• CHAPTER51
    AEROSOLS

    SECTION5101
    GENERAL

    5101.1Scope.

    The provisions of this chapter, the International Building Code and NFPA 30B shall apply to the manufacturing, storage and display of aerosol products. Manufacturing of aerosol products using hazardous materials shall also comply with Chapter 50.

    5101.2Permit required.

    Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.

    5101.3Material Safety Data Sheets.

    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) information for aerosol products displayed shall be kept on the premises at an approved location.

    5101.4Containers.

    Metal aerosol containers shall be limited to a maximum size of 33.8 fluid ounces (1000 ml). Plastic aerosol containers shall be limited to a maximum 4 fluid ounces (118 ml) except as provided in Section 5104.1.1. Glass aerosol containers shall be limited to a maximum 4 fluid ounces (118 ml).

    SECTION5102
    DEFINITIONS

    5102.1Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    AEROSOL.

    Level 1 aerosol products.

    Level 2 aerosol products.

    Level 3 aerosol products.

    AEROSOL CONTAINER.

    AEROSOL WAREHOUSE.

    PROPELLANT.

    RETAIL DISPLAY AREA.

    SECTION5103
    CLASSIFICATION OF AEROSOL PRODUCTS

    5103.1Classification levels.

    Aerosol products shall be classified as Level 1, 2 or 3 in accordance with Table 5103.1 and NFPA 30B. Aerosol products in cartons that are not identified in accordance with this section shall be classified as Level 3.

    TABLE 5103.1

    CLASSIFICATION OF AEROSOL PRODUCTS

    CHEMICAL HEAT OF COMBUSTIONAEROSOL CLASSIFICATION
    Greater than (Btu/lb)Less than or equal to (Btu/lb)
    08,6001
    8,60013,0002
    13,0003

    For SI: 1 British thermal unit per pound = 0.002326 kJ/g.

    5103.2Identification.

    Cartons shall be identified on not less than one side with the classification level of the aerosol products contained within the carton as follows:

    LEVEL ________ AEROSOLS

    SECTION5104
    INSIDE STORAGE OF AEROSOL PRODUCTS

    5104.1General.

    The inside storage of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products shall comply with Sections 5104.2 through 5104.7 and NFPA 30B. Level 1 aerosol products and those aerosol products covered by Section 5104.1.1 shall be considered equivalent to a Class III commodity and shall comply with the requirements for palletized or rack storage in NFPA 13.

    5104.1.1Plastic containers.

    Aerosol products in plastic containers larger than 4 fluid ounces (118 ml), but not to exceed 33.8 fluid ounces (1000 ml), shall be allowed only where in accordance with this section. The commodity classification shall be Class III commodities, as defined in NFPA 13 where any of the following conditions are met:

    1. 1.Base product has no fire point where tested in accordance with ASTM D 92, and nonflammable propellant.

    2. 2.Base product has no sustained combustion as tested in accordance with Appendix H, “Method of Testing for Sustained Combustibility,” in DOTn 49 CFR Part 173, and nonflammable propellant.

    3. 3.Base product contains up to 20 percent by volume (15.8 percent by weight) of ethanol and/or isopropyl alcohol in an aqueous mix, and nonflammable propellant.

    4. 4.Base product contains 4 percent by weight or less of an emulsified flammable liquefied gas propellant within an aqueous base. The propellant shall remain emulsified for the life of the product. Where such propellant is not permanently emulsified, the propellant shall be nonflammable.

    5104.2Storage in Groups A, B, E, F, I and R.

    Storage of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products in occupancies in Groups A, B, E, F, I and R shall be limited to the following maximum quantities:

    1. 1.A net weight of 1,000 pounds (454 kg) of Level 2 aerosol products.

    2. 2.A net weight of 500 pounds (227 kg) of Level 3 aerosol products.

    3. 3.A combined net weight of 1,000 pounds (454 kg) of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products.

    The maximum quantity shall be increased 100 percent where the excess quantity is stored in storage cabinets in accordance with Section 5704.3.2.

    5104.2.1Excess storage.

    Storage of quantities exceeding the maximum quantities indicated in Section 5104.2 shall be stored in separate inside flammable liquid storage rooms in accordance with Section 5104.5.

    5104.3Storage in general purpose warehouses.

    Aerosol storage in general purpose warehouses utilized only for warehousing-type operations involving mixed commodities shall comply with Section 5104.3.1 or 5104.3.2.

    5104.3.1Nonsegregated storage.

    Storage consisting of solid pile, palletized or rack storage of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products not segregated into areas utilized exclusively for the storage of aerosols shall comply with Table 5104.3.1.

    TABLE 5104.3.1

    NONSEGREGATED STORAGE OF LEVEL 2 AND 3 AEROSOL PRODUCTS IN GENERAL PURPOSE WAREHOUSESb

    AEROSOL LEVELMAXIMUM NET WEIGHT PER FLOOR (pounds)b
    Palletized or solid-pile storageRack storage
    UnprotectedProtectedaUnprotectedProtecteda
    22,50012,0002,50024,000
    31,00012,0001,00024,000
    Combination 2 and 32,50012,0002,50024,000

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.

    1. a.Approved automatic sprinkler system protection and storage arrangements shall comply with NFPA 30B. Sprinkler system protection shall extend 20 feet beyond the storage area containing the aerosol products.

    2. b.Storage quantities indicated are the maximum permitted in any 50,000-square-foot area.

    5104.3.2Segregated storage.

    Storage of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products segregated into areas utilized exclusively for the storage of aerosols shall comply with Table 5104.3.2 and Sections 5104.3.2.1 and 5104.3.2.2.

    TABLE 5104.3.2

    SEGREGATED STORAGE OF LEVEL 2 AND 3 AEROSOL PRODUCTS IN GENERAL PURPOSE WAREHOUSES

    STORAGE SEPARATIONMAXIMUM SEGREGATED STORAGE AREAaSPRINKLER REQUIREMENTS
    Percentage of building area (percent)Area limitation (square feet)
    Separation areae, f1520,000Notes b, c
    Chain-link fence enclosured2020,000Notes b, c
    1-hour fire-resistance-rated interior walls2030,000Note b
    2-hour fire-resistance-rated interior walls2540,000Note b
    3-hour fire-resistance-rated interior walls3050,000Note b

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.

    1. a.The maximum segregated storage area shall be limited to the smaller of the two areas resulting from the percentage of building area limitation and the area limitation.

    2. b.Automatic sprinkler system protection in aerosol product storage areas shall comply with NFPA 30B and be approved. Building areas not containing aerosol product storage shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    3. c.Automatic sprinkler system protection in aerosol product storage areas shall comply with NFPA 30B and be approved. Sprinkler system protection shall extend a minimum 20 feet beyond the aerosol storage area.

    4. d.Chain-link fence enclosures shall comply with Section 5104.3.2.1.

    5. e.A separation area shall be defined as an area extending outward from the periphery of the segregated aerosol product storage area as follows.

      1. 1. The limits of the aerosol product storage shall be clearly marked on the floor.

      2. 2. The separation distance shall be not less than 25 feet and maintained clear of all materials with a commodity classification greater than Class III in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    6. f.Separation areas shall only be permitted where approved.

    5104.3.2.1Chain-link fence enclosures.

    Chain-link fence enclosures required by Table 5104.3.2 shall comply with the following:

    1. 1.The fence shall not be less than No. 9 gage steel wire, woven into a maximum 2-inch (51 mm) diamond mesh.

    2. 2.The fence shall be installed from the floor to the underside of the roof or ceiling above.

    3. 3.Class IV and high-hazard commodities shall be stored outside of the aerosol storage area and not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) from the fence.

    4. 4.Access openings in the fence shall be provided with either self- or automatic-closing devices or a labyrinth opening arrangement preventing aerosol containers from rocketing through the access openings.

    5. 5.Not less than two means of egress shall be provided from the fenced enclosure.

    5104.3.2.2Aisles.

    The minimum aisle requirements for segregated storage in general purpose warehouses shall comply with Table 5104.3.2.2.

    TABLE 5104.3.2.2

    SEGREGATED STORAGE AISLE WIDTHS AND DISTANCE TO AISLES IN GENERAL PURPOSE WAREHOUSES

    STORAGE CONDITIONMINIMUM AISLE WIDTH (feet)MAXIMUM DISTANCE FROM STORAGE TO AISLE (feet)
    Solid pile or palletizeda4 feet between piles25
    Racks with ESFR sprinklersa4 feet between racks and adjacent Level 2 and 3 aerosol product storage25
    Racks without ESFR sprinklersa8 feet between racks and adjacent Level 2 and 3 aerosol product storage25

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    1. a.Sprinklers shall comply with NFPA 30B.

    5104.4Storage in aerosol warehouses.

    The total quantity of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products in a warehouse utilized for the storage, shipping and receiving of aerosol products shall not be restricted in structures complying with Sections 5104.4.1 through 5104.4.4.

    5104.4.1Automatic sprinkler system.

    Aerosol warehouses shall be protected by an approved wet-pipe automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 30B. Sprinkler protection shall be designed based on the highest classification level of aerosol product present.

    5104.4.2Pile and palletized storage aisles.

    Solid pile and palletized storage shall be arranged so the maximum travel distance to an aisle is 25 feet (7620 mm). Aisles shall have a minimum width of 4 feet (1219 mm).

    5104.4.3Rack storage aisles.

    Rack storage shall be arranged with a minimum aisle width of 8 feet (2438 mm) between rows of racks and 8 feet (2438 mm) between racks and adjacent solid pile or palletized storage. Where early suppression fast-response (ESFR) sprinklers provide automatic sprinkler protection, the minimum aisle width shall be 4 feet (1219 mm).

    5104.4.4Combustible commodities.

    Combustible commodities other than flammable and combustible liquids shall be permitted to be stored in an aerosol warehouse.

    Exception: Flammable and combustible liquids in 1-quart (946 mL) metal containers and smaller shall be permitted to be stored in an aerosol warehouse.

    5104.5Storage in inside flammable liquid storage rooms.

    Inside flammable liquid storage rooms shall comply with Section 5704.3.7. The maximum quantities of aerosol products shall comply with Section 5104.5.1 or 5104.5.2.

    5104.5.1Storage rooms of 500 square feet or less.

    The storage of aerosol products in flammable liquid storage rooms less than or equal to 500 square feet (46 m2) in area shall not exceed the following quantities:

    1. 1.A net weight of 1,000 pounds (454 kg) of Level 2 aerosol products.

    2. 2.A net weight of 500 pounds (227 kg) of Level 3 aerosol products.

    3. 3.A combined net weight of 1,000 pounds (454 kg) of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products.

    5104.5.2Storage rooms greater than 500 square feet.

    The storage of aerosol products in flammable liquid storage rooms greater than 500 square feet (46 m2) in area shall not exceed the following quantities:

    1. 1.A net weight of 2,500 pounds (1135 kg) of Level 2 aerosol products.

    2. 2.A net weight of 1,000 pounds (454 kg) of Level 3 aerosol products.

    3. 3.A combined net weight of 2,500 pounds (1135 kg) of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products.

    The maximum aggregate storage quantity of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products permitted in separate inside storage rooms protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 30B shall be 5,000 pounds (2270 kg).

    5104.6Storage in liquid warehouses.

    The storage of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products in liquid warehouses shall comply with NFPA 30B. The storage shall be located within segregated storage areas in accordance with Section 5104.3.2 and Sections 5104.6.1 through 5104.6.3.

    5104.6.1Containment.

    Spill control or drainage shall be provided to prevent the flow of liquid to within 8 feet (2438 mm) of the segregated storage area.

    5104.6.2Sprinkler design.

    Sprinkler protection shall be designed based on the highest level of aerosol product present.

    5104.6.3Opening protection into segregated storage areas.

    Fire doors or gates opening into the segregated storage area shall either be self-closing or provided with automatic-closing devices activated by sprinkler water flow or an approved fire detection system.

    5104.7Storage in Group M occupancies.

    Storage of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products in occupancies in Group M shall comply with Table 5104.7. Retail display shall comply with Section 5106.

    TABLE 5104.7

    MAXIMUM QUANTITIES OF LEVEL 2 AND 3 AEROSOL PRODUCTS IN RETAIL STORAGE AREAS

    MAXIMUM NET WEIGHT PER FLOOR (pounds)
    FloorNonsegregated storagea, bSegregated storage
    Storage cabinetsbSeparated from retail areac
    BasementNot PermittedNot PermittedNot Permitted
    Ground floor2,5005,000Note d
    Upper floors5001,000Note d

    For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.

    1. a.The total aggregate quantity on display and in storage shall not exceed the maximum retail display quantity indicated in Section 5106.3.

    2. b.Storage quantities indicated are the maximum permitted in any 50,000-square-foot area.

    3. c.The storage area shall be separated from the retail area with a 1-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly.

    4. d.See Table 5104.3.2.

    SECTION5105
    OUTSIDE STORAGE

    5105.1General.

    The outside storage of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products, including storage in temporary storage trailers, shall be separated from exposures in accordance with Table 5105.1.

    TABLE 5105.1

    DISTANCE TO EXPOSURES FOR OUTSIDE STORAGE OF LEVEL 2 AND 3 AEROSOL PRODUCTS

    EXPOSUREMINIMUM DISTANCE FROM AEROSOL STORAGE (feet)a
    Public alleys, public ways, public streets20
    Buildings50
    Exit discharge to a public way50
    Lot lines20
    Other outside storage50

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    1. a.The minimum separation distance indicated is not required where exterior walls having a 2-hour fire-resistance rating without penetrations separate the storage from the exposure. The walls shall extend not less than 30 inches above and to the sides of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products.

    SECTION5106
    RETAIL DISPLAY

    5106.1General.

    This section shall apply to the retail display of 500 pounds (227 kg) or more of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products.

    5106.2Aerosol display and normal merchandising not exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) high.

    Aerosol display and normal merchandising not exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) in height shall be in accordance with Sections 5106.2.1 through 5106.2.4.

    5106.2.1Maximum quantities in retail display areas.

    Aerosol products in retail display areas shall not exceed quantities needed for display and normal merchandising and shall not exceed the quantities in Table 5106.2.1.

    TABLE 5106.2.1

    MAXIMUM QUANTITIES OF LEVEL 2 AND 3 AEROSOL PRODUCTS IN RETAIL DISPLAY AREAS

    MAXIMUM NET WEIGHT PER FLOOR (pounds)b
    FloorUnprotectedaProtected in accordance with Section 5106.2a, cProtected in accordance with Section 5106.3c
    BasementNot allowed500500
    Ground2,50010,00010,000
    Upper5002,000Not allowed

    For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.

    1. a.The total quantity shall not exceed 1,000 pounds net weight in any one 100-square-foot retail display area.

    2. b.Per 25,000-square-foot retail display area.

    3. c.Minimum Ordinary Hazard Group 2 wet-pipe automatic sprinkler system throughout the retail sales occupancy.

    5106.2.2Display of containers.

    Level 2 and 3 aerosol containers shall not be stacked more than 6 feet (1829 mm) high from the base of the aerosol array to the top of the aerosol array unless the containers are placed on fixed shelving or otherwise secured in an approved manner. Where storage or retail display is on shelves, the height of such storage or retail display to the top of aerosol containers shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm).

    5106.2.3Combustible cartons.

    Aerosol products located in retail display areas shall be removed from combustible cartons.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Display areas that use a portion of combustible cartons that consist of only the bottom panel and not more than 2 inches (51 mm) of the side panel are allowed.

    2. 2.When the display area is protected in accordance with Tables 6.3.2.7(a) through 6.3.2.7(l) of NFPA 30B, storage of aerosol products in combustible cartons is allowed.

    5106.2.4Retail display automatic sprinkler system.

    Where an automatic sprinkler system is required for the protected retail display of aerosol products, the wet-pipe automatic sprinkler system shall be in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. The minimum system design shall be for an Ordinary Hazard Group 2 occupancy. The system shall be provided throughout the retail display area.

    5106.3Aerosol display and normal merchandising exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) high.

    Aerosol display and merchandising exceeding 8 feet in height shall be in accordance with Sections 5106.3.1 through 5106.3.3.

    5106.3.1Maximum quantities in retail display areas.

    Aerosol products in retail display areas shall not exceed quantities needed for display and normal merchandising and shall not exceed the quantities in Table 5106.2.1, with fire protection in accordance with Section 5106.3.2.

    5106.3.2Automatic sprinkler protection.

    Aerosol display and merchandising areas shall be protected by an automatic sprinkler system based on the requirements set forth in Tables 6.3.2.7(a) through 6.3.2.7(l) of NFPA 30B and the following:

    1. 1.Protection shall be based on the highest level of aerosol product in the array and the packaging method of the storage located more than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the finished floor.

    2. 2.Where using the cartoned aerosol tables of NFPA 30B, uncartoned or display-cut Level 2 and 3 aerosols shall be permitted not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the finished floor.

    3. 3.The design area for Level 2 and 3 aerosols shall extend not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) beyond the Level 2 and 3 aerosol display and merchandising areas.

    4. 4.Where ordinary and high-temperature ceiling sprinkler systems are adjacent to each other, noncombustible draft curtains shall be installed at the interface.

    5106.3.3Separation of Level 2 and 3 aerosol areas.

    Separation of Level 2 and 3 aerosol areas shall comply with the following:

    1. 1.Level 2 and 3 aerosol display and merchandising areas shall be separated from each other by not less than 25 feet (7620 mm). See Table 5106.2.1.

    2. 2.Level 2 and 3 aerosol display and merchandising areas shall be separated from flammable and combustible liquids storage and display areas by one or a combination of the following:

      1. 2.1.Segregating areas from each other by horizontal distance of not less than 25 feet (7620 mm).

      2. 2.2.Isolating areas from each other by a noncombustible partition extending not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the merchandise.

      3. 2.3.In accordance with Section 5106.5.

    3. 3.Where Item 2.2 is used to separate Level 2 or 3 aerosols from flammable or combustible liquids, and the aerosol products are located within 25 feet (7620 mm) of flammable or combustible liquids, the area below the noncombustible partition shall be liquid tight at the floor to prevent spilled liquids from flowing beneath the aerosol products.

    5106.4Maximum quantities in storage areas.

    Aerosol products in storage areas adjacent to retail display areas shall not exceed the quantities in Table 5106.4.

    TABLE 5106.4

    MAXIMUM STORAGE QUANTITIES FOR STORAGE AREAS ADJACENT TO RETAIL DISPLAY OF LEVEL 2 AND 3 AEROSOLS

    MAXIMUM NET WEIGHT PER FLOOR (pounds)
    FloorUnseparateda,bSeparated
    Storage Cabinetsb1-hour Occupancy Separation
    BasementNot AllowedNot AllowedNot Allowed
    Ground2,5005,000In accordance with Sections 6.3.4.3 and 6.3.4.4 of NFPA 30B
    Upper5001,000In accordance with Sections 6.3.4.3 and 6.3.4.4 of NFPA 30B

    For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.

    1. a.The aggregate quantity in storage and retail display shall not exceed the quantity limits for retail display.

    2. b.In any 50,000-square-foot area.

    5106.5Special protection design for Level 2 and 3 aerosols adjacent to flammable and combustible liquids in double-row racks.

    The display and merchandising of Level 2 and 3 aerosols adjacent to flammable and combustible liquids in double-row racks shall be in accordance with Sections 5106.5.1 through 5106.5.8 or Section 5106.3.3.

    5106.5.1Fire protection.

    Fire protection for the display and merchandising of Level 2 and 3 aerosols in double-row racks shall be in accordance with Table 7.4.1 and Figure 7.4.1 of NFPA 30B.

    5106.5.2Cartoned products.

    Level 2 and 3 aerosols displayed or merchandised more than 8 feet (2438 mm) above the finished floor shall be in cartons.

    5106.5.3Shelving.

    Shelving in racks shall be limited to wire mesh shelving having uniform openings not more than 6 inches (152 mm) apart, with the openings comprising not less than 50 percent of the overall shelf area.

    5106.5.4Aisles.

    Racks shall be arranged so that aisles not less than 71/2 feet (2286 mm) wide are maintained between rows of racks and adjacent solid-piled or palletized merchandise.

    5106.5.5Flue spaces.

    Flue spaces in racks shall comply with the following:

    1. 1.Transverse flue spaces—Nominal 3-inch (76 mm) transverse flue spaces shall be maintained between merchandise and rack uprights.

    2. 2.Longitudinal flue spaces—Nominal 6-inch (152 mm) longitudinal flue spaces shall be maintained.

    5106.5.6Horizontal barriers.

    Horizontal barriers constructed of minimum 3/8-inch-thick (10 mm) plywood or minimum 0.034-inch (0.086 mm) (No. 22 gage) sheet metal shall be provided and located in accordance with Table 7.4.1 and Figure 7.4.1 of NFPA 30B where in-rack sprinklers are installed.

    5106.5.7Class I, II, III, IV and plastic commodities.

    Class I, II, III, IV and plastic commodities located adjacent to Level 2 and 3 aerosols shall be protected in accordance with NFPA 13.

    5106.5.8Flammable and combustible liquids.

    Class I, II, III A and III B Liquids shall be allowed to be located adjacent to Level 2 and 3 aerosol products where both of the following conditions are met:

    1. 1.Class I, II, IIIA and IIIB liquid containers: Containers for Class I, II, IIIA and IIIB liquids shall be limited to 1.06-gallon (4 L) metal-relieving and nonrelieving style containers and 5.3-gallon (20 L) metal-relieving style containers.

    2. 2.Fire protection for Class I, II, IIIA and IIIB Liquids: Automatic sprinkler protection for Class I, II, IIIA and IIIB liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 57.

    SECTION5107
    MANUFACTURING FACILITIES

    5107.1General.

    Manufacturing facilities shall be in accordance with NFPA 30B.