About this chapter: Plumbing systems are another key element of any building. Chapter 29 provides the necessary number of plumbing fixtures, including water closets, lavatories, bathtubs and showers. The quality and design of each fixture must be in accordance with the International Plumbing Code®.
The provisions of this chapter and the International Plumbing Code shall govern the design, construction, erection and installation of plumbing components, appliances, equipment and systems used in buildings and structures covered by this code. Toilet and bathing rooms shall be constructed in accordance with Section 1209. Private sewage disposal systems shall conform to the International Private Sewage Disposal Code. The International Fire Code, the International Property Maintenance Code and the International Plumbing Code shall govern the use and maintenance of plumbing components, appliances, equipment and systems. The International Existing Building Code and the International Plumbing Code shall govern the alteration, repair, relocation, replacement and addition of plumbing components, appliances, equipment and systems.
MINIMUM PLUMBING FACILITIES
[P]2902.1Minimum number of fixtures.
Plumbing fixtures shall be provided in the minimum number as shown in Table 2902.1 based on the actual use of the building or space. Uses not shown in Table 2902.1 shall be considered individually by the code official. The number of occupants shall be determined by this code.
[P] TABLE 2902.1
No. CLASSIFICATION DESCRIPTION WATER CLOSETS (URINALS SEE SECTION 424.2 OF THEINTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE) LAVATORIES BATHTUBS/SHOWERS DRINKING FOUNTAINS (SEE SECTION 410 OF THE INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE) OTHER Male Female Male Female 1 Assembly Theaters and other buildings for the performing arts and motion picturesd 1 per 125 1 per 65 1 per 200 — 1 per 500 1 service sink Nightclubs, bars, taverns, dance halls and buildings for similar purposesd 1 per 40 1 per 40 1 per 75 — 1 per 500 1 service sink Restaurants, banquet halls and food courtsd 1 per 75 1 per 75 1 per 200 — 1 per 500 1 service sink Casino gaming areas 1 per 100 for the first 400 and 1 per 250 for the remainder exceeding 400 1 per 50 for the first 400 and 1 per 150 for the remainder exceeding 400 1 per 250 for the first 750 and 1 per 500 for the remainder exceeding 750 — 1 per 1,000 1 service sink Auditoriums without permanent seating, art galleries, exhibition halls, museums, lecture halls, libraries, arcades and gymnasiumsd 1 per 125 1 per 65 1 per 200 — 1 per 500 1 service sink Passenger terminals and transportation facilitiesd 1 per 500 1 per 500 1 per 750 — 1 per 1,000 1 service sink Places of worship and other religious servicesd 1 per 150 1 per 75 1 per 200 — 1 per 1,000 1 service sink Coliseums, arenas, skating rinks, pools and tennis courts for indoor sporting events and activities 1 per 75 for the first 1,500 and 1 per 120 for the remainder exceeding 1,500 1 per 40 for the first 1,520 and 1 per 60 for the remainder exceeding 1,520 1 per 200 1 per 150 — 1 per 1,000 1 service sink Stadiums, amusement parks, bleachers and grandstands for outdoor sporting events and activitiesf 1 per 75 for the first 1,500 and 1 per 120 for the remainder exceeding 1,500 1 per 40 for the first 1,520 and 1 per 60 for the remainder exceeding 1,520 1 per 200 1 per 150 — 1 per 1,000 1 service sink 2 Business Buildings for the transaction of business, professional services, other services involving merchandise, office buildings, banks, light industrial, ambulatory care and similar uses 1 per 25 for the first 50 and 1 per 50 for the remainder exceeding 50 1 per 40 for the first 80 and 1 per 80 for the remainder exceeding 80 — 1 per 100 1 service sinke 3 Educational Educational facilities 1 per 50 1 per 50 — 1 per 100 1 service sink 4 Factory and industrial Structures in which occupants are engaged in work fabricating, assembly or processing of products or materials 1 per 100 1 per 100 — 1 per 400 1 service sink 5 Institutional Custodial care facilities 1 per 10 1 per 10 1 per 8 1 per 100 1 service sink Medical care recipients in hospitals and nursing homesb 1 per roomc 1 per roomc 1 per 15 1 per 100 1 service sink Employees in hospitals and nursing homesb 1 per 25 1 per 35 — 1 per 100 — Visitors in hospitals and nursing homes 1 per 75 1 per 100 — 1 per 500 — Prisonsb 1 per cell 1 per cell 1 per 15 1 per 100 1 service sink Reformatories, detention centers and correctional centersb 1 per 15 1 per 15 1 per 15 1 per 100 1 service sink Employees in reformitories, detention centers and correctional centersb 1 per 25 1 per 35 — 1 per 100 — Adult day care and child day care 1 per 15 1 per 15 1 1 per 100 1 service sink 6 Mercantile Retail stores, service stations, shops, salesrooms, markets and shopping centers 1 per 500 1 per 750 — 1 per 1,000 1 service sinke 7 Residential Hotels, motels, boarding houses (transient) 1 per sleeping unit 1 per sleeping unit 1 per sleeping unit — 1 service sink Dormitories, fraternities, sororities and boarding houses (not transient) 1 per 10 1 per 10 1 per 8 1 per 100 1 service sink Apartment house 1 per dwelling unit 1 per dwelling unit 1 per dwelling unit — 1 kitchen sink per dwelling unit; 1 automatic clothes washer connection per 20 dwelling units One- and two-family dwellings and lodging houses with five or fewer guestrooms 1 per dwelling unit 1 per 10 1 per dwelling unit — 1 kitchen sink per dwelling unit; 1 automatic clothes washer connection per dwelling unit Congregate living facilities with 16 or fewer persons 1 per 10 1 per 10 1 per 8 1 per 100 1 service sink 8 Storage Structures for the storage of goods, warehouses, storehouses and freight depots, low and moderate hazard 1 per 100 1 per 100 — 1 per 1,000 1 service sink
a.The fixtures shown are based on one fixture being the minimum required for the number of persons indicated or any fraction of the number of persons indicated. The number of occupants shall be determined by this code.
b.Toilet facilities for employees shall be separate from facilities for inmates or care recipients.
c.A single-occupant toilet room with one water closet and one lavatory serving not more than two adjacent patient sleeping units shall be permitted, provided that each patient sleeping unit has direct access to the toilet room and provisions for privacy for the toilet room user are provided.
d.The occupant load for seasonal outdoor seating and entertainment areas shall be included when determining the minimum number of facilities required.
e.For business and mercantile classifications with an occupant load of 15 or fewer, a service sink shall not be required.
f.The required number and type of plumbing fixtures for outdoor swimming pools shall be in accordance with Section 609 of the International Swimming Pool and Spa Code.
To determine the occupant load of each sex, the total occupant load shall be divided in half. To determine the required number of fixtures, the fixture ratio or ratios for each fixture type shall be applied to the occupant load of each sex in accordance with Table 2902.1. Fractional numbers resulting from applying the fixture ratios of Table 2902.1 shall be rounded up to the next whole number. For calculations involving multiple occupancies, such fractional numbers for each occupancy shall first be summed and then rounded up to the next whole number.
Exception: The total occupant load shall not be required to be divided in half where approved statistical data indicate a distribution of the sexes of other than 50 percent of each sex.
[P]2902.1.2Single-user toilet facility and bathing room fixtures.
The plumbing fixtures located in single-user toilet facilities and bathing rooms, including family or assisted-use toilet and bathing rooms that are required by Section 1109.2, shall contribute toward the total number of required plumbing fixtures for a building or tenant space. Single-user toilet facilities and bathing rooms, and family or assisted-use toilet rooms and bathing rooms shall be identified for use by either sex.
Where two or more toilet rooms are provided for each sex, the required number of lavatories shall be distributed proportionately to the required number of water closets.
Where plumbing fixtures are required, separate facilities shall be provided for each sex.
1.Separate facilities shall not be required for dwelling units and sleeping units.
2.Separate facilities shall not be required in structures or tenant spaces with a total occupant load, including both employees and customers, of 15 or fewer.
3.Separate facilities shall not be required in mercantile occupancies in which the maximum occupant load is 100 or fewer.
4.Separate facilities shall not be required in business occupancies in which the maximum occupant load is 25 or fewer.
[P]2902.2.1Family or assisted-use toilet facilities serving as separate facilities.
Where a building or tenant space requires a separate toilet facility for each sex and each toilet facility is required to have only one water closet, two family or assisted-use toilet facilities shall be permitted to serve as the required separate facilities. Family or assisted-use toilet facilities shall not be required to be identified for exclusive use by either sex as required by Section 2902.4.
[P]2902.3Employee and public toilet facilities.
For structures and tenant spaces intended for public utilization, customers, patrons and visitors shall be provided with public toilet facilities. Employees associated with structures and tenant spaces shall be provided with toilet facilities. The number of plumbing fixtures located within the required toilet facilities shall be provided in accordance with Section 2902 for all users. Employee toilet facilities shall be either separate or combined employee and public toilet facilities.
Exception: Public toilet facilities shall not be required for:
1.Parking garages where operated without parking attendants.
2.Structures and tenant spaces intended for quick transactions, including takeout, pickup and drop-off, having a public access area less than or equal to 300 square feet (28 m2).
The route to the public toilet facilities required by Section 2902.3 shall not pass through kitchens, storage rooms or closets. Access to the required facilities shall be from within the building or from the exterior of the building. Routes shall comply with the accessibility requirements of this code. The public shall have access to the required toilet facilities at all times that the building is occupied.
[P]2902.3.2Prohibited toilet room location.
Toilet rooms shall not open directly into a room used for the preparation of food for service to the public.
[P]2902.3.3Location of toilet facilities in occupancies other than malls.
In occupancies other than covered and open mall buildings, the required public and employee toilet facilities shall be located not more than one story above or below the space required to be provided with toilet facilities, and the path of travel to such facilities shall not exceed a distance of 500 feet (152 m).
Exception: The location and maximum distances of travel to required employee facilities in factory and industrial occupancies are permitted to exceed that required by this section, provided that the location and maximum distance of travel are approved.
[P]2902.3.4Location of toilet facilities in malls.
In covered and open mall buildings, the required public and employee toilet facilities shall be located not more than one story above or below the space required to be provided with toilet facilities, and the path of travel to such facilities shall not exceed a distance of 300 feet (91 mm). In mall buildings, the required facilities shall be based on total square footage (m2) within a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building, and facilities shall be installed in each individual store or in a central toilet area located in accordance with this section. The maximum distance of travel to central toilet facilities in mall buildings shall be measured from the main entrance of any store or tenant space. In mall buildings, where employees’ toilet facilities are not provided in the individual store, the maximum distance of travel shall be measured from the employees’ work area of the store or tenant space.
Where pay facilities are installed, such facilities shall be in excess of the required minimum facilities. Required facilities shall be free of charge.
Where a toilet room is provided for the use of multiple occupants, the egress door for the room shall not be lockable from the inside of the room. This section does not apply to family or assisted-use toilet rooms.
Required public facilities shall be provided with signs that designate the sex as required by Section 2902.2. Signs shall be readily visible and located near the entrance to each toilet facility. Signs for accessible toilet facilities shall comply with Section 1111.
Directional signage indicating the route to the required public toilet facilities shall be posted in a lobby, corridor, aisle or similar space, such that the sign can be readily seen from the main entrance to the building or tenant space.
[P]2902.5Drinking fountain location.
Drinking fountains shall not be required to be located in individual tenant spaces provided that public drinking fountains are located within a distance of travel of 500 feet (152 m) of the most remote location in the tenant space and not more than one story above or below the tenant space. Where the tenant space is in a covered or open mall, such distance shall not exceed 300 feet (91 440 mm). Drinking fountains shall be located on an accessible route.
Drinking fountains shall not be required for an occupant load of 15 or fewer.
2018 International Building Code