• CHAPTER12
    ENERGY SYSTEMS

    User note:

    About this chapter: Chapter 12 was added to address the current energy systems found in this code, and is provided for the introduction of a wide range of systems to generate and store energy in, on and adjacent to buildings and facilities. The expansion of such energy systems is related to meeting today's energy, environmental and economic challenges. Ensuring appropriate criteria to address the safety of such systems in building and fire codes is an important part of protecting the public at large, building occupants and emergency responders. More specifically, this chapter addresses standby and emergency power, photovoltaic systems, fuel cell energy systems, battery storage systems and capacitor energy storage.

    SECTION1201
    GENERAL

    1201.1Scope.

    The provisions of this chapter shall apply to the installation, operation and maintenance of energy systems used for generating or storing energy. It shall not apply to equipment associated with the generation, control, transformation, transmission, or distribution of energy installations that is under the exclusive control of an electric utility or lawfully designated agency.

    1201.2Electrical wiring and equipment.

    Electrical wiring and equipment used in connection with energy systems shall be installed and maintained in accordance with Chapter 12 and NFPA 70.

    1201.3Mixed system installation.

    Where approved, the aggregate kWh energy in a fire area shall not exceed the maximum quantity specified for any of the energy systems in this chapter. Where required by the fire code official, a hazard mitigation analysis shall be provided and approved in accordance with Section 104.7.2 to evaluate any potential adverse interaction between the various energy systems and technologies.

    SECTION1202
    DEFINITIONS

    1202.1Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY STORAGE.

    BATTERY TYPES.

    1. Lead-acid battery.

    CAPACITOR ARRAY.

    CAPACITOR ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM.

    CRITICAL CIRCUIT.

    EMERGENCY POWER SYSTEM.

    ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS.

    FUEL CELL POWER SYSTEM, STATIONARY.

    STANDBY POWER SYSTEM.

    STATIONARY BATTERY ARRAY.

    SECTION1203
    EMERGENCY AND STANDBY POWER SYSTEMS

    1203.1General.

    Emergency power systems and standby power systems required by this code or the International Building Code shall comply with Sections 1203.1.1 through 1203.1.9.

    1203.1.1Stationary generators.

    Stationary emergency and standby power generators required by this code shall be listed in accordance with UL 2200.

    1203.1.2Fuel line piping protection.

    Fuel lines supplying a generator set inside a high-rise building shall be separated from areas of the building other than the room the generator is located in by an approved method, or an assembly that has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. Where the building is protected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the required fire-resistance rating shall be reduced to 1 hour.

    1203.1.3Installation.

    Emergency power systems and standby power systems shall be installed in accordance with the International Building Code, NFPA 70, NFPA 110 and NFPA 111.

    1203.1.4Load transfer.

    Emergency power systems shall automatically provide secondary power within 10 seconds after primary power is lost, unless specified otherwise in this code. Standby power systems shall automatically provide secondary power within 60 seconds after primary power is lost, unless specified otherwise in this code.

    1203.1.5Load duration.

    Emergency power systems and standby power systems shall be designed to provide the required power for a minimum duration of 2 hours without being refueled or recharged, unless specified otherwise in this code.

    1203.1.6Uninterruptable power source.

    An uninterrupted source of power shall be provided for equipment where required by the manufacturer’s instructions, the listing, this code or applicable referenced standards.

    1203.1.7Interchangeability.

    Emergency power systems shall be an acceptable alternative for installations that require standby power systems.

    1203.1.8Group I-2 occupancies.

    In Group I-2 occupancies, where an essential electrical system is located in flood hazard areas established in Section 1612.3 of the International Building Code and where new or replacement essential electrical system generators are installed, the system shall be located and installed in accordance with ASCE 24.

    1203.1.9Maintenance.

    Existing installations shall be maintained in accordance with the original approval and Section 1203.4.

    1203.2Where required.

    Emergency and standby power systems shall be provided where required by Sections 1203.2.1 through 1203.2.18.

    1203.2.1Ambulatory care facilities.

    Essential electrical systems for ambulatory care facilities shall be in accordance with Section 422.6 of the International Building Code.

    1203.2.2Elevators and platform lifts.

    Standby power shall be provided for elevators and platform lifts as required in Sections 606.2, 1009.4.1, and 1009.5.

    1203.2.3Emergency responder radio coverage systems.

    Standby power shall be provided for emergency responder radio coverage systems as required in Section 510.4.2.3. The standby power supply shall be capable of operating the emergency responder radio coverage system for a duration of not less than 24 hours.

    1203.2.4Emergency voice/alarm communication systems.

    Emergency power shall be provided for emergency voice/alarm communication systems as required in Section 907.5.2.2.5. The system shall be capable of powering the required load for a duration of not less than 24 hours, as required in NFPA 72.

    1203.2.5Exit signs.

    Emergency power shall be provided for exit signs as required in Section 1013.6.3. The system shall be capable of powering the required load for a duration of not less than 90 minutes.

    1203.2.6Gas detection systems.

    Emergency power shall be provided for gas detection systems where required by Sections 1203.2.9 and 1203.2.16. Standby power shall be provided for gas detection systems where required by Section 916.5.

    1203.2.7Group I-2 occupancies.

    Essential electrical systems for Group I-2 occupancies shall be in accordance with Section 407.11 of the International Building Code.

    1203.2.8Group I-3 occupancies.

    Power-operated sliding doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors in Group I-3 occupancies shall be operable by a manual release mechanism at the door. Emergency power shall be provided for the doors and locks.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Emergency power is not required in facilities where provisions for remote locking and unlocking of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not required as set forth in the International Building Code.

    2. 2.Emergency power is not required where remote mechanical operating releases are provided.

    1203.2.9Hazardous materials.

    Emergency and standby power shall be provided in occupancies with hazardous materials as required in the following sections:

    1. 1.Sections 5004.7 and 5005.1.5 for hazardous materials.

    2. 2.Sections 6004.2.2.8 and 6004.3.4.2 for highly toxic and toxic gases.

    3. 3.Section 6204.1.11 for organic peroxides.

    1203.2.10High-rise buildings.

    Standby power and emergency power shall be provided for high-rise buildings as required in Section 403 of the International Building Code, and shall be in accordance with Section 1203.

    1203.2.11Special purpose horizontal sliding doors.

    Standby power shall be provided for horizontal sliding doors as required in Section 1010.1.4.3. The standby power supply shall have a capacity to operate not fewer than 50 closing cycles of the door.

    1203.2.12Hydrogen fuel gas rooms.

    Standby power shall be provided for hydrogen fuel gas rooms as required by Section 5808.7.

    1203.2.13Laboratory suites.

    Standby or emergency power shall be provided in accordance with Section 5004.7 where laboratory suites are located above the sixth story above grade plane or located in a story below grade plane.

    1203.2.14Means of egress illumination.

    Emergency power shall be provided for means of egress illumination in accordance with Sections 1008.3 and 1104.5.1.

    1203.2.15Membrane structures.

    Standby power shall be provided for auxiliary inflation systems in permanent membrane structures in accordance with Section 2702 of the International Building Code. Auxiliary inflation systems shall be provided in temporary air-supported and air-inflated membrane structures in accordance with Section 3103.10.4.

    1203.2.16Semiconductor fabrication facilities.

    Emergency power shall be provided for semiconductor fabrication facilities as required in Section 2703.15.

    1203.2.17Smoke control systems.

    Standby power shall be provided for smoke control systems as required in Section 909.11.

    1203.2.18Underground buildings.

    Emergency and standby power shall be provided in underground buildings as required in Section 405 of the International Building Code and shall be in accordance with Section 1203.

    1203.3Critical circuits.

    Required critical circuits shall be protected using one of the following methods:

    1. 1.Cables used for survivability of required critical circuits shall be listed in accordance with UL 2196 and shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour.

    2. 2.Electrical circuit protective systems shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Electrical circuit protective systems shall be installed in accordance with their listing requirements.

    3. 3.Construction having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour.

    1203.4Maintenance.

    Emergency and standby power systems shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 110 and NFPA 111 such that the system is capable of supplying service within the time specified for the type and duration required.

    1203.4.1Group I-2.

    In Group I-2 occupancies, emergency and standby power systems shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 99.

    1203.4.2Schedule.

    Inspection, testing and maintenance of emergency and standby power systems shall be in accordance with an approved schedule established upon completion and approval of the system installation.

    1203.4.3Records.

    Records of the inspection, testing and maintenance of emergency and standby power systems shall include the date of service, name of the servicing technician, a summary of conditions noted and a detailed description of any conditions requiring correction and what corrective action was taken. Such records shall be maintained.

    1203.4.4Switch maintenance.

    Emergency and standby power system transfer switches shall be included in the inspection, testing and maintenance schedule required by Section 1203.4.2. Transfer switches shall be maintained free from accumulated dust and dirt. Inspection shall include examination of the transfer switch contacts for evidence of deterioration. When evidence of contact deterioration is detected, the contacts shall be replaced in accordance with the transfer switch manufacturer’s instructions.

    1203.5Operational inspection and testing.

    Emergency power systems, including all appurtenant components, shall be inspected and tested under load in accordance with NFPA 110 and NFPA 111.

    Exception: Where the emergency power system is used for standby power or peak load shaving, such use shall be recorded and shall be allowed to be substituted for scheduled testing of the generator set, provided that appropriate records are maintained.

    1203.5.1Group I-2.

    In Group I-2 occupancies, emergency and standby power systems shall be inspected and tested under load in accordance with NFPA 99.

    1203.5.2Transfer switch test.

    The test of the transfer switch shall consist of electrically operating the transfer switch from the normal position to the alternate position and then return to the normal position.

    1203.6Supervision of maintenance and testing.

    Routine maintenance, inspection and operational testing shall be overseen by a properly instructed individual.

    SECTION1204
    SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS

    1204.1General.

    Solar photovoltaic systems shall be installed in accordance with Sections 1204.2 through 1204.5, and the International Building Code or International Residential Code. The electrical portion of solar PV systems shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 70.

    1204.2Access and pathways.

    Roof access, pathways, and spacing requirements shall be provided in accordance with Sections 1204.2.1 through 1204.3.3. Pathways shall be over areas capable of supporting fire fighters accessing the roof. Pathways shall be located in areas with minimal obstructions, such as vent pipes, conduit or mechanical equipment.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Detached, nonhabitable Group U structures including, but not limited to, detached garages serving Group R-3 buildings, parking shade structures, carports, solar trellises and similar structures.

    2. 2.Roof access, pathways and spacing requirements need not be provided where the fire code official has determined that rooftop operations will not be employed.

    1204.2.1Solar photovoltaic systems for Group R-3 buildings.

    Solar photovoltaic systems for Group R-3 buildings shall comply with Sections 1204.2.1.1 through 1204.2.1.3.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.These requirements shall not apply to structures designed and constructed in accordance with the International Residential Code.

    2. 2.These requirements shall not apply to roofs with slopes of 2 units vertical in 12 units horizontal or less.

    1204.2.1.1Pathways to ridge.

    Not fewer than two 36-inch-wide (914 mm) pathways on separate roof planes, from lowest roof edge to ridge, shall be provided on all buildings. Not fewer than one pathway shall be provided on the street or driveway side of the roof. For each roof plane with a photovoltaic array, not fewer than one 36-inch-wide (914 mm) pathway from lowest roof edge to ridge shall be provided on the same roof plane as the photovoltaic array, on an adjacent roof plane or straddling the same and adjacent roof planes.

    1204.2.1.2Setbacks at ridge.

    For photovoltaic arrays occupying 33 percent or less of the plan view total roof area, a setback of not less than 18 inches (457 mm) wide is required on both sides of a horizontal ridge. For photovoltaic arrays occupying more than 33 percent of the plan view total roof area, a setback of not less than 36 inches (457 mm) wide is required on both sides of a horizontal ridge.

    1204.2.1.3Alternative setbacks at ridge.

    Where an automatic sprinkler system is installed within the dwelling in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3, setbacks at the ridge shall conform to one of the following:

    1. 1.For photovoltaic arrays occupying 66 percent or less of the plan view total roof area, a setback of not less than 18 inches (457 mm) wide is required on both sides of a horizontal ridge.

    2. 2.For photovoltaic arrays occupying more than 66 percent of the plan view total roof area, a setback of not less than 36 inches (914 mm) wide is required on both sides of a horizontal ridge.

    1204.2.2Emergency escape and rescue openings.

    Panels and modules installed on Group R-3 buildings shall not be placed on the portion of a roof that is below an emergency escape and rescue opening. A pathway of not less than 36 inches (914 mm) wide shall be provided to the emergency escape and rescue opening.

    1204.3Other than Group R-3 buildings.

    Access to systems for buildings, other than those containing Group R-3 occupancies, shall be provided in accordance with Sections 1204.3.1 through 1204.3.3.

    Exception: Where it is determined by the fire code official that the roof configuration is similar to that of a Group R-3 occupancy, the residential access and ventilation requirements in Sections 1204.2.1.1 through 1204.2.1.3 are a suitable alternative.

    1204.3.1Perimeter pathways.

    There shall be a minimum 6-foot-wide (1829 mm) clear perimeter around the edges of the roof.

    Exception: Where either axis of the building is 250 feet (76 200 mm) or less, the clear perimeter around the edges of the roof shall be permitted to be reduced to a minimum width of 4 feet (1219 mm).

    1204.3.2Interior pathways.

    Interior pathways shall be provided between array sections to meet the following requirements:

    1. 1.Pathways shall be provided at intervals not greater than 150 feet (45 720 mm) throughout the length and width of the roof.

    2. 2.A pathway not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) wide in a straight line to roof standpipes or ventilation hatches.

    3. 3.A pathway not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) wide around roof access hatches, with not fewer than one such pathway to a parapet or roof edge.

    1204.3.3Smoke ventilation.

    The solar installation shall be designed to meet the following requirements:

    1. 1.Where nongravity-operated smoke and heat vents occur, a pathway not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) wide shall be provided bordering all sides.

    2. 2.Smoke ventilation options between array sections shall be one of the following:

      1. 2.1.A pathway not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) wide.

      2. 2.2.Where gravity-operated dropout smoke and heat vents occur, a pathway not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) wide on not fewer than one side.

      3. 2.3.A pathway not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) wide bordering 4-foot by 8-foot (1219 mm by 2438 mm) venting cutouts every 20 feet (6096 mm) on alternating sides of the pathway.

    1204.4Ground-mounted photovoltaic panel systems.

    Ground-mounted photovoltaic panel systems shall comply with Section 1204.1 and this section. Setback requirements shall not apply to ground-mounted, free-standing photovoltaic arrays. A clear, brush-free area of 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be required for ground-mounted photovoltaic arrays.

    1204.5Buildings with rapid shutdown.

    Buildings with rapid shutdown solar photovoltaic systems shall have permanent labels in accordance with Sections 1204.5.1 through 1204.5.3.

    1204.5.1Rapid shutdown type.

    The type of solar photovoltaic system rapid shutdown shall be labeled with one of the following:

    1. 1.For solar photovoltaic systems that shut down the array and the conductors leaving the array, a label shall be provided. The first two lines of the label shall be uppercase characters with a minimum height of 38 inch (10 mm) in black on a yellow background. The remaining characters shall be uppercase with a minimum height of 3/16 inch (5 mm) in black on a white background. The label shall be in accordance with Figure 1204.5.1(1) and state the following:

      SOLAR PV SYSTEM EQUIPPED WITH
      RAPID SHUTDOWN. TURN RAPID
      SHUTDOWN SWITCH TO THE “OFF”
      POSITION TO SHUT DOWN PV SYSTEM
      AND REDUCE SHOCK HAZARD IN
      ARRAY.

    2. 2.For photovoltaic systems that only shut down conductors leaving the array, a label shall be provided. The first two lines of the label shall be uppercase characters with a minimum height of 3/8 inch (10 mm) in white on a red background and the remaining characters shall be capitalized with a minimum height of 3/16 inch (5 mm) in black on a white background. The label shall be in accordance with Figure 1204.5.1(2) and state the following:

    THIS SOLAR PV SYSTEM EQUIPPED
    WITH RAPID SHUTDOWN. TURN RAPID
    SHUTDOWN SWITCH TO THE “OFF”
    POSITION TO SHUT DOWN CONDUCTORS
    OUTSIDE THE ARRAY. CONDUCTORS
    WITHIN ARRAY REMAIN
    ENERGIZED IN SUNLIGHT.

    FIGURE 1204.5.1(1)

    LABEL FOR SOLAR PV SYSTEMS THAT REDUCE SHOCK HAZARD WITHIN ARRAY AND SHUT DOWN CONDUCTORS LEAVING ARRAY

    FIGURE 1204.5.1(2)

    LABEL FOR SOLAR PV SYSTEMS THAT ONLY SHUT DOWN CONDUCTORS LEAVING THE ARRAY

    1204.5.1.1Diagram.

    The labels in Section 1204.5.1 shall include a simple diagram of a building with a roof. Diagram sections in red signify sections of the solar photovoltaic system that are not shut down when the rapid shutdown switch is turned off.

    1204.5.1.2Location.

    The rapid shutdown label in Section 1204.5.1 shall be located not greater than 3 feet (914 mm) from the service disconnecting means to which the photovoltaic systems are connected, and shall indicate the location of all identified rapid shutdown switches if not at the same location.

    1204.5.2Buildings with more than one rapid shutdown type.

    Solar photovoltaic systems that contain rapid shutdown in accordance with both Items 1 and 2 of Section 1204.5.1 or solar photovoltaic systems where only portions of the systems on the building contain rapid shutdown, shall provide a detailed plan view diagram of the roof showing each different photovoltaic system and a dotted line around areas that remain energized after the rapid shutdown switch is operated.

    1204.5.3Rapid shutdown switch.

    A rapid shutdown switch shall have a label located not greater than 3 feet (914 mm) from the switch that states the following:

    RAPID SHUTDOWN SWITCH
    FOR SOLAR PV SYSTEM

    SECTION1205
    STATIONARY FUEL CELL POWER SYSTEMS

    1205.1General.

    Stationary fuel cell power systems in new and existing occupancies shall comply with this section.

    1205.2Permits.

    Permits shall be obtained for stationary fuel cell power systems as set forth in Section 105.7.10.

    1205.3Equipment.

    Stationary fuel cell power systems shall comply with the following:

    1. 1.Prepackaged fuel cell power systems shall be listed and labeled in accordance with CSA FC 1.

    2. 2.The modules and components in a preengineered fuel cell power system shall be listed and labeled in accordance with CSA FC 1 and interconnected to complete the assembly of the system at the job site in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and the module and component listings.

    3. 3.Field-fabricated fuel cell power systems shall be approved based on a review of the technical report provided in accordance with Section 104.7.2. The report shall be prepared by and bear the stamp of a registered design professional and shall include:

      1. 3.1.A fire risk evaluation.

      2. 3.2.An evaluation demonstrating that modules and components in the fuel cell power system comply with applicable requirements in CSA FC 1.

      3. 3.3.Documentation of the fuel cell power system’s compliance with applicable NFPA 2 and NFPA 853 construction requirements.

    1205.4Installation.

    Stationary fuel cell power systems shall be installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 70 and NFPA 853, the manufacturer’s installation instructions, and the listing. Stationary fuel cell power systems fueled by hydrogen shall be installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 2 and NFPA 70, the manufacturer’s installation instructions and the listing.

    1205.5Residential use.

    Stationary fuel cell power systems shall not be installed in Group R-3 and R-4 buildings, or dwelling units associated with Group R-2 buildings unless they are specifically listed for residential use.

    1205.6Indoor installations.

    Stationary fuel cell power systems installed in indoor locations shall comply with Sections 1205.6 through 1205.6.2. For purposes of this section, an indoor location includes a roof and 50 percent or greater enclosing walls.

    1205.6.1Listed.

    Stationary fuel cell power systems installed indoors shall be specifically listed and labeled for indoor use.

    1205.6.2Separation.

    Rooms containing stationary fuel cell power systems shall be separated from the following occupancies by fire barriers or horizontal assemblies, or both, constructed in accordance with the International Building Code.

    1. 1.Group B, F, M, S and U occupancies by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction.

    2. 2.Group A, E, I and R occupancies by 2-hour fire-resistance-rated construction.

    Exception: Stationary fuel cell power systems with an aggregate rating less than 50 kW shall not be required to be separated from other occupancies provided that the systems comply with Section 9.3 of NFPA 853.

    1205.7Vehicle impact protection.

    Where stationary fuel cell power systems are subject to impact by a motor vehicle, vehicle impact protection shall be provided in accordance with Section 312.

    1205.8Outdoor installation.

    Stationary fuel cell power systems located outdoors shall be separated by not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the following:

    1. 1.Lot lines.

    2. 2.Public ways.

    3. 3.Buildings.

    4. 4.Stored combustible materials.

    5. 5.Hazardous materials.

    6. 6.High-piled stock.

    7. 7.Any portion of a designated means of egress system.

    8. 8.Other exposure hazards.

    1205.9Fuel supply.

    The design, location and installation of the fuel supply for stationary fuel cell power systems shall comply with Chapter 53, Chapter 58 and the International Fuel Gas Code, based on the particular fuel being supplied to the system.

    1205.10Manual shutoff.

    Access to a manual shutoff valve shall be provided for the fuel piping within 6 feet (1829 mm) of any fuel storage tank serving the fuel cell and within 6 feet (1829 mm) of the power system. If the fuel tank and the stationary fuel cell power system are less than 12 feet (3658 mm) apart, a single shutoff valve shall be permitted. If the stationary fuel cell power system is located indoors, the shutoff valve shall be located outside of the room in which the system is installed, unless otherwise approved by the fire code official.

    1205.11Ventilation and exhaust.

    Ventilation and exhaust for stationary fuel cell power systems shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 853.

    1205.12Fire suppression.

    Fire suppression for stationary fuel cell power system installations shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 853.

    1205.13Gas detection systems.

    Stationary fuel cell power systems shall be provided with a gas detection system. Detection shall be provided in approved locations in the fuel cell power system enclosure, the exhaust system or the room that encloses the fuel cell power system. The system shall be designed to activate at a flammable gas concentration of not more than 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL).

    1205.13.1System activation.

    The activation of the gas detection system shall automatically:

    1. 1.Close valves between the gas supply and the fuel cell power system.

    2. 2.Shut down the fuel cell power system.

    3. 3.Initiate local audible and visible alarms in approved locations.

    SECTION1206
    ELECTRICAL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS

    1206.1Scope.

    The provisions in this section are applicable to energy storage systems designed to provide electrical power to a building or facility. These systems are used to provide standby or emergency power, an uninterruptable power supply, load shedding, load sharing or similar capabilities.

    1206.2Stationary storage battery systems.

    Stationary storage battery systems having capacities exceeding the values shown in Table 1206.2 shall comply with Section 1206.2.1 through 1206.2.12.6, as applicable.

    TABLE 1206.2

    BATTERY STORAGE SYSTEM THRESHOLD QUANTITIES.

    BATTERY TECHNOLOGYCAPACITYa
    Flow batteriesb20 kWh
    Lead acid, all types70 kWh
    Lithium, all types20 kWh
    Nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd)70 kWh
    Sodium, all types20 kWhc
    Other battery technologies10 kWh

    For SI: 1 kilowatt hour = 3.6 megajoules.

    1. a.For batteries rated in amp-hours, kWh shall equal rated voltage times amp-hour rating divided by 1000.

    2. b.Shall include vanadium, zinc-bromine, polysulfide-bromide, and other flowing electrolyte-type technologies.

    3. c.70 kWh for sodium-ion technologies.

    1206.2.1Permits.

    Permits shall be obtained for the installation and operation of stationary storage battery systems in accordance with Section 105.7.2.

    1206.2.2Construction documents.

    The following information shall be provided with the permit application:

    1. 1.Location and layout diagram of the room in which the stationary storage battery system is to be installed.

    2. 2.Details on hourly fire-resistance-rated assemblies provided.

    3. 3.Quantities and types of storage batteries and battery systems.

    4. 4.Manufacturer’s specifications, ratings and listings of storage batteries and battery systems.

    5. 5.Details on energy management systems.

    6. 6.Location and content of signage.

    7. 7.Details on fire-extinguishing, smoke detection and ventilation systems.

    8. 8.Rack storage arrangement, including seismic support criteria.

    1206.2.3Hazard mitigation analysis.

    A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) or other approved hazard mitigation analysis shall be provided in accordance with Section 104.7.2 under any of the following conditions:

    1. 1.Battery technologies not specifically identified in Table 1206.2 are provided.

    2. 2.More than one stationary storage battery technology is provided in a room or indoor area where there is a potential for adverse interaction between technologies.

    3. 3.Where allowed as a basis for increasing maximum allowable quantities in accordance with Section 1206.2.9.

    1206.2.3.1Fault condition.

    The hazard mitigation analysis shall evaluate the consequences of the following failure modes, and others deemed necessary by the fire code official. Only single-failure modes shall be considered.

    1. 1.Thermal runaway condition in a single-battery storage rack, module or array.

    2. 2.Failure of any energy management system.

    3. 3.Failure of any required ventilation system.

    4. 4.Voltage surges on the primary electric supply.

    5. 5.Short circuits on the load side of the stationary battery storage system.

    6. 6.Failure of the smoke detection, fire-extinguishing or gas detection system.

    7. 7.Spill neutralization not being provided or failure of the secondary containment system.

    1206.2.3.2Analysis approval.

    The fire code official is authorized to approve the hazardous mitigation analysis provided that the hazard mitigation analysis demonstrates all of the following:

    1. 1.Fires or explosions will be contained within unoccupied battery storage rooms for the minimum duration of the fire-resistance-rated walls identified in Table 509.1 of the International Building Code.

    2. 2.Fires and explosions in battery cabinets in occupied work centers will be detected in time to allow occupants within the room to evacuate safely.

    3. 3.Toxic and highly toxic gases released during fires and other fault conditions shall not reach concentrations in excess of Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) levels in the building or adjacent means of egress routes during the time deemed necessary to evacuate from that area.

    4. 4.Flammable gases released from batteries during charging, discharging and normal operation shall not exceed 25 percent of their lower flammability limit (LFL).

    5. 5.Flammable gases released from batteries during fire, overcharging and other abnormal conditions shall not create an explosion hazard that will injure occupants or emergency responders.

    1206.2.3.3Additional protection measures.

    Construction, equipment and systems that are required for the stationary storage battery system to comply with the hazardous mitigation analysis, including but not limited to those specifically described in Section 1206.2, shall be installed, maintained and tested in accordance with nationally recognized standards and specified design parameters.

    1206.2.4Seismic and structural design.

    Stationary storage battery systems shall comply with the seismic design requirements in Chapter 16 of the International Building Code, and shall not exceed the floor-loading limitation of the building.

    1206.2.5Vehicle impact protection.

    Where stationary storage battery systems are subject to impact by a motor vehicle, including fork lifts, vehicle impact protection shall be provided in accordance with Section 312.

    1206.2.6Combustible storage.

    Combustible materials not related to the stationary storage battery system shall not be stored in battery rooms, cabinets or enclosures. Combustible materials in occupied work centers covered by Section 1206.2.8.5 shall not be stored less than 3 feet (915 mm) from battery cabinets.

    1206.2.7Testing, maintenance and repair.

    Storage batteries and associated equipment and systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Any storage batteries or system components used to replace existing units shall be compatible with the battery charger, energy management systems, other storage batteries and other safety systems. Introducing other types of storage batteries into the stationary storage battery system or other types of electrolytes into flow battery systems shall be treated as a new installation and require approval by the fire code official before the replacements are introduced into service.

    1206.2.8Location and construction.

    Rooms and areas containing stationary storage battery systems shall be designed, located and constructed in accordance with Sections 1206.2.8.1 through 1206.2.8.7.4.

    1206.2.8.1Location.

    Stationary storage battery systems shall not be located in areas where the floor is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, or where the floor level is more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Lead acid and nickel cadmium stationary storage battery systems.

    2. 2.Installations on noncombustible rooftops of buildings exceeding 75 feet (22 860 mm) in height that do not obstruct fire department rooftop operations, where approved by the fire code official.

    1206.2.8.2Separation.

    Rooms containing stationary storage battery systems shall be separated from other areas of the building in accordance with Section 509.1 of the International Building Code. Battery systems shall be allowed to be in the same room with the equipment they support.

    1206.2.8.3Stationary battery arrays.

    Storage batteries, prepackaged stationary storage battery systems and preengineered stationary storage battery systems shall be segregated into stationary battery arrays not exceeding 50 kWh (180 megajoules) each. Each stationary battery array shall be spaced not less than 3 feet (914 mm) from other stationary battery arrays and from walls in the storage room or area. The storage arrangements shall comply with Chapter 10.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Lead acid and nickel cadmium storage battery arrays.

    2. 2.Listed preengineered stationary storage battery systems and prepackaged stationary storage battery systems shall not exceed 250 kWh (900 megajoules) each.

    3. 3.The fire code official is authorized to approve listed, preengineered and prepackaged battery arrays with larger capacities or smaller battery array spacing if large-scale fire and fault condition testing conducted or witnessed and reported by an approved testing laboratory is provided showing that a fire involving one array will not propagate to an adjacent array, and be contained within the room for a duration equal to the fire-resistance rating of the room separation specified in Table 509 of the International Building Code.

    1206.2.8.4Separate rooms.

    Where stationary batteries are installed in a separate equipment room that can be accessed only by authorized personnel, they shall be permitted to be installed on an open rack for ease of maintenance.

    1206.2.8.5Occupied work centers.

    Where stationary storage batteries are located in an occupied work center, they shall be housed in a noncombustible cabinet or other enclosure to prevent access by unauthorized personnel.

    1206.2.8.5.1Cabinets.

    Where stationary batteries are contained in cabinets in occupied work centers, the cabinet enclosures shall be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the equipment that they support.

    1206.2.8.6Signage.

    Approved signs shall be provided on doors or in locations near entrances to stationary storage battery system rooms and shall include the following or equivalent:

    1. 1.The room contains energized battery systems.

    2. 2.The room contains energized electrical circuits.

    3. 3.The additional markings required in Section 1206.2.12 for the types of storage batteries contained within the room.

    Exception: Existing stationary storage battery systems shall be permitted to include the signage required at the time it was installed.

    1206.2.8.6.1Electrical disconnects.

    Where the stationary storage battery system disconnecting means is not within sight of the main service disconnecting means, placards or directories shall be installed at the location of the main service disconnecting means indicating the location of stationary storage battery system disconnecting means in accordance with NFPA 70.

    1206.2.8.6.2Cabinet signage.

    Battery storage cabinets provided in occupied work centers in accordance with Section 1206.2.8.5 shall have exterior labels that identify the manufacturer and model number of the system and electrical rating (voltage and current) of the contained battery system. There shall be signs within the cabinet that indicate the relevant electrical and chemical hazards, as required by Section 1206.2.12.

    1206.2.8.7Outdoor installations.

    Stationary storage battery systems located outdoors shall comply with Sections 1206.2.8.7 through 1206.2.8.7.4, in addition to all applicable requirements of Section 1206.2. Installations in outdoor enclosures or containers that can be occupied for servicing, testing, maintenance and other functions shall be treated as battery storage rooms.

    Exception: Stationary battery arrays in noncombustible containers shall not be required to be spaced 3 feet (914 mm) from the container walls.

    1206.2.8.7.1Separation.

    Stationary storage battery systems located outdoors shall be separated by a minimum 5 feet (1524 mm) from the following:

    1. 1.Lot lines.

    2. 2.Public ways.

    3. 3.Buildings.

    4. 4.Stored combustible materials.

    5. 5.Hazardous materials.

    6. 6.High-piled stock.

    7. 7.Other exposure hazards.

    Exception: The fire code official is authorized to approve smaller separation distances if large-scale fire and fault condition testing conducted or witnessed and reported by an approved testing laboratory is provided showing that a fire involving the system will not adversely impact occupant egress from adjacent buildings, or adversely impact adjacent stored materials or structures.

    1206.2.8.7.2Means of egress.

    Stationary storage battery systems located outdoors shall be separated from any means of egress as required by the fire code official to ensure safe egress under fire conditions, but not less than 10 feet (3048 mm).

    Exception: The fire code official is authorized to approve lesser separation distances if large-scale fire and fault condition testing conducted or witnessed and reported by an approved testing laboratory is provided showing that a fire involving the system will not adversely impact occupant egress.

    1206.2.8.7.3Security of outdoor areas.

    Outdoor areas in which stationary storage battery systems are located shall be secured against unauthorized entry and safeguarded in an approved manner.

    1206.2.8.7.4Walk-in units.

    Where a stationary storage battery system includes an outer enclosure, the unit shall only be entered for inspection, maintenance and repair of batteries and electronics, and shall not be occupied for other purposes.

    1206.2.9Maximum allowable quantities.

    Fire areas within buildings containing stationary storage battery systems exceeding the maximum allowable quantities in Table 1206.2.9 shall comply with all applicable Group H occupancy requirements in this code and the International Building Code.

    Exception: Where approved by the fire code official, areas containing stationary storage batteries that exceed the amounts in Table 1206.2.9 shall be treated as incidental use areas and not Group H occupancies based on a hazardous mitigation analysis in accordance with Section 1206.2.3 and large-scale fire and fault condition testing conducted or witnessed and reported by an approved testing laboratory.

    TABLE 1206.2.9

    MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE BATTERY QUANTITIES

    BATTERY TECHNOLOGYMAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITIESaGROUP H OCCUPANCY
    Flow batteriesb600 kWhGroup H-2
    Lead acid, all typesUnlimitedNot Applicable
    Lithium, all types600 kWhGroup H-2
    Nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd)UnlimitedNot Applicable
    Sodium, all types600 kWhGroup H-2
    Other battery technologies200 kWhGroup H-2c

    For SI: 1 kilowatt hour = 3.6 megajoules.

    1. a.For batteries rated in amp-hours, Kilowatt-hours (kWh) shall equal rated battery voltage times the amp-hour rating divided by 1,000.

    2. b.Shall include vanadium, zinc-bromine, polysulfide-bromide, and other flowing electrolyte-type technologies.

    3. c.Shall be a Group H-4 occupancy if the fire code official determines that a fire or thermal runaway involving the battery technology does not represent a significant fire hazard.

    1206.2.9.1Mixed battery systems.

    Where areas within buildings contain different types of storage battery technologies, the total aggregate quantities of batteries shall be determined based on the sum of percentages of each battery type quantity divided by the maximum allowable quantity of each battery type. If the sum of the percentages exceeds 100 percent, the area shall be treated as a Group H occupancy in accordance with Table 1206.2.9.

    1206.2.10Storage batteries and equipment.

    The design and installation of storage batteries and related equipment shall comply with Sections 1206.2.10.1 through 1206.2.10.8.

    1206.2.10.1Listings.

    Storage batteries and battery storage systems shall comply with the following:

    1. 1.Storage batteries shall be listed in accordance with UL 1973.

    2. 2.Prepackaged and preengineered stationary storage battery systems shall be listed in accordance with UL 9540.

    Exception: Lead-acid batteries are not required to be listed.

    1206.2.10.2Prepackaged and preengineered systems.

    Prepackaged and preengineered stationary storage battery systems shall be installed in accordance with their listing and the manufacturer’s instructions.

    1206.2.10.3Energy management system.

    An approved energy management system shall be provided for battery technologies other than lead-acid and nickel cadmium for monitoring and balancing cell voltages, currents and temperatures within the manufacturer’s specifications. The system shall transmit an alarm signal to an approved location if potentially hazardous temperatures or other conditions such as short circuits, over voltage or under voltage are detected.

    1206.2.10.4Battery chargers.

    Battery chargers shall be compatible with the battery chemistry and the manufacturer’s electrical ratings and charging specifications. Battery chargers shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 1564 or provided as part of a listed preengineered or prepackaged stationary storage battery system.

    1206.2.10.5Inverters.

    Inverters shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 1741. Only inverters listed and labeled for utility interactive system use and identified as interactive shall be allowed to operate in parallel with the electric utility power system to supply power to common loads.

    1206.2.10.6Safety caps.

    Vented batteries shall be provided with flame-arresting safety caps.

    1206.2.10.7Thermal runaway.

    Where required by Section 1206.2.12, storage batteries shall be provided with a listed device or other approved method to prevent, detect and control thermal runaway.

    1206.2.10.8Toxic and highly toxic gas.

    Stationary storage battery systems that have the potential to release toxic and highly toxic gas during charging, discharging and normal use conditions shall comply with Chapter 60.

    1206.2.11Fire-extinguishing and detection systems.

    Fire-extinguishing and detection systems shall be provided in accordance with Sections 1206.2.11.1 through 1206.2.11.5.

    1206.2.11.1Fire-extinguishing systems.

    Rooms containing stationary storage battery systems shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Commodity classifications for specific technologies of storage batteries shall be in accordance with Chapter 5 of NFPA 13. If the storage battery types are not addressed in Chapter 5 of NFPA 13, the fire code official is authorized to approve the fire-extinguishing system based on full-scale fire and fault condition testing conducted or witnessed and reported by an approved laboratory.

    Exception: Spaces or areas containing stationary storage battery systems used exclusively for telecommunications equipment in accordance with Section 903.2.

    1206.2.11.1.1Alternative fire-extinguishing systems.

    Battery systems that utilize water-reactive materials shall be protected by an approved alternative automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 904. The system shall be listed for protecting the type, arrangement and quantities of storage batteries in the room. The fire code official shall be permitted to approve the alternative fire extinguishing system based on full-scale fire and fault condition testing conducted or witnessed and reported by an approved laboratory.

    1206.2.11.2Smoke detection system.

    An approved automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in rooms containing stationary storage battery systems in accordance with Section 907.2.

    1206.2.11.3Ventilation.

    Where required by Section 1206.2.3 or 1206.2.12, ventilation of rooms containing stationary storage battery systems shall be provided in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and one of the following:

    1. 1.The ventilation system shall be designed to limit the maximum concentration of flammable gas to 25 percent of the lower flammability limit, or for hydrogen, 1.0 percent of the total volume of the room.

    2. 2.Continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute (cfm) per square foot [0.00508 m3/(s • m2)] of floor area, but not less than 150 cfm (4 m3/min).

    The exhaust system shall be designed to provide air movement across all parts of the floor for gases having a vapor density greater than air and across all parts of the vault ceiling for gases having a vapor density less than air.

    1206.2.11.3.1Cabinet ventilation.

    Where cabinets located in occupied spaces contain storage batteries that are required by Section 1206.2.3 or 1206.2.12 to be provided with ventilation, the cabinet shall be provided with ventilation in accordance with Section 1206.2.11.3.

    1206.2.11.3.2Supervision.

    Required mechanical ventilation systems for rooms and cabinets containing storage batteries shall be supervised by an approved central station, proprietary or remote station service or shall initiate an audible and visual signal at an approved constantly attended on-site location.

    1206.2.11.4Gas detection system.

    Where required by Section 1206.2.3 or 1206.2.12, rooms containing stationary storage battery systems shall be protected by a gas detection system complying with Section 916. The gas detection system shall be designed to activate where the level of flammable gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL), or where the level of toxic or highly toxic gas exceeds one-half of the IDLH.

    1206.2.11.4.1System activation.

    Activation of the gas detection system shall result in all the following:

    1. 1.Initiation of distinct audible and visible alarms in the battery storage room.

    2. 2.Transmission of an alarm to an approved location.

    3. 3.De-energizing of the battery charger.

    4. 4.Activation of the mechanical ventilation system, where the system is interlocked with the gas detection system.

    Exception: Lead-acid and nickel-cadmium stationary storage battery systems shall not be required to comply with Items 1, 2 and 3.

    1206.2.11.5Spill control and neutralization.

    Where required by Section 1206.2.12, approved methods and materials shall be provided for the control and neutralization of spills of electrolyte or other hazardous materials in areas containing stationary storage batteries as follows:

    1. 1.For batteries with free-flowing electrolyte, the method and materials shall be capable of neutralizing a spill of the total capacity from the largest cell or block to a pH between 5.0 and 9.0.

    2. 2.For batteries with immobilized electrolyte, the method and material shall be capable of neutralizing a spill of 3.0 percent of the capacity of the largest cell or block in the room to a pH between 5.0 and 9.0.

    1206.2.12Specific battery-type requirements.

    This section includes requirements applicable to specific types of storage batteries. Stationary storage battery systems with more than one type of storage battery shall comply with requirements applicable to each battery type.

    1206.2.12.1Lead-acid storage batteries.

    Stationary storage battery systems utilizing lead-acid storage batteries shall comply with the following:

    1. 1.Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with Section 1206.2.11.3.

    2. 2.Spill control and neutralization shall be in accordance with Section 1206.2.11.5.

    3. 3.Thermal runaway protection shall be provided for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) storage batteries in accordance with Section 1206.2.10.7.

    4. 4.The signage in Section 1206.2.8.6 shall indicate the room contains lead-acid batteries.

    1206.2.12.2Nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) storage batteries.

    Stationary storage battery systems utilizing nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) storage batteries shall comply with the following:

    1. 1.Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with Section 1206.2.11.3.

    2. 2.Spill control and neutralization shall be in accordance with Section 1206.2.11.5.

    3. 3.Thermal runaway protection shall be provided for valve-regulated sealed nickel-cadmium storage batteries in accordance with Section 1206.2.10.7.

    4. 4.The signage in Section 1206.2.8.6 shall indicate the room contains nickel-cadmium batteries.

    1206.2.12.3Lithium-ion storage batteries.

    The signage in Section 1206.2.8.6 shall indicate the type of lithium batteries contained in the room.

    1206.2.12.4Sodium-beta storage batteries.

    Stationary storage battery systems utilizing sodium-beta storage batteries shall comply with the following:

    1. 1.Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with Section 1206.2.11.3.

    2. 2.The signage in Section 1206.2.8.6 shall indicate the type of sodium batteries in the room and include the instructions, “APPLY NO WATER.”

    1206.2.12.5Flow storage batteries.

    Stationary storage battery systems utilizing flow storage batteries shall comply with the following:

    1. 1.Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with Section 1206.2.11.3.

    2. 2.Spill control and neutralization shall be in accordance with Section 1206.2.11.5.

    3. 3.The signage required in Section 1206.2.8.6 shall indicate the type of flow batteries in the room.

    1206.2.12.6Other battery technologies.

    Stationary storage battery systems utilizing battery technologies other than those described in Sections 1206.2.12.1 through 1206.2.12.5 shall comply with the following:

    1. 1.Gas detection systems complying with Section 916 shall be provided in accordance with Section 1206.2.11.4 where the batteries have the potential to produce toxic or highly toxic gas in the storage room or cabinet in excess of the permissible exposure limits (PEL) during charging, discharging and normal system operation.

    2. 2.Mechanical ventilation shall be provided in accordance with Section 1206.2.11.3.

    3. 3.Spill control and neutralization shall be in accordance with Section 1206.2.11.5.

    4. 4.In addition to the signage required in Section 1206.2.8.6, the marking shall identify the type of batteries present, describe the potential hazards associated with the battery type, and indicate that the room contains energized electrical circuits.

    1206.3Capacitor energy storage systems.

    Capacitor energy storage systems having capacities exceeding 3 kWh (10.8 megajoules) shall comply with Sections 1206.3 through 1206.3.2.6.1.

    Exception: Capacitors regulated by NFPA 70, Chapter 460, and capacitors included as a component part of other listed electrical equipment are not required to comply with this section.

    1206.3.1Permits.

    Permits shall be obtained for the installation of capacitor energy storage systems in accordance with Section 105.7.3.

    1206.3.2Location and construction.

    Rooms and areas containing capacitor energy storage systems shall be designed, located and constructed in accordance with Sections 1206.3.2 through 1206.3.2.5.

    1206.3.2.1Location.

    Capacitor energy storage systems shall not be located in areas where the floor is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, or where the floor level is more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge.

    1206.3.2.2Separation.

    Rooms containing capacitor energy storage systems shall be separated from the following occupancies by fire barriers or horizontal assemblies, or both, constructed in accordance with the International Building Code.

    1. 1.Group B, F, M, S and U occupancies by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction.

    2. 2.Group A, E, I and R occupancies by 2-hour fire-resistance-rated construction.

    1206.3.2.3Capacitor arrays.

    Capacitor energy storage systems shall be segregated into capacitor arrays not exceeding 50 kWh (180 megajoules) each. Each array shall be spaced not less than 3 feet (914 mm) from other arrays and from walls in the storage room or area. The storage arrangements shall comply with Chapter 10.

    Exception: Capacitor energy storage systems in noncombustible containers located outdoors shall not be required to be spaced 3 feet (914 mm) from the container walls.

    1206.3.2.4Signage.

    Approved signs shall be provided on doors or in locations adjacent to the entrances to capacitor energy storage system rooms and shall include the following or equivalent verbiage and information:.

    1. 1.“CAPACITOR ENERGY STORAGE ROOM.”

    2. 2.“THIS ROOM CONTAINS ENERGIZED ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS.”

    3. 3.An identification of the type of capacitors present and the potential hazards associated with the capacitor type.

    1206.3.2.5Electrical disconnects.

    Where the capacitor energy storage system disconnecting means is not within sight of the main service disconnecting means, placards or directories shall be installed at the location of the main service disconnecting means identifying the location of the capacitor energy storage system disconnecting means in accordance with NFPA 70.

    1206.3.2.6Outdoor installation.

    Capacitor energy systems located outdoors shall comply with Sections 1206.3.2.6 through 1206.3.2.6.4 in addition to all applicable requirements of Section 1206.3. Installations in outdoor enclosures or containers that can be occupied for servicing, testing, maintenance and other functions shall be treated as capacitor storage rooms.

    Exception: Capacitor arrays in noncombustible containers shall not be required to be spaced 3 feet (914 mm) from the container walls.

    1206.3.2.6.1Separation.

    Capacitor energy systems located outdoors shall be not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the following:

    1. 1.Lot lines.

    2. 2.Public ways.

    3. 3.Buildings.

    4. 4.Stored combustible materials.

    5. 5.Hazardous materials.

    6. 6.High-piled stock.

    7. 7.Other exposure hazards.

    Exception: The fire code official is authorized to approve lesser separation distances if large-scale fire and fault condition testing conducted or witnessed and reported by an approved testing laboratory is provided showing that a fire involving the system will not adversely impact occupant egress from adjacent buildings, or adversely impact adjacent stored materials or structures.

    1206.3.2.6.2Means of egress.

    Capacitor energy storage systems located outdoors shall be separated from any means of egress as required by the fire code official to ensure safe egress under fire conditions, but not less than 10 feet (3048 mm).

    Exception: The fire code official is authorized to approve lesser separation distances if large-scale fire and fault condition testing conducted or witnessed and reported by an approved testing laboratory is provided showing that a fire involving the system will not adversely impact occupant egress.

    1206.3.2.6.3Security of outdoor areas.

    Outdoor areas in which capacitor energy storage systems are located shall be secured against unauthorized entry and safeguarded in an approved manner.

    1206.3.2.6.4Walk-in units.

    Where a capacitor energy storage system includes an outer enclosure, the unit shall only be entered for inspection, maintenance and repair of batteries and electronics, and shall not be occupied for other purposes.

    1206.3.3Maximum allowable quantities.

    Fire areas within buildings containing capacitor energy storage systems that exceed 600 kWh of energy capacity shall comply with all applicable Group H occupancy requirements in this code and the International Building Code.

    1206.3.4Capacitors and equipment.

    The design and installation of capacitor energy storage systems and related equipment shall comply with Sections 1206.3.4.1 through 1206.3.4.5.

    1206.3.4.1Listing.

    Capacitors and capacitor energy storage systems shall comply with the following:

    1. 1.Capacitors shall be listed in accordance with UL 1973.

    2. 2.Prepackaged and preengineered stationary capacitor energy storage systems shall be listed in accordance with UL 9540.

    1206.3.4.2Prepackaged and preengineered systems.

    In addition to other applicable requirements of this code, prepackaged and preengineered capacitor energy storage systems shall be installed in accordance with their listing and the manufacturer’s instructions.

    1206.3.4.3Energy management system.

    An approved energy management system shall be provided for monitoring and balancing capacitor voltages, currents and temperatures within the manufacturer’s specifications. The system shall transmit an alarm signal to an approved location if potentially hazardous temperatures or other conditions such as short circuits, over voltage or under voltage are detected.

    1206.3.4.4Capacitor chargers.

    Capacitor chargers shall be compatible with the capacitor manufacturer’s electrical ratings and charging specifications. Capacitor chargers shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 1564 or provided as part of a listed preengineered or prepackaged capacitor energy storage system.

    1206.3.4.5Toxic and highly toxic gas.

    Capacitor energy storage systems that have the potential to release toxic and highly toxic materials during charging, discharging and normal use conditions shall comply with Chapter 60.

    1206.3.5Fire-extinguishing and detection systems.

    Fire-extinguishing and smoke detection systems shall be provided in capacitor energy storage system rooms in accordance with Sections 1206.3.5.1 through 1206.3.5.2.

    1206.3.5.1Fire-extinguishing systems.

    Rooms containing capacitor energy storage systems shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Commodity classifications for specific capacitor technologies shall be in accordance with Chapter 5 of NFPA 13. If the capacitor types are not addressed in Chapter 5 of NFPA 13, the fire code official is authorized to approve the automatic sprinkler system based on full-scale fire and fault condition testing conducted by an approved laboratory.

    1206.3.5.1.1Alternative fire-extinguishing systems.

    Capacitor energy storage systems that utilize water-reactive materials shall be protected by an approved alternative automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 904. The system shall be listed for protecting the type, arrangement and quantities of capacitors in the room. The fire code official shall be permitted to approve the system based on full-scale fire and fault condition testing conducted by an approved laboratory.

    1206.3.5.2Smoke detection system.

    An approved automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in rooms containing capacitor energy storage systems in accordance with Section 907.2.

    1206.3.5.3Ventilation.

    Where capacitors release flammable gases during normal operating conditions, ventilation of rooms containing capacitor energy storage systems shall be provided in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and one of the following:

    1. 1.The ventilation system shall be designed to limit the maximum concentration of flammable gas to 25 percent of the lower flammability limit.

    2. 2.Continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute (cfm) per square foot [0.00508 m3/(s • m2)] of floor area, but not less than 150 cfm (4 m3/min).

    The exhaust system shall be designed to provide air movement across all parts of the floor for gases having a vapor density greater than air and across all parts of the ceiling for gases having a vapor density less than air.

    1206.3.5.3.1Supervision.

    Required mechanical ventilation systems for rooms containing capacitor energy storage systems shall be supervised by an approved central station, proprietary or remote station service, or shall initiate an audible and visible signal at an approved, constantly attended on-site location.

    1206.3.5.4Spill control and neutralization.

    Where capacitors contain liquid electrolyte, approved methods and materials shall be provided for the control and neutralization of spills of electrolyte or other hazardous materials in areas containing capacitors as follows:

    1. 1.For capacitors with free-flowing electrolyte, the method and materials shall be capable of neutralizing a spill of the total capacity from the largest cell or block to a pH between 5.0 and 9.0.

    2. 2.For capacitors with immobilized electrolyte, the method and material shall be capable of neutralizing a spill of 3.0 percent of the capacity of the largest cell or block in the room to a pH between 5.0 and 9.0.

    1206.3.6Testing, maintenance and repair.

    Capacitors and associated equipment and systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Any capacitors or system components used to replace existing units shall be compatible with the capacitor charger, energy management systems, other capacitors, and other safety systems. Introducing different capacitor technologies into the capacitor energy storage system shall be treated as a new installation and require approval by the fire code official before the replacements are introduced into service.