in Section 450.4.2.2.1 of this code, shall be designed and constructed in compliance with Section 1612 of this code.

    450.4.2.2.4

    Where an off-site public access route is available to the new facility at or above the base flood elevation, a minimum of one on-site emergency access route shall be provided that is located at the same elevation as the public access route.

    450.4.2.2.5

    New landscaping elements shall be located so if damaged they will not block the on-site emergency access route to the facility. Outdoor signs and their foundations shall be designed to meet the wind load criteria of this code.

    450.4.2.2.6

    New light standards and their foundations used for lighting the on-site emergency access route shall be designed to meet the wind load criteria of ASCE 7 with wind speeds determined from Figure 26.5-1B with appropriate exposure category dependent on site location.

    450.4.2.3Structural standards.

    Wind load design of the building structure and exterior envelope including exterior wall systems shall be designed in accordance with this code.

    450.4.2.4Roofing standards.

    450.4.2.4.1

    Loose-laid ballasted roofs shall not be permitted.

    450.4.2.4.2

    All new roof appendages such as ducts, tanks, ventilators, receivers, dx condensing units and decorative mansard roofs and their attachment systems shall be structurally engineered to meet the wind load requirements of the applicable building code.

    450.4.2.5Debris impact protection standards.

    450.4.2.5.1

    All exterior window units, skylights, exterior louvers and exterior door units including vision panels and their anchoring systems shall be impact resistant or protected with an impact-resistant covering meeting the requirements of the Testing Application Standards (TAS) 201, 202, and 203 of this code in accordance with the requirements of Sections 1626.2 through 1626.4 of this code or the debris impact requirements of ASTM E1996 as described in Section 1609.1.2.2. For the purposes of this requirement, facilities located where the ultimate design wind speeds are 130 MPH or less, as described in Figure 1609.3(2) of this code, shall meet the requirements for Wind Zone 1. The impactresistant coverings may be either permanently attached or may be removable if stored on site of the facility. Facilities located in the high velocity hurricane zone (HVHZ) shall comply with Sections 1626.2. through 1626.4.

    450.4.2.5.2

    The location or application of exterior impact protective systems shall not prevent required exit egress from the building.

    450.4.2.5.3

    When not being utilized to protect the windows, the permanently attached impact-resistant coverings shall not reduce the percentage of the clear window opening below what is required by this code for the patient room.

    450.4.2.5.4

    Critical systems and utilities identified in this section shall be protected from debris impact by a housing or enclosure complying with the impact protection standards in Sections 1626.2 through 16.26.4 when located at or below 30 feet above the finished grade of the building. Roof mounted equipment shall have fastening systems designed to meet the wind load requirements of the Florida Building Code.

    450.4.2.6Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) standards.

    450.4.2.6.1

    All new air-moving equipment, dx condensing units, through-wall units and other HVAC equipment located outside of, partially outside of, or on the roof of the facility at or below 30 feet above the finished grade of the building and providing service to the new facility shall be permitted only when either of the following are met:

    450.4.2.6.1.1

    They are located inside a penthouse designed to meet the wind load requirements of the Florida Building Code, Building; or

    They are protected in accordance with Section 450.4.2.5.4.

    450.4.2.6.2

    As determined by the facility, occupied resident areas and resident support areas shall be supplied with temperature and humidity control during and immediately following a disaster.

    450.4.2.6.3

    Ventilation air change rates in occupied patient areas shall be maintained as specified in this section during and immediately following a disaster by connection to the essential electrical system. The fan systems necessary to provide this service shall receive their power from the emergency power supply system and shall be protected from horizontal impact in accordance with Section 450.4.2.6.1.

    450.4.2.7Plumbing standards.

    450.4.2.7.1

    There shall be an independent on-site supply (i.e., water well) or on-site storage capability (i.e., empty water storage containers or bladders) of potable water at a minimum quantity of 3 gallons (11 L) per resident served per day during and immediately following a disaster. For planning purposes the number of in-patients shall be determined in writing by the facility. Hot water in boilers or tanks shall not be counted to meet this requirement.

    450.4.2.7.2

    There shall be an independent on-site supply or storage capability of potable water at a minimum quantity of 1 gallon (4 L) per facility staff, and other personnel in the facility per day during and immediately following a disaster. For planning purposes, the number of these personnel shall be estimated by the facility. Hot water in boilers or tanks shall not be counted to meet this requirement.

    450.4.2.7.3

    The facility shall determine what amount of water will be sufficient to provide for resident services, and shall maintain an on-site supply or on-site storage of the determined amount.

    450.4.2.7.4

    When used to meet the minimum requirements of this rule, selected system appurtenances such as water pressure maintenance house pumps and emergency water supply well pumps shall take power from the emergency power supply system(s).

    450.4.2.8Medical gas systems standards.

    The storage, distribution piping system and appurtenances shall be contained within a protected area(s) designed and constructed to meet the structural requirements of this code and debris impact requirements as specified by Sections 1626.2 through 1626.4.

    450.4.2.9

    Emergency electrical generator and essential electrical system standards for hurricane protection.

    450.4.2.9.1

    In addition to the requirements of NFPA 99 Health Care Facilities Code and NFPA 70 National Electrical Code, the on-site Level 1 emergency electrical power supply system shall provide electrical power to the occupied patient area(s) and patient support area(s) for the following additional equipment:

    450.4.2.9.1.1

    Ice-making equipment to produce ice or freezer storage equipment for the storage of ice.

    450.4.2.9.1.2

    If required by the emergency food plan, refrigerator unit(s) food service equipment, range hood exhaust fans and selected lighting within the kitchen and dry storage areas.

    450.4.2.9.1.3

    At a minimum, there shall be one clothes washer and one clothes dryer for laundry service.

    450.4.2.9.1.4

    Selected heating or air conditioning systems as determined by the facility, and ventilation systems as required by this code.

    450.4.2.9.1.5

    Electric lighting required to provide care and service to the patient occupied areas and the necessary patient support areas as defined by this section.

    450.4.2.9.2

    The emergency power supply shall be fueled by a fuel supply stored on-site sized to fuel the generator for 100-percent load for 64 hours or for 72 hours of actual demand load of the occupied patient area(s) and patient support area(s) and patient support utilities during and immediately following a disaster, whichever is greater.

    450.4.2.9.3

    The fuel supply and all fuel lines of the emergency power supply shall either be located below ground or protected in accordance with Section 450.4.2.5.4.

    450.4.2.9.4

    All panel boards, transfer switches, disconnect switches, enclosed circuit breakers or emergency system raceway systems required to support the occupied patient area(s), patient support area(s) or support utilities shall be protected in accordance with Section 450.4.2.5.4 and shall not rely on systems or devices outside of this protected area(s) for their reliability or continuation of service. The equipment system shall be kept entirely independent of all other wiring and equipment and shall not enter the same raceways, boxes, or cabinets with other wiring.

    450.4.2.9.5

    The emergency generator(s) shall be air or self-contained liquid cooled and it and other essential electrical equipment shall be protected in accordance with Section 450.4.2.5.4.

    450.4.2.9.6

    A new facility shall be equipped with either a permanent on-site optional stand-by generator to operate at least the nonessential loads of the electrical system or the entire normal branch of the electrical system, or there shall be a permanently installed predesigned electrical service entry for the electrical system that will allow a quick connection to a temporary electrical generator to operate at least the nonessential loads of the electrical system or the entire normal branch of the electrical system. This quick connection shall be installed inside of a permanent metal enclosure rated for this purpose and may be located on the exterior of the building.

    450.4.2.9.7

    Existing facilities that are not required to have an emergency power supply system shall be permitted to renovate existing utility systems without having to add an emergency power supply system.

    450.4.2.10

    External emergency communications standards. Reference Chapter 59A-4, Florida Administrative Code for requirements.

    SECTION451
    AMBULATORY SURGICAL CENTERS

    451.1Scope.

    451.1.1

    All newly licensed or newly constructed ambulatory surgical centers, including conversions of existing buildings, all ambulatory surgical center outpatient facilities and ambulatory surgical center mobile and transportable units, unless exempted by Chapter 395.0163, Florida Statutes and all additions, alterations or renovations to an existing licensed ambulatory surgical center shall comply with all applicable requirements of this code and the minimum standards of design, construction and specified minimum essential utilities and facilities of this section and shall have plans reviewed and construction surveyed by the state agency authorized to do so by Chapter 553.80(1)(c), Florida Statutes to assure compliance with all applicable requirements of this code.

    451.1.2

    The following are exempt from review under this part:

    451.1.2.1

    Change of ownership of an existing licensed ambulatory surgical center.

    451.1.2.2

    Change to an existing ambulatory surgical center’s license type that has no additional physical plant requirements.

    451.1.2.3

    Change of the functional use of a space, room, or area when no physical plant revisions are made or are required to be made by this code.

    451.1.3

    The Florida Building Code, Existing Building, Section 101.2, Scope exempts state licensed facilities such as ambulatory surgical centers from compliance with that code. Any repair, alteration, change of occupancy, addition or relocation of an existing state licensed ambulatory surgical center shall comply with the applicable requirements of this code and this section.

    451.1.4

    For project submission and fee requirements, and other administrative, licensure, and programmatic provisions for ambulatory surgical centers, see Agency for Health Care Administration (AHCA) Chapter 59A-5 Florida Administrative Code (F.A.C.) and Chapter 395, Florida Statutes.

    451.1.5

    For state licensure purposes, these codes and standards shall be applicable to the project on the effective date of this code at the time of Stage II preliminary plan approval by the Agency for Health Care Administration (the Agency) as described in Chapter 59A-5 Florida Administrative Code or at the first Stage III construction document review if there has been no previous Stage II preliminary plan approval for that project.

    451.2

    Additional codes and standards for the design and construction of ambulatory surgical centers and, unless exempted by Chapter 395.0163, Florida Statutes, all ambulatory surgical center outpatient facilities and ambulatory surgical center owned or leased mobile and transportable units. In addition to the minimum standards required by Section 451 of this code, Chapter 59A-5, Florida Administrative Code or by Chapter 395, Florida Statutes, all new ambulatory surgical centers and all additions, alterations or renovations to existing ambulatory surgical centers shall also be in compliance with the following codes and standards on the effective date of this code as described in Section 451.1.5 of this code:

    451.2.1

    The Florida Fire Prevention Code as described in Chapter 633.208 Florida Statutes, Minimum fire safety standards.

    451.2.2

    The Guidelines for Design and Construction of Hospitals and Outpatient Facilities (The Guidelines), including chapter 3.7 Specific Requirements For Outpatient Surgical Facilities as reference in Chapter 35 of this code.

    451.3Additional physical plant requirements for ambulatory surgical centers.

    451.3.1

    In addition to the codes and standards referenced in Section 451.2 of this code, the minimum standards of construction and specified minimum essential facilities described in Section 451.3 of this code shall apply to all ambulatory surgical centers as described in Section 451.1 of this code. and to all new additions, alterations or renovations to existing ambulatory surgical center on the effective date of the code.

    451.3.2

    Reserved.

    451.3.3Recovery area.

    Reference The Guidelines for other requirements.

    451.3.3.1

    Only the post-anesthesia recovery positions, as described in The Guidelines, will be listed as recovery positions for purposes of licensure.

    451.3.4Architectural details, surfaces, and furnishings.

    Reference The Guidelines for other requirements.

    451.3.4.1

    No doors shall swing into the corridor except those to small closets or small mechanical or electrical rooms that cannot be usefully occupied with the doors in the closed position.

    451.3.4.2

    All exit access corridor doors must be equipped with automatic positive latching hardware.

    451.3.4.3

    The use of sliding pocket doors to patient use toilets shall not be permitted.

    451.3.4.4

    All fire walls, fire barriers, smoke barriers, horizontal exits and exit passageway partitions shall be constructed prior to the construction of all intervening walls. Where rated walls, barriers or partitions intersect, the continuity of the higher priority wall, barrier, or partition shall be maintained through the intersection.

    451.3.4.5

    Smoke barriers shall be constructed so as to provide a continuous smoke-tight membrane from exterior wall to exterior wall and from the floor to the underside of the floor or roof deck above. This includes interstitial space and the area above monolithic firerated ceiling membranes. Roof trusses shall be permitted to penetrate portions of the smoke barrier located above the fire-rated ceiling membrane where the annular space between the penetrating truss member and the smoke barrier is sealed to limit the transfer of smoke.

    451.3.4.6

    Where it is not possible to inspect a fire-rated partition, fire wall or a smoke barrier that extends through the attic or interstitial space to the roof or floor deck above because of the location of a monolithic ceiling membrane, ceiling access panel(s) shall be installed adjacent to each side of the partition, wall or barrier at intervals not exceeding 30 feet (9.00 m) and in such locations as necessary to view all surfaces of the partition, wall or barrier. Other ceiling access panels shall only be installed as required by other sections of the code. Partitions, walls and barriers requiring protected openings or penetrations shall be identified in accordance with Section 703 of this code.

    451.3.5Elevators where required.

    Reference The Guidelines for other requirements.

    451.3.5.1

    All new ambulatory surgical centers located in multistory buildings where patient treatment areas are located on other than the exit floor shall have at least one 2,500 pound (933 kg) capacity elevator that shall be in compliance with the requirements of Section 451.3.13.5 of this code and the requirements of Chapter 30 of the code.

    451.3.5.2

    This required elevator shall be sized to accommodate an ambulance stretcher 76 inches (1931 mm) long and 24 inches (610 mm) wide in the horizontal position. This elevator shall be identified with a sign indicating it as the ambulance stretcher elevator.

    451.3.6Air-conditioning, heating and ventilating systems.

    Reference The Guidelines for other requirements.

    451.3.6.1

    Air-handling equipment shall be located either on the roof of the building it serves or in mechanical equipment rooms unless it serves only one room and is located in that room. In buildings with multiple uses, tenants or occupancies, the licensed health care areas required by this code to maintain filter efficiencies and relative air pressure relationships shall be served by separate ducted mechanical air supply, return and exhaust systems. This equipment may be located in other areas of the building or in the same room as the building air-handling equipment if access during normal business hours is available.

    451.3.6.2

    Variable volume systems shall not be permitted in surgical procedures rooms and recovery rooms.

    451.3.6.3

    Friable duct linings exposed to air movement shall not be used in ducts, terminal boxes or other systems supplying operating rooms and recovery rooms, unless terminal filters of at least 90-percent efficiency are installed downstream of linings. Flexible duct work shall have a continuous metal inner liner encased by insulating material with an outer vapor jacket conforming to UL 181 unless the flexible duct meets the following criteria:

    451.3.6.3.1

    The duct conforms to UL Class 1 Air Duct, Standard 181 with minimum rated air velocity of 4,000 feet per minute, and is pressure rated for a minimum of 4-inches water gage positive pressure and 1-inch water gage negative pressure.

    451.3.6.3.2

    The inner core of the duct is constructed of Chlorinated Polyethylene (CPE) material encircling a steel helix bonded to the CPE.

    451.3.6.3.3

    The duct has a fire-retardant metalized vapor barrier that is reinforced with crosshatched fiberglass scrim having a permanence of not greater than 0.05 perms when tested in accordance with ASTM E96 Procedure A.

    451.3.6.3.4

    The duct has passed an impact test similar to the UL181 standard, conducted by a nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL) except it shall use a 25-pound weight dropped from a height of 10 feet. As a result of the test, the inner and outer surfaces of the sample shall not have ruptured, broken, torn, ripped, collapsed or separated in order for the duct to pass the test. In addition, the helix shall rebound to a cross-sectional elliptical area not less than 80 percent of the original test sample diameter. The use of flexible duct shall be limited to flexible air connector applications.

    451.3.6.4

    Filter housing frame blank-off panels shall be permanently attached to the frame, constructed of rigid materials and have sealing surfaces equal to or greater than the filter media installed in the filter frame. All joints between the blank-off panels, filter housing frames and filter support structure shall be caulked air tight.

    451.3.6.5

    Air ducts and exhaust systems shall not be constructed of fiberglass duct board.

    451.3.6.6

    Roof top mounted mechanical equipment including air handler units, condensers, vents, exhaust fans, and other such equipment are not required to meet the impact requirements of the code.

    451.3.6.7

    All new ambulatory surgical centers shall have completely ducted air-supply, return, outside air, and exhaust systems.

    451.3.7Fan and damper control during fire alarm.

    451.3.7.1

    During an automatic fire alarm activation, fan systems and fan equipment serving more than one room shall be stopped to prevent the movement of smoke by mechanical means from the zone in alarm to adjacent smoke zones or to adjacent areas within the smoke zone if there is only one zone in the facility.

    451.3.7.2

    Fan control shall be designed so as to minimize the interruption of heating, ventilating and air conditioning in compartments remote from the compartment in alarm.

    451.3.7.3

    Fan control shall not interfere with the continuous operation of exhaust systems conveying ethylene oxide or other hazardous chemicals and fumes or systems required to operate continuously for the health and safety of occupants. Air-handling systems shall be designed to allow for continuous operation of all such systems and to minimize movement of smoke by mechanical means from the zone in alarm.

    451.3.8Plumbing fixtures.

    Reference The Guidelines for other requirements.

    451.3.8.1

    Plumbing shall comply with the Florida Building Code, Plumbing.

    451.3.9Fire pump.

    451.3.9.1

    Where required by another section of this code, a new fire pump, except for a replacement fire pump, that is electric motor-driven shall be connected to the emergency power supply system (EPSS) of the ambulatory surgical center. A fire pump(s) that is not electric motor-driven shall meet the requirements of NFPA 20, Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection alternative power.

    451.3.10Electrical requirements.

    Reference The Guidelines for other requirements.

    451.3.10.1

    All material, including equipment, conductors, controls, and signaling devices, shall be installed to provide a complete electrical system with the necessary characteristics and capacity to supply the electrical facilities shown in the specifications or indicated on the plans.

    451.3.10.2

    All materials and equipment shall be factory listed as complying with applicable standards of Underwriter's Laboratories, Inc., or other similarly established standards of a nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL) that has been certified by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for that referenced standard.

    451.3.10.3

    Field labeling of equipment and materials shall be permitted only when provided by a nationally recognized testing laboratory that has been certified by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for that referenced standard.

    451.3.10.4

    There shall be documentation for equipotential grounding in all patient care areas, building service ground electrode systems, and special systems such as fire alarm, nurse call, paging, generator, emergency power and breaker coordination.

    451.3.10.5

    All spaces occupied by people, machinery and equipment within buildings, and the approaches thereto, and parking lots, shall have electric lighting.

    451.3.10.6

    Patients’ recovery rooms shall have general lighting. Fixed lights not switched at the door shall have switch controls convenient for use at the luminaries. All switches for control of lighting in recovery areas shall be of the quiet operating type.

    451.3.10.7

    Operating rooms shall have general lighting for the room in addition to localized specialized lighting provided by a special lighting unit required at the surgical table. The type of special lighting unit shall be as specified by the functional program of the facility. Each special lighting unit for localized lighting at the surgical table shall be permanently installed and permanently connected to an independent circuit that shall be powered from the critical branch. In addition, a minimum of one general purpose lighting fixture shall be powered from a normal circuit in all operating rooms.

    451.3.10.8

    The number and circuitry of all duplex receptacles in operating rooms, cardiac catheterization laboratories, and post-operative recovery rooms, shall be provided as follows:

    451.3.10.8.1

    A minimum of four duplex receptacles shall be connected to the critical branch of the essential electrical system.

    451.3.10.8.2

    A minimum of two duplex receptacles shall be connected to a normal power circuit or to a critical branch circuit from a different transfer switch.

    451.3.10.8.3

    There shall be no more than two duplex receptacles per circuit for all receptacles for the areas as listed.

    451.3.10.9

    All receptacles shall have engraved cover plates to indicate the panel board and circuit numbers powering the device.

    451.3.10.10

    Branch circuit over-current devices shall be readily accessible to nursing staff and other authorized personnel.

    451.3.10.11

    Nonmetallic sheathed cable or similar systems are not permitted for power and lighting wiring in any facility.

    451.3.10.12

    Panel boards located in spaces subject to storage shall have the clear working space in accordance with Chapter 27 of the Florida Building Code, Building. “ELECTRICAL ACCESS—NOT FOR STORAGE” shall be permanently marked on the floor and wall about the panel. Panel boards shall not be located in an exit access corridor or in an unenclosed space or area that is open to an exit access corridor. Panel boards may be located inside of a room or closet that opens into an exit access corridor only when the room or closet is separated from the exit access corridor by a partition and door that comply with this code.

    451.3.10.13

    The electrical system shall have coordinated short circuit protection.

    451.3.10.14

    Provide color coding for the junction boxes for the branches of the essential electrical system.

    451.3.10.15

    Duplex receptacles for general use shall be installed approximately 50 feet (15 240 mm) apart in all general purpose corridors and within 25 feet (7620 mm) of ends of corridors.

    451.3.11Nurses’ calling system.

    451.3.11.1

    Wired- or wireless-type nurse call systems shall be permitted if they have been tested and approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL) to meet the requirements of UL 1069, 7th edition, published October 12, 2007, as referenced in Chapter 35 of this code. All wireless systems shall be tested and approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL) to meet the requirements of Section 49, “Wireless Systems” of UL 1069, 7th edition as referenced in Chapter 35 of this code. All nurse call systems whether wired or wireless shall have electronically supervised visual and audible annunciation in accordance with the supervision criteria of UL 1069, 7th edition, for wireless nurse call systems and tested and approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL) to meet those requirements.

    451.3.11.2

    In facilities which contain more than eight recovery beds, or where recovery beds are not in view from the nurses’ station, a nurses’ calling system shall be provided. Each recovery bed shall be provided with a call button. Two call buttons serving adjacent beds may be served by one calling station. Call shall activate a visual and audible signal at the nurses’ station and in the clean workroom and soiled workroom. Call shall also activate a corridor dome light located at each patient recovery position.

    451.3.11.3

    A nurses’ call emergency system shall be provided at each patient toilet and dressing room. Activation shall be by a pull cord conveniently located for patient use. This system will activate distinct audible and visual signals in the recovery room nurses’ station and in the surgical suite nurses’ station. The emergency call system shall be designed so that signal light activation will remain lighted until turned off at patient’s calling station.

    451.3.11.4

    A corridor dome light shall be located directly outside of any patient use area that is equipped with a nurse call system.

    451.3.12Fire alarm systems.

    451.3.12.1

    A fire alarm annunciator panel shall be provided for each facility or building within the Ambulatory Surgical Center (ASC) at a location that is constantly attended during the facility’s hours of operation and shall annunciate any fire alarm in the building from any manual or automatic fire alarm device. The panel shall indicate the zone of actuation of the alarm, and there shall be a trouble signal indicator.

    451.3.12.2

    A shared building fire alarm system shall be permitted.

    451.3.12.3

    Each smoke compartment shall be annunciated as a separate fire alarm zone. A fire alarm system zone shall not include rooms or spaces in other smoke compartments and shall be limited to a maximum area of 22,500 square feet (2090 m2).

    451.3.13Emergency electrical service.

    Reference The Guidelines for other requirements.

    451.3.13.1

    A Type 1 essential electrical system shall be provided in ambulatory surgical centers as described in NFPA 99, Health Care Facilities Code. The emergency power for this system shall meet the requirements of a Level 1, Type 10, Class 8 generator as described in NFPA 110, Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems.

    451.3.13.2

    In new facility construction, the normal main service equipment shall be separated from the emergency distribution equipment by locating it in a separate room. Transfer switches shall be considered emergency distribution equipment for this purpose.

    451.3.13.3

    There shall be a generator remote alarm annunciator in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 110 located at a designated on-site staffed location during the hours of operation of the ambulatory surgical center.

    451.3.13.4

    Reserved.

    451.3.13.5

    There shall be illumination of the means of egress in accordance with NFPA 101 and designed for automatic dusk-to-dawn operation. Such illumination shall continue to the public way or to a safe area(s) located a minimum of 30 feet (9.144 m) from the building and large enough to accommodate the required occupant load of the exit discharge.

    451.3.13.6

    A minimum of one elevator serving any patient treatment floor shall be in compliance with Section 451.3.5 and shall be connected to the equipment branch of the essential electric system and arranged for manual or automatic operation during loss of normal power.

    451.3.13.7

    If a day tank is provided, it shall be equipped with a dedicated low-level fuel alarm and a manual pump. The alarm shall be located at the generator remote alarm annunciator.

    451.3.13.8

    Reserved.

    451.3.13.9

    Electric lighting required to provide care and service to the patient treatment areas shall be connected to the essential electrical system.

    451.3.13.10

    The generator remote manual stop (sometimes called the “generator emergency stop”) shall be switchable and tamper resistant. It shall be located outside of and away from the housing of the generator, and if the generator is located inside an enclosure or room, it shall be located adjacent to the opening of the generator enclosure or to the door of the generator room and shall be viewable from the generator location.

    451.3.14Fire protection.

    An ambulatory surgical center (ASC) located in a building containing a fire protection sprinkler system, shall be provided with a dedicated supply main serving only the space occupied by the ASC when the ASC is located on the same floor of the building with other building tenants. The supply main shall originate at the fire main piping riser serving the floor the ASC space is occupying. The ASC supply main shall be equipped with an indicating control valve containing a tamper switch installed at the tap to the building fire riser in a readily accessible location. The valve shall have a permanent tag identifying the supply main as that of the ASC.

    451.3.15Medical gas.

    If there is a piped medical gas installation in the ASC, it shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 99 Health Care Facilities Code.

    SECTION452
    BIRTHING CENTERS

    452.1Scope.

    All birthing centers shall comply with the following design and construction standards as described herein.

    Note: Other administrative and programmatic provisions may apply. See Agency of Health Care Administration [AHCA] Rule 59A-11, Florida Administrative Code and Chapter 383, Florida Statutes.

    452.2Physical environment, water supply and fire safety.

    452.2.1

    At least one birthing room shall be maintained which is adequate and appropriate to provide for the equipment, staff, supplies and emergency procedures required for the physical and emotional care of a maternal client, her support person and the newborn during labor, birth, and the recovery period.

    452.2.2

    The birth center shall be designed to provide adequate space for the following:

    452.2.2.1

    Birth rooms shall be located to provide unimpeded, rapid access to an exit of the building which will accommodate emergency transportation vehicles.

    452.2.2.2

    Adequate fixed or portable work surface areas shall be maintained for use in the birth room.

    452.2.2.3

    A separate space for a clean area and a contaminated area; if it is not feasible to provide such separate areas, special procedures shall be established for the disposal of infectious waste. Sanitary waste containers, soiled linen containers, storage cabinets and an autoclave, pressure cooker or other effective sterilization equipment shall be available.

    452.2.2.4

    Prenatal and postpartum examinations which will provide privacy for the patient, hand-washing facilities and the appropriate equipment for staff.

    452.2.2.5

    Medical record storage, client interviews, instruction and waiting rooms.

    452.2.3Toilet and bathing facilities.

    452.2.3.1

    A toilet and lavatory shall be maintained in the vicinity of the birth room.

    452.2.3.2

    Hand-washing facilities shall be in or immediately adjacent to the birth room.

    452.2.3.3

    A bathtub or shower shall be available for client use.

    452.2.3.4

    All floor surfaces, wall surfaces, water closets, lavatories, tubs, showers, shall be kept clean, and all appurtenances of the structures shall be of sound construction, properly maintained, in good repair and free from safety hazards.

    452.2.4

    There shall be provisions and facilities for secure storage of personal belongings and valuables of clients.

    452.2.5

    There shall be provisions for visual privacy for each maternal client and her support person.

    452.2.6

    Hallways and doors providing access and entry into the birth center and birth room shall be of adequate width and conformation to accommodate maneuvering of ambulance stretchers and wheelchairs.

    452.2.7

    All areas of the facility shall be well lighted and shall have light fixtures capable of providing at least 20 footcandles (200 lux) of illumination at 30 inches (762 mm) from the floor to permit observation, cleaning and maintenance. Light fixtures shall be properly maintained and kept clean.

    452.2.8

    All housing facilities shall have adequate ventilation and be kept free of offensive odors.

    452.2.8.1

    If natural ventilation is utilized, the opened window area for ventilation purposes shall be equal to one-tenth of the floor space in the residential area.

    452.2.8.2

    When mechanical ventilation or cooling systems are employed, the system shall be properly maintained and kept clean. Intake air ducts shall be designed and installed so that dust or filters can be readily removed. In residence areas and segregation rooms with solid doors, mechanical ventilation systems shall provide a minimum of 10 cubic feet (0.3 m3) of fresh or filtered recirculated air per minute for each client occupying the area.

    452.2.8.3

    All toilet rooms shall be provided with direct openings to the outside or provided with mechanical ventilation to the outside.

    452.2.9

    Adequate heating and cooling facilities shall be provided to maintain a minimum temperature of 68°F (20°C) and maximum temperature of 78°F (26°C) at a point 20 inches (508 mm) above the floor.

    452.2.10

    All heating devices shall comply with fire prevention provisions found in Rule 69A-3, Fire Prevention, General Provision, Florida Administrative Code.

    452.2.11Laundry.

    452.2.11.1

    Where laundry facilities are provided, laundry facilities shall be of sound construction and shall be in good repair and clean. Adequate space shall be provided and areas shall be designated for the separation of clean and soiled clothing, linen and towels.

    452.2.11.2

    Laundry rooms shall be well lighted and properly ventilated. Clothes dryers shall be vented to the exterior.

    452.2.12Insect and rodent control.

    Facilities shall be kept free of all insects and rodents. All outside openings shall be effectively sealed or screened with 16 mesh screening or equivalent to prevent entry of insects or rodents.

    452.2.13Outdoor areas.

    Outdoor areas shall be well drained. Indoor and outdoor recreational areas shall be provided with safeguards designed for the needs of the residents.

    452.2.14Water supply.

    452.2.14.1

    Drinking water shall be accessible to all clients. When drinking fountains are available, the jet of the fountain shall issue from a nozzle of nonoxidizing impervious material set at an angle from the vertical. The nozzle and every other opening in the water pipe or conductor leading to the nozzle shall be above the edge of the bowl so that such nozzle or opening will not be flooded in case a drain from the bowl of the fountain becomes clogged. The end of the nozzle shall be protected by nonoxidizing guards to prevent persons using the fountain from coming into contact with the nozzle. Vertical or bubbler drinking fountains shall be replaced with approved-type water fountains or be disconnected. When no approved drinking fountains are available, clients shall be provided with single service cups which shall be stored and dispensed in a manner to prevent contamination. Common drinking cups are prohibited.

    452.2.14.2

    Hot and cold running water under pressure and at safe temperature, not to exceed 110°F (43°C) to prevent scalding, shall be provided to all restrooms, lavatories and bathing areas.

    452.2.15Sewage disposal.

    452.2.15.1

    All sanitary facilities shall comply with the requirements of the Florida Building Code, Plumbing.

    452.2.15.2

    For facilities with nine or more birth rooms, mop sinks or curbed areas with floor drains shall be available in convenient locations throughout the facility to facilitate cleaning and for the proper disposal of cleaning water.

    452.2.16Fire control.

    Each birth center shall provide fire protection through the elimination of fire hazards, the installation of necessary safeguards such as extinguishers and smoke alarms to insure rapid and effective fire control.

    452.2.16.1

    To safeguard all clients, the birth center shall have:

    452.2.16.1.1

    “No Smoking” signs prominently displayed in those areas where smoking is not permitted.

    452.2.16.1.2

    Fire regulations and evacuation route prominently posted.

    452.2.16.2

    The written fire control plan approved by the appropriate local fire authority shall contain provisions for prompt reporting of all fires, extinguishing fires, protection of personnel and guests, evacuation, and cooperation with fire-fighting authorities.

    452.2.16.3

    New centers’ carpeting must comply with the maximum flame spread rating of 75 in accordance with ASTM E84 test as required under Chapter 69A-3.012 Standards of the National Fire Protection Association Adopted, Florida Administrative Code. Those existing centers not having affirmative evidence of complying with such flame spread rating shall establish fire control measures including the prohibition of smoking in carpeted areas. Such procedures shall be approved by the authority having jurisdiction.

    SECTION453
    STATE REQUIREMENTS FOR
    EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES

    453.1Scope: Public educational facilities.

    Public educational facilities shall comply with the Florida Building Code and the Florida Fire Prevention Code as adopted by the State Fire Marshal. These are minimum standards; boards may impose more restrictive requirements. Additional requirements for public educational facilities in Florida, including public schools and public Florida colleges, are found in these standards.

    Note: Other administrative and programmatic provisions may apply. See Department of Education Rule 6A-2.0010 and Chapter 1013, Florida Statutes.

    453.2Public schools and Florida colleges general requirements.

    453.2.1Owner.

    Each school board and Florida college board of trustees is deemed to be the owner of facilities within its respective jurisdiction. Boards shall provide for enforcement of the Florida Building Code and the Florida Fire Prevention Code as adopted by the State Fire Marshal, including standards for health, sanitation, and others as required by law.

    453.2.2Exemption from local requirements.

    All public educational and ancillary plants constructed by a school board or a Florida college board are exempt from all other state, county, district, municipal, or local building codes, interpretations, building permits, and assessments of fees for building permits, ordinances, road closures, and impact fees or service availability fees as provided in Section 1013.371(1)(a), Florida Statutes.

    453.3Code enforcement.

    453.3.1School boards and Florida college boards.

    Section 553.80(6), Florida Statutes, provides options for plan review services and inspections by school boards and Florida college boards.

    453.3.2Owner review and inspection.

    A school board or Florida college board which undertakes the construction, remodeling, renovation, lease, or lease-purchase of any educational plant or ancillary facility, or day labor project, regardless of cost or fund source, shall review construction documents as required by law in Section 1013.38, Florida Statutes, and Section 553.80(6), Florida Statutes, and shall ensure compliance with requirements of law, rule, and the Florida Building Code and the Florida Fire Prevention Code as adopted by the State Fire Marshal. Section 553.80(6), Florida Statutes, states that district school boards and Florida college boards shall provide for plan review and inspections for their projects. They shall use personnel certified under Part XII of Chapter 468, Florida Statutes to perform the plan reviews and inspections or use one of the options provided in Section 1013.38, Florida Statutes. Under this arrangement, school boards and Florida college boards are not subject to local government permitting, plan review, and inspection fees.

    453.3.3Local government review and inspection.

    As an option to the owner providing plan review and inspection services, school boards and Florida college boards may use local government code enforcement officers who will not charge fees more than the actual labor and administrative costs for the plan review and inspections. Local government code enforcement offices shall expedite permitting. Any action by local government not in compliance with Section 553.80(6), Florida Statutes, may be appealed to the Florida Building Commission, which may suspend the authority of that local government to enforce the Florida Building Code and the Florida Fire Prevention Code as adopted by the State Fire Marshal on the facilities of school boards and Florida college boards.

    453.3.4Other regulatory agencies.

    Boards shall coordinate the planning of projects with state and regional regulatory and permitting agencies, as applicable. Other state or local agencies may inspect new construction or existing facilities when required by law; however, such inspections shall be in conformance with the code as modified by this section.

    453.3.5Day labor projects.

    Any one construction project estimated to cost $300,000 or less where bonafide board employees or contracted labor provide the work. Day labor projects are subject to the same Florida Building Code and the Florida Fire Prevention Code as adopted by the State Fire Marshal as new construction.

    453.3.6Routine maintenance.

    Maintenance projects are subject to the same Florida Building Code and Florida Fire Prevention Code as adopted by the State Fire Marshal as new construction. Chapter 489, Florida Statutes, exempts boards from the use of a licensed general contractor for projects up to $200,000 where bonafide board employees provide the work. Maintenance projects which include construction, renovation and/or remodeling, shall be reviewed for compliance with the code.

    453.3.7Certificate of occupancy.

    New buildings, additions, renovations, and remodeling shall not be occupied until the building has received a certificate of occupancy for compliance with codes that were in effect on the date of permit application.

    453.3.8

    Reuse and prototype plans shall be code updated with each new project.

    453.4Reference documents.

    School Boards and Florida College Boards of Trustees. In addition to complying with the Florida Building Code and the Florida Fire Prevention Code as adopted by the State Fire Marshal, and other adopted standards and this section, public educational facilities and sites shall comply with applicable federal and state laws and rules.

    453.4.1Rule 6A-2.00.10 [State Requirements for Educational Facilities (SREF)].

    A Florida Department of Education document which includes required design standards, standards for rehabilitation of historical resources, capital outlay project process requirements, and various agencies having jurisdiction during project planning and construction.

    453.4.2Flood-resistant construction.

    Educational facilities in flood hazard areas shall comply with ASCE 24.

    453.4.3

    Florida statutes and state rules. Including, but not limited to, Chapters 255, 468, 471, 481, 489, 553, 633, 1013, and Section 287.055, Florida Statutes, and various state rules as applicable to specific projects.

    453.4.4Accessibility requirements for children’s environments.

    U.S. Department of Justice and the U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board.

    453.4.5Handbook for public playground safety.

    Playgrounds and equipment shall be designed and installed using the Public Playground Safety Handbook by the U. S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, and the ASTM/CPSC Playground Audit Guide as applicable.

    453.4.6ANSI Z535.1.

    American National Standard Safety Color Code for marking physical hazards, is used in shops where machinery requires marking and safety zones.

    453.4.7ASCE 7.

    American Society of Civil Engineers.

    453.4.8

    Life Cycle Cost Guidelines for Materials and Building Systems for Florida’s Public Educational Facilities, available from the Department of Education, Office of Educational Facilities shall be considered.

    453.5Definitions.

    453.5.1ASSEMBLY.

    Assembly occupancies are buildings or portions of buildings used for gatherings of 50 or more persons, such as auditoriums, gymnasiums, multipurpose rooms, classrooms and labs, cafeterias, stadiums, media centers and interior courtyards. Assembly occupancies include adjacent and related spaces to the main seating area, such as stages, dressing rooms, workshops, lobbies, rest rooms, locker rooms, and store rooms. School board and Florida college facilities shall follow the requirements of Florida Fire Prevention Code as adopted by the State Fire Marshal for assembly spaces.

    453.5.2BOARD.

    A district school board and a Florida college board of trustees.

    453.5.3BOILER.

    A fuel-fired, heat-producing appliance with a minimum input capacity of 60,000 Btu per hour and intended to supply hot water or steam. Boilers and the inspection of boilers shall comply with Section 554, Florida Statutes, the Boiler Safety Act.

    453.5.4CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY.

    Documentation issued by an authority having jurisdiction which indicates inspection and approval of completion of a construction project pursuant to the requirements of Florida law.

    453.5.5COURTYARD.

    A court or enclosure adjacent to, or surrounded by, a building(s) and/or walls.

    453.5.5.1

    “Exterior courtyard” is a courtyard which is not roofed, has a minimum width of 40 feet (1219 mm), and

    1. a.has an opening a minimum width of 40 feet (1219 mm), with no obstructions, on at least one end, or

    2. b.has fences between the buildings for security purposes, and the required exiting capacity of the courtyard is provided for by means of doors or gates from the courtyard.

    An exterior courtyard may be considered exterior space and used for exiting of adjacent spaces. For an exterior courtyard with an opening between 40 feet (1219 mm) and 60 feet wide (18 288 mm), the building walls and wall openings must meet the requirements of Florida Building Code, Building Tables 601 and 602 and the maximum travel distance to the courtyard opening/exit shall not exceed 150 feet (45 720 mm) from any point within the courtyard. If the minimum courtyard width exceeds 60 feet (18 288 mm), the travel distance to a courtyard opening/exit may exceed 150 feet (945 720 mm).

    453.5.5.2“Enclosed courtyard”

    is a courtyard which is not roofed by more than 50 percent of the courtyard area and which is substantially surrounded by a building(s) on two sides or more and each opening to the exterior is less than 40 feet (1219 mm) in width. The courtyard area shall be calculated for maximum occupancy as an assembly space and the number and size of remotely located exits shall be calculated for the maximum possible load. The maximum possible load is the greater of the calculated capacity of the courtyard or the load imposed by the surrounding spaces. An enclosed courtyard may be used as a component of exit access provided that the walls and wall openings meet the requirements of Florida Building Code, Building Tables 601 and 602 and the maximum travel to the exit discharge does not exceed 150 feet (45 720 mm) from any point within the enclosed courtyard. An enclosed courtyard cannot serve as the exterior for exiting or for emergency rescue openings.

    453.5.5.3“Roofed courtyard”

    is a courtyard which is roofed by more than 50 percent of the courtyard area in any manner. Roofed courtyards may be used for assembly spaces and shall not be used as a component of exiting from adjacent spaces.

    453.5.6FACILITY.

    Additionally defined as follows:

    453.5.6.1“Ancillary facility”

    is a building or other facility necessary to provide district-wide support services, such as an energy plant, bus garage, warehouse, maintenance building, or administrative building.

    453.5.6.2“Ancillary plant”

    is buildings, site, and site improvements necessary to provide district-wide vehicle maintenance, storage, building maintenance activities, or administrative functions necessary to provide support services to an educational program.

    453.5.6.3“Auxiliary facility”

    consists of the support spaces located at educational facilities and plants which do not contain student stations but are used by students, such as libraries, administrative offices, and cafeterias.

    453.5.6.4“Educational facility”

    consists of buildings and equipment, structures, and special educational use areas that are built, installed, or established to serve primarily the educational purposes and secondarily the social and recreational purposes of the community.

    453.5.6.5“Educational plant”

    comprises the educational facilities, site, and site improvements necessary to accommodate students, faculty, administrators, staff, and the activities of the educational program.

    453.5.6.6“Existing facility”

    is a facility owned, rented or leased.

    453.5.6.7“Leased facility”

    is a facility not owned, but contracted for use.

    453.5.6.8“Permanent facility”

    is a facility designed for a fixed location.

    453.5.6.9“Relocatable/portable facility”

    is a building which is designed with the capability of being moved to a new location.

    453.5.6.10“Modular facility”

    is a structure which, when combined with other modules and/or demountable roof and/or wall sections, forms a complete building. This facility may be relocatable.

    453.5.7MAINTENANCE AND REAPAIR.

    The upkeep of educational and ancillary plants including, but not limited to, roof or roofing replacement, short of complete replacement of membrane or structure; repainting of interior or exterior surfaces; resurfacing of floors; repair or replacement of glass and hardware; repair or replacement of electrical and plumbing fixtures; repair of furniture and equipment; replacement of system equipment with equivalent items meeting current code requirements providing that the equipment does not place a greater demand on utilities, structural requirements are not increased, and the equipment does not adversely affect the function of life safety systems; traffic control devices and signage; and repair or resurfacing of parking lots, roads, and walkways. Does not include new construction, remodeling, or renovation, except as noted above.

    453.5.8NEW CONSTRUCTION.

    Any construction of a building or unit of a building in which the entire work is new. An addition connected to an existing building is considered new construction.

    453.5.9OPEN PLAN BUILDING.

    Any building which does not have corridors defined by permanent walls and is entirely open or divided by partitions which may be easily rearranged.

    453.5.10OPEN PLAN INSTRUCTIONAL SPACE.

    An arrangement of two or more class areas with no permanent partitions or wall separations.

    453.5.11OWNER.

    Each school board and Florida college board of trustees is deemed to be the owner of facilities within its respective jurisdiction.

    453.5.12PERMIT FOR CONSTRUCTION.

    Documentation issued by an authority having jurisdiction which indicates approval of construction plans prepared pursuant to the requirements of Florida law.

    453.5.13REMODELING.

    The changing of existing facilities by rearrangement of space and/or change of use. Only that portion of the building being remodeled must be brought into compliance with the Florida Building Code and Florida Fire Prevention Code as adopted by the State Fire Marshal unless the remodeling adversely impacts the existing life safety systems of the building.

    453.5.14RENOVATION.

    The rejuvenating or upgrading of existing facilities by installation or replacement of materials and equipment. The use and occupancy of the spaces remain the same. Only that portion of the building being renovated must be brought into compliance with the Florida Building Code and Florida Fire Prevention Code as adopted by the State Fire Marshal unless the renovation adversely impacts the existing life safety systems of the building.

    453.5.15SEPARATE ATMOSPHERE.

    The individual volumes of air in a building which are divided by smoke proof barriers to limit contamination of the air by smoke and fumes during a fire.

    453.5.16SEPARATE BUILDING.

    The purpose of separate fire alarm systems or sprinkler systems, a separate building is a structure separated from other buildings by 60 feet (18 288 mm) or more, or as required by other sections of this code.

    453.5.17FLORIDA COLLEGE.

    A public community college, public college, state college, or public junior college.

    453.5.18STUDENT-OCCUPIED SPACE.

    Any area planned primarily for use by six or more students.

    453.6Administration of public education projects.

    453.6.1Occupancy during construction.

    School board and Florida college board facilities, or portions of facilities, shall not be occupied during construction unless exits, fire detection and early warning systems, fire protection, and safety barriers are continuously maintained and clearly marked at all times. Construction on an occupied school board site shall be separated from students and staff by secure barriers. Prior to issuance of the notice to proceed, a safety plan shall be provided by the contractor which clearly delineates areas for construction, safety barriers, exits, construction traffic during the various phases of the project and when conditions change. Where heavy machinery, as is used for earth moving or scraping, is required to work on a school board’s occupied site, the work shall be separated from occupants by secure double barriers with a distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) in between. New construction, remodeling or renovations in existing facilities shall not reduce the means of egress below the requirements for new buildings; safe means of egress from a student-occupied space may be accomplished as authorized by NFPA 101, Florida edition as adopted by the Florida Fire Prevention Code. New construction (additions) shall not block or reduce safe means of egress.

    453.6.2Contractor toxic substance safety precautions.

    When hazardous chemicals as defined by 29 CFR 1910.1200, OSHA Hazard Communication Standard are to be used during the maintenance, renovation, remodeling, or addition to an existing facility, the contractor shall notify the administrator in writing at least three working days before any hazardous chemical is used. The notice shall indicate the name of each of the hazardous chemicals to be used, where and when they will be used, and a copy of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each hazardous chemical. The contractor shall comply with the safety precautions and handling instructions set forth in the MSDS. Copies of hazardous waste manifests documenting disposal shall be provided to the facility’s administrator who will notify occupants of the anticipated presence of toxic substances during the maintenance, renovation, remodeling, or addition to an existing facility.

    453.6.3Flammable or explosive substances.

    No flammable or explosive substances or equipment shall be introduced during a remodeling or renovation project in a facility of normally low or ordinary hazard classification while the building is occupied.

    453.7Life safety.

    453.7.1Separate exits.

    In assembly occupancies, each required exit from an assembly space must exit into a separate atmosphere or to the exterior, to be considered as a separate exit.

    453.7.2Exit access.

    Exit access shall not be through a toilet room, storage room, or similar space, or any space subject to being locked.

    453.7.3Location of fire extinguishers and blankets.

    Fire extinguishers may be located inside student-occupied spaces provided they are placed adjacent to the primary exit door, and the room door remains unlocked when the facility is occupied, and a permanently affixed sign, with a red background and white letters, reading “FIRE EXTINGUISHER INSIDE” is placed on the outside adjacent to the door. Fire extinguisher cabinets shall not be locked. Fire blankets shall be located in each laboratory and each shop where a fire hazard may exist. Fire extinguishers and fire blankets shall be readily accessible and suitable for the hazard present and shall not be obstructed or obscured from view. Extinguishers and blankets shall be on hangers or brackets, shelves, or cabinets so that the top of the extinguisher or blanket is not more than 54 inches (1318 mm) above finish floor (AFF) and complies with state and federal accessibility requirements. All extinguishers shall be installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA. Extinguishers shall remain fully charged and operable at all times and have a current tag to indicate compliance.

    453.7.4Common fire alarm.

    Buildings within 60 feet (18,288 mm) of each other shall have a common fire alarm system. On an existing campus, structures that meet the 60 foot (18,288 mm) requirement, any new structure, remodeled facility, or renovated facility, such as classrooms, labs, shops and cafeterias, gymnasiums, auditoriums (separate or combination functions) with assembly occupancy less than 300, shall be connected to the campus existing fire alarm system. An existing system without the voice feature shall not be required to include the voice feature required by Sections 907.2 and 907.2.3 of this code. A new total school fire alarm system upgrade project for an existing campus shall include the voice feature. Emergency shelters shall have the fire alarm panel located in the space identified as the shelter manager’s office.

    453.7.5Fire alarm sending stations.

    Sending stations may be located inside student-occupied spaces, adjacent to the primary exit door only if the door to the occupied space is unlocked at all times while the facility is occupied. When located inside a student occupied space, a permanently affixed sign reading “FIRE ALARM PULL STATION INSIDE” shall be placed outside that space adjacent to the door. This sign shall have a red background with white letters. Sending stations shall be mounted to meet accessibility requirements.

    453.7.6Automatic shut off.

    The fire alarm system shall shut off gas and fuel oil supplies which serve studentoccupied spaces or pass through such spaces. The shutoff valve shall be located on the exterior at the service entrance to the building. The shutoff valve shall be of the manual reset type.

    453.7.6.1Kitchen gas supplies.

    Kitchen gas supplies shall be shutoff by activation of the kitchen hood fire suppression system. The shutoff valve shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and recommendations.

    453.7.6.2.Emergency power.

    The fire alarm system shall not shut off gas supplies which serve emergency power sources.

    453.7.7Unoccupied rooms and concealed spaces.

    Rooms or spaces for storage, custodial closets, mechanical rooms, spaces under stages with wood structures and other unoccupied or unsupervised spaces in a building shall have automatic fire alarm system detector devices installed. Any concealed space with exposed materials having a flamespread rating greater than Class A, including crawl spaces under floors, interstitial spaces between ceiling and floor or roof above and attic spaces, shall be equipped with heat detector devices. Smoke and heat detector devices shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 72.

    453.7.7.1Fully sprinklered buildings.

    In fully sprinklered buildings, fire alarm detection devices are not required except where specified in the Florida Fire Prevention Code.

    453.7.8Boiler rooms.

    Each boiler room shall be separated from the remainder of the building by one-hour fire-resistance-rated construction or shall be separate from other buildings by 60 feet (18 288 mm), and shall have an outswinging door opening directly to the exterior. A fire door swinging into the boiler room shall also be provided for any opening into the interior of the building. There shall be no opening into any corridor or area designed for use by students.

    453.7.9Exit passageways and horizontal exits.

    Exit passageways as referenced in Section 1024 and horizontal exits referenced in Section 1026 of this code shall be prohibited.

    453.8General requirements for new construction, additions, renovation, and remodeling.

    453.8.1Codes and standards.

    Educational facilities owned by school boards and Florida college boards shall meet the construction requirements of the Florida Building Code and the Florida Fire Prevention Code as adopted by the State Fire Marshal, state and federal laws and rules, and this section for Florida's public educational facilities for new construction, remodeling and renovation of existing facilities. This is a minimum standard; boards may impose more restrictive safety and level of quality standards for educational, auxiliary, and ancillary facilities under their jurisdiction, provided they meet or exceed these minimum requirements.

    453.8.1.1Educational occupancy.

    School board educational facility projects whether owned, leasepurchased or leased shall comply with the educational occupancy and assembly occupancy portions of the above referenced codes as applicable, except where in conflict with this section. The support spaces such as media centers, administrative offices and cafeterias and kitchens located within educational facilities are not separate occupancies.

    453.8.1.2Business occupancy.

    Florida college board educational facility projects whether owned, lease-purchased or leased shall comply with the business occupancy and the assembly occupancy of the above referenced codes as applicable, except where in conflict with this section.

    453.8.1.3Ancillary facility.

    School board and Florida college board ancillary facilities such as warehouses or maintenance buildings, shall use the applicable occupancy section of the Florida Building Code and the Florida Fire Prevention Code as adopted by the State Fire Marshal. Ancillary facilities on educational plant sites shall be separated from the educational facility as required by code.

    453.8.2Space standards.

    School board and Florida college board facility sizes shall use standards in the “Size of Space and Occupant Design Criteria Table” found in the Department of Education document, “State Requirements for Educational Facilities (SREF).” Exiting from occupied spaces shall comply with Table 1004.1.2 of this code.

    453.8.3Construction type.

    School board and Florida college buildings including auxiliary, ancillary and vocational facilities shall comply with the following:

    453.8.3.1Noncombustible Type I, II or IV.

    The minimum construction type for one- and two-story public educational facilities shall be noncombustible Type I, II or IV construction or better.

    453.8.3.1.1

    Interior nonload-bearing wood studs or partitions shall not be used in permanent educational and auxiliary facilities or relocatable buildings.

    Exception: Historic buildings to maintain the fabric of the historic character of the building.

    453.8.3.2Type I.

    Facilities three stories or more shall be Type I construction.

    453.8.3.3Type IV.

    When Type IV construction is used, wood shall be exposed and not covered by ceilings or other construction.

    453.8.3.4Exceptions to types of construction:

    1. 1.Covered walkways open on all sides may be Type V construction.

    2. 2.Single story dugouts, press boxes, concession stands, related public toilet rooms, detached covered play areas, and nonflammable storage buildings that are detached from the main educational facility by at least 60 feet (1829 mm), may be Type V construction.

    453.8.4Standards for remodeling and/or renovation projects.

    Portions of buildings being remodeled and/or renovated shall be brought into compliance with current required Florida Building Code and the Florida Fire Prevention Code as adopted by the State Fire Marshal as required by the plan review authority in its best judgment.

    453.8.4.1

    An automatic fire sprinkler system is not required in existing educational buildings unless 50 percent of the aggregate area of the building is being remodeled

    453.8.5Leased facilities.

    Leased facilities shall be brought into compliance with applicable occupancy requirements of the Florida Building Code and the Florida Fire Prevention Code as adopted by the State Fire Marshal prior to occupancy.

    453.8.6Asbestos prohibited.

    The federal Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act, (AHERA) 40 CFR, Part 763, as revised July 1, 1995, prohibits the use of any asbestos containing materials in any public education construction project and requires certification of same by the architect of record.

    453.8.7Life cycle cost guidelines for materials and building systems.

    An analysis shall be included, as required by Section 1013.37(1), Florida Statutes, which evaluates building materials and systems, life cycle costs for maintenance, custodial, operating, and life expectancy against initial costs, as described in Section 1013.37(1)(e)4, Florida Statutes. Standards for evaluation of materials are available from the department in a publication entitled Life Cycle Cost Guidelines for materials and Building Systems for Florida’s Public Educational Facilities.

    453.8.8Safe school design.

    School boards should design educational facilities and sites including pre-K through 12, vocational and Florida colleges to enhance security and reduce vandalism through the use of “safe school design” principles. Safe school design strategies are available from the Florida Department of Education, Office of Educational Facilities in a publication titled Florida Safe School Design Guidelines and include but are not limited to the following:

    453.8.8.1Natural access and control of schools and campuses.

    453.8.8.2

    Natural surveillance of schools and campuses both from within the facility and from adjacent streets by removing obstructions or trimming shrubbery.

    453.8.8.3

    School and campus territorial integrity; securing courtyards, site lighting, building lighting.

    453.8.8.4

    Audio and motion detection systems covering ground floor doors, stairwells, offices and areas where expensive equipment is stored.

    453.8.8.5

    Designs which will promote the prevention of school crime and violence. Exterior architectural features which do not allow footholds or handholds on exterior walls, tamperproof doors and locks, nonbreakable glass or shelter window protection system; also landscaping and tree placement should be designed so they do not provide access to roofs by unauthorized persons. Sections of schools commonly used after hours should be separated by doors or other devices from adjacent areas to prevent unauthorized access. Install locks on roof hatches; apply slippery finishes to exterior pipes.

    453.8.8.6

    Exterior stairs, balconies, ramps, and upper level corridors around the perimeter of buildings should have open-type handrails or other architectural features to allow surveillance.

    453.8.8.7

    Open areas, such as plazas, the building’s main entrance, parking lots, and bicycle compounds should be designed so they are visible by workers at workstations inside the buildings.

    453.9Structural design.

    453.9.1Loading requirements.

    Structural design shall comply with code requirements and wind loads as stipulated by the Florida Building Code and the Florida Fire Prevention Code as adopted by the State Fire Marshal. Wind design shall be based on ASCE 7, with wind speeds determined from Figure 26.5-1B and ICC 500, as appropriate.

    453.10Site requirements.

    453.10.1Fencing.

    Fencing for school board educational plants shall be of a material which is nonflammable, safe, durable, and low maintenance, provides structural integrity, strength and aesthetics appropriate for the intended location. Fences shall have no jagged or sharp projections. Fence heights shall be in compliance with local zoning regulations. Access shall be provided for maintenance machinery. Prohibited materials for nonagricultural educational plants include razor wire, barbed wire and electrically charged systems.

    453.10.1.1Required locations.

    Fencing is required to separate students from potential harm, and shall be provided in the following locations:

    453.10.1.1.1Kindergarten through grade 12.

    Exposed mechanical, plumbing, gas, or electrical equipment located on ground level.

    453.10.1.1.2Kindergarten through grade 5.

    Special hazards as identified by the authority having jurisdiction including retention ponds whose permanent water depth or whose water depth over a 24-hour period exceeds 1 foot (305 mm), deep drainage ditches, canals, highways, and play fields adjacent to roadways.

    453.10.1.1.3Kindergarten through grade 12.

    All child care and kindergarten play areas.

    453.10.2Walks, roads, drives, and parking areas.

    Walks, roads, drives, and parking areas on educational and ancillary sites shall be paved. Roads, drives, and parking areas shall be in compliance with Department of Transportation (DOT) road specifications and striped in compliance with DOT paint specifications. All paved areas shall have positive drainage.

    453.10.2.1Covered walks.

    All buildings in K-12 educational facilities shall be connected by paved walks and accessible under continuous roof cover. New relocatable classroom buildings shall be connected to permanent buildings by paved covered walks where applicable. Roofs for covered walks shall extend 1 foot (305 mm) beyond each side of the designated walkway width. Gutters or other water funneling devices shall prevent storm water from pouring onto or draining across walks.

    453.10.2.2Accessible walks and bridges.

    Accessible walks shall connect building entrance(s) to accessible parking, public transportation stops, public streets, sidewalks, loading and drop-off zones, and other facilities within the site as required by the accessibility standards. School board sites where educational plants are separated by highways shall be connected by overhead pedestrian bridges.

    453.10.2.3

    Reserved.

    453.10.2.4Vertical drops.

    Walls, railings, or other physical barriers which are at least a minimum 12 inches (305 mm) in height, shall define and protect any vertical drop between joining or abutting surfaces of more than 6 inches (152 mm) but less than 18 inches (457 mm) in height. Any vertical drop of 18 inches (457 mm) or more shall be protected by a wall or guardrail a minimum of 42 inches (1067 mm) in height.

    Exception: In assembly seating where guards in accordance with Section 1029.16 are permitted and provided.

    453.10.2.5Roads and streets.

    Educational and ancillary site access shall consist of a primary road and another means of access to be used in the event the primary road is blocked. Stabilized wide shoulders of the primary road, unobstructed by landscaping, planters, light fixtures, poles, benches, etc., which allow a third lane of traffic, may satisfy the requirement for the other means of access. Driveways shall not completely encircle a school plant, to allow student access to play areas without crossing roads; vehicular and pedestrian traffic shall not cross each other on the site; bus driveways and parent pick-up areas shall be separated.

    453.10.2.6Bus drives.

    Bus drives on educational sites shall be designed so that buses do not have to back up. The minimum width shall be 24 feet (7315 mm) for two-lane traffic. The turning radius on educational and ancillary sites and for turning off public access streets shall be as follows: one-way traffic, 60 feet (18 288 mm) minimum measured to the outside curb or edge of the traffic lane; two-way traffic, 60 feet (18 288 mm) minimum measured to the centerline of the road.

    453.10.2.7Vehicle parking areas.

    Vehicle parking areas shall comply with minimum parking space requirements in this section. Except for parking space requirements to meet federal and state accessibility laws, where alternate transportation or parking arrangements are available the parking area requirements may be reduced from these standards if sufficient justification documentation is provided and if the review authority approves the reduction based on the justification. Overflow parking areas may utilize alternative parking surfaces which facilitate water absorption rather than runoff when approved for use by the review authority. This requirement usually applies to a percentage of the parking spaces, not all of them.

    Exception: Accessible parking spaces shall be hard surface.

    453.10.2.8Minimum parking requirements.

    453.10.2.8.1Faculty and staff.

    One space for each member.

    453.10.2.8.2Visitors.

    One space for every 100 students.

    453.10.2.8.3Community clinics where provided.

    Ten spaces, including one accessible space.

    453.10.2.8.4High schools.

    One space for every 10 students in grades 11 and 12.

    453.10.2.8.5Vocational schools.

    One space for every two students.

    453.10.2.8.6Florida colleges.

    One space for every two students.

    453.10.2.8.7Accessible parking.

    Parking spaces designated for persons with disabilities shall comply with the ADA, Florida Building Code, Accessibility, and Section 316.1955, Florida Statutes.

    453.10.3Site lighting required.

    Design, construction, and installation of exterior security lighting for educational and ancillary facilities shall be provided for:

    453.10.3.1Auto, bus, and service drives and loading areas.

    453.10.3.2Parking areas.

    453.10.3.3Building perimeter.

    453.10.3.4Covered and connector walks between buildings and between buildings and parking.

    453.10.3.5Lighting for parking areas.

    Parking area lighting standards shall be designed to withstand appropriate wind loads. Parking areas shall be illuminated to an average maintained horizontal footcandle, measured at the surface as follows:

    453.10.3.5.1

    Parking areas—1 footcandle (10 lux).

    453.10.3.5.2

    Covered and connector walks—1 footcandle (10 lux).

    453.10.3.5.3

    Entrances/exits—2 footcandles (20 lux).

    453.10.3.6Building exteriors.

    Building exteriors, perimeters, and entrances may be illuminated to the minimum number of footcandles, measured at the surface with a suggested uniformity ratio of 2:1 as follows:

    453.10.3.6.1

    Entrances—5 footcandles (50 lux).

    453.10.3.6.2

    Building surrounds—1 footcandle (10 lux).

    453.10.3.7Shielding.

    Exterior lighting shall be shielded from adjacent properties.

    453.10.4Building setbacks.

    Building setbacks from the property line, including relocatables, shall, at a minimum, be 25 feet (7620 mm) or shall comply with local setback requirements if less than 25 feet (7620 mm).

    453.10.5School board playgrounds, equipment, and athletic fields.

    Playgrounds, equipment, and athletic fields shall be accessible, compatible with the educational facility served and shall comply with the following:

    453.10.5.1

    Kindergarten play areas shall be separated from other play areas, fenced, and shall be directly accessed from the kindergarten classrooms.

    453.10.5.2

    Direct access from the school buildings shall be provided to play areas and athletic fields without crossing public roads, on-site traffic lanes, and parking lots.

    453.10.5.3

    Related facilities such as toilets, concessions, storage, shower and locker rooms, bleachers, press boxes, observation platforms, scoreboards, and dugouts shall be designed to meet code requirements and the occupant capacity anticipated for the program.

    453.10.5.4

    Playgrounds shall be evenly graded and sloped to provide surface drainage.

    453.10.6Exterior signage.

    All permanent and free-standing exterior signs shall be designed to withstand appropriate wind loads. Illuminated signs shall comply with the electrical and installation requirements of the Florida Building Code, the Florida Fire Prevention Code as adopted by the State Fire Marshal and ICC 500, as appropriate.

    453.10.6.1

    Site signage shall not create visual barriers at entrances, sidewalks, roads or road intersections.

    453.10.6.2

    Accessible routes, including parking, building directories, building identification, and accessible entrances shall be marked by exterior signage in conformance with federal and state accessibility laws.

    453.10.7Landscaping.

    Refer to Section 1013.64(5), Florida Statutes, for school board and Florida college requirements. Florida-friendly landscaping is defined in Section 373.185, Florida Statutes.

    453.10.8Water irrigation systems.

    Water irrigation systems shall be equipped with soil moisture sensors that will override the irrigation systems cycle when soil contains sufficient moisture.

    453.10.9Transmission line right-of-way.

    Buildings, play areas, and common use areas shall not be located within a high-voltage power transmission line right-of-way.

    453.10.10School site master plan.

    New schools shall include, as applicable: facility design capacity; floodplain locations; covered accessible walks; infrastructure locations for, and extensions of, technology, telephone, electricity, fire alarm; and, where applicable, water and sewer utilities, and relocatables.

    453.11Wood: fire-retardant-treated wood (FRTW).

    FRTW shall not be used in permanent educational facilities.

    Exception: Only FRTW which does not contain ammonium phosphates, sulfates, or halides, may be used in roof structures of noncombustible Type II ancillary facilities as allowed by the Florida Building Code, but only under the following conditions:

    453.11.1Fire-retardant treated wood.

    All FRTW must meet the requirements of Section 2303.2.

    453.11.2

    Inspection access panels shall be provided for annual inspection of the condition of the structure and the connectors.

    453.11.3

    Evidence of compliance shall be provided.

    453.12Roofing.

    453.12.1Class A materials.

    All roofing materials shall be labeled Class A per ASTM E108 and shall be certified by a nationally recognized independent testing laboratory. All roofing systems shall be installed within the limitations of the test procedure for surfacing, deck cross slope, and combustibility.

    453.12.2Insulation and moisture protection.

    Insulation, moisture protection, roofing, thermal requirements, fireproofing and firestopping shall be designed and constructed in compliance with the Florida Building Code and Florida Fire Prevention Code as adopted by the State Fire Marshal. Cellulose insulation may only be used if it is treated with fire-retardant borate based chemicals; the contractor shall retain bag labels on site for review by building inspector.

    453.12.3Phased installation prohibited.

    All new installed materials shall be sealed from moisture penetration at the end of each day. The contractor shall provide the architect/engineer (A/E) of record a “final statement of compliance” for the board.

    453.12.4Manufacturer’s one-year inspection.

    The roof shall be inspected by the manufacturer’s representative within one year of acceptance by the board.

    453.12.5Exterior stairways.

    Exterior stairways serving as a means of egress shall be roofed.

    453.13Doors and windows.

    453.13.1Doors.

    All spaces with an occupant load of six or more students, regardless of use, shall have a door opening directly to the exterior, or as required in the Florida Fire Prevention Code as adopted by the State Fire Marshal, in buildings of three stories or less shall have a rescue window opening directly to the exterior, or shall be fully sprinklered. All doors and gates from spaces with an occupant load of six or more students, regardless of use or location, shall swing in the direction of exit travel, shall be of the side-hinged type, and shall always be operable from the inside by a single operation and without a key.

    453.13.1.1

    Doors for steam rooms, locker rooms, shower rooms and group toilet rooms shall swing in the direction of exit travel, and shall always be operable for exiting from the inside.

    453.13.1.2

    No mirrors, draperies, curtains, equipment, furnishings, decorations, or other objects which may confuse, obstruct, or conceal the exit or the direction of exit shall be placed to obstruct a means of egress.

    453.13.2Recessed.

    Doors when fully opened shall not extend into the required exit width of corridors, except for door thickness and required hardware. Doors may either be recessed and hinged to swing 90 degrees, or if flush with corridor wall shall contain a view panel and be hinged to swing 180 degrees.

    453.13.3Special function doors.

    Special function doors, including balanced doors and overhead doors, shall not be used in a means of egress.

    453.13.4Overhead and sliding security grilles.

    Security grilles shall have an adjacent side-hinged door swinging in the direction of exit and readily opened from the inside.

    453.13.5Gates.

    Gates used to secure buildings or used for egress shall be side-hinged and readily opened from the side from which egress is to be made without the use of a key or special tool, or shall have an adjacent side-hinged door, or doors as required for occupant load, swinging in the direction of exit and readily opened from the inside without a key.

    453.13.6Hardware.

    Doors and gates shall be equipped with hardware which will allow egress at all times without assistance. No padlock, chain, hasp, lock, deadbolt, or other device shall be installed at any time on any door used for exiting. Doors which by code require closers and other doors subject to wind exposure shall be equipped with closers to prevent slamming and uncontrolled opening. All doors opening into smoke-tight exit access corridors shall be self-closing or automatic closing. Smoke doors in walls used to divide corridors into separate atmospheres shall be provided with push-pull plates and are not required to have positive latching. As an exception to Section 1010.1.9.7, delayed egress locks may be used in media centers, alternative education centers, and exceptional student education centers. Delayed egress locks are prohibited at time-out rooms at all locations.

    453.13.7Safety glazing: panels and storefronts.

    In addition to the requirements of Section 2406.4, the following is considered a hazardous location and requires safety glazing: glazed panels within 48 inches (1219 mm) of a door, excluding transoms or vertical panels above 6 feet 8 inches (2031 mm).

    453.13.7.1

    All glazing in hazardous locations shall be safety glazing meeting the requirements of the Florida Building Code, Building, Section 2406.

    453.13.7.2

    Large glass panels shall be subdivided by a built-in horizontal member or a permanent chair rail not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) in width, located between 24 and 36 inches (610 and 914 mm) above the floor.

    453.13.8Windows.

    453.13.8.1Natural light and ventilation.

    Natural light and ventilation requirements for new construction shall be satisfied by windows with operable glazing, providing a net free open area equivalent to 5 percent of the floor area, in all classrooms on the perimeter of buildings, where required by Chapter 1013, Florida Statutes. Auxiliary spaces, music rooms, gyms, locker and shower facilities, laboratories requiring special climate control, and large group instructional spaces having a capacity of more than 100 persons need not have operable windows for the purpose of providing natural light and ventilation. Emergency access, emergency rescue, and secondary means of egress windows maybe included in the calculation to comply with this requirement.

    453.13.8.2Projecting and awning windows.

    Projecting and awning windows shall not be located below door head height if in, or adjacent to, a play area, a corridor or walkway.

    453.13.8.3Security/storm screens or grills.

    If a security/storm screen or grille is installed on the outside of an emergency access, rescue or egress window assembly then that security/storm screen or grille together with the emergency rescue window assembly shall be operable from the inside by a single operation without the use of tools to allow for exit under emergency conditions. The emergency rescue window shall be identified by signage, and the release device shall be readily identifiable.

    453.14Special safety requirements.

    453.14.1Master control switch.

    In addition to the regular main supply cut-off, each laboratory-type space (such as biology, industrial, chemistry, physics, home economics, and electronics labs) equipped with unprotected gas cocks, compressed air valves, water or electric services which are easily accessible to students, shall have master control valves or switches with permanently attached handles, located and accessible within 15 feet (4572 mm) of the instructor’s station or adjacent to the primary egress door within that space to allow for emergency cut-off of services. The cut-offs shall be in a nonlockable place and the location and operation shall be clearly labeled. Valves shall completely shut off with a one-quarter turn. Computer labs are exempted from this requirement. (Also, see “Emergency shut off switches,” and “Emergency disconnects” requirements under “Electrical.”)

    453.14.2Interior signage.

    Signage is required in educational and ancillary facilities. Design, construction, installation, and location of interior signage and graphics shall comply with the Florida Building Code and the Florida Fire Prevention Code as adopted by the State Fire Marshal and the following:

    453.14.2.1Emergency rescue windows.

    Windows for emergency rescue shall comply with NFPA 101, Florida Edition, as adopted by the Florida Fire Prevention Code, shall be operable from the inside by a single operation, and shall be labeled “EMERGENCY RESCUE—KEEP AREA CLEAR.” Hinged emergency rescue windows shall swing in the direction of egress.

    453.14.2.2

    Maximum capacity signs in each space with a capacity of 50 or more occupants. The signs shall be mounted adjacent to the main entrance door.

    453.14.2.3

    Room name, room number and, if different, FISH inventory numbers shall be provided for each space.

    453.14.2.4

    A graphic diagram of primary and emergency evacuation routes shall be posted adjacent to the primary exit door from each space occupied by six or more students. The diagram shall clearly indicate, by contrasting color and number, each route of evacuation.

    453.14.2.5

    Signs necessary to meet accessibility requirements shall be provided.

    453.14.2.6

    Hazardous work and storage areas shall be identified by appropriate caution signs.

    453.14.3Other potential hazards.

    Pipes, ductwork, fans, light fixtures, window projections, protruding sharp corners, or other potential hazards shall not be installed below 6 feet 8 inches (2031 mm) AFF. Audio/visual aids in classrooms may be mounted below 6 feet 8 inches (2031 mm) provided they are marked and padded in accordance with accepted safety standards or have permanent cabinets installed below them.

    453.14.4Storage shelving.

    Shelving shall not have sharp corners, splinters, or any construction feature that would be hazardous to the occupants. Shelving shall be constructed to carry the loads imposed. Shelving in science, labs, and shop storage rooms, and other places which may contain hazardous materials shall have a 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) lip on the front edge of each shelf and shall be constructed of noncorrosive material.

    453.14.5Vertical platform lifts and inclined wheelchair lifts.

    The following standards are in addition to the other requirements of the Florida Building Code, Florida law, and federal requirements:

    453.14.5.1

    Lifts shall not reduce the width of required means of egress.

    453.14.5.2

    Lifts shall have shielding devices to protect users from the machinery or other hazards and obstructions.

    453.14.5.3

    Lifts shall be key operated for attendant operation in all facilities housing kindergarten to grade 8.

    453.14.5.4

    Inclined wheelchair lifts may be installed in facilities provided:

    453.14.5.4.1

    The platform is equipped with bidirectional ramp sensing to stop travel if obstructions are encountered.

    453.14.5.4.2

    Guide rails are smooth and continuous with no sharp edges or obstructions, all drive system components contain safety features for protection of users, and cables and pulling devices are shielded.

    453.14.6Color code machinery.

    Working machinery with component parts shall be color-coded in accordance with ANSI Z535.1, American National Standard Safety Color Code for Marking Physical Hazards. Safety zone lines shall be marked on the floor areas surrounding working machinery.

    453.14.7Anchor equipment.

    All equipment designed to be permanently mounted shall be securely anchored to its supporting surface.

    453.14.8Interior finishes.

    453.14.8.1Floors.

    Floors in instructional spaces shall be covered with resilient material or carpet.

    453.15Mechanical.

    453.15.1Gas and fluid piping.

    453.15.1.1Flammable liquids/gases.

    Piping systems for flammable liquids or gases shall not be installed in interior corridors or stairwells.

    Exception: Piping may be located within corridors provided that they are enclosed in a minimum 1-hour fire-rated enclosure.

    453.15.1.2Piping systems.

    Piping (fluid system) shall not be run where students can access the pipes, or in areas such as on roofs where they can be damaged by routine or periodic maintenance activities.

    453.15.1.3Main supply valve.

    The main supply cutoffs for flammable liquids or gases shall shut down upon activation of the fire alarm system. Refer to the automatic shutoff requirements of Section 453.7.6.

    453.15.2Air plenums.

    Corridors shall not be used as a supply, return, exhaust, relief, or ventilation air plenum. The space between the corridor ceiling and the floor or roof structure above, if used as a plenum, shall be constructed with the ceiling, floor and walls as a minimum 1-hour firerated assembly or as a 1-hour fire-rated horizontal wall supported by the corridor walls.

    Exception: A smoke-tight corridor with a solid ceiling may be used in a fully sprinklered building.

    453.15.3Residential equipment.

    In home economics instructional spaces, faculty lounges, and similar areas where small residential-type ranges are installed for staff use or student education, residential-type hoods mechanically exhausted to the outside shall be used. Hood fire suppression systems are not required to be installed. A fire extinguisher shall be located within 15 feet (457 mm) of the range within the same room, and shall meet the type and size requirements of NFPA 10.

    453.15.4Toilet room ventilation.

    Toilet rooms shall be continuously ventilated during building occupancy.

    Exception: Individual toilet rooms shall be ventilated continuously during building occupancy or ventilation shall turn on with the light switch and run for at least 10 minutes after the light has been turned off.

    453.15.5Ventilation air make-up for HVAC systems.

    The minimum outdoor airflow rate shall be determined in accordance with Section 403.3.1.1 of the Florida Building Code, Mechanical. Ventilation supply systems shall be designed to deliver the required rate of outdoor airflow to the breathing zone within each occupiable space. In accordance with Section 401.3 of the Florida Building Code, Mechanical, this ventilation shall be provided during the periods that the room or space is occupied.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Where the registered design professional demonstrates that an engineered ventilation system design will prevent the maximum concentration of contaminants from exceeding that obtainable by the rate of outdoor air ventilation determined in accordance with Section 403.3.1.1 of the Florida Building Code, Mechanical, the minimum required rate of outdoor air shall be reduced in accordance with such engineered system design. In accordance with Section 401.3 of the Florida Building Code, Mechanical, this ventilation shall be provided during the periods that the room or space is occupied.

    2. 2.Where peak occupancies of less than 3 hours duration occur, the outdoor air flow may be determined on the basis of average occupancy for school buildings for the duration of operation of the air-conditioning system, provided the average occupancy used is not less than onehalf the maximum.

    453.16Plumbing.

    453.16.1Standards.

    Educational and ancillary facilities shall be provided with toilets, hand washing facilities, and drinking fountains for all occupants, in ratios and accessible as required by the Florida Building Code, Florida law, and federal requirements.

    Exception: Unisex toilets shall not be provided in addition to group toilets in assembly occupancies.

    453.16.1.1Assembly occupancies.

    Toilet facilities for assembly occupancies (i.e. media centers, gymnasiums, cafetoriums, and auditoriums) are not required to be in addition to the overall required plumbing fixture count.

    453.16.1.2Location.

    Student toilets shall be distributed throughout the facility and located on each floor for convenient access and continuous supervision. The path of travel to the nearest toilet facility shall not exceed a distance of 200 feet (60 960 mm).

    453.16.2Public shelter.

    Refer to the public shelter design criteria of Section 453.25.

    453.16.3Urinals.

    Trough urinals shall not be installed in any location.

    453.16.4

    Reserved.

    453.16.5Exterior entries.

    Exterior entries to toilet rooms shall have outward swinging doors.

    453.16.6Hot water.

    When hot water is supplied to showers, handwash sinks, lavatories in toilet rooms, a mixing valve shall be installed to control the temperature which shall not exceed 110°F (43°C).

    453.16.7Delayed closing valves.

    Water supply at toilet room lavatories shall be controlled by delayed-closing valves.

    453.16.8Shower facilities.

    Showers shall be provided only where required by the district’s educational program and, where provided, shall utilize energy saving concepts for hot water as required by Section 1013.44(2), Florida Statutes. When provided, shower areas shall comply with the following:

    453.16.8.1

    Floor finish shall be slip resistant.

    453.16.8.2

    A master control valve shall be provided to control the shower heads. Showers shall be equipped with flow control devices to limit total flow to a maximum of 3 gpm (0.19 L/s) per shower head.

    453.16.9Kitchens.

    Kitchens and food service areas shall be provided with toilet and hand washing facilities for employees as required by code, state rule and statute.

    453.16.9.1

    A minimum of one water closet and one lavatory with hot and cold water shall be provided in each staff toilet.

    453.16.10Dousing shower and eye wash.

    Every science lab, or shop shall be provided with a dousing shower and eye wash for emergency use, including a floor drain.

    453.17Electrical.

    453.17.1Emergency lighting.

    Emergency lighting shall be provided at internal and external means of egress, in student-occupied areas, in group toilets, and main electrical rooms.

    453.17.2Electrical rooms and closets.

    Main service panels and switches, electrical distribution panels, cabinets, and rooms shall be lockable and not readily accessible to teachers or students.

    453.17.3Spare capacity.

    Lighting and power panels shall be provided with a minimum of 20-percent spare breakers and a minimum of 10-percent spare capacity in all main panels and switchboards.

    453.17.4Emergency shutoff switches.

    Every laboratory space which has electrical receptacles at student workstations shall have an emergency shutoff switch within 15 feet (4572 mm) of the instructor’s workstation. The emergency shutoff switch shall be operable by a single motion and shall interrupt power to all receptacles in the room.

    Exception: Emergency shutoff switches are not required in computer laboratories.

    453.17.5Emergency disconnect.

    Each space equipped with electrically powered machinery accessible to students shall have a minimum of two master emergency disconnect switches at convenient locations within the space to shut off all power tool outlets, power to student accessible machines and receptacles in the shop. One emergency shutoff or disconnect switch shall be located near the machinery and one emergency shutoff or disconnect switch shall be located in the instructor’s office if there is a clear view of the entire shop area, others may be required and located as determined by the authority having jurisdiction. The emergency disconnect or shutoff switch shall be operable by a single motion.

    Exception: Ordinary office machines, computers, sewing machines, potter’s wheels, residential cooking equipment in home economics labs and other nonhazardous machines do not require emergency disconnect devices.

    453.17.6Sauna and steam rooms.

    A “panic” switch to deactivate power to heating equipment shall be provided inside sauna and steam rooms. The panic switch shall also be tied into an alarm or other approved warning device in a supervised space in the area of the sauna and/or steam room. The operation of the switch shall be labeled to indicate the intended function.

    453.17.7Lightning.

    All facilities in high lightning risk areas shall be evaluated using the Risk Assessment Guide in NFPA 780 and other standards which address lightning protection, and shall be protected accordingly.

    453.17.8Ground fault interrupter (GFI) receptacles.

    GFI receptacles shall be installed as required by NFPA 70 of Chapter 27 and in the following locations:

    1. 1.All elementary special needs, prekindergarten, and kindergarten classroom receptacles.

    2. 2.All building entry vestibule receptacles.

    3. 3.All mechanical, boiler and electrical room receptacles.

    453.18Assembly occupancies in public educational facilities.

    453.18.1

    Occupant capacity for egress shall be in accordance with Table 1004.1.2 except as follows:

    453.18.1.1Dressing rooms.

    Dressing rooms at 20 net square feet (1.86 m2) per person.

    453.18.1.2Gymnasium.

    The number of fixed and telescopic bench-type bleacher seats plus the main court area at 15 gross square feet (1.4 m2) per person, plus locker rooms at 5 net square feet (0.5 m2) per person.

    453.18.1.3Classrooms and labs.

    If spaces are combined through the use of folding partitions, the capacity and exiting shall be based on the capacity of all the spaces joined.

    453.18.1.4Small group areas in media centers.

    Small group room or area (view and preview) in media centers at 5 net square feet (0.5 m2) per person.

    453.18.1.5Closed circuit television production, distribution, and control.

    The main floor area at 15 net square feet (1.4 m2) per person.

    453.18.1.6Interior courtyards.

    The interior courtyard area at 15 gross square feet (1.4 m2) per person. Raised, dedicated landscape areas may be deducted.

    453.19Shade and green houses.

    453.19.1General.

    Shade/green houses shall be of Type I or II construction (metal frame) capable of withstanding the appropriate wind load.

    453.19.2Unrestricted exiting.

    The location of the shade/green house shall not hinder exiting from new and/or existing structures.

    453.19.3Required doors.

    A minimum of two doors remotely located shall be provided. Doors shall be side hinged and shall swing in the direction of egress.

    453.19.4Accessibility.

    Green houses shall meet accessibility requirements. The accessible walkway shall be connected to doors leading to an accessible route to the permanent structure.

    453.19.5Shade cloth.

    Shade cloth shall be tear-away fabric securely fastened to the structural frame.