The technical criteria in Chapters 3 through 9, Sections 1002, 1003 and 1006 and Chapter 11 of this standard make sites, facilities, buildings and elements accessible to and usable by people with such physical disabilities as the inability to walk, difficulty walking, reliance on walking aids, blindness and visual impairment, deafness and hearing impairment, incoordination, reaching and manipulation disabilities, lack of stamina, difficulty interpreting and reacting to sensory information, and extremes of physical size. The intent of these sections is to allow a person with a physical disability to independently get to, enter, and use a site, facility, building, or element.
Section 1004 of this standard provides criteria for Type B units. These criteria are intended to be consistent with the intent of the criteria of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Fair Housing Accessibility Guidelines. The Type B units are intended to supplement, not replace, Accessible units or Type A units as specified in this standard.
Section 1005 of this standard provides criteria for minimal accessibility features for one and two family dwelling units and townhouses which are not covered by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Fair Housing Accessibility Guidelines.
This standard is intended for adoption by government agencies and by organizations setting model codes to achieve uniformity in the technical design criteria in building codes and other regulations.
Sites, facilities, buildings, and elements required to be accessible shall comply with the applicable provisions of Chapters 3 through 9 and Chapter 11. Dwelling units and sleeping units shall comply with the applicable provisions of Chapter 10.
The technical criteria in this standard are based on adult dimensions and anthropometrics. This standard also contains technical criteria based on children’s dimensions and anthropometrics for drinking fountains, water closets, toilet compartments, lavatories and sinks, dining surfaces, work surfaces and benches.
Nothing in this standard is intended to prevent the use of designs, products, or technologies as alternatives to those prescribed by this standard, provided they result in equivalent or greater accessibility and such equivalency is approved by the administrative authority adopting this standard.
Where specific criteria of this standard differ from the general criteria of this standard, the specific criteria shall apply.
Dimensions that are not stated as “maximum” or “minimum” are absolute. All dimensions are subject to conventional industry tolerances.
Unless specifically stated, figures included herein are provided for informational purposes only and are not considered part of the standard.
104.4 Floor or Floor Surface.
The terms floor or floor surface refer to the finish floor surface or ground surface, as applicable.
104.5 Referenced Sections.
Unless specifically stated otherwise, a reference to another section or subsection within this standard includes all subsections of the referenced section or subsection.
The documents listed in Section 105.2 shall be considered part of this standard to the prescribed extent of each such reference. Where criteria in this standard differ from those of these referenced documents, the criteria of this standard shall apply.
105.2.1 Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices:
MUTCD-2003 (The Federal Highway Administration, Office of Transportation Operations, Room 3408, 400 7th Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20590).
105.2.2 National Fire Alarm Code:
NFPA 72-2007 (National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269-9101).
105.2.3 Power Assist and Low Energy Power Operated Doors:
ANSI/BHMA A156.19-2007. (Builders Hardware Manufacturers’ Association, 355 Lexington Avenue, 15th Floor, New York, NY 10017).
105.2.4 Power Operated Pedestrian Doors:
ANSI/BHMA A156.10-2005 (Builders Hardware Manufacturers’ Association, 355 Lexington Avenue, 15th Floor, New York, NY 10017).
105.2.5 Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators:
ASME A17.1-2007/CSA B44-07 (American Society of Mechanical Engineers International, Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990).
105.2.6 Safety Standard for Platform Lifts and Stairway Chairlifts:
ASME A18.1-2005 (American Society of Mechanical Engineers International, Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990).
105.2.7 Performance Criteria for Accessible Communications Entry Systems.
ANSI/DASMA 303-2006. (Door and Access Systems Manufacturers Association, 1300 Sumner Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44115-2851).
105.2.8 Standard Specification for Impact Attenuation of Surface Systems Under and Around Playground Equipment
ASTM F 1292-99. (ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428-2959).
105.2.9 Standard Specification for Impact Attenuation of Surfacing Materials Within the Use Zone of Playground Equipment
ASTM F 1292-04 (ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428-2959).
105.2.10 Standard Consumer Safety Performance Specification for Playground Equipment for Public Use
ASTM F 1487-01 (ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428-2959).
105.2.11 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines for Transportation Vehicles
36 CFR 1192 published in 56 Federal Register 45558, September 6, 1991 (United States Access Board, 1331 F Street, NW, Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20004-1111).
For the purpose of this standard, the terms listed in Section 106.5 have the indicated meaning.
106.2 Terms Defined in Referenced Documents.
Terms specifically defined in a referenced document, and not defined in this section, shall have the specified meaning from the referenced document.
106.3 Undefined Terms.
The meaning of terms not specifically defined in this standard or in a referenced document shall be as defined by collegiate dictionaries in the sense that the context implies.
Words, terms, and phrases used in the singular include the plural, and those used in the plural include the singular.
106.5 Defined Terms.
accessible: Describes a site, building, facility, or portion thereof that complies with this standard.
administrative authority: A jurisdictional body that adopts or enforces regulations and standards for the design, construction, or operation of buildings and facilities.
amusement attraction: Any facility, or portion of a facility, located within an amusement park or theme park which provides amusement without the use of an amusement device. Amusement attractions include, but are not limited to, fun houses, barrels, and other attractions without seats.
amusement ride: A system that moves persons through a fixed course within a defined area for the purpose of amusement.
amusement ride seat: A seat that is built-in or mechanically fastened to an amusement ride intended to be occupied by one or more passengers.
area of sport activity: That portion of a room or space where the play or practice of a sport occurs.
boarding pier: A portion of a pier where a boat is temporarily secured for the purpose of embarking or disembarking.
boat launch ramp: A sloped surface designed for launching and retrieving trailered boats and other water craft to and from a body of water.
boat slip: That portion of a pier, main pier, finger pier, or float where a boat is moored for the purpose of berthing, embarking, or disembarking.
catch pool: A pool or designated section of a pool used as a terminus for water slide flumes.
characters: Letters, numbers, punctuation marks, and typographic symbols.
children’s use: Spaces and elements specifically designed for use primarily by people 12 years old and younger.
circulation path: An exterior or interior way of passage from one place to another for pedestrians.
counter slope: Any slope opposing the running slope of a curb ramp.
cross slope: The slope that is perpendicular to the direction of travel (see running slope).
curb ramp: A short ramp cutting through a curb or built up to it.
destination-oriented elevator system: An elevator system that provides lobby controls for the selection of destination floors, lobby indicators designating which elevator to board, and a car indicator designating the floors at which the car will stop.
detectable warning: A standardized surface feature built in or applied to floor surfaces to warn of hazards on a circulation path.
dwelling unit: A single unit providing complete, independent living facilities for one or more persons including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation.
element: An architectural or mechanical component of a building, facility, space, or site.
elevated play component: A play component that is approached above or below grade and that is part of a composite play structure consisting of two or more play components attached or functionally linked to create an integrated unit providing more than one play activity.
elevator car call sequential step scanning: A technology used to enter a car call by means of an up or down floor selection button.
facility: All or any portion of a building, structure, site improvements, elements, and pedestrian routes or vehicular ways located on a site.
gangway: A variable-sloped pedestrian walkway that links a fixed structure or land with a floating structure. Gangways that connect to vessels are not addressed by this document.
golf car passage: A continuous passage on which a motorized golf car can operate.
ground level play component: A play component that is approached and exited at the ground level.
habitable: A space in a building for living, sleeping, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, halls, storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not considered habitable spaces.
key surface: The surface or plane of any key or button that must be touched to activate or deactivate an operable part or a machine function or enter data.
marked crossing: A crosswalk or other identified path intended for pedestrian use in crossing a vehicular way.
operable part: A component of an element used to insert or withdraw objects, or to activate, deactivate, or adjust the element.
pictogram: A pictorial symbol that represents activities, facilities, or concepts.
play area: A portion of a site containing play components designed and constructed for children.
play component: An element intended to generate specific opportunities for play, socialization, or learning. Play components are manufactured or natural; and are stand-alone or part of a composite play structure.
ramp: A walking surface that has a running slope steeper than 1:20.
running slope: The slope that is parallel to the direction of travel (see cross slope).
sign: An architectural element composed of displayed textual, symbolic, tactile, or pictorial information.
site: A parcel of land bounded by a property line or a designated portion of a public right-of-way.
sleeping unit: A room or space in which people sleep that can also include permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are not sleeping units.
soft contained play structure: A play structure made up of one or more play components where the user enters a fully enclosed play environment that utilizes pliable materials, such as plastic, netting, or fabric.
teeing ground: In golf, the starting place for the hole to be played.
transfer device: Equipment designed to facilitate the transfer of a person from a wheelchair or other mobility aide to and from an amusement ride seat.
TTY: An abbreviation for teletypewriter. Equipment that employs interactive, text-based communications through the transmission of coded signals across the standard telephone network. The term TTY also refers to devices known as text telephones and TDDs.
use zone: The ground level area beneath and immediately adjacent to a play structure or play equipment that is designated by ASTM F 1487 listed in Section 105.2.10, for unrestricted circulation around the play equipment and where it is predicted that a user would land when falling from or exiting the play equipment.
variable message signs (VMS): Electronic signs that have a message with the capacity to change by means of scrolling, streaming, or paging across a background.
variable message sign (VMS) characters: Characters of an electronic sign are composed of pixels in an array. High resolution VMS characters have vertical pixel counts of 16 rows or greater. Low resolution VMS characters have vertical pixel counts of 7 to 15 rows.
vehicular way: A route provided for vehicular traffic.
walk: An exterior pathway with a prepared surface for pedestrian use.
wheelchair space: A space for a single wheelchair and its occupant.
wheelchair space locations: A space for a minimum of a single wheelchair and the associated companion seating. Wheelchair space locations can contain multiple wheelchair spaces and associated companion seating.
2009 ICC A117.1 Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities