• CHAPTER4
    BUILDINGS WITH CONCRETE OR MASONRY EXTERIOR WALLS

    SECTION401
    SCOPE

    401.1Scope.

    This chapter prescribes construction requirements for buildings where all exterior walls above the foundation are concrete or masonry and where the building meets the parameters and requirements of Chapter 1. Interior walls and partitions may be concrete, masonry, wood framed, coldformed steel framed, or any other approved construction. Concrete walls shall be in accordance with Section 409.

    SECTION402
    GENERAL

    TABLE 402

    MINIMUM REINFORCEMENT SPLICE LENGTH (inches)

    BAR SIZELAP SPLICE AaLAP SPLICE Bb
    42025
    52539
    64354
    75963

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    1. a. Bars with 33/ 8 inches minimum cover on all sides and 33/8 inches minimum clearance to adjacent bars [Figure 402(1)].

    2. b.Bars with 2 inches minimum cover on all sides and 2 inches minimum clearance to adjacent bars [Figure 402(2)].

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE 402(1)

    LAP SPLICE A CONFIGURATION

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE 402(2)

    LAP SPLICE B CONFIGURATION

    402.1Materials for masonry.

    402.1.1Masonry units.

    1. 1.Concrete masonry units shall be hollow or solid unit masonry in accordance with ASTM C90 and shall have a minimum net area compressive strength of 1900 psi (62 MPa).

    2. 2.Clay masonry units shall be in accordance with ASTM C62, C216, or C652 Class H40V, and shall have a minimum net area compressive strength of 4400 psi (30.3 MPa) when using Type M or S mortar or a minimum net area compressive strength of 5500 psi (37.9 MPa) when using Type N mortar.

    402.1.2 Mortar.

    In structural applications, mortar shall be either Type M or S in accordance with ASTM C270. In veneer applications, mortar shall be Type M, S, or N in accordance with ASTM C270.

    402.1.3 Grout.

    The grout shall have a maximum coarse aggregate size of 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) placed at an 8 to 11-inch (203 to 229 mm) slump and have a minimum specified compressive strength of 2000 psi (15.2 MPa) at 28 days when tested in accordance with ASTM C1019, or shall be in accordance with ASTM C476. Grout shall be placed in maximum 5 foot (1524 mm) lifts and properly consolidated.

    Exception: Where the following conditions are met, place grout in lifts not exceeding 12.67 ft (3.86 m).

    1. 1.The masonry has cured for at least 4 hours.

    2. 2.The grout slump is maintained between 10 and 11 in. (254 and 279 mm).

    3. 3.No intermediate reinforced bond beams are placed between the top and the bottom of the pour height.

    402.1.4 Reinforcing steel.

    The reinforcing steel shall be minimum Grade 60 and identified in accordance with ASTM A615, A706 or A996. ASTM A996 bars produced from rail steel shall be Type R.

    402.1.5 Metal accessories.

    Joint reinforcement, anchors, ties and wire fabric shall conform to the following standards:

    1. 1.ASTM A951 for joint reinforcement and wire anchors and ties.

    2. 2.ASTM A36/A36M for plate, headed and bent bar anchors.

    3. 3.ASTM A1008/A1008M for sheet metal anchors and ties.

    402.1.6 Galvanization.

    Metal accessories for use in exterior wall construction and not directly exposed to the weather shall be hot dip galvanized and metal accessories for use in interior wall construction shall be mill galvanized in accordance the following:

    1. a.Mill galvanized coatings:

      1. 1)Joint reinforcement ASTM A641. (0.1 oz/ft2) (31 g/m2)

      2. 2)Sheet-metal ties and sheet-metal anchors ASTM A653 Coating Designation G60

    2. b.Hot-dip galvanized coatings:

      1. 1)Joint reinforcement, wire ties, and wire anchors ASTM A153 (1.50 oz/ft2) (458 g/m2)

      2. 2)Sheet-metal ties and sheet-metal anchors ASTM A153 Class B

      3. 3)Steel plates and bars (as applicable to size and form indicated) ASTM A123 or ASTM A153, Class B

    402.1.7 Fasteners and connectors.

    This standard contains figures showing connectors. The connectors are shown for illustrative purposes only. The illustration of the connectors is not intended to endorse any connector manufacturer. To choose the appropriate connector, please check with the connector manufacturer.

    402.1.7.1Continuous load path.

    A continuous load path between foundations, walls and roofs shall be provided. Approved connectors, anchors and other fastening devices shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. Where fasteners are not otherwise specified in this standard, fasteners shall be provided in accordance with Table R602.3(1) of the International Residential Code. Nails, screws or bolts shall be able to resist the forces described in this standard. Nails, screws and bolts shall comply with requirements contained in the AWC NDS.

    402.1.7.2 Nails.

    Unless otherwise stated, sizes given for nails are common wire nails. Common wire nail length diameter and head diameter shall be as shown in Appendix L, Table L4 of AWC NDS. Nails shall conform to the requirements of ASTM F1667 including supplementary requirements.

    402.1.7.3Corrosion.

    Fasteners and connectors that are exposed directly to the weather in areas within 3,000 feet (914 m) of a saltwater coastline or subject to salt corrosion, as determined by the building official, or in contact with treated wood shall comply with Section 402.1.7.3.1 or 402.1.7.3.2:

    402.1.7.3.1Screws, bolts and nails.

    Screws, bolts and nails shall be corrosion resistant by coating, galvanization or composition (stainless steel, nonferrous metal or other suitable corrosion-resistant material). The corrosion resistance of galvanized fasteners with diameters over 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) shall be equal to or equivalent to that provided by compliance with ASTM A153. The corrosion resistance of fasteners with diameters of 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) or less shall be demonstrated through one of the following methods:

    1. 1.Compliance, or equivalent, with ASTM A153.

    2. 2.Compliance, or equivalent, with ASTM A641 Class 1.

    3. 3.Corrosion resistance exhibiting not more than 5 percent red rust after 1000 hours exposure in accordance with ASTM B117.

    4. 4.Corrosion resistance exhibiting not more than 5 percent red rust after 280 hours exposure for nails, 1000 hours for roof tile fasteners or 360 hours exposure for other carbon steel fasteners in accordance with ASTM G85, Annex 5.

    402.1.7.3.2Metal plates and connectors.

    Metal plates and connectors shall be stainless steel, hot dipped galvanized prior to fabrication to meet ASTM A653 Coating Designation G185, hot dipped galvanized after fabrication to meet ASTM A123 or provided with a protective coating as specified by ANSI/TPI 1.

    402.2Masonry work, general.

    402.2.1 Mortor joints.

    All mortar joints for hollow unit masonry shall extend the full width of face shells. Mortar joints for solid masonry shall be full head and bed joints.

    402.2.2 Bed joints.

    Bed joints shall be 3/8 inch (± 1/8 inch) (9.5 ± 3 mm) thick and head joints shall be 3/8 inch (+ 3/8 inch or - 1/4 inch) (9.5 + 9.5 or - 6 mm) thick except for masonry veneer.

    402.2.3 Starting course.

    The bed joint of the starting course placed over footings shall be permitted to vary in thickness from a minimum of 1/4 inch (6 mm) to a maximum of 3/4 inch (19 mm).

    402.2.4Stack bond.

    Masonry walls shall be running bond or stack bond construction. When masonry units are laid in stack bond, 9-gage (0.148 inch) (minimum) horizontal joint reinforcement, in addition to required vertical reinforcement, shall be placed in bed joints at not more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center.

    402.2.5Joint reinforcement.

    Longitudinal wires of joint reinforcement shall be fully embedded in mortar or grout with a minimum cover of 5/8 inch (16 mm) when exposed to earth or weather and 1/2 inch (13 mm) when not exposed to earth or weather.

    402.3Reinforcing steel, general.

    402.3.1Size of reinforcement.

    Reinforcing steel shall be No. 4, 5, 6 or 7 for bond beam reinforcement and No.4 or No. 5 bars for wall vertical reinforcement.

    402.3.2 Splices.

    Splices shall be lap splices with minimum splice lengths as set forth in Table 402.

    402.3.3Bonding of reinforcement.

    Reinforcement that is required to be bent shall be bent in the shop or in the field in accordance with all of the following:

    1. 1.All reinforcement shall be bent cold.

    2. 2.The diameter of the bend, measured on the inside of the bar, is not less than six-bar diameters.

    3. 3.Reinforcement partially embedded in concrete shall not be field bent.

    4. Exception: Where bending is necessary to align dowel bars with a vertical cell, bars partially embedded in concrete shall be permitted to be bent at a slope of not more than 1 inch (25 mm) of horizontal displacement to 6 inches (152 mm) of vertical bar length.

    402.4 Masonry cover over reinforcing steel.

    402.4.1Cover in grouted cells.

    Reinforcing bars embedded in grouted masonry cells shall have a minimum clear distance of 1/4 inch (6 mm) for fine grout or 1/2 inch (13 mm) for coarse grout between reinforcing bars and any face of a cell.

    402.4.2Cover in masonry walls.

    Reinforcing bars used in masonry walls shall have a masonry cover (including grout) of not less than:

    1. 1.2 inches (51 mm) for masonry units with face exposed to earth or weather.

    2. 2.11/2 inch (38 mm) for masonry units not exposed to earth or weather.

    402.5 Cleanout openings (masonry).

    402.5.1Cleanout for grouted cells.

    Cleanout openings shall be provided for cells containing spliced reinforcement where the grout pour exceeds 5 feet (1524 mm) in height.

    Exception: Cleanout openings are not required in cells containing vertical reinforcement where footing dowels are not required by Section 403.3.1, provided vertical wall reinforcement from above reaches within 12 inches (305 mm) of the floor slab below.

    402.5.2Bottom course opening.

    Where cleanout openings are required, an opening shall be provided in the bottom course of the masonry cell to be filled.

    402.5.3 Opening size.

    Cleanout openings shall have a minimum opening dimension of 3 inches (76 mm).

    402.6 Grouting (masonry).

    402.6.1Masonry protrusions.

    Masonry protrusions extending 1/2 inch (13 mm) or more into cells or cavities to be grouted shall be removed for grout pours over 5 feet (1524 mm).

    402.6.2Grouted spaces.

    Spaces to be grouted shall be free of mortar droppings, debris, loose aggregates, and any material harmful to masonry grout.

    402.6.3Solid grout.

    All cells containing reinforcement or anchor bolts shall be grouted solid.

    SECTION403
    FOOTINGS AND FOUNDATIONS

    TABLE 403

    MINIMUM WIDTH OF CONCRETE OR MASONRY FOOTINGS (inches)a

    LOAD-BEARING VALUE OF SOIL (psf)
    1,5002,0003,0004,000
    8-inch hollow masonry
    1 story12121212
    2 stories21161212
    3 stories32241612
    8-inch solid or fully grouted masonry, ICF and flat panel concrete
    1 story16121212
    2 stories29211412
    3 stories42322116

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

    1. a.Where minimum footing width is 12 inches, use of a single wythe of solid or fully grouted 12-inch nominal masonry units is permitted.

    FIGURE 403(1)

    CONTINUITY OF FOOTING AND FOUNDATION WALL REINFORCEMENT

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE 403(2)

    STEMWALL FOUNATION WITH SLAB-ON-GRADE

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE 403(3)

    STEMWALL FOUNDATION WITH WOOD-FRAMED FLOOR

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE 403(4)

    MONOLITHIC SLAB-ON-GRADE FOUNDATION

    403.1 Design.

    403.1.1General.

    All exterior walls, bearing walls and columns shall be supported on concrete footings of sufficient design to safely support the loads imposed as determined from the character of the soil.

    403.1.2Minimum size.

    Minimum sizes for footings shall be as set forth in Table 403 (refer to Figures 403(1) through (4) for typical foundation details). The footing width, W, shall be based on the load-bearing value of the soil in accordance with Table 403. Spread footings shall be at least 8 inches (203 mm) in thickness. Except for monolithic slabon-grade foundations, all exterior footings shall be at least 2 inches (51 mm) wider on each side than the wall resting on the footing and shall not extend past the wall more than the thickness of the footing. Monolithic slab-on-grade interior foundations may be used in conjunction with stemwall exterior foundations.

    403.1.3 Uplift resistance.

    Masonry buildings within the dimensional scope of Table 403 shall be assumed to be of adequate weight to not require uplift resistance greater than that provided by the structure and any foundation in accordance with Section 403 of this standard.

    403.2 Construction.

    403.2.1Minimum depth.

    Footings shall be level or shall be stepped so that both top and bottom of such footings are level. The bottom of all footings, except monolithic slabon-grade interior footings, shall be a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) below finished ground line.

    403.2.2Reinforcing.

    The minimum amount of reinforcing steel for footings shall be two No. 4 bars for footings having a cross-sectional area of 200 in.2 (290 cm2) or less and two No. 5 bars or three No. 4 bars for footings having a cross-sectional area greater than 200 in.2 (290 cm2).

    403.2.3Continuity.

    The outer bar of foundation steel shall be continuous around corners using corner bars or by bending the bar in accordance with Section 402.3.3. In both cases, the minimum bar lap shall be as required in Section 402.3.

    403.2.4Minimum thickness of stemwall.

    Foundation stemwalls shall be as thick as or thicker than the wall supported above, but in no case less than 8 inches (203 mm) thick for masonry.

    403.2.5Foundation stemwalls.

    Foundation stemwalls shall extend no more than 3 feet (915 mm) above the finished grade except as permitted by Section 301.6.

    403.3 Footing dowels.

    403.3.1Footing dowel location.

    Footing dowel bars shall be provided for all required vertical wall reinforcement in the following locations:

    1. 1.At all corners.

    2. 2.At each side of each opening more than 6 feet (1829 mm) wide.

    3. 3.At each end of each shearwall segment.

    4. 4.At other required vertical wall reinforcement of buildings which are located where the Design Wind Speed is 180 mph (80.5 m/s) or greater.

    5. 5.At vertical reinforcement in exterior walls as required elsewhere in this chapter where the aggregate area of openings exceeds 25 percent of the wall area.

    6. 6.At locations where girders or girder trusses bear on masonry walls.

    403.3.2Dowel bars.

    All footing dowel bars shall be the same size as the vertical wall reinforcement minimum, shall have a standard 90-degree (1.57 rad) hook, and shall be embedded 5 inches (127 mm) minimum into 8-inch-thick (203 mm) footings and a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) into all other footings. Dowel bars shall lap vertical wall reinforcement in accordance with the provisions of Section 402.3. Dowels shall extend into the footing and terminate with a standard hook at 3 inches (76 mm) clear of the footing bottom. Vertical wall reinforcing shall be lap spliced with the dowel, extend into the bond beam at the wall top and terminate with a standard hook at 11/2 inches (38 mm) clear of the top of the bond beam. Alternately stemwall vertical reinforcing shall be permitted to extend into the footing and be terminated with a standard hook at 3 inches (76 mm) clear of the bottom of the footing. In addition, grouted, reinforced vertical cells shall be provided at hold down post anchorages and at uplift anchorages that use straps embedded into concrete or masonry.

    SECTION404
    FLOOR SYSTEMS

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE 404(1)

    HOLLOWCORE CONNECTION TO EXTERIOR BEARING WALL

    FIGURE 404(2)

    HOLLOWCORE CONNECTION TO INTERIOR BEARING WALL

    TABLE 404

    ANCHOR BOLT SPACING FOR LOAD-BEARING LEDGER BOLTED TO MASONRY WALL

    LOAD-BEARING LEDGER SIZEb (NOMINAL)FLOOR SPAN (feet)ANCHOR BOLT SPACINGa (inches)
    BOLT DIAMETER (inches)
    1/25/83/47/81
    Single 2×10182124
    12161820
    14131517
    16121315
    18101213
    2091112
    Double 2×1031384348
    1226323639
    1422273134
    1619242730
    1817212426
    2015192224

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    NOTES:

    1. a.Anchor bolt embedment shall be a minimum of 6 inches.

    2. b.Ledger shall be same depth as joist.

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    FIGURE 404(3)

    HOLLOWCORE CONNECTION TO NONBEARING WALL

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE 404(4)

    ENDWALL BRACING PERPENDICULAR TO FLOOR FRAMING

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    FIGURE 404(5)

    WOOD FLOOR SYSTEM BOLTED LEDGER

    TABLE 404(1)a

    TOTAL FLOOR DIAPHRAGM SHEAR LOAD PERPENDICULAR TO THE RIDGEa, b (ASD) (lb per side)

    EXPOSUREULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)PERPENDICULAR DIMENSION DIAPHRAGM LENGTHc (feet)
    2432404856647280
    B12020892674334339004457501455716129
    13024633153394145985255591165687225
    14028163605450652576008675975108261
    15032494158519860646931779786639530
    160371347535941693179218911990110891
    17042075385673178538975100971121912341
    18046655971746487089952111961244013684
    1955506704888101027811746132141468316151
    C12029293749468654676248702978108591
    130345344205525644673678287920810129
    1403949505563187371842494771053011583
    15045565831728985049719109331214813363
    160520566628328971611104124921388015268
    1705899755094381101112584141571573017303
    18065428374104671221213956157011744519190
    19577199880123501440816467185252058422642

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound force = 4.448 N, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

    NOTES:

    1. a.Loads are for walls/diaphragm edges perpendicular to the ridge and are based on tributary wall height of 10 +1 feet (floor diaphragm taken as 1 foot deep). For tributary wall heights other than 10 +1 feet, multiply by tributary wall height (ft)/11.

    2. b.To determine required individual connector load between the wall and the diaphragm, divide the tabular shear load by the number of connectors.

    3. c.Dimension of diaphragm perpendicular to wall on which connectors are being designed.

    TABLE 404(1)b

    TOTAL FLOOR DIAPHRAGM SHEAR LOAD PARALLEL TO THE RIDGEa, b (ASD) (lb per side)

    EXPOSUREULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)DIAPHRAGM WIDTHc (feet)
    243240
    B120150619272408
    130177522722839
    140203025973247
    150234229963745
    160267634244280
    170303338804850
    180336343025378
    195396950786347
    C120211127013376
    130248931853981
    140284736424552
    150328442015252
    160375248006000
    170425254406800
    180471660337541
    195556471188898

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound force = 4.448 N, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

    NOTES:

    1. a.Loads are for walls/diaphragm edges parallel to the ridge and are based on tributary wall height of 10 +1 feet (floor diaphragm taken as 1 foot deep). For tributary wall heights other than 10 +1 feet, multiply by tributary wall height (ft)/11.

    2. b.To determine required individual connector load between the wall and the diaphragm, divide the tabular shear load by the number of connectors.

    3. c.Dimension of diaphragm perpendicular to wall on which connectors are being designed.

    404.1 Concrete slab-on-grade.

    404.1.1Minimum thickness.

    Concrete slab-on-grade shall be 31/2 inches thick (89 mm) minimum.

    404.1.2Reinforcement.

    Reinforcement is not required for slab-on-grade floors.

    404.2 Suspended concrete slabs.

    404.2.1Suspended concrete floors.

    Suspended concrete floors shall be hollowcore floor systems, designed and installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications. See Figures 404(1), 404(2) and 404(3) for typical connection details.

    404.3 Wood floor framing.

    Wood floor framing shall be in accordance with this section and Section R502 of the International Residential Code or the AWC WFCM.

    404.3.1Floor joists.

    Floor joists shall be sized in accordance with the AWC STJR or the AWC WFCM.

    404.3.2Wood I-joists.

    Single- or continuous-span I-joists shall comply with the manufacturer’s code evaluation report.

    404.3.3Floor trusses.

    Floor trusses shall be in accordance with ANSI/TPI-1.

    404.3.4Floor sheathing thickness.

    Floor sheathing shall be a minimum of 7/16-inch (11 mm) wood structural panels, installed with the long dimension perpendicular to framing and with end joints staggered [see Figure 404(4)].

    404.3.5Floor sheathing spans.

    Floor framing shall be spaced so that the sheathing spans do not exceed those specified in Table R503.2.1.1(1) of the International Residential Code.

    404.3.6Bracing.

    Full-depth blocking, perpendicular to floor framing members, in the first two framing spaces at each end of floor system spaced 4 feet (1220 mm) on center maximum [see Figure 404(4)] shall be provided. See Section 404.4 for other blocking.

    404.3.7Fastening.

    Fastening shall be in accordance with Table R602.3(1) of the International Residential Code and Tables 2306.3.1 and 2306.3.2 of the International Building Code to provide the required shear capacities.

    404.3.8Connections for masonry walls in accordance with Section 405.

    1. 1.Bearing ends of joists or trusses shall be connected to masonry walls by a ledger bolted to the wall as shown in Figure 404(5). Anchor bolts shall be sized and spaced in accordance with Table 404 and with a bolt located not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nor more than 12 inches (305 mm) from each end of each ledger member. The ledger shall be No. 2 Southern Pine or No. 2 Douglas Fir. Framing shall be fastened to the ledger with metal joist hangers properly rated for all gravity loads. Floor sheathing shall be fastened to the ledger the same as to other floor framing members.

    2. 2.Where the masonry wall above the floor line is thinner than the wall below, first-story wood floors shall be permitted to bear on and be attached to the top of the wall below as shown for stemwalls in Figure 403(3). Framing shall be fastened to the plate in accordance with Table R602.3(1) of the International Residential Code. The plate shall be bolted to the wall with 1/2-inch-diameter (13 mm) anchor bolts spaced at a maximum of 6 feet (1829 mm) on center, with a bolt located not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nor more than 12 inches (305 mm) from each end of each plate member and embedded a minimum of 7 inches (178 mm) into the masonry wall.

    404.4 Floor diaphragms.

    Floor sheathing and fasteners shall be capable of resisting the total shear loads specified in Tables 404(1)a and 404(1)b for the applicable exposure and wind speed. Shear capacities for wood floor diaphragms shall be based on the spacing of the floor framing members, sheathing material, sheathing thickness, nail size and nail spacing as specified in the AWC SDPWS and Chapter 5 of this standard. The suspended concrete slabs specified in Section 404.2 have a diaphragm capacity of 4,000 plf (58.4 kN/m).

    SECTION405
    MASONRY WALL SYSTEMS

    FIGURE 405(1)

    CORNER CONTINUITY OF BOND BEAM AND WALL REINFORCEMENT

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE 405(2)

    CHANGES IN BOND BEAM HEIGHT

    TABLE 405(1)

    ROOF DIAPHRAGM CHORD TENSION BOND BEAM STEEL AREAa, b EXPOSURE B (square inches)

    ULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)BUILDING WIDTH (feet)WALL HEIGHT (feet)BUILDING LENGTH (feet)
    4050607080
    12024100.0320.0450.0600.0760.095
    2480.0260.0360.0480.0610.076
    32100.0250.0350.0460.0580.072
    3280.0200.0280.0370.0470.058
    40100.0230.0310.0400.0510.063
    4080.0180.0250.0320.0410.050
    13024100.0380.0530.0700.0900.112
    2480.0300.0420.0560.0720.090
    32100.0290.0410.0540.0690.085
    3280.0230.0330.0430.0550.068
    40100.0270.0370.0480.0600.074
    4080.0210.0290.0380.0480.059
    14024100.0430.0610.0810.1030.128
    2480.0350.0490.0640.0820.103
    32100.0340.0470.0620.0790.098
    3280.0270.0370.0490.0630.078
    40100.0300.0420.0550.0690.085
    4080.0240.0330.0440.0550.068
    15024100.0500.0700.0930.1190.148
    2480.0400.0560.0740.0950.118
    32100.0390.0540.0710.0910.113
    3280.0310.0430.0570.0730.090
    40100.0350.0480.0630.0800.098
    4080.0280.0390.0500.0640.078
    16024100.0570.0800.1060.1360.169
    2480.0460.0640.0850.1090.135
    32100.0440.0610.0810.1040.129
    3280.0350.0490.0650.0830.103
    40100.0400.0550.0720.0910.112
    4080.0320.0440.0580.0730.090
    17024100.0650.0910.1200.1540.192
    2480.0520.0730.0960.1230.153
    32100.0500.0700.0920.1180.146
    3280.0400.0560.0740.0940.117
    40100.0460.0620.0820.1030.127
    4080.0360.0500.0650.0820.102
    18024100.0720.1010.1330.1710.213
    2480.0580.0800.1070.1370.170
    32100.0560.0770.1020.1300.162
    3280.0440.0620.0820.1040.130
    40100.0510.0690.0900.1140.141
    4080.0400.0550.0720.0910.113
    19524100.0850.1190.1570.2020.251
    2480.0680.0950.1260.1610.201
    32100.0660.0910.1210.1540.191
    3280.0520.0730.0960.1230.153
    40100.0600.0820.1070.1350.166
    4080.0480.0650.0850.1080.133

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm2, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

    1. a.Diaphragm chord tension steel area shall be added to bond beam uplift steel area determined in Tables 405(3) through (7) for total required bond beam area of steel. Select appropriate bar size and number of bars from Table 405(8).

    2. b.Multiplication of the tabular value for diaphragm chord tension steel area by a factor of 0.65 shall be permitted for bond beam spans located in the end zone.

    TABLE 405(2)

    ROOF DIAPHRAGM CHORD TENSION BOND BEAM STEEL AREAa, b EXPOSURE C (square inches)

    ULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)BUILDING WIDTH (feet)WALL HEIGHT (feet)BUILDING LENGTH (feet)
    4050607080
    12024100.0450.0630.0840.1070.133
    2480.0360.0500.0670.0860.107
    32100.0350.0480.0640.0820.102
    3280.0280.0390.0510.0650.081
    40100.0320.0430.0570.0720.088
    4080.0250.0350.0450.0570.071
    13024100.0530.0740.0990.1260.157
    2480.0430.0600.0790.1010.126
    32100.0410.0570.0760.0970.120
    3280.0330.0460.0600.0770.096
    40100.0370.0510.0670.0850.104
    4080.0300.0410.0540.0680.083
    14024100.0610.0850.1130.1450.180
    2480.0490.0680.0900.1160.144
    32100.0470.0650.0860.1100.137
    3280.0380.0520.0690.0880.110
    40100.0430.0590.0770.0970.119
    4080.0340.0470.0610.0770.095
    15024100.0700.0980.1300.1670.208
    2480.0560.0790.1040.1330.166
    32100.0540.0750.1000.1270.158
    3280.0430.0600.0800.1020.126
    40100.0490.0680.0880.1120.137
    4080.0390.0540.0710.0890.110
    16024100.0800.1120.1490.1910.237
    2480.0640.0900.1190.1520.190
    32100.0620.0860.1140.1450.181
    3280.0500.0690.0910.1160.145
    40100.0560.0770.1010.1270.157
    4080.0450.0620.0810.1020.126
    17024100.0910.1270.1690.2160.269
    2480.0730.1020.1350.1730.215
    32100.0700.0980.1290.1650.205
    3280.0560.0780.1030.1320.164
    40100.0640.0870.1140.1440.178
    4080.0510.0700.0910.1160.142
    18024100.1010.1410.1870.2390.298
    2480.0810.1130.1500.1920.238
    32100.0780.1080.1430.1830.227
    3280.0620.0870.1150.1460.182
    40100.0710.0970.1270.1600.197
    4080.0570.0780.1010.1280.158
    19524100.1190.1660.2210.2830.352
    2480.0950.1330.1770.2260.281
    32100.0920.1280.1690.2160.268
    3280.0740.1020.1350.1730.214
    40100.0840.1140.1500.1890.233
    4080.0670.0920.1200.1510.186

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm2, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

    1. a.Diaphragm chord tension steel area shall be added to bond beam uplift steel area determined in Tables 405(3) through (7) for total required bond beam area of steel. Select appropriate bar size and number of bars from Table 405(8).

    2. b.Multiplication of the tabular value for diaphragm chord tension steel area by a factor of 0.65 shall be permitted for bond beam spans located in the end zone.

    TABLE 405(3)

    AREA OF STEEL REQUIRED IN BOND BEAM FOR UPLIFT BENDINGa, b, c, d (square inches)

    UPLIFT (ASD) (plf)8 IN. BOND BEAM/LINTEL SPAN (feet)
    4681012141618
    500.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.000
    1000.0090.0210.0380.0600.0880.123NPNP
    1500.0160.0370.0670.1070.159NPNPNP
    2000.0230.0530.0960.157NPNPNPNP
    2500.0300.0690.1270.211NPNPNPNP
    3000.0370.0860.1600.270NPNPNPNP
    3500.0440.1030.194NPNPNPNPNP
    4000.0510.1200.230NPNPNPNPNP
    4500.0580.1380.269NPNPNPNPNP
    5000.0650.156NPNPNPNPNPNP
    5500.0730.175NPNPNPNPNPNP
    6000.0800.195NPNPNPNPNPNP
    6500.0880.215NPNPNPNPNPNP
    7000.0950.235NPNPNPNPNPNP
    7500.1030.257NPNPNPNPNPNP
    8000.1100.280NPNPNPNPNPNP
    8500.118NPNPNPNPNPNPNP
    9000.126NPNPNPNPNPNPNP
    9500.134NPNPNPNPNPNPNP
    10000.142NPNPNPNPNPNPNP
    10500.150NPNPNPNPNPNPNP
    11000.158NPNPNPNPNPNPNP

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per lineal foot = 14.594 N/m, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm2.

    1. a.Uplift bending steel area shall be added to bond beam uplift steel area determined in Tables 405(1) and (2) as appropriate for total required bond beam area of steel. Select appropriate bar size and number of bars from Table 405(8).

    2. b.When reinforced required is 0.000, only diaphragm tension reinforcement is required.

    3. c.NP = Not Permitted.

    4. d.Based on horizontal reinforcement placed in a 23/4-inch notch in the top of the bond beam.

    FIGURE 405(3)

    MAIN WINDFORCE LOADING DIAGRAM

    TABLE 405(4)

    AREA OF STEEL REQUIRED IN BOND BEAM FOR UPLIFT BENDINGa, b, c, d (square inches)

    UPLIFT (ASD) (plf)12 IN. BOND BEAM/LINTEL SPAN (feet)
    4681012141618
    500.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.000
    1000.0040.0090.0160.0260.0370.510.0670.085
    1500.0080.0180.0320.0500.0730.1000.1320.170
    2000.0120.0270.0480.0750.1090.1510.201NP
    2500.0160.0350.0630.1000.1470.205NPNP
    3000.0190.0440.0800.1260.1860.261NPNP
    3500.0230.0530.0960.1530.226NPNPNP
    4000.0270.0620.1120.1800.268NPNPNP
    4500.0310.0710.1290.2070.311NPNPNP
    5000.0350.0800.1460.2360.356NPNPNP
    5500.0390.0890.1630.265NPNPNPNP
    6000.0430.0980.1800.294NPNPNPNP
    6500.0470.1080.1980.325NPNPNPNP
    7000.0510.1170.2160.356NPNPNPNP
    7500.0550.1260.2340.388NPNPNPNP
    8000.0590.1360.2520.422NPNPNPNP
    8500.0630.1450.271NPNPNPNPNP
    9000.0670.1550.290NPNPNPNPNP
    9500.0710.1650.309NPNPNPNPNP
    10000.0750.1740.329NPNPNPNPNP
    10500.0790.184NPNPNPNPNPNP
    11000.0830.194NPNPNPNPNPNP

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm2, 1 pound per lineal foot = 14.594 N/m.

    1. a.Uplift bending steel area shall be added to bond beam uplift steel area determined in Tables 405(1) and (2) as appropriate for total required bond beam area of steel. Select appropriate bar size and number of bars from Table 405(8).

    2. b.When reinforced required is 0.000, only diaphragm tension reinforcement is required.

    3. c.NP = Not Permitted.

    4. d.Based on horizontal reinforcement placed in a 23/4-inch notch in the top of the bond beam.

    TABLE 405(5)

    AREA OF STEEL REQUIRED IN BOND BEAM FOR UPLIFT BENDINGa, b, c, d (square inches)

    UPLIFT (ASD) (plf)16 IN. BOND BEAM/LINTEL SPAN (feet)
    4681012141618
    500.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.000
    1000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.000
    1500.0050.0100.0190.0290.0420.0580.0760.097
    2000.0070.0170.0300.0460.0670.0920.1210.154
    2500.0100.0230.0400.0630.0920.1260.1670.214
    3000.0130.0290.0510.0810.1170.1620.2140.275
    3500.0150.0350.0620.0980.1430.1970.262NP
    4000.0180.0410.0730.1160.1690.2340.312NP
    4500.0210.0470.0840.1340.1950.271NPNP
    5000.0230.0530.0960.1520.2220.309NPNP
    5500.0260.0590.1070.1700.2490.348NPNP
    6000.0290.0660.1180.1880.2770.388NPNP
    6500.0320.0720.1300.2060.3050.429NPNP
    7000.0340.0780.1410.2250.334NPNPNP
    7500.0370.0840.1520.2440.363NPNPNP
    8000.0400.0910.1640.2630.392NPNPNP
    8500.0420.0970.1760.2820.422NPNPNP
    9000.0450.1030.1870.3020.453NPNPNP
    9500.0480.1100.1990.321NPNPNPNP
    10000.0510.1160.2110.341NPNPNPNP
    10500.0530.1220.2230.362NPNPNPNP
    11000.0560.1290.2350.382NPNPNPNP

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm2, 1 pound per lineal foot = 14.594 N/m.

    1. a.Uplift bending steel area shall be added to bond beam uplift steel area determined in Tables 405(1) and (2) as appropriate for total required bond beam area of steel. Select appropriate bar size and number of bars from Table 405(8).

    2. b.When reinforced required is 0.000, only diaphragm tension reinforcement is required.

    3. c.NP = Not Permitted.

    4. d.Based on horizontal reinforcement placed in a 23/4-inch notch in the top of the bond beam.

    TABLE 405(6)

    AREA OF STEEL REQUIRED IN BOND BEAM FOR UPLIFT BENDINGa, b, c, d (square inches)

    UPLIFT (ASD) (plf)24 IN. BOND BEAM/LINTEL SPAN (feet)
    4681012141618
    500.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.000
    1000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.000
    1500.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.000
    2000.0040.0080.0140.0220.0320.0430.0570.072
    2500.0050.0120.0210.0320.0470.0640.0840.106
    3000.0070.0150.0270.0430.0620.0850.1110.142
    3500.0090.0190.0340.0540.0770.1060.1390.177
    4000.0100.0230.0410.0640.0930.1270.1670.213
    4500.0120.0270.0480.0750.1080.1480.1950.249
    5000.0140.0310.0540.0860.1240.1700.2240.286
    5500.0150.0340.0610.0960.1400.1920.2530.323
    6000.0170.0380.0680.1070.1550.2130.2820.361
    6500.0190.0420.0750.1180.1710.2350.3110.399
    7000.0200.0460.0820.1290.1870.2570.3410.438
    7500.0220.0500.0890.1400.2030.2800.3710.477
    8000.0240.0530.0950.1500.2190.3020.4010.517
    8500.0250.0570.1020.1610.2350.3250.4320.558
    9000.0270.0610.1090.1720.2510.3470.462NP
    9500.0290.0650.1160.1830.2680.3700.494NP
    10000.0300.0690.1230.1940.2840.3940.525NP
    10500.0320.0720.1300.2060.3010.4170.557NP
    11000.0340.0760.1370.2170.3170.440NPNP

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm2, 1 pound per lineal foot = 14.694 N/m.

    1. a.Uplift bending steel area shall be added to bond beam uplift steel area determined in Tables 405(1) and (2) as appropriate for total required bond beam area of steel. Select appropriate bar size and number of bars from Table 405(8).

    2. b.When reinforced required is 0.000, only diaphragm tension reinforcement is required.

    3. c.NP = Not Permitted.

    4. d.Based on horizontal reinforcement placed in a 23/4-inch notch in the top of the bond beam.

    TABLE 405(7)

    AREA OF STEEL REQUIRED IN BOND BEAM FOR UPLIFT BENDINGa, b, c (square inches)

    UPLIFT (ASD) (plf)32 IN. BOND BEAM/LINTEL SPAN (feet)
    4681012141618
    500.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.000
    1000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.000
    1500.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.000
    2000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.000
    2500.0030.0070.0120.0190.0270.0370.0480.061
    3000.0040.0090.0170.0260.0380.0520.0680.086
    3500.0050.0120.0220.0340.0490.0670.0870.111
    4000.0070.0150.0270.0420.0600.0820.1070.136
    4500.0080.0180.0310.0490.0710.0970.1270.161
    5000.0090.0200.0360.0570.0820.1120.1470.187
    5500.0100.0230.0410.0650.0930.1270.1670.213
    6000.0110.0260.0460.0720.1040.1430.1870.239
    6500.0130.0290.0510.0800.1160.1580.2080.265
    7000.0140.0310.0560.0880.1270.1740.2280.291
    7500.0150.0340.0610.0950.1380.1890.2490.317
    8000.0160.0370.0660.1030.1490.2050.2690.344
    8500.0180.0400.0710.1110.1610.2200.2900.370
    9000.0190.0420.0760.1190.1720.2360.3110.397
    9500.0200.0450.0810.1270.1830.2520.3320.424
    10000.0210.0480.0850.1340.1950.2670.3530.451
    10500.0220.0510.0900.1420.2060.2830.3740.479
    11000.0240.0530.0950.1500.2180.2990.3950.506

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm2, 1 pound per lineal foot = 14.694 N/m.

    1. a.Uplift bending steel area shall be added to bond beam uplift steel area determined in Tables 405(1) and (2) as appropriate for total required bond beam area of steel. Select appropriate bar size and number of bars from Table 405(8).

    2. b.When reinforced required is 0.000, only diaphragm tension reinforcement is required.

    3. c.Based on horizontal reinforcement placed in a 23/4-inch notch in the top of the bond beam.

    TABLE 405(8)

    BOND BEAM AREA OF STEEL PROVIDED, in2/ft

    NUMBER OF BARSBAR SIZE
    No. 4No. 5No. 6No. 7
    10.200.310.440.60
    20.400.620.881.20

    For SI: 1 square inch per foot.

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE 405(4)

    CONTINUOUS GABLE ENDWALL REINFORCEMENT SINGLE AND MULTI-STORY

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE 405(5)

    OUTLOOKER DETAIL FOR CONNECTION OF ROOF DIAPHRAGM TO MASONRY CONTINUOUS GABLE (Cut masonry rake beam similar)

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE 405(6)

    LADDER DETAIL FOR CONNECTION OF ROOF DIAPHRAGM TO MASONRY CONTINUOUS GABLE

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE 405(7)

    GABLE END BRACING FOR MASONRY WALLS NOT CONTINUOUS TO THE ROOF DIAPHRAGM

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square inch = 645.16 mm2.

    FIGURE 405(8)

    SHEARWALL SEGMENTS

    TABLE 405(9)

    SINGLE-STORY AND TOP-STORY WALL PARALLEL TO RIDGE VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT SPACING (feet)

    SPACING FOR NO. 5 BARS
    ULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)WALL HEIGHT (feet)EXPOSURE
    BBBCCC
    BUILDING WIDTH (feet)
    243240243240
    1208.0010.6110.6110.618.968.968.96
    8.6710.7210.7210.729.059.059.05
    9.3310.8110.8110.819.139.139.13
    10.0010.9110.9110.919.219.219.21
    1308.009.779.779.778.258.258.25
    8.679.879.879.878.338.338.33
    9.339.969.969.968.418.418.41
    10.0010.0410.0410.048.488.488.48
    1408.009.149.149.147.727.727.72
    8.679.239.239.237.797.797.79
    9.339.319.319.317.867.867.86
    10.009.399.399.397.937.937.93
    1508.008.518.518.517.197.197.19
    8.678.598.598.597.267.267.26
    9.338.678.678.677.327.186.68
    10.008.748.748.746.986.516.10
    1608.007.967.967.966.726.726.72
    8.678.048.048.046.796.796.30
    9.338.118.118.116.696.195.76
    10.008.188.187.686.035.625.26
    1708.007.487.487.486.326.326.01
    8.677.557.557.556.385.945.48
    9.337.627.627.315.845.405.02
    10.007.627.126.675.274.904.59
    1808.007.107.107.106.005.855.36
    8.677.177.177.125.795.314.89
    9.337.236.996.515.224.824.48
    10.006.806.345.944.714.384.10
    1958.006.546.546.485.394.894.47
    8.676.606.415.924.844.434.09
    9.336.295.825.414.364.033.74
    10.005.685.294.953.943.673.43
    SPACING FOR NO. 4 BARS
    ULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)WALL HEIGHT (feet)EXPOSURE
    BBBCCC
    BUILDING WIDTH (feet)
    243240243240
    1208.0010.6110.6110.618.968.968.73
    8.6710.7210.7210.729.058.527.91
    9.3310.8110.8110.818.267.687.18
    10.0010.5010.419.847.406.946.52
    1308.009.779.779.778.257.787.15
    8.679.879.879.878.138.138.13
    9.339.969.969.967.137.137.13
    10.008.888.888.886.306.306.30
    1408.009.149.149.147.316.656.11
    8.679.239.239.237.097.097.09
    9.338.778.778.776.226.226.22
    10.007.757.757.755.505.505.50
    1508.008.518.377.696.215.655.18
    8.678.177.536.985.565.114.72
    9.337.326.806.355.004.634.31
    10.006.576.155.784.504.203.94
    1608.007.847.156.565.354.864.45
    8.677.016.455.974.804.404.06
    9.336.295.835.444.323.993.72
    10.005.655.284.963.893.633.40
    1708.006.806.195.674.664.233.87
    8.676.085.595.174.183.833.54
    9.335.465.064.713.773.483.24
    10.004.924.594.303.403.162.96
    1808.006.055.505.044.163.783.46
    8.675.414.974.593.733.423.16
    9.334.874.514.203.373.112.89
    10.004.394.093.833.042.832.65
    1958.005.034.574.183.483.152.88
    8.674.514.133.823.122.862.64
    9.334.063.763.492.822.602.42
    10.003.663.413.192.542.372.21

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    FIGURE 405(9)

    ONE-STORY MASONRY MALL

    TABLE 405(10)

    MAXIMUM SPACING OF NO. 5 VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT IN WALLS PERPENDICULAR TO THE RIDGE AND WALLS PARALLEL TO THE RIDGE OTHER THAN THE TOP STORY (feet)

    ULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)120130140150160170180195
    EXPOSUREWall Height (ft)End ZoneInterior ZoneEnd ZoneInterior ZoneEnd ZoneInterior ZoneEnd ZoneInterior ZoneEnd ZoneInterior ZoneEnd ZoneInterior ZoneEnd ZoneInterior ZoneEnd ZoneInterior Zone
    B810.6111.329.7710.439.149.758.519.087.968.497.487.987.107.586.546.97
    8.6710.7211.399.8710.489.239.818.599.138.048.547.558.027.177.626.607.01
    9.3310.8111.449.9610.549.319.858.679.178.118.587.628.067.237.666.667.05
    1010.9111.5010.0410.599.399.908.749.228.188.627.688.107.197.696.066.76
    1211.1611.659.9710.728.709.487.518.206.557.155.766.295.185.664.364.76
    148.989.617.598.126.627.085.716.114.985.334.374.683.924.203.303.53
    167.107.476.006.305.225.494.504.733.924.123.433.613.083.242.582.72
    185.775.974.875.034.234.383.653.773.173.282.772.872.482.572.072.15
    204.804.884.044.113.513.573.023.072.622.662.282.332.042.081.701.73
    224.054.063.413.422.962.972.542.542.202.201.911.921.711.711.411.42
    C88.969.568.258.817.728.247.197.676.727.176.326.746.006.405.525.89
    8.679.059.628.338.857.798.287.267.716.797.216.386.786.056.435.165.92
    9.339.139.668.418.907.868.327.327.756.857.256.306.815.626.474.685.45
    109.219.718.488.947.938.367.367.796.427.165.656.305.075.664.254.77
    128.369.127.067.706.156.715.315.804.625.054.064.433.643.983.063.34
    146.366.805.365.744.675.004.024.313.503.753.063.282.742.942.292.46
    165.015.274.224.443.673.863.163.322.742.882.392.522.142.261.781.88
    184.074.213.423.542.973.072.552.642.202.281.921.991.711.771.421.47
    203.373.432.832.882.452.492.092.131.811.841.571.601.391.421.151.17
    222.842.842.382.382.052.061.751.761.511.511.301.311.151.16NPNP

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

    NP = Not permitted.

    TABLE 405(11)

    MAXIMUM SPACING OF NO. 4 VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT IN WALLS PERPENDICULAR TO THE RIDGE AND WALLS PARALLEL TO THE RIDGE OTHER THAN THE TOP STORY (feet)

    ULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)120130140150160170180195
    EXPOSUREWall Height (ft)End ZoneInterior ZoneEnd ZoneInterior ZoneEnd ZoneInterior ZoneEnd ZoneInterior ZoneEnd ZoneInterior ZoneEnd ZoneInterior ZoneEnd ZoneInterior ZoneEnd ZoneInterior Zone
    B810.6111.329.7710.439.149.758.519.087.968.497.387.986.537.585.386.58
    8.6710.7211.399.8710.489.239.818.599.137.558.546.637.525.876.774.855.72
    9.3310.8111.449.9610.548.779.847.598.516.637.445.836.555.255.894.394.98
    1010.5011.508.889.897.758.636.717.475.856.525.155.744.645.173.914.36
    127.618.296.437.015.616.124.855.294.234.613.724.063.343.652.813.07
    145.806.204.905.244.274.573.683.943.213.442.823.022.532.712.132.28
    164.584.823.874.073.373.542.903.052.532.662.222.331.992.091.661.75
    183.723.853.143.252.732.832.352.432.042.111.791.851.601.661.341.38
    203.093.152.612.652.262.301.951.981.691.721.471.501.321.341.101.12
    222.622.622.202.201.911.911.641.641.421.421.231.241.101.100.910.91
    C88.969.568.258.817.728.246.717.675.747.034.986.074.435.393.684.46
    8.679.059.628.138.857.098.026.046.945.176.064.495.334.004.803.334.03
    9.338.439.467.138.006.226.995.386.044.685.274.074.643.624.173.023.52
    107.458.306.307.025.506.134.755.294.144.623.644.063.273.652.743.08
    125.395.884.554.973.974.333.423.742.983.262.622.862.352.571.972.16
    144.104.393.463.703.013.222.592.782.262.421.982.121.771.901.481.59
    163.243.402.732.872.372.492.042.141.771.861.541.631.381.461.151.21
    182.622.712.212.281.911.981.641.701.421.471.241.281.101.140.910.95
    202.172.211.821.861.581.611.351.381.171.191.011.030.900.920.740.75
    221.831.841.531.541.321.331.131.130.970.970.840.840.740.75NPNP

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

    NP = Not permitted.

    FIGURE 405(10)

    CONTINUITY OF FIRST- AND SECOND-FLOOR VERTICAL WALL REINFORCEMENT

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    FIGURE 405(11)

    EXTERIOR WALL REINFORCEMENT SUMMARY ONE-STORY (TWO-STORY SIMILAR)

    TABLE 405(12)

    ANCHOR BOLT SPACING FOR ATTACHING 2× WOOD NAILER TO RAKE BEAM

    REQUIRED ROOF DIAPHRAGM CAPACITY (ASD) AS DETERMINED BY TABLE 405(16) (plf)1/2-INCH ANCHOR BOLT
    Maximum Spacing (feet and inches)
    1056′ - 0″
    1455′- 0″
    1954′- 0″
    2303′ - 6″
    2703′ - 0″
    3252′ - 6″
    4152′ - 0″
    5651′ - 6″
    7001′ - 2″
    8451′ - 0″

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound force per lineal foot = 14.594 N/m.

    TABLE 405(13)

    MASONRY GABLE OUTLOOKER CONNECTOR LOADS (ASD)

    ULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)ROOF ZONECONNECTOR LOADa, LBWALL ZONEc
    Roof angle, degreesPerpendicular to Wall F2bParallel to Wall F1
    θ ≤ 7°e 7°< θ ≤ 27°e27°< θ ≤ 45°
    Upliftd
    Exposure B1202E35543422821See Table 405(16)1E
    2E355434228141
    1302E418511269251E
    2E418511269161
    1402E478585307281E
    2E478585307191
    1502E551674354331E
    2E551674354221
    1602E630771405381E
    2E630771405251
    1702E714873459431E
    2E714873459281
    1802E792968509471E
    2E792968509311
    1952E9341143601561E
    2E9341143601371
    Exposure C1202E497608320301E
    2E497608320201
    1302E586717377351E
    2E586717377231
    1402E670820431401E
    2E670820431261
    1502E773946497461E
    2E773946497301
    1602E8831080568531E
    2E8831080568351
    1702E10011224644601E
    2E10011224644391
    1802E11101358714661E
    2E11101358714441
    1952E13101602842781E
    2E13101602842521

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound force = 4.448 N.

    1. a.Based on connector spacing of 24 in. and an overhang of 24 in. For spacing other than 24 in. multiply values shown by connector spacing (in.)/24 and for an overhang of less than 24 in. multiply by (overhang (in.) + 24 in.)/48 in.

    2. b.Unit load on 2 ft. of wall, multiply by 1/2 of vertical span between floor and roof (at connector location) for total connector load.

    3. c.Wall zones designated 1E are end zones. The width of the end zone is 20% of the least horizontal dimension of the building or 0.8 times the mean roof height whichever is smaller, but not less than 8% of the least horizontal dimension or 6 ft.

    4. d.Uplift loads are based on components and cladding loads because of the small localized areas associated with rake overhangs. Loads parallel and perpendicular represent much broader diaphragm loads and are main windforce resisting system loads.

    5. e.Total loads for roof and overhang in areas designated as Gable Roof Zone 2 in Figure 301(2) shall be permitted to be multiplied by 0.65 for roof slopes of 27° or less.

    TABLE 405(14)

    WOOD GABLE BRACE NAILING

    ULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)RAKE HEIGHT (feet)
    121416182022
    Exposure B120344455
    567789
    130445566
    678999
    140455677
    789101111
    150566788
    8910111212
    160789101111
    111315161818
    17081011121313
    141517192121
    180789101111
    111315161818
    19581011121313
    141517192121
    Exposure C120456677
    789101111
    130567788
    81011121313
    140678899
    101112141515
    150789101111
    111314161717
    1608910111212
    131516182020
    17091011131414
    141718202222
    180101113141515
    161820232525
    195121315171818
    192224272929

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

    TABLE 405(15)

    WOOD GABLE STUD CONNECTOR LOADS (ASD)

    ULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)CONNECTOR LOADa, LBS WALL ZONEd
    Roof angle, degreesPerpendicular to Wall F2cParallel to Wall F1
    θ ≤ 7°7° < θ ≤ 27°27°< θ ≤ 45°Top of studbBottom of stud
    Upliftc
    Exposure B120981115625107See Table 405(16)5
    21974
    13011613066291275
    251134
    14013214976341475
    291324
    15015317287391695
    331514
    160175196100441915
    371724
    170198223113502165
    421944
    180219247125562445
    472184
    195259291148662845
    562564
    Exposure C12013815579351505
    291354
    13016218393411775
    351594
    140186209106472055
    401854
    150214241122542365
    462124
    160245275140622685
    522414
    170277312158703025
    592724
    180308346176783425
    663054
    195363408207923985
    783584

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound force = 4.448 N.

    1. a.Unit load on stud at 16 in. O.C.

    2. b.Multiply by 1/2 stud length for total connector load.

    3. c.Uplift loads and loads perpendicular to the wall are based on components and cladding loads because of the small localized areas associated with wood frame gables. Loads parallel to the wall represent much broader diaphragm loads and are main windforce-resisting system loads.

    4. d.Wall zones 4 and 5 are as denoted in Figure 301(2).

    TABLE 405(16)

    REQUIRED SHEARWALL LOADS (ASD) (LB PER SIDE) PERPENDICULAR TO RIDGE PER FOOT OF BUILDING LENGTHa, b, c (lb/ft)

    EXPOSURE CATEGORYULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)ROOF SLOPE ≤ 5:12ROOF SLOPE = 7:12ROOF SLOPE = 12:12
    BUILDING WIDTH (feet)BUILDING WIDTH (feet)BUILDING WIDTH (feet)
    243240243240243240
    B1204646467688101102123146
    13055545490104120121145172
    140636262103119137138166196
    150727271119138158159192227
    160838281136157180182219259
    170949392154178204206248293
    180104103102171198227228275325
    195122122120201233267270325384
    C120656564107124142143173204
    130777675126146168169204241
    140888786144167192193233275
    15010110199167193221223269318
    160116115114190221253255307363
    170131130129216250286289348411
    180145145143239277318320386456
    195172171169282327375378455538

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per lineal foot = 14.594 N/m, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

    1. a.Required shearwall loads perpendicular to the ridge are per lineal foot of building length. Tabular values shall be multiplied by building length to obtain total shear load.

    2. b.For connector loads, the total shear load shall be divided by the number of connectors.

    3. c.Table values shall be permitted to be interpolated.

    TABLE 405(17)

    REQUIRED SHEARWALL LENGTH (feet) PARALLEL TO RIDGE, NO. 4 REINFORCEMENTa, b, c, d ROOF ANGLE 23 DEGREES

    EXPOSURE CATEGORYULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)TOP STORY1ST STORY OF 2 STORY OR 2ND STORY OF 3 STORY1ST STORY OF 3 STORY
    Building Width (feet)Building Width (feet)Building Width (feet)
    243240243240243240
    B1201.401.992.723.184.315.614.686.308.16
    1301.652.353.213.765.086.625.527.429.62
    1401.892.693.664.295.817.576.318.4911.00
    1502.183.104.234.956.708.737.289.7912.69
    1602.493.544.835.667.669.978.3211.1914.51
    1702.824.025.476.428.6811.309.4312.6816.44
    1803.134.456.077.119.6212.5310.4514.0618.23
    1953.695.267.168.3911.3614.7912.3416.6021.51
    C1201.662.393.304.205.737.526.548.7811.35
    1301.962.823.904.966.768.877.7110.3513.39
    1402.243.234.465.677.7310.148.8111.8315.31
    1502.583.735.146.548.9211.7010.1713.6517.66
    1602.954.265.877.4710.1913.3711.6215.6020.18
    1703.344.826.668.4711.5515.1513.1717.6822.87
    1803.715.357.389.3912.8016.8014.6019.6025.36
    1954.376.318.7111.0815.1119.8317.2323.1329.93

    REQUIRED SHEARWALL LENGTH (feet) PARALLEL TO RIDGE, NO. 5 REINFORCEMENTa, b, c, d ROOF ANGLE 23 DEGREES

    EXPOSURE CATEGORYULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)TOP STORY1ST STORY OF 2 STORY OR 2ND STORY OF 3 STORY1ST STORY OF 3 STORY
    Building Width (feet)Building Width (feet)Building Width (feet)
    243240243240243240
    B1200.941.341.832.142.903.783.154.245.49
    1301.111.582.162.533.424.453.725.006.48
    1401.271.812.472.893.915.094.255.727.41
    1501.472.092.853.334.515.884.906.598.55
    1601.672.393.253.815.156.715.607.539.76
    1701.902.703.694.325.847.616.358.5411.07
    1802.103.004.094.796.488.447.049.4712.27
    1952.483.544.825.657.649.968.3011.1714.48
    C1201.121.612.222.833.865.064.405.917.64
    1301.321.902.623.344.555.975.196.979.01
    1401.512.173.003.825.206.835.937.9710.31
    1501.742.513.464.406.007.886.859.1911.89
    1601.992.873.955.036.869.007.8210.5013.59
    1702.253.254.485.707.7710.208.8611.9015.39
    1802.493.604.976.328.6211.319.8313.2017.07
    1952.944.255.867.4610.1713.3511.6015.5720.15

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

    1. a.The cumulative shearwall segment length for each side of the building shall equal or exceed the tabular shear wall length required. If the required shearwall segment length is not one continuous shearwall segment, the total shearwall length required shall be increased by 0.67 feet for each additional shearwall segment making up the total shearwall length on a side.

    2. b.The minimum shearwall segment length shall be 2 feet. Values less than 2 feet are shown only for summation of shearwall segments and for interpolation purposes. A grouted cell with vertical reinforcement of the size indicated is required at each end of every shearwall segment.

    3. c.Portions of walls with openings other than those permitted by Section 405.5.3 shall not be considered part of the shearwall length.

    4. d.Shearwall lengths are based on shearwall segment heights of 80 inches (height from the floor to the top of the highest opening adjacent to the shear segment - corners and openings as permitted by Section 405.5.3 are not counted as openings). For shear segment heights other than 80 inches, multiply tabular length values as follows:

      SEGMENT HEIGHT (inches) LENGTH MULTIPLIER
      881.09
      961.19
      1041.28
      1121.37

    TABLE 405(18)

    REQUIRED SHEARWALL LENGTH (feet) PARALLEL TO RIDGE, NO. 4 REINFORCEMENTa, b, c, d ROOF ANGLE 30 DEGREES

    EXPOSURE CATEGORYULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)TOP STORY1ST STORY OF 2 STORY OR 2ND STORY OF 3 STORY1ST STORY OF 3 STORY
    Building Width (feet)Building Width (feet)Building Width (feet)
    243240243240243240
    B1201.442.122.943.074.265.624.486.178.09
    1301.692.503.463.625.026.625.297.289.54
    1401.942.853.964.145.747.576.048.3210.91
    1502.233.294.574.786.628.746.979.6012.59
    1602.553.765.225.467.579.987.9710.9714.39
    1702.894.265.926.198.5811.319.0312.4316.30
    1803.214.736.566.869.5112.5410.0113.7818.08
    1953.795.587.748.1011.2214.8011.8116.2621.33
    C1201.732.593.644.095.737.636.258.5811.22
    1302.043.054.304.826.758.997.3710.1113.23
    1402.333.494.915.527.7210.288.4211.5615.13
    1502.694.025.676.368.9111.869.7213.3417.46
    1603.074.606.487.2710.1813.5611.1015.2519.95
    1703.485.217.348.2411.5415.3612.5817.2822.60
    1803.865.788.149.1412.7917.0313.9519.1625.06
    1954.556.829.6110.7815.1020.1016.4622.6129.58

    REQUIRED SHEARWALL LENGTH (feet) PARALLEL TO RIDGE, NO. 5 REINFORCEMENTa, b, c, d ROOF ANGLE 30 DEGREES

    EXPOSURE CATEGORYULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)TOP STORY1ST STORY OF 2 STORY OR 2ND STORY OF 3 STORY1ST STORY OF 3 STORY
    Building Width (feet)Building Width (feet)Building Width (feet)
    243240243240243240
    B1200.971.421.982.072.873.783.024.155.45
    1301.141.682.332.443.384.463.564.906.42
    1401.301.922.672.793.875.104.075.607.35
    1501.502.223.083.224.465.884.696.468.47
    1601.722.533.523.685.106.725.367.389.68
    1701.952.873.984.175.777.626.088.3710.97
    1802.163.184.424.626.408.446.749.2812.17
    1952.553.755.215.457.569.977.9510.9514.36
    C1200.971.421.982.072.873.783.024.155.45
    1301.141.682.332.443.384.463.564.906.42
    1401.301.922.672.793.875.104.075.607.35
    1501.502.223.083.224.465.884.696.468.47
    1601.722.533.523.685.106.725.367.389.68
    1701.952.873.984.175.777.626.088.3710.97
    1802.163.184.424.626.408.446.749.2812.17
    1953.074.596.477.2610.1613.5311.0815.2219.91

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

    1. a.The cumulative shearwall segment length for each side of the building shall equal or exceed the tabular shearwall length required. If the required shearwall segment length is not one continuous shearwall segment, the total shearwall length required shall be increased by 0.67 feet for each additional shearwall segment making up the total shearwall length on a side.

    2. b.The minimum shearwall segment length shall be 2 feet. Values less than 2 feet are shown only for summation of shearwall segments and for interpolation purposes. A grouted cell with vertical reinforcement of the size indicated is required at each end of every shearwall segment.

    3. c.Portions of walls with openings other than those permitted by Section 405.5.3 shall not be considered part of the shearwall length.

    4. d.Shearwall lengths are based on shearwall segment heights of 80 inches (height from the floor to the top of the highest opening adjacent to the shear segment - corners and openings as permitted by Section 405.5.3 are not counted as openings). For shear segment heights other than 80 inches, multiply tabular length values as follows:

      SEGMENT HEIGHT (inches) LENGTH MULTIPLIER
      881.09
      961.19
      1041.28
      1121.37

    TABLE 405(19)

    REQUIRED SHEARWALL LENGTH (feet) PARALLEL TO RIDGE, NO. 4 REINFORCEMENTa, b, c, d ROOF ANGLE 45 DEGREES

    EXPOSURE CATEGORYULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)TOP STORY1ST STORY OF 2 STORY OR 2ND STORY OF 3 STORY1ST STORY OF 3 STORY
    Building Width (feet)Building Width (feet)Building Width (feet)
    243240243240243240
    B1201.832.804.013.474.946.694.997.079.52
    1302.163.314.734.095.837.895.888.3411.23
    1402.473.785.414.676.679.026.739.5312.84
    1502.854.366.245.397.6910.417.7611.0014.81
    1603.254.987.136.168.7911.898.8712.5716.92
    1703.695.658.086.989.9613.4710.0514.2419.17
    1804.096.268.967.7411.0514.9411.1415.7921.26
    1954.827.3910.579.1413.0317.6313.1518.6425.09
    C1202.283.575.224.716.839.386.919.7613.08
    1302.684.216.155.568.0611.068.1511.5115.43
    1403.074.817.036.369.2112.659.3213.1617.64
    1503.545.558.117.3310.6314.5910.7615.1820.35
    1604.056.349.278.3812.1516.6712.2917.3423.26
    1704.587.1910.519.5013.7618.8913.9319.6526.36
    1805.087.9711.6510.5315.2620.9515.4521.7929.23
    1956.009.4113.7512.4318.0124.7218.2325.7234.49

    REQUIRED SHEARWALL LENGTH (feet) PARALLEL TO RIDGE, NO. 5 REINFORCEMENTa, b, c, d ROOF ANGLE 45 DEGREES

    EXPOSURE CATEGORYULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)TOP STORY1ST STORY OF 2 STORYOR 2ND STORY OF 3 STORY1ST STORY OF 3 STORY
    Building Width (feet)Building Width (feet)Building Width (feet)
    243240243240243240
    B1201.231.892.702.333.334.503.364.766.41
    1301.452.223.182.753.935.313.965.617.56
    1401.662.543.643.154.496.074.536.428.64
    1501.922.934.203.635.187.005.227.409.97
    1602.193.354.804.155.928.005.978.4611.39
    1702.483.805.444.706.719.076.779.5912.91
    1802.754.216.035.217.4410.067.5010.6314.31
    1953.254.977.126.158.7711.878.8512.5516.89
    C1201.532.403.513.174.606.314.656.578.81
    1301.812.834.143.745.427.445.497.7510.39
    1402.073.244.744.286.208.516.288.8611.88
    1502.383.745.464.947.169.827.2410.2213.70
    1602.724.276.245.648.1811.228.2711.6815.66
    1703.094.847.076.399.2712.729.3813.2317.74
    1803.425.377.847.0910.2714.1010.4014.6719.67
    1954.046.339.268.3712.1216.6412.2717.3123.22

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

    1. a.The cumulative shearwall segment length for each side of the building shall equal or exceed the tabular shearwall length required. If the required shearwall segment length is not one continuous shearwall segment, the total shearwall length required shall be increased by 0.67 feet for each additional shearwall segment making up the total shearwall length on a side.

    2. b.The minimum shearwall segment length shall be 2 feet. Values less than 2 feet are shown only for summation of shearwall segments and for interpolation purposes. A grouted cell with vertical reinforcement of the size indicated is required at each end of every shearwall segment.

    3. c.Portions of walls with openings other than those permitted by Section 405.5.3 shall not be considered part of the shearwall length.

    4. d.Shearwall lengths are based on shearwall segment heights of 80 inches (height from the floor to the top of the highest opening adjacent to the shear segment - corners and openings as permitted by Section 405.5.3 are not counted as openings). For shear segment heights other than 80 inches, multiply tabular length values as follows:

      SEGMENT HEIGHT (inches) LENGTH MULTIPLIER
      881.09
      961.19
      1041.28
      1121.37

    TABLE 405(20)

    REQUIRED SHEARWALL LENGTH (feet) PER FOOT OF BUILDING LENGTHa, b, c, d, e PERPENDICULAR TO RIDGE, NO. 4 REINFORCEMENT, ROOF ANGLE 23 DEGREES

    EXPOSURE CATEGORYULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)TOP STORY1ST STORY OF 2 STORY OR 2ND STORY OF 3 STORY1ST STORY OF 3 STORY
    Building Width (feet)Building Width (feet)Building Width (feet)
    243240243240243240
    B1200.0460.0460.0460.1230.1230.1220.2000.1990.199
    1300.0550.0540.0540.1450.1450.1440.2360.2350.235
    1400.0630.0620.0610.1660.1660.1650.2690.2690.268
    1500.0720.0720.0710.1910.1910.1900.3110.3100.310
    1600.0820.0820.0810.2190.2180.2170.3550.3550.354
    1700.0930.0930.0920.2480.2470.2460.4020.4020.401
    1800.1040.1030.1020.2750.2740.2730.4460.4460.444
    1950.1220.1220.1200.3240.3240.3220.5270.5260.524
    C1200.0650.0650.0640.1730.1720.1710.2800.2800.279
    1300.0770.0760.0750.2030.2030.2020.3300.3300.329
    1400.0880.0870.0860.2330.2320.2310.3780.3770.376
    1500.1010.1010.0990.2680.2680.2670.4360.4350.434
    1600.1160.1150.1140.3070.3060.3050.4980.4970.496
    1700.1310.1300.1290.3480.3470.3450.5640.5630.562
    1800.1450.1440.1430.3850.3850.3830.6260.6250.623
    1950.1710.1700.1680.4550.4540.4520.7380.7370.735

    REQUIRED SHEARWALL LENGTH (feet) PER FOOT OF BUILDING LENGTHa, b, c, d, e PERPENDICULAR TO RIDGE, NO. 5 REINFORCEMENT, ROOF ANGLE 23 DEGREES

    EXPOSURE CATEGORYULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)TOP STORY1ST STORY OF 2 STORY OR 2ND STORY OF 3 STORY1ST STORY OF 3 STORY
    Building Width (feet)Building Width (feet)Building Width (feet)
    243240243240243240
    B1200.0310.0310.0310.0830.0830.0820.1340.1340.134
    1300.0370.0370.0360.0980.0970.0970.1590.1580.158
    1400.0420.0420.0410.1120.1110.1110.1810.1810.181
    1500.0490.0480.0480.1290.1290.1280.2090.2090.208
    1600.0550.0550.0550.1470.1470.1460.2390.2390.238
    1700.0630.0630.0620.1670.1670.1660.2710.2710.270
    1800.0980.0970.0960.2590.2590.2580.4210.4210.419
    1950.1150.1150.1130.3060.3060.3040.4970.4960.495
    C1200.0440.0440.0430.1160.1160.1150.1890.1880.188
    1300.0520.0510.0510.1370.1370.1360.2220.2220.221
    1400.0590.0590.0580.1570.1560.1560.2540.2540.253
    1500.0680.0680.0670.1810.1800.1800.2930.2930.292
    1600.0780.0770.0760.2060.2060.2050.3350.3350.334
    1700.0880.0880.0870.2340.2330.2320.3800.3790.378
    1800.0980.0970.0960.2590.2590.2580.4210.4210.419
    1950.1150.1150.1130.3060.3060.3040.4970.4960.495

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

    1. a.The cumulative shearwall segment length for each side of the building shall equal or exceed the tabular shearwall length required. If the required shearwall segment length is not one continuous shearwall segment, the total shearwall length required shall be increased by 0.67 feet for each additional shearwall segment making up the total shearwall length on a side.

    2. b.The minimum shearwall segment length shall be 2 feet. Values less than 2 feet are shown only for summation of shearwall segments and for interpolation purposes. A grouted cell with vertical reinforcement of the size indicated is required at each end of every shearwall segment.

    3. c.Portions of walls with openings other than those permitted by Section 405.5.3 shall not be considered part of the shearwall length.

    4. d.Required shearwall length perpendicular to the ridge are per lineal foot of building length. Multiply tabular values by building length (distance between adjacent shearwall perpendicular to the ridge if interior shearwalls are used) for total shearwall length per side.

    5. e.Shearwall lengths are based on shearwall segment heights of 80 inches (height from the floor to the top of the highest opening adjacent to the shear segment - corners and openings as permitted by Section 405.5.3 are not counted as openings). For shear segment heights other than 80 inches, multiply tabular length values as follows:

      SEGMENT HEIGHT (inches) LENGTH MULTIPLIER
      881.09
      961.19
      1041.28
      1121.37

    TABLE 405(21)

    REQUIRED SHEARWALL LENGTH (feet) PER FOOT OF BUILDING LENGTHa, b, c, d, e PERPENDICULAR TO RIDGE, NO. 4 REINFORCEMENT, ROOF ANGLE 30 DEGREES

    EXPOSURE CATEGORYULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)TOP STORY1ST STORY OF 2 STORY OR 2ND STORY OF 3 STORY1ST STORY OF 3 STORY
    Building Width (feet)Building Width (feet)Building Width (feet)
    243240243240243240
    B1200.0760.0880.1010.1430.1550.1680.2100.2230.235
    1300.0900.1040.1200.1690.1830.1990.2480.2620.278
    1400.1030.1190.1370.1930.2100.2270.2840.3000.318
    1500.1190.1380.1580.2230.2420.2620.3270.3460.366
    1600.1360.1570.1800.2550.2760.2990.3740.3960.419
    1700.1540.1780.2040.2890.3130.3390.4240.4480.474
    1800.1700.1970.2260.3200.3470.3760.4700.4970.526
    1950.2010.2330.2670.3780.4100.4440.5550.5870.621
    C1200.1070.1240.1420.2010.2180.2360.2950.3120.330
    1300.1260.1460.1680.2370.2570.2780.3480.3680.389
    1400.1440.1670.1920.2710.2940.3180.3980.4210.445
    1500.1660.1930.2210.3130.3390.3670.4590.4850.514
    1600.1900.2200.2530.3570.3870.4200.5250.5550.587
    1700.2160.2500.2860.4050.4390.4760.5940.6290.587
    1800.2390.2770.3170.4490.4870.5270.6590.6970.738
    1950.2820.3270.3750.5300.5750.6220.7780.8230.870

    REQUIRED SHEARWALL LENGTH (feet) PER FOOT OF BUILDING LENGTHa, b, c, d, e PERPENDICULAR TO RIDGE, NO. 5 REINFORCEMENT, ROOF ANGLE 30 DEGREES

    EXPOSURE CATEGORYULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)TOP STORY1ST STORY OF 2 STORY OR 2ND STORY OF 3 STORY1ST STORY OF 3 STORY
    Building Width (feet)Building Width (feet)Building Width (feet)
    243240243240243240
    B1200.0510.0600.0680.0970.1050.1130.1420.1500.159
    1300.0610.0700.0800.1140.1230.1340.1670.1770.187
    1400.0690.0800.0920.1300.1410.1530.1910.2020.214
    1500.0800.0930.1060.1500.1630.1760.2200.2330.247
    1600.0910.1060.1210.1720.1860.2020.2520.2660.282
    1700.1030.1200.1370.1940.2110.2280.2850.3020.319
    1800.1150.1330.1520.2160.2340.2530.3160.3350.354
    1950.1350.1570.1800.2540.2760.2990.3740.3950.418
    C1200.0720.0830.0960.1350.1470.1590.1990.2100.222
    1300.0850.0980.1130.1600.1730.1870.2340.2480.262
    1400.0970.1130.1290.1830.1980.2140.2680.2830.300
    1500.1120.1300.1490.2110.2280.2470.3090.3270.346
    1600.1280.1480.1700.2410.2610.2830.3530.3730.395
    1700.1450.1680.1930.2730.2960.3200.4000.4230.448
    1800.1610.1860.2140.3020.3280.3550.4440.4690.496
    1950.1900.2200.2520.3570.3870.4190.5240.5540.586

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

    1. a.The cumulative shearwall segment length for each side of the building shall equal or exceed the tabular shearwall length required. If the required shearwall segment length is not one continuous shearwall segment, the total shearwall length required shall be increased by 0.67 feet for each additional shearwall segment making up the total shearwall length on a side.

    2. b.The minimum shearwall segment length shall be 2 feet. Values less than 2 feet are shown only for summation of shearwall segments and for interpolation purposes. A grouted cell with vertical reinforcement of the size indicated is required at each end of every shearwall segment.

    3. c.Portions of walls with openings other than those permitted by Section 405.5.3 shall not be considered part of the shearwall length.

    4. d.Required shearwall length perpendicular to the ridge are per lineal foot of building length. Multiply tabular values by building length (distance between adjacent shearwall perpendicular to the ridge if interior shearwalls are used) for total shearwall length per side.

    5. e.Shearwall lengths are based on shearwall segment heights of 80 inches (height from the floor to the top of the highest opening adjacent to the shear segment - corners and openings as permitted by Section 405.5.3 are not counted as openings). For shear segment heights other than 80 inches, multiply tabular length values as follows:

      SEGMENT HEIGHT (inches) LENGTH MULTIPLIER
      881.09
      961.19
      1041.28
      1121.37

    TABLE 405(22)

    REQUIRED SHEARWALL (feet) LENGTH PER FOOT OF BUILDING LENGTHa, b, c, d, e PERPENDICULAR TO RIDGE, NO. 4 REINFORCEMENT ROOF ANGLE 45 DEGREES

    EXPOSURE CATEGORYULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)TOP STORY1ST STORY OF 2 STORY OR 2ND STORY OF 3 STORY1ST STORY OF 3 STORY
    Building Width (feet)Building Width (feet)Building Width (feet)
    243240243240243240
    B1200.1020.1230.1450.1690.1900.2130.2360.2570.280
    1300.1210.1450.1720.2000.2240.2510.2790.3030.330
    1400.1380.1660.1960.2280.2560.2870.3190.3470.377
    1500.1590.1910.2260.2630.2960.3310.3680.4000.435
    1600.1820.2190.2590.3010.3380.3780.4200.4570.497
    1700.2060.2480.2930.3410.3830.4280.4760.5180.563
    1800.2280.2750.3250.3780.4250.4750.5280.5750.625
    1950.2690.3240.3840.4460.5010.5600.6230.6780.737
    C1200.1430.1730.2040.2370.2670.2980.3310.3610.392
    1300.1690.2040.2410.2800.3140.3520.3910.4250.462
    1400.1930.2330.2750.3200.3600.4020.4470.4860.529
    1500.2230.2680.3170.3690.4150.4640.5150.5610.610
    1600.2550.3070.3630.4220.4740.5300.5890.6410.697
    1700.2890.3480.4110.4780.5370.6000.6670.7270.790
    1800.3200.3850.4560.5300.5960.6660.7400.8060.876
    1950.3780.4550.5380.6260.7030.7860.8730.9511.034

    REQUIRED SHEARWALL LENGTH (feet) PER FOOT OF BUILDING LENGTHa, b, c, d, e PERPENDICULAR TO RIDGE, NO. 5 REINFORCEMENT ROOF ANGLE 45 DEGREES

    EXPOSURE CATEGORYULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)TOP STORY1ST STORY OF 2 STORY OR 2ND STORY OF 3 STORY1ST STORY OF 3 STORY
    Building Width (feet)Building Width (feet)Building Width (feet)
    243240243240243240
    B1200.0690.0830.0980.1140.1280.1430.1590.1730.188
    1300.0810.0980.1160.1340.1510.1690.1880.2040.222
    1400.0930.1120.1320.1540.1730.1930.2150.2340.254
    1500.1070.1290.1520.1770.1990.2230.2480.2690.293
    1600.1220.1470.1740.2030.2280.2540.2830.3080.335
    1700.1390.1670.1970.2300.2580.2880.3200.3490.379
    1800.1540.1850.2190.2550.2860.3200.3550.3870.421
    1950.1810.2180.2580.3000.3370.3770.4190.4560.496
    C1200.0960.1160.1370.1600.1790.2010.2230.2430.264
    1300.1140.1370.1620.1880.2120.2370.2630.2860.311
    1400.1300.1570.1850.2150.2420.2710.3010.3270.356
    1500.1500.1810.2140.2490.2790.3120.3470.3780.411
    1600.1710.2070.2440.2840.3190.3570.3970.4320.469
    1700.1940.2340.2770.3220.3620.4040.4490.4890.532
    1800.2150.2600.3070.3570.4010.4480.4980.5420.590
    1950.2540.3060.3620.4210.4730.5290.5880.6400.696

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

    1. a.The cumulative shearwall segment length for each side of the building shall equal or exceed the tabular shearwall length required. If the required shearwall segment length is not one continuous shearwall segment, the total shearwall length required shall be increased by 0.67 feet for each additional shearwall segment making up the total shearwall length on a side.

    2. b.The minimum shearwall segment length shall be 2 feet. Values less than 2 feet are shown only for summation of shearwall segments and for interpolation purposes. A grouted cell with vertical reinforcement of the size indicated is required at each end of every shearwall segment.

    3. c.Portions of walls with openings other than those permitted by Section 405.5.3 shall not be considered part of the shearwall length.

    4. d.Required shearwall length perpendicular to the ridge are per lineal foot of building length. Multiply tabular values by building length (distance between adjacent shearwall perpendicular to the ridge if interior shearwalls are used) for total shearwall length per side.

    5. e.Shearwall lengths are based on shearwall segment heights of 80 inches (height from the floor to the top of the highest opening adjacent to the shear segment - corners and openings as permitted by Section 405.5.3 are not counted as openings). For shear segment heights other than 80 inches, multiply tabular length values as follows:

      SEGMENT HEIGHT (inches) LENGTH MULTIPLIER
      881.09
      961.19
      1041.28
      1121.37

    TABLE 405(23)

    SUPERIMPOSED LOADS MINIMUM RATED LOAD CAPACITY OF 8-INCH-THICK PRE-ENGINEERED ASSEMBLIES SPANNING OPENINGS OF ONE STORY AND TOP STORY OF MULTI-STORY BUILDINGSa, c, d, e, f

    ROOF SPAN (feet)MINIMUM RATED GRAVITY LOAD FOR ASSEMBLY (plf)
    Dead loadLive loadTotal
    4b60120180
    12120280400
    16150360510
    20180440620
    24210520730
    28240600840
    32270680950
    363007601060
    403308401170

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound force per square foot = 47.88 Pa, 1 pound-force per linear foot = 14.594 N/m.

    1. a.All loads are superimposed at the top of the wall and do not include dead loads of the bond beam or masonry above the assembly, add 100% of additional dead and live loads to the gravity loads.

    2. b.Use 4-foot roof span for assemblies in endwalls.

    3. c.For total roof dead loads over 15 psf, increase gravity loads by the following amount:

      FIGURE 405(23)

    4. d.See Section 405.8.1.3 for uplift requirements.

    5. e.Loads shown are actual (service) loads. For ultimate loads multiply dead loads by 1.2 and live loads by 1.6 and sum.

    6. f.Design load assumptions:

      Roof dead load is 15 psf.

      Roof live load is 20 psf.

      Attic live load is 20 psf.

      FIGURE 405(23)

    TABLE 405(24)

    SUPERIMPOSED LOADS, MINIMUM RATED LOAD CAPACITY OF 8-INCH-THICK PRE-ENGINEERED ASSEMBLIES SPANNING OPENINGS OF BOTTOM STORY OF TWO-STORY BUILDINGS, SECOND AND BOTTOM STORIES OF THREE-STORY BUILDINGS—WOOD FLOOR SYSTEMa, c, d, e, f, g

    FLOOR SPAN (feet)MINIMUM RATED GRAVITY LOAD FOR ASSEMBLY (plf)
    DLLLTotalDLLLTotalDLLLTotalDLLLTotalDLLLTotalDLLLTotal
    Clear Opening (feet)
    468121620
    4b120601801706023022060280320603804206048052060580
    12160180340210180390260180440360180540460180640560180740
    16180240420230240470280240520380240620480240720580240820
    20200300500250300550300300600400300700500300800600300900
    24220360580270360630320360680420360780520360880620360980
    282404206602904207103404207604404208605404209606404201060
    3226048074031048079036048084046048094056048010406604801140
    36280540820330540870380540920480540102058054011206805401220
    403006009003506009504006001000500600110060060012007006001300

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound force per square foot = 47.88 Pa, 1 pound-force per linear foot = 14.594 N/m.

    1. a.For a wall supporting floors on both sides, enter table with the sum of the 2 full spans.

      NOTE: Tabular values are for 1/2 the load of the full span shown.

    2. b.Use 4-foot building width for assemblies in nonfloor-bearing walls (normally endwalls and interior masonry walls and shearwalls).

    3. c.The values in this table may be interpolated.

    4. d.These loads take into account the dead load of any masonry in the wall above the assembly and live and dead loads of the roof and floor supported. Dead load of the assembly is not included in the table and if not included in the pre-engineered concrete design must be added to the loads in the table.

    5. e.This table is applicable for all roof dead loads.

    6. f.Loads shown are actual (service) loads. For ultimate loads multiply dead loads (DL) by 1.2 and live loads (LL) by 1.6 and sum.

    7. g.Design load assumptions:

      Floor dead load is 10 psf.

      Floor live load is 30 psf.

      Supported masonry wall dead load is 50 psf.

      FIGURE  405(24)

    TABLE 405(25)

    SUPERIMPOSED LOADS, MINIMUM RATED LOAD CAPACITY OF NOMINAL 8-INCH-THICK PRE-ENGINEERED ASSEMBLIES SPANNING OPENINGS OF BOTTOM STORY OF TWO-STORY BUILDINGS, SECOND AND BOTTOM STORIES OF THREE-STORY BUILDINGS—HOLLOW CORE SYSTEMa, c, d, e, f, g

    FLOOR SPAN (feet)MINIMUM RATED GRAVITY LOAD FOR ASSEMBLY (plf)
    DLLLTotalDLLLTotalDLLLTotalDLLLTotalDLLLTotalDLLLTotal
    Clear Opening (feet)
    468121620
    4b200602602506031030060360400604605006056060060660
    12400180580450180630500180680600180780700180880800180980
    1650024074055024079060024084070024094080024010409002401140
    2060030090065030095070030010008003001100900300120010003001300
    2470036010607503601110800360116090036012601000360136011003601460
    28800420122085042012709004201320100042014201100420152012004201620
    329004801380950480143010004801480110048015801200480168013004801780
    36100054015401050540159011005401640120054017401300540184014005401940
    40110060017001150600175012006001800130060019001400600200015006002100

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound force per square foot = 47.88 Pa, 1 pound-force per linear foot = 14.594 N/m.

    1. a.For a wall supporting floors on both sides, enter table with the sum of the 2 full spans.

      NOTE: Tabular values are for 1/2 the load of the full span shown.

    2. b.Use 4-foot building width for assemblies in nonfloor-bearing walls (normally endwalls and interior masonry walls and shearwalls).

    3. c.The values in this table may be interpolated.

    4. d.These loads take into account the dead load of any masonry in the wall above the assembly and live and dead loads of the roof and floor supported. Dead load of the assembly is not included in the table and if not included in the pre-engineered concrete design must be added to the loads in the table.

    5. e.This table is applicable for all roof dead loads.

    6. f.Loads shown are actual (service) loads. For ultimate loads multiply dead loads (DL) by 1.2 and live loads (LL) by 1.6 and sum.

    7. g.Design load assumptions:

      Floor dead load is 50 psf.

      Floor live load is 30 psf.

      Supported masonry wall dead load is 50 psf.

      FIGURE  405(25)

    TABLE 405(26)

    COMBINED BOND BEAM/LINTELS, ONE STORY AND TOP STORY OF MULTI-STORY BUILDINGSa, b, d, e, f, g

    BOTTOM REINFORCEMENTROOF SPAN (feet)MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CLEAR SPAN (ft - in.)
    Lintel Height (inches)
    812162432
    1 # 44c8 – 210 – 1012 – 514 – 415 – 6
    125 – 118 – 29 – 811 – 813 – 0
    165 – 47 – 58 – 1010 – 1012 – 1
    204 – 116 – 108 – 210 – 111 – 5
    244 – 66 – 47 – 89 – 610 – 10
    284 – 36 – 07 – 29 – 010 – 3
    324 – 05 – 86 – 108 – 79 – 10
    363 – 95 – 46 – 68 – 29 – 5
    403 – 75 – 16 – 37 – 109 – 1
    1 # 54c9 – 913 – 215 – 317 – 919 – 3
    127 – 210 – 011 – 1114 – 616 – 2
    166 – 59 – 110 – 1113 – 515 – 1
    205 – 108 – 510 – 112 – 614 – 2
    245 – 57 – 109 – 511 – 913 – 5
    285 – 17 – 48 – 1111 – 212 – 9
    324 – 96 – 118 – 510 – 812 – 3
    364 – 56 – 78 – 110 – 211 – 9
    404 – 06 – 07 – 89 – 911 – 3
    2 # 44c10 – 814 – 917 – 220 – 121 – 9
    127 – 911 – 213 – 516 – 418 – 3
    167 – 010 – 213 – 315 – 217 – 1
    206 – 59 – 411 – 514 – 216 – 1
    245 – 118 – 910 – 813 – 415 – 3
    285 – 78 – 210 – 012 – 814 – 6
    324 – 117 – 49 – 612 – 013 – 10
    364 – 56 – 88 – 811 – 613 – 4
    404 – 06 – 07 – 1111 – 112 – 10
    2 # 54c11 – 917 – 320 – 624 – 226 – 5
    128 – 713 – 216 – 019 – 922 – 2
    167 – 911 – 1114 – 818 – 420 – 9
    207 – 110 – 813 – 717 – 119 – 6
    246 – 49 – 411 – 1116 – 118 – 6
    285 – 78 – 210 – 714 – 1017 – 7
    324 – 117 – 49 – 713 – 616 – 10
    364 – 56 – 88 – 812 – 415 – 6
    404 – 06 – 07 – 1111 – 414 – 5

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound force per square foot = 47.88 Pa 1, 1 pound per cubic foot = 16.02 kg/m3.

    1. a.The bottom reinforcing steel is to be located not more than 23/4 inches clear distance from the bottom of the lintel.

    2. b.All bond beams shall have reinforcement in the top in accordance with Section 405.2.

    3. c.Use 4-foot roof span for walls parallel to roof framing.

    4. d.Use of 1 # 6 shall be permitted in lieu of 2 # 4 and use of 1 # 7 shall be permitted in lieu of 2 # 5.

    5. e.Loads shown are actual (service) loads. For ultimate loads multiply dead loads (DL) by 1.2 and live loads (LL) by 1.6 and sum.

    6. f.Design load assumptions:

      Roof dead load is 15 psf.

      Roof live load is 20 psf.

      Attic live load is 20 psf.

      Lintel/bond beam is 135 pcf.

    7. g.For roof dead loads more than 15 psf.

      1. a.For 20 psf roof dead load, multiply allowable clear spans by 0.090.

      2. b.For 30 psf roof dead load, multiply allowable clear spans by 0.080.

      3. c.Values for other roof dead loads may be interpolated.

        FIGURE  405(26)

    TABLE 405(27)

    COMBINED BOND BEAM/LINTELS, BOTTOM STORY AND TOP STORY BUILDINGS, SECOND AND BOTTOM STORIES OF THREE-STORY BUILDINGS—WOOD FLOOR SYSTEMa, b, c, d, e, f, g

    BOTTOM REINFORCEMENTROOF SPAN (feet)MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CLEAR SPAN (ft - in.)
    Lintel Height (inches)
    812162432
    1 # 44c7 – 79 – 1011 – 213 – 014 – 4
    126 – 38 – 49 – 911 – 813 – 0
    165 – 97 – 99 – 211 – 112 – 4
    205 – 57 – 48 – 810 – 711 – 11
    245 – 07 – 08 – 310 – 111 – 6
    284 – 96 – 87 – 119 – 911 – 0
    324 – 76 – 47 – 79 – 410 – 8
    364 – 46 – 07 – 49 – 010 – 4
    404 – 15 – 107 – 08 – 910 – 0
    1 # 54c8 – 711 – 413 – 215 – 517 – 0
    127 – 410 – 011 – 713 – 1115 – 7
    166 – 99 – 411 – 013 – 415 – 0
    206 – 48 – 1010 – 612 – 914 – 4
    245 – 118 – 510 – 012 – 313 – 10
    285 – 78 – 09 – 711 – 1013 – 4
    325 – 57 – 89 – 211 – 513 – 0
    365 – 27 – 48 – 1011 – 012 – 7
    404 – 117 – 18 – 610 – 812 – 3
    2 # 44c9 – 412 – 814 – 417 – 118 – 10
    127 – 1110 – 1112 – 1015 – 517 – 2
    167 – 410 – 312 – 214 – 1016 – 7
    206 – 119 – 911 – 714 – 216 – 0
    246 – 69 – 311 – 113 – 815 – 5
    286 – 28 – 1010 – 713 – 215 – 0
    325 – 118 – 510 – 312 – 814 – 6
    365 – 78 – 19 – 1012 – 414 – 1
    405 – 37 – 69 – 611 – 1113 – 8
    2 # 54c10 – 314 – 116 – 519 – 821 – 11
    128 – 712 – 514 – 1018 – 020 – 2
    168 – 011 – 914 – 317 – 419 – 6
    207 – 611 – 113 – 616 – 818 – 11
    247 – 110 – 212 – 616 – 118 – 4
    286 – 99 – 411 – 815 – 417 – 9
    326 – 28 – 810 – 1114 – 617 – 3
    365 – 88 – 110 – 213 – 716 – 9
    405 – 37 – 69 – 612 – 1115 – 10

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound force per square foot = 47.88 Pa, 1 pound per cubic foot = 16.02 kg/m3.

    1. a.The bottom reinforcing steel is to be located not more than 23/4 inches clear distance from the bottom of the lintel.

    2. b.All bond beams shall have reinforcement in the top in accordance with Section 405.2.

    3. c.Use 4-foot floor span for walls parallel to hollowcore.

    4. d.Use of 1 # 6 shall be permitted in lieu of 2 # 4 and use of 1 # 7 shall be permitted in lieu of 2 # 5.

    5. e.This table is applicable for all roof dead loads.

    6. f.Loads shown are actual (service) loads. For ultimate loads multiply dead loads (DL) by 1.2 and live loads (LL) by 1.6 and sum.

    7. g.Design load assumptions:

      Floor dead load is 10 psf for wood floors and 50 psf for hollowcore.

      Floor live load is 30 psf.

      Supported masonry wall dead load is 50 psf.

      Lintel/bond beam is 135 pcf.

      FIGURE  405(27)

    TABLE 405(28)

    COMBINED BOND BEAM/LINTELS, BOTTOM STORY AND TOP STORY BUILDINGS, SECOND AND BOTTOM STORIES OF THREE-STORY BUILDINGS—HOLLOWCORE FLOOR SYSTEMa, b, d, e, f, g

    BOTTOM REINFORCEMENTROOF SPAN (feet)MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CLEAR SPAN (ft - in.)
    Lintel Height (inches)
    812162432
    1 # 44c7 – 19 – 210 – 612 – 413 – 9
    125 – 37 – 28 – 610 – 411 – 8
    164 – 96 – 77 – 109 – 811 – 0
    204 – 46 – 17 – 39 – 010 – 4
    244 – 05 – 86 – 108 – 69 – 9
    283 – 95 – 36 – 58 – 09 – 3
    323 – 65 – 06 – 17 – 88 – 10
    363 – 44 – 95 – 97 – 48 – 6
    403 – 14 – 65 – 67 – 08 – 2
    1 # 54c8 – 210 – 1012 – 514 – 1016 – 4
    126 – 38 – 810 – 212 – 614 – 2
    165 – 77 – 119 – 511 – 813 – 3
    205 – 27 – 48 – 1011 – 012 – 7
    244 – 96 – 108 – 410 – 411 – 11
    284 – 36 – 47 – 109 – 1011 – 4
    323 – 105 – 87 – 49 – 510 – 11
    363 – 55 – 26 – 99 – 010 – 6
    403 – 14 – 96 – 28 – 810 – 1
    2 # 44c8 – 911 – 1013 – 916 – 318 – 2
    126 – 99 – 611 – 413 – 1115 – 10
    166 – 18 – 910 – 613 – 114 – 11
    205 – 78 – 19 – 1012 – 414 – 1
    244 – 117 – 19 – 111 – 813 – 4
    284 – 46 – 48 – 211 – 112 – 9
    323 – 105 – 87 – 410 – 512 – 3
    363 – 55 – 26 – 99 – 711 – 9
    403 – 14 – 96 – 28 – 1111 – 4
    2 # 54c9 – 513 – 315 – 1019 – 021 – 2
    127 – 410 – 913 – 116 – 518 – 8
    166 – 89 – 311 – 515 – 317 – 7
    205 – 88 – 110 – 213 – 916 – 9
    244 – 117 – 19 – 112 – 515 – 4
    284 – 46 – 48 – 211 – 414 – 1
    323 – 105 – 87 – 410 – 513 – 0
    363 – 55 – 26 – 99 – 712 – 1
    403 – 14 – 96 – 28 – 1111 – 3

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound force per square foot = 47.88 Pa, 1 pound per cubic foot = 16.02 kg/m3.

    1. a.The bottom reinforcing steel is to be located not more than 23/4 inches clear distance from the bottom of the lintel.

    2. b.All bond beams shall have reinforcement in the top in accordance with Section 405.2.

    3. c.Use 4-foot floor span for walls parallel to hollowcore.

    4. d.Use of 1 # 6 shall be permitted in lieu of 2 # 4 and use of 1 # 7 shall be permitted in lieu of 2 # 5.

    5. e.This table is applicable for all roof dead loads.

    6. f.Loads shown are actual (service) loads. For ultimate loads multiply dead loads (DL) by 1.2 and live loads (LL) by 1.6 and sum.

    7. g.Design load assumptions:

      Floor dead load is 10 psf for wood floors and 50 psf for hollowcore.

      Floor live load is 30 psf.

      Supported masonry wall dead load is 50 psf.

      Lintel/bond beam is 135 pcf.

      FIGURE  405(28)

    405.1General requirements.

    Masonry walls constructed in accordance with this standard shall comply with the requirements of this section. Alternatively, concrete masonry walls shall be permitted to comply with TMS 403 Direct Design Handbook for Masonry Structures or where the wall or building is not within the scope of TMS 403, the wall shall comply with TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5-11 Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures and TMS 602/ACI 530.1/ASCE 6-11Specification for Masonry Structures. The minimum thickness of exterior masonry walls shall be 8 inches (203 mm).

    405.2 Bond beams.

    405.2.1General.

    A reinforced bond beam shall be provided in masonry walls at the top of the wall and at each floor level (except at slab-on-grade) of each exterior wall. (See Section 405.4.1 for rake beam at top of gable endwalls). Bond beams shall contain one #4 bar minimum.

    405.2.2 Size.

    Bond beams shall be one of the following:

    8 inches thick × 8 inches high masonry (203 × 203 mm)

    8 inches thick × 12 inches high masonry (203 × 305 mm)

    8 inches thick × 16 inches high masonry (203 × 406 mm)

    8 inches thick × 24 inches high masonry (203 × 610 mm)

    8 inches thick × 32 inches high masonry (203 × 813 mm)

    Precast units certified by the manufacturer to be suitable for the loads stipulated in Section 405.8.1, installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications, and approved by the building official.

    405.2.3Continuity of reinforcement.

    Reinforcement shall be continuous around corners [see Figure 405(1)]. Where more than one bar is required, only one bar need be continuous around corners.

    405.2.4 Splices.

    All splices shall be lapped in accordance with Section 402.3.2.

    405.2.5Precast bond beams.

    Precast bond beams shall properly receive and retain all vertical wall reinforcement. Precast bond beams shall contain the minimum amount of continuous reinforcement indicated in Section 405.8.1 and shall be reinforced at joints to act as drag struts and diaphragm chords.

    405.2.6Amount of bond beam reinforcement.

    The minimum reinforcement for bond beam roof diaphragm chord tension reinforcement steel shall be as set forth in Tables 405(1) and (2) for the appropriate Exposure Category. The minimum reinforcement for bond beam uplift-resisting reinforcement shall be as set forth in Tables 405(3) - 405(6) for the loads set forth in Table 407(3). The total minimum area of bond beam reinforcement shall be the sum of the required area of the diaphragm chord tension steel and the required area of bond beam uplift steel. Bond beam area of steel shall be converted to bar size in accordance with Table 405(8).

    405.3Vertical reinforcement.

    405.3.1Corners.

    One No. 4 bar minimum shall be provided in each corner, including interior corners and corners created by changes in wall direction or offsetting of walls such as at projected bays and inset porches.

    405.3.2Openings in masonry walls.

    A minimum of one bar of the size used for vertical wall reinforcement shall be provided on each side of openings wider than 6 feet (1829 mm). If more vertical reinforcement is interrupted by an opening than is provided beside the opening (total in the first and second cells adjacent to the opening on both sides of the opening), a minimum of one-half of the equivalent area of reinforcement interrupted by the opening shall be placed on each side of the opening. This reinforcement shall be placed within the first and/or second cells beside the opening.

    405.3.3 Girders.

    A minimum of one bar of the size used for vertical wall reinforcement shall be provided at all locations where girders or girder trusses bear on masonry walls.

    405.3.4Shearwalls.

    Vertical reinforcement shall be provided at the ends of each shearwall segment in accordance with Section 405.5.5 of this standard.

    405.3.5Spacing of vertical reinforcement.

    Vertical reinforcement shall be provided for the design windspeed, building width, wall height and exposure specified in Table 405(9).

    1. 1.For spacing of reinforcement at continuous gable endwalls, see Section 405.4.

    2. 2.Vertical reinforcement used in conjunction with precast bond beams shall be spaced the same as for masonry bond beams unless other spacing is substantiated by the beam manufacturer and approved by the building official and shall hook into the precast beam in accordance with Section 405.7.

    405.3.6Duplication.

    Reinforcing steel requirements are not additive. A single reinforcing bar may fulfill more than one requirement. For example, a single bar will satisfy the requirements for a bar at the side of an opening which occurs at the same location as a bar required by Tables 405(8) and 405(9). In all cases, the most stringent requirements shall be applied.

    405.3.7Wall reinforcement summary.

    See Figure 405(11).

    405.3.8 Continuity of reinforcement.

    See Section 405.7 for details of connection of vertical wall reinforcing to footings and bond beams.

    405.4 Masonry gables.

    405.4.1Gable end walls.

    Gable end walls of masonry shall be constructed full height to the roof line except where gable end trusses or wood framed gable end walls in conformance with Sections 405.4.7 and 405.4.8 are provided.

    405.4.2Rake beam.

    Where masonry is carried full height to the roof line, a cast-in-place rake beam with a minimum 4-inch (102 mm) dimension and one continuous reinforcing bar of the same size used in the bond beam for the sidewall shall be cast along the roof line [see Figure 405(4)].

    405.4.3Vertical reinforcement.

    Vertical reinforcement is required at the maximum spacing specified in Table 405(10) or 405(11) as appropriate.

    405.4.4Vertical reinforcement into rake beam.

    Vertical wall reinforcing in the masonry gable end wall shall extend into the rake beam and have standard hooked ends. Hooked dowel bars spliced to vertical reinforcing in accordance with Table 402 shall be permitted. No dowels are required into the footing except as specified in Section 403.3.1.

    405.4.5Wood nailer.

    Where the masonry is carried the full height to the roof line, diaphragm blocking shall be provided in accordance with Section 407.4. Provide a minimum 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) wood nailer bolted to the rake beam to connect the wall to roof sheathing. The wood nailer shall be permitted to be attached to either the inside or outside of the wall.

    405.4.6Roof diaphragm attachment.

    The roof diaphragm shall be attached to the continuous masonry gable as denoted in either Figure 405(5) or 405(6).

    405.4.7Bond beam.

    Where masonry is not carried full height, gable end walls shall have a bond beam at the top of the masonry wall. Intermediate bond beams are not required.

    405.4.8Sheathing and bracing.

    Where masonry is not carried full height, gable end walls shall be sheathed with 15/32-inch (11.9 mm) wood structural panels with 8d common or 8d hot dipped galvanized box nails spaced at 6 inches (152 mm) o.c. and 12 inches (305 mm) o.c at intermediate framing. Other approved structural materials shall be permitted provided they are designed to meet the suction and compression loads as required by Section 1609 of the International Building Code. The top of the masonry wall shall be braced in accordance with Tables 405(14) and 405(15) and Figure 405(7) or bracing shall be designed by a registered professional engineer or architect.

    405.5 Exterior shearwalls.

    Shearwalls are required to resist horizontal movement or forces at ends of diaphragms.

    405.5.1Shearwall segments.

    Required shearwall segment lengths shall be determined from Tables 405(17) through 405(19) and 405(20) through 405(22). When using Tables 405(17) through (19) (for endwalls) and the building contains one or more interior shearwalls, the distance to the first interior shearwall shall be used in determining the length-to-width ratio for use in the table. The building length used shall be the distance between adjacent shearwalls. Distance between adjacent shearwalls shall not exceed 21/2 times the building width when used in conjunction with a wood roof or floor diaphragm. Minimum shearwall segment length shall be 2 feet (610 mm).

    Values less than 2 feet (610 mm) as shown in the tables are to be used only when adding together required shearwall segment lengths for separate parts of a building, such as in common walls of nonrectangular buildings (see Section 105.3).

    405.5.2 Multiple shearwall segments.

    Shearwall segment lengths shown in Tables 405(17) through 405(22) are for a single shearwall segment of the specified length. Shearwalls may be divided into multiple smaller segments if:

    1. 1.All individual shearwall segment lengths meet the minimum requirements of Section 405.5.1.

    2. 2.Individual shearwall segments are subject to the same reinforcement requirements as a single shearwall segment.

    3. 3.The sum of the lengths of individual shearwall segments shall be equal to or greater than the length specified by the applicable table.

    4. 4.The length of the largest individual segment shall be no more than four times the length of the smallest segment within the shearwall.

    405.5.3Openings.

    Shearwall piers and shearwall segments shall not contain openings (other than incidental utility penetrations) with a maximum horizontal or vertical dimension of 5 inches (127 mm) for piers and 12 inches (305 mm) for portions of shearwall segments above and below piers. The total area of openings in any one segment of shearwall shall not exceed 144 square inches (929 cm2).

    405.5.4Arrangement.

    The maximum clear distance between shear wall segments shall be 18 feet (5486 mm). A minimum 2-foot (610 mm) shear wall segment shall be located at each building corner where the wall length is greater than 4 feet (1220 mm) [see Figure 405(11)]. Each exterior wall shall have the required length of effective shearwall determined by Tables 405(17) through 405(22).

    405.5.5Reinforcement.

    Each shearwall or shearwall segment shall contain the amount of vertical reinforcement indicated in Tables 405(17) through 405(22) in each end of each shearwall segment. This reinforcement, shall be anchored with a standard hook into the bond beam at the top and with a standard hook into bond beams or footings below.

    405.5.6Multi-story shearwalls.

    Shearwall segments in an upper story shall be located directly over shearwall segments in the story below and reinforcement at the ends of the shearwall segment shall be continuous from the bond beam of the upper story through the story below.

    405.5.7Nonrectangular buildings.

    (See Section 302).

    405.6 Interior shearwalls.

    405.6.1 Length-to-width ratio of building.

    Interior shearwalls used to decrease the length-to-width ratio of buildings shall comply with the following:

    1. 1.Bond beams in interior walls containing shearwalls shall extend the full width of the building and shall be subject to the same restrictions as shearwalls in exterior walls;

    2. 2.The length of an interior shearwall shall be sized in accordance with Section 405.5. For interior shearwalls, the total shearwall length shall be the sum of the shearwall lengths required for each building length on each side of the interior shearwall;

    3. 3.Bond beam reinforcement of interior walls containing shearwalls shall be continuous with bond beam reinforcement of exterior walls;

    4. 4.Where masonry shearwalls or shearwall segments terminate below the roof diaphragm, the diaphragm shall be connected to the shearwall or shearwall segments by the roof trusses or framing. Such masonry walls shall be laterally supported by a diaphragm.

    405.6.2Interior shearwall in bottom story.

    When an interior shearwall is used in the bottom story of a twostory building without an interior shearwall above it (i.e., wider shearwall spacing in top story than bottom story), the following procedure shall be used:

    1. 1.L/W for both stories shall be based on top story;

    2. 2.Top-story shearwall segment lengths shall be as shown in Tables 405(17) through (19);

    3. 3.Bottom-story shearwall segment lengths shall be the upper-story spacing and table values shall be reduced as follows:

      1. 3.1.Shearwall having a shearwall above it, multiply by 0.82.

      2. 3.2.Shearwall without shearwall above it, multiply by 0.35.

    405.7 Continuity of vertical wall reinforcement.

    405.7.1Lap splices.

    Vertical wall reinforcement shall be lap spliced to foundation dowels at locations specified in Section 403.3. Lap splices shall be in accordance with Section 402.3.2 [see Figure 405(9)].

    405.7.2Termination in the bond beam.

    All vertical wall reinforcement shall be terminated in the bond beam at the roof level with a standard hook. The hook may be formed by bending the vertical wall reinforcement in accordance with Section 402.3.3 or by lap splicing to a standard hook. The hook shall extend to the uppermost horizontal reinforcement of the bond beam and shall be embedded a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) into the bond beam [see Figure 405(9)].

    405.7.3Continuity in multistory building.

    In multistory construction, vertical wall reinforcement shall extend through bond beams and shall be continuous with the vertical wall reinforcement of the wall above [see Figure 405(10)].

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Where more than one bar in the same cell is required for vertical wall reinforcement, only one bar shall be required to be continuous between stories.

    2. 2.Where vertical wall reinforcement is offset between floor levels, reinforcement shall comply with the following:

      1. 2.1.Reinforcement for the lower story is anchored into the upper floor level bond beam in accordance with Section 405.7.2; and,

      2. 2.2.Reinforcement for the upper story is anchored into the bond beams above and below in accordance with Section 405.7.2.

    405.8 Assemblies and beams spanning openings.

    405.8.1Pre-engineered assemblies for masonry walls.

    405.8.1.1Support by an assembly.

    Masonry units without horizontal reinforcement above an opening and 8-inch (203 mm) high bond beams above an opening shall be supported by an assembly.

    405.8.1.2Selection of assembly.

    Pre-engineered assemblies shall be selected from a manufacturer’s approved schedule or other approved tables for the load capacities based on the appropriate minimum gravityload-carrying capacities established in Tables 405(23) through (25).

    405.8.1.3Assemblies used as a bond beam.

    Pre-engineered assemblies that are to be used as a bond beam over an opening shall comply with the following:

    1. 1.The bond beam reinforcement is continuous through the assembly.

    2. 2.The assembly has an uplift rating that equals or exceeds the appropriate value stipulated in Table 407(3) if the lintel directly supports a roof.

    3. Exception: If the reinforcement in the top of the assembly meets the requirements of Section 405.2, the lintel need not be rated for uplift.

    405.8.1.4Assembly span.

    Pre-engineered assemblies spanning openings shall extend a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) nominal past each side of the opening.

    405.8.2Bond beams combined with lintels.

    405.8.2.1General.

    The provisions of this section shall apply when the lintel, the wall area between the lintel and the bond beam, and the bond beam itself are solid grouted masonry units or cast together as one unit.

    405.8.2.2Combined bond beams/lintels.

    Combined bond beams/lintels shall meet the requirements of the appropriate Tables 405(26) through (28).

    405.8.2.3Top reinforcement length.

    Top reinforcement which is in addition to that required in the bond beam over the wall shall extend a minimum of 24 inches (610 mm) past each side of the opening. Top bond beam reinforcement shall be continuous over wall and opening.

    405.8.2.4Bottom reinforcement length.

    Bottom reinforcing shall extend past each side of the opening a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) for masonry walls. When using a precast lintel, the reinforcing in the precast lintel shall be included when determining the total amount of bottom reinforcement furnished.

    405.8.2.5Cleanout opening.

    For masonry walls, a cleanout [12 square inches (77 cm2) minimum] shall be provided in the cells directly above the ends of the lintel when the reinforcing steel in the bottom of the lintel is more than 22 inches (559 mm) below the top of the bond beam.

    SECTION406
    ATTIC FLOOR OR CEILING SYSTEMS

    406.1 Ceiling framing.

    406.1.1Rafter-joist system.

    Ceiling joists shall be in accordance with the AWC STJR or the AWC WFCM. The ceiling joists shall be installed parallel to the rafters. Ceiling joists shall be fastened in accordance with Table R602.3(1) of the International Residential Code. Notches and holes shall be in accordance with Section R802.7 of the International Residential Code.

    406.1.2Wood I-joist systems.

    Single or continuous span I-joists shall comply with the manufacturer’s code evaluation report.

    406.1.3Truss systems.

    (See Section 407.2)

    SECTION407
    ROOF SYSTEMS

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE 407(1)

    ROOF SHEATHING LAYOUT AND ENDWALL BRACING

    TABLE 407(1)

    TOTAL SHEAR (ASD) AT TOP OF TOP STORY WALL (F1)a, b (lb)

    EXPOSURE CATEGORYULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)VELOCITY PRESSURE (psf)ROOF ANGLE UP TO 45 DEGREESROOF ANGLE UP TO 30 DEGREES
    Building Width (feet)Building Width (feet)
    243240243240
    B12013.2174926933854135620062781
    13015.6206331764546159923663280
    14017.8235936315198182927053750
    15020.5272141895996211031204326
    16023.4311047876852241135664943
    17026.6352454257765273240405602
    18029.5390760158610302944806212
    19534.84611709910161357552877330
    C12018.5245237755404190128123899
    13021.8289244536373224233174598
    14024.9330750917287256437925258
    15028.8381558748407295843756065
    16032.9436067129607338049996931
    17037.24940760610886383056657854
    18041.35478843412071424762828709
    19548.764659953142465012741310277

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound force = 4.448 N, 1 degree = 0.0175 rad, 1 pound force per square foot = 47.88 Pa.

    1. a.Loads are based on a 10-foot wall height. Multiply by 0.9 for 8-foot wall heights.

    2. b.To determine individual connector load parallel to the wall (Load F1) divide shear value by the number of connectors.

    TABLE 407(2)

    TRANSVERSE CONNECTOR LOAD (ASD) (F2)a, b (plf)

    EXPOSURE CATEGORYULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)VELOCITY PRESSURE (psf)ROOF ANGLE < 23 DEGREESROOF ANGLE ≥ 23 DEGREES
    Edge ZoneInterior Zone
    B12013.2341276250
    13015.6402326294
    14017.8460372337
    15020.5531429388
    16023.4606491444
    17026.6687556503
    18029.5762617558
    19534.8899728658
    C12018.5478387350
    13021.8564456413
    14024.9645522472
    15028.8744602545
    16032.9850688622
    17037.2964780705
    18041.31068865782
    19548.712611020923

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound force = 4.448 N, 1 degree = 0.0175 rad, 1 pound per lineal foot = 14.594 N/m, 1 pound force per square foot = 47.88 Pa.

    1. a.Load are based on a 10-foot wall height. Multiply by 0.8 for 8-foot wall heights.

    2. b.To determine individual connector load perpendicular to the wall (Load F2), multiply the table value by the connector spacing in feet.

    NOTES:

    1. a.F1, F2 and F3 are forces that must be accommodated in the design of the roof/wall connection.

    2. b.Connectors shall be installed per manufacturer’s recommendations.

    3. c.The lift connector shown is embedded in bond beam.

    4. d.The last two connectors shown are attached to bond beam with concrete/masonry screws.

    FIGURE 407(3)

    ROOF TO MASONRY SIDEWALL CONNECTION DIRECT TO BOND BEAM

    TABLE 407(3)

    ROOF BEARING UPLIFT (F3) (ASD) AT TOP OF WALL IN EXPOSURE B (plf)a, b, c, d

    ROOF ANGLEULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)ROOF SPAN (feet)OVERHANGS
    12202428323640
    End zone load for all roof angles120-54.38-90.63-108.76-126.88-145.01-163.14-181.26-23.1
    130-70.60-117.66-141.19-164.72-188.26-211.79-235.32-27.2
    140-85.88-143.14-171.77-200.40-229.02-257.65-286.28-31.1
    150-104.61-174.35-209.22-244.09-278.96-313.83-348.70-35.9
    160-124.67-207.79-249.35-290.90-332.46-374.02-415.58-41.0
    170-146.07-243.46-292.15-340.84-389.53-438.22-486.91-46.5
    180-165.90-276.49-331.79-387.09-442.39-497.69-552.99-51.5
    195-202.26-337.10-404.52-471.94-539.36-606.78-674.20-60.8
    Interior zone load for all roof angles120-28.12-46.87-56.25-65.62-75.00-84.37-93.75-18.1
    130-39.63-66.05-79.26-92.47-105.68-118.89-132.10-21.3
    140-50.48-84.13-100.95-117.78-134.60-151.43-168.26-24.4
    150-63.76-106.27-127.53-148.78-170.03-191.29-212.54-28.1
    160-78.00-130.00-155.99-181.99-207.99-233.99-259.99-32.1
    170-93.18-155.30-186.36-217.42-248.48-279.54-310.60-36.4
    180-107.25-178.74-214.49-250.24-285.99-321.74-357.49-40.4
    195-133.05-221.74-266.09-310.44-354.79-399.14-443.49-47.6
    ROOF BEARING UPLIFT (F3) (ASD) AT TOP OF WALL IN EXPOSURE C, (plf)a, b, c, d
    ROOF ANGLEULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)ROOF SPAN (feet)OVERHANGS
    12202428323640
    End zone load for all roof angles120-90.71-151.19-181.43-211.66-241.90-272.14-302.38-32.4
    130-113.45-189.09-226.90-264.72-302.54-340.35-378.17-38.2
    140-134.89-224.81-269.77-314.73-359.69-404.66-449.62-43.6
    150-161.14-268.57-322.28-375.99-429.70-483.42-537.13-50.3
    160-189.27-315.45-378.54-441.63-504.72-567.81-630.90-57.5
    170-219.27-365.46-438.55-511.64-584.73-657.82-730.91-65.2
    180-247.07-411.78-494.13-576.49-658.84-741.20-823.55-72.3
    195-298.05-496.75-596.10-695.45-794.80-894.15-993.50-85.3
    Interior zone for all roof angles120-53.90-89.84-107.81-125.77-143.74-161.71-179.68-25.3
    130-70.04-116.73-140.07-163.42-186.76-210.11-233.45-29.9
    140-85.24-142.07-170.49-198.90-227.32-255.73-284.14-34.2
    150-103.87-173.12-207.74-242.36-276.99-311.61-346.24-39.4
    160-123.83-206.38-247.66-288.93-330.21-371.49-412.76-45.0
    170-145.12-241.86-290.23-338.61-386.98-435.35-483.72-51.0
    180-164.84-274.73-329.67-384.62-386.98-494.51-549.45-56.6
    195-201.01-335.01-402.02-469.02-536.02-603.03-670.03-66.8

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per lineal foot = 14.594 N/m, 1 pound force = 4.448 N.

    1. a.The uplift loads are pounds per lineal foot of building length. For roof uplift connections, multiply by 1.33 for framing spaced 16 inches on center and multiply by 2 for framing spaced 24 inches on center.

    2. b.The uplift loads include an allowance for 10 pounds/sq. ft. of dead load.

    3. c.The uplift loads do not account for the effects of overhangs. The magnitude of the above loads shall be increased by adding the overhang loads found in the table. The overhang loads are also based on framing spaced 12 inches on center. The overhang loads given shall be multiplied by the overhang projection and added to the roof uplift value in the table.

    4. d.Negative values indicate uplift.

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    NOTE: F1, F2 and F3 are forces that must be accommodated in the design of the roof/wall connection.

    FIGURE 407(4)

    ROOF TO MASONRY SIDEWALL CONNECTION BOLTED TOP PLATE ALTERNATE

    TABLE 407(4)

    WIND UPLIFT LOADS FOR HIP ROOF STEP DOWN SYSTEMa, b, c Top plate to truss connection loads (lb)

    HIP TRUSS MEMBERFROM TABLE 407(3) FIND THE UPLIFT LOAD FOR:FOR 7-FT ENDJACK SYSTEMFOR 11-FT ENDJACK SYSTEM
    Multiply uplift load by:
    Endjacks24′ Building Width0.680.68
    Cornerjacks24′ Building Width0.750.85
    Hipjack24′ Building Widthwith Trusses @ 24″ o.c.11.1
    #1 Hip TrussActual Building Width withTrusses @ 24″ o.c.1.82

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound force = 4.448 N, 1 pound per square foot = 47.88 Pa.

    1. a.Individual connector ratings shall not be less than 100 lb for uplift.

    2. b.Roof and ceiling dead loads shall be actual loads provided, not counting the roof covering. In the absence of more accurate data, the following roof and ceiling dead loads shall be used: 7 psf for truss assembly (roof sheathing, trusses, gypsum ceiling); 7 psf for rafter assembly (roof sheathing, rafters, gypsum ceiling); 10 psf for rafter/ceiling assembly (roof sheathing, rafters and ceiling joists).

    3. Exception: Where roof tile is installed in accordance with ICC/SBCCI SSTD-11, inclusion of the actual weight of the tile in the total roof and ceiling dead load shall be permitted.

    4. c.The following adjustments shall be permitted (uplift shall not be less than 100 lb per connector after adjustment):

      1. 1.Reduction of the required uplift capacity of 30% (multiply by 0.70) shall be permitted for connections at least W/5 from corners but not less than 6 feet.

      2. 2.The values in the tables assume a maximum eave height of 30 feet. When the eave height is 12 feet or less, reduction of the values by 20% (multiply by 0.80) shall be permitted.

      3. 3.Application of footnote C2 simultaneously with footnote C1 shall be permitted.

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    FIGURE 407(5)

    INTERIOR SHEARWALL TO ROOF CONNECTION

    FIGURE 407(6)

    HIP ROOF FRAMING USING TRUSSES

    407.1Rafter-joist framing systems.

    407.1.1Rafters.

    Rafters shall be sized in accordance with the AWC WFCM using accepted dead and live load conditions. Spacing shall be 24 inches (610 mm) o.c. maximum.

    407.1.2Rafters-joist systems.

    Rafter-joist systems shall be in accordance with the AWC WFCM.

    407.2Truss framing systems.

    407.2.1Trusses.

    Trusses shall be designed in accordance with the ANSI/TPI-1.

    407.2.2Truss design submittals.

    Truss design submittals shall indicate design wind speed, height above ground, and amount of uplift at truss bearing points.

    407.2.3Truss spacing.

    Metal-plate-connected wood trusses shall be spaced no more than 24 inches (610 mm) on center and designed for all applicable dead and live loads. Wind loads shall be determined for an enclosed building based on Section 1609 of the International Building Code.

    407.2.4 Girder trusses.

    Where appropriate, girder trusses shall be designed to function also as drag struts. Truss design submittals and erection instructions shall show both uplift and lateral connection load requirements at the ends of a girder truss. Drag strut requirements may be calculated by multiplying the span of the strut by the appropriate roof diaphragm capacity given in Table 407(1) or 407(2).

    407.2.5Hipped roofs.

    Where trusses are used to form a hipped roof, a step-down hip system shall be used [See Figure 407(6)].

    407.3Roof sheathing.

    407.3.1Installation.

    Roof sheathing shall be wood structural panels sized and installed in accordance with the AWC WFCM.

    407.3.2Sheathing fastenings.

    As an alternative to the AWC WFCM, wood structural panel sheathing shall be permitted to be fastened to roof framing with 8d ring shank nails spaced in accordance with AWC WFCM. Ring shank nails shall have a minimum bending yield strength of 130 ksi (896,318 kPa) and have the following minimum dimensions:

    1. 1.Not less than 0.113 inch (3 mm) nominal shank diameter.

    2. 2.Ring diameter shall be not less than 0.004 inch (0.10 mm) larger than actual shank diameter.

    3. 3.Rings shall begin not less than 5/8 inch (16 mm) from the head and shall continue to within 1/4 inch (6 mm) from the nail tip. Two lengths without rings shall be allowed along the ring portion of the nail to facilitate collating of fasteners, with each such length not longer than 1/4 inch (6 mm).

    4. 4.16 to 32 rings per inch.

    5. 5.0.263 inch (7 mm) nominal full round head diameter; for other head shapes such as D and clipped heads, the small dimension shall be not less than 0.190 inch (5 mm) and the larger dimension shall be not less than 0.263 inch (7 mm).

    6. 6.23/8-inch (51 mm) nominal nail length.

    407.4Bracing gable endwalls.

    407.4.1

    When a gable endwall extends from the uppermost floor to the underside of the roof and is not supported by a ceiling diaphragm, endwall roof bracing shall be provided perpendicular to the rafters or trusses in the first two rafter or truss spaces at each end and shall be spaced at 4 feet (1220 mm) maximum on center, as shown in Figure 407(1). Bracing members shall be the full depth of rafters or truss top chords.

    407.5 Roof diaphragm.

    407.5.1

    Roof sheathing and fasteners shall be capable of resisting the total shear loads specified in Tables 407(1) and 407(2) for the applicable building width. Shear capacities for roof diaphragms shall be based on the spacing of the roof framing members, sheathing material, sheathing thickness, nail size and nail spacing as specified in the AWC SDPWS and Chapter 5 of this standard. Nailing pattern shall not be less than required by Section 407.3.3.

    407.5.2

    Where blocking of roof diaphragms is not required, continuous ridge vents shall be permitted.

    407.6Connections for wood roof systems.

    407.6.1Sidewall — truss/rafter direct to bond beam.

    Each truss/rafter shall be anchored at each end with rated connectors capable of resisting the uplift and horizontal loads specified [refer to Figure 407(3)].

    1. 1.The connector shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    2. 2.The uplift design loads at each truss/rafter bearing shall be not less than specified in Table 407(3). In addition to uplift loads, connections shall be capable of resisting lateral loads parallel to the wall equal to the amount determined in Table 407(1). Loads perpendicular to the wall shall be as determined in Table 407(2).

    407.6.2Sidewall — bolted top plate alternate.

    See Figure 407(4).

    1. 1.Materials shall comply with the following:

      1. 1.1.Anchor bolts — Nominal 1/2 inch (13 mm) diameter ASTM A307 or ASTM F1554.

      2. 1.2.Washers — A 36, 2-inch (51 mm) diameter with 9/16-inch (14 mm) centered hole, 1/8 inch (3 mm) thick; or 2 inches × 2 inches × 1/8 inch thick square washer with 9/16 inch centered hole.

      3. 1.3.Nuts — Steel nuts shall be supplied to fit the bolt by the bolt manufacturer.

      4. 1.4.Top plate shall be one of the following:

        1. 1.4.1.Pressure treated 2 × 6 Southern Pine #2 (or S-P-F #3 or better).

        2. 1.4.2.Pressure treated 2 × 8 (S-P-F #3 or better).

        3. 1.4.3.2 × 8 with an Fb value of 870 psi (5998 kPa) (S-P-F #3 or better).

    2. NOTE: See Table 305(1) for Fb values of wood.

    3. 2.Anchor bolts shall be spaced as follows:

      130 mph (58 m/s) – 24 inches (610 mm) o.c. maximum

      150 mph (67 m/s) – 21 inches (533 mm) o.c. maximum

      180 mph (80 m/s) –16 inches (406 mm) o.c. maximum

    4. 3.The maximum bolt hole diameter in the top plate shall be 9/16 inch (14 mm).

    5. 4.Where splices are necessary in the plate, a bolt shall be placed a maximum of 6 inches (152 mm) from each side of the splice.

    6. 5.A bolt shall be placed a maximum of 12 inches (305 mm) from each end of a plate.

    7. 6.The truss/rafter shall be fastened to the top plate with rated connectors capable of resisting the loads specified above in Section 407.6.1(2). Installation shall be in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.

    8. 7.Where more nailing area is required for uplift connectors than is available on the 11/2 inch (38 mm) face of a single top plate, connectors shall be prenailed to the bottom (concealed) face of the plate or a double top plate shall be used.

    407.6.3Continuous gable endwalls.

    A minimum 2-inch × 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) wood nailer shall be bolted to the rake beam at the top of the endwall with 1/2-inch (13 mm) standard anchor bolts spaced per Table 405(12) [see Figure 405(4)]. Roof sheathing shall be fastened to the nailer in the same manner as to other roof framing.

    407.6.4Gable truss endwalls.

    The roof system shall be fastened to the endwall bond beam to resist shear loads from the roof diaphragm. Gable truss endwalls are permitted only when a diaphragm is provided to resist lateral wind pressures on the endwall.

    1. 1.Direct Truss to Concrete or Masonry Connections: Anchor each gable end truss with rated connectors capable of resisting shear (in pounds) equal to the required diaphragm capacity at endwalls as determined in Table 405(16).

    2. 2.Top Plate Alternate: A minimum 2-inch × 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) wood plate shall be bolted to the bond beam, 4 feet on center with 1/2-inch (13 mm) anchor bolts or equal as determined in Tables 405(12) and 405(16). The plate shall be positioned on the beam so that it bears against the inside face of the bottom chord of the gable truss. Nail the bottom chord to the plate with 16d common or hot-dipped galvanized box nails 8 inches (203 mm) on center.

    407.6.5Wood-framed gable endwalls.

    See Chapter 6, Combined Exterior Wall Construction.

    407.6.6Hip roof trusses at endwalls.

    Connect trusses to endwalls using same methods as for sidewalls (See Sections 407.6.1 and 407.6.2). Connections for hip trusses to wall shall resist the uplift loads shown in Table 407(3) as modified by Table 407(4). This method is for a step down hip system only [see Figure 407(6)]. Truss-to-truss connections shall be part of the truss design. Lateral loads parallel to the wall and lateral loads perpendicular to the wall are the same as in Section 407.6.1(2). Alternatively, the truss configuration and uplift connector loads shall be permitted to be as indicated on the truss drawings.

    407.6.7Interior shearwall to roof connection.

    Connections shall be similar to those for endwalls (Refer to Figure 407(5) for connection of interior shearwall to roof system).

    SECTION408
    OPEN STRUCTURES

    408.1General.

    Open structures shall be in accordance with Section 508 as modified by Sections 408.2, 408.3 and 408.4.

    408.2Exterior walls.

    Exterior walls shall be in accordance with applicable sections of Chapter 4. The connection between the porch roof and the wall shall be in accordance with Section 508 or may be attached directly to a bond beam as provided for in Section 407.6. When a single connector is used for connecting the porch roof and the main structure, the connector shall be rated for the sum of the component loads.

    408.3Posts.

    Use of solid grouted masonry posts with a minimum cross-sectional dimension of 8 inches by 8 inches (203 mm by 203 mm) with a minimum of one No. 4 in the center of the cell minimum continuous with one No. 4 dowel into the foundation shall be permitted in lieu of wood posts. An embedded anchor with a rated capacity for a Type 2A or 2B connection as appropriate in Table 508 shall be provided at the top of the post when using a wood beam in accordance with Section 508.

    408.4 Beams.

    Masonry beams meeting the requirements of Section 405.8 shall be permitted when using masonry posts. Masonry beams shall be connected to the masonry post with one No. 4 standard hook minimum extending into the beam. Roof members shall be connected to the masonry beam with anchors rated for the minimum capacity indicated for a Type 1 connection in Table 508.

    SECTION409
    ABOVE-GRADE
    CONCRETE WALL SYSTEMS

    TABLE 409(1)

    DIMENSIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WALLSa, b

    WALL TYPE AND NOMINAL THICKNESSMAXIMUM WALL WEIGHTc (psf)MINIMUM WIDTH OF VERTICAL CORES (inches)MINIMUM THICKNESS OF VERTICAL CORES (inches)MAXIMUM SPACING OF VERTICAL CORES (inches)MAXIMUM SPACING OF HORIZONTAL CORES (inches)MINIMUM WEB THICKNESS (inches)
    4″ flat4N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
    6″ flat6N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
    8″ flat9N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
    10″ flat11N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
    6″ waffle-grid56.25512162
    8″ waffle-grid77712162
    6″ screen-grid55.55.51212N/A

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 47.88 Pa, 1 pound per cubic foot = 16.02 kg/m3.

    1. a.Width “W,” thickness “T,” spacing and web thickness, refer to Figures 409(2) and 409(3).

    2. b.N/A indicates not applicable.

    3. c.Wall weight is based on a unit weight of concrete of 150 pcf. The tabulated values do not include any allowance for interior and exterior finishes.

    FIGURE 409(1)

    FLAT WALL SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE 409(2)

    WAFFLE-GRID SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE 409(3)

    SCREEN-GRID SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

    FIGURE 409(4)

    LAP SPLICE REQUIREMENTS

    For SI: 1 degree = 0.0175 rad, 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE 409(5)

    STANDARD HOOKS

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    NOTE: Section cut through flat wall or vertical core of waffle- or screen-grid walls.

    FIGURE 409(6)

    CONCRETE WALL CONSTRUCTION

    TABLE 409(2)

    MINIMUM VERTICAL WALL REINFORCEMENT FOR FLAT CONCRETE ABOVE-GRADE WALLSa, b, c, d, e

    ULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED (mph)MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED WALL HEIGHT PER STORY (feet)MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT—BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)g
    NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS (inches)
    Exposure Category46810
    BCDTophSideiTophSideiTophSideiTophSidei
    12084@48f4@434@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48g
    94@48f4@364@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48g
    104@374@344@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48g
    13011084@48f4@384@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48g
    94@394@344@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48g
    104@344@344@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48g
    14011911084@434@344@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48g
    94@344@344@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48g
    104@344@314@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48g
    15012711784@374@344@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48g
    94@344@334@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48g
    104@314@274@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48g
    16013612584@344@344@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48g
    94@344@294@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48g
    104@274@244@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48g
    17014413384@434@334@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48g
    94@304@264@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48g
    104@244@214@48f5@404@48f4@48f4@48f4@48g
    18015314184@344@294@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48g
    94@274@244@48f5@444@48f4@48f4@48f4@48g
    104@214@195@415@364@48f4@48f4@48f4@48g
    16515284@294@254@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48f4@48g
    94@234@205@435@384@48f4@48f4@48f4@48g
    104@184@165@355@344@48f4@48f4@48f4@48g
    18016684@244@22