• CHAPTER7
    ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    701.1 (7.1)Scope.

    This section specifies requirements for energy efficiency for buildings and appliances, for on-site renewable energy systems, and for energy measuring.

    701.2 (7.2)Compliance.

    The energy systems shall comply with Section 701.3 (7.3), “Mandatory Provisions,” and either

    1. a.Section 701.4 (7.4), “Prescriptive Option,” or

    2. b.Section 701.5 (7.5), “Performance Option.”

    701.3 (7.3)Mandatory Provisions.

    701.3.1 (7.3.1)General.

    Building projects shall be designed to comply with Sections 5.4, 6.4, 7.4, 8.4, 9.4, and 10.4 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.

    701.3.1.1 (7.3.1.1)Continuous Air Barrier.

    The exceptions to the requirement for a continuous air barrier in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 5.4.3.1, for specific climate zones and constructions shall not apply. The testing criteria of Section 1001.3.1.5(a) [10.3.1.3.5(a)] shall supersede ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 5.4.3.1.3(a).

    701.3.2 (7.3.2)On-Site Renewable Energy Systems.

    Building project design shall show allocated space and pathways for future installation of on-site renewable energy systems and associated infrastructure that provide the annual energy production equivalent of not less than 6.0 kBtu/ft2 (20 kWh/m2) for single-story buildings and not less than 10.0 kBtu/ft2(32 kWh/m2) multiplied by the gross roof area in feet squared (metres squared) for all other buildings.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Building projects that have an annual daily average incident solar radiation available to a flat plate collector oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location less than 1.2 kBtu/ft2·day (4.0 kWh/m2·day), accounting for existing buildings, permanent infrastructure that is not part of the building project, topography, or trees.

    2. 2.Building projects that comply with Section 701.4.1.1 (7.4.1.1).

    701.3.3 (7.3.3)Energy Consumption Management.

    701.3.3.1 (7.3.3.1)Consumption Management.

    Measurement devices with remote communication capability shall be provided to collect energy consumption data for each energy supply source to the building (including gas, electricity, and district energy) that exceeds the thresholds listed in Table 701.3.3.1A (7.3.3.1A). The measurement devices shall have the capability to automatically communicate the energy consumption data to a data acquisition system.

    For all buildings that exceed the threshold in Table 701.3.3.1A (7.3.3.1A), subsystem measurement devices with remote capability (including current sensors or flowmeters) shall be provided to measure energy consumption data of each subsystem for each use category that exceeds the thresholds listed in Table 701.3.3.1B (7.3.3.1B).

    The energy consumption data from the subsystem measurement devices shall be automatically communicated to the data acquisition system.

    TABLE 701.3.3.1A (TABLE 7.3.3.1A)

    ENERGY SOURCE THRESHOLDS

    ENERGY SOURCETHRESHOLD
    Electrical service> 200 kVA
    On-site renewable electric powerAll systems > 1 kVA (peak)
    Gas and district services> 1,000,000 Btu/h (300 kW)
    Geothermal energy> 1,000,000 Btu/h (300 kW) heating
    On-site renewable thermal energy> 100,000 Btu/h (30 kW)

    TABLE 701.3.3.1B (TABLE 7.3.3.1B)

    SYSTEM ENERGY USE THRESHOLDS

    USE (TOTAL OF ALL LOADS)SUBSYSTEM THRESHOLD
    HVAC systemConnected electric load > 100kVA
    Connected gas or district services load > 500,000 Btu/h (150 kW)
    People movingSum of all feeders > 50 kVA
    LightingConnected load > 50 kVA
    Process and plug processConnected load > 50 kVA
    Connected gas or district services load > 250,000 Btu/h (75 kW)

    701.3.3.2 (7.3.3.2)Energy Consumption Data Collection and Display.

    All building measurement devices shall be configured to automatically communicate the energy data to the data acquisition system. Measurement devices shall provide daily data and shall record hourly energy profiles. Such hourly energy profiles shall be capable of being used to assess building performance at least monthly. The hourly energy profiles shall be displayed.

    701.3.3.3 (7.3.3.3)Data Storage and Retrieval.

    The data acquisition system shall be capable of electronically storing the data from the measurement devices and other sensing devices for a minimum of 36 months and creating user reports showing hourly, daily, monthly, and annual energy consumption.

    Exception: Portions of buildings used as residential.

    701.3.4 (7.3.4)Automated Demand Response.

    Building projects shall contain automatic control systems that have the capability to reduce building equipment loads to lower electric peak demand of the building.

    The building controls shall be designed with automated demand-response (DR) infrastructure capable of receiving DR requests from the utility, electrical system operator, or third-party DR program provider and automatically implementing load adjustments to the HVAC and lighting systems.

    701.3.4.1 (7.3.4.1)HVAC Systems Zone Set Points.

    The building project’s HVAC systems shall be programmed to allow centralized demand reduction in response to a signal from a centralized contact or software point in accordance with the following:

    1. a.The controls shall be programmed to automatically adjust upward the zone operating cooling set points by a minimum of 3°F (1.7°C).

    2. b.The controls shall programmed to automatically adjust downward the zone operating heating set points by a minimum of 3°F (1.7°C).

    3. c.The controls shall be programmed to automatically adjust downward the zone operating cooling set points by a minimum of 2°F (1.1°C).

    4. d.The automated DR strategy shall include both ramp-up and ramp-down logic to prevent the building peak demand from exceeding that expected without the DR implementation.

    Exception: Systems serving areas deemed by the owner to be critical in nature.

    701.3.4.2 (7.3.4.2) Variable-Speed Equipment.

    For HVAC equipment with variable-speed control, the controls shall be programmed to allow automatic adjustment of the maximum speed of the equipment to 90% of design speed during automated DR events. Airflow adjustments shall not decrease the supply airflow rate below the level that would result in outdoor airflow being below the minimum outdoor airflow rates specified in Section 801.3.1.1 (8.3.1.1), or that would cause adverse building pressurization problems.

    701.3.4.3 (7.3.4.3) Lighting.

    For building projects with interior lighting control systems controlled at a central point, such systems shall be programmed to allow automated DR. The programming shall reduce the total connected lighting power demand during a DR event by not less than 15% but no more than 50% of the baseline power level. The baseline lighting power shall be determined in accordance with Section 701.4.6.1.1 (7.4.6.1.1). For building projects without central lighting controls, DR capabilities for lighting systems shall not be required.

    For spaces not in the daylight area and not connected to automated daylighting control, the lighting levels shall be uniformly reduced throughout the space.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Luminaires or signage on emergency circuits.

    2. 2.Luminaires located within a daylight area that are dimmable and connected to automated daylighting control systems.

    3. 3.Lighting systems, including dimming systems, claiming a lighting power allowance for institutional tuning in accordance with Section 701.4.6.1.1(f) [7.4.6.1.1(f)].

    701.4 (7.4)Prescriptive Option.

    701.4.1 (7.4.1)General Comprehensive Prescriptive Requirements.

    When a requirement is provided below, it supersedes the requirement in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1. For all other criteria, the building project shall comply with the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.

    701.4.1.1 (7.4.1.1)On-Site Renewable Energy Systems.

    Building projects shall comply with either the Standard Renewables Approach in Section 701.4.1.1.1 (7.4.1.1.1) or the Alternate Renewables Approach in Section 701.4.1.1.2 (7.4.1.1.2).

    701.4.1.1.1 (7.4.1.1.1)Standard Renewables Approach: Baseline On-Site Renewable Energy Systems.

    Building projects shall contain on-site renewable energy systems that provide the annual energy production equivalent of not less than 6.0 kBtu/ft2 (20 kWh/m2) multiplied by the horizontal projection of the gross roof area in feet squared (metres squared) for single-story buildings, and not less than 10.0 kBtu/ft2 (32 kWh/m2) multiplied by the horizontal projection of the gross roof area in feet squared (metres squared) for all other buildings. The annual energy production shall be the combined sum of all on-site renewable energy systems. Documentation shall be provided to the AHJ that indicates that the renewable energy certificates (RECs) associated with the on-site renewable energy system will be retained and retired by the owner. Where the building owner does not have ownership of the RECs associated with the on-site renewable energy system, the owner shall obtain and retire an equal or greater quantity of RECs.

    Exceptions: Buildings that demonstrate compliance with both of the following are not required to contain on-site renewable energy systems:

    1. 1.An annual daily average incident solar radiation available to a flat plate collector oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location less than 4.0 kWh/m2·day (1.2 kBtu/ft2/day), accounting for existing buildings, permanent infrastructure that is not part of the building project, topography, and trees.

    2. 2.A commitment to purchase renewable electricity products complying with the Greene Energy National Standard for Renewable Electricity Products, of at least 7 kWh/ft2 (75 kWh/m2) of conditioned space each year until the cumulative purchase totals 70 kWh/ft2 (750 kWh/m2) of conditioned space.

    701.4.1.1.2 (7.4.1.1.2)Alternate Renewables Approach: Reduced On-Site Renewable Energy Systems and Higher-Efficiency Equipment.

    Building projects complying with this approach shall comply with the applicable equipment efficiency requirements in Normative Appendix B, the water-heating efficiency requirements in Section 701.4.4.1 (7.4.4.1), equipment efficiency requirements in Section 701.4.7.1 (7.4.7.1), and the applicable ENERGY STAR® requirements in Section 701.4.7.3.2 (7.4.7.3.2), and shall contain on-site renewable energy systems that provide the annual energy production equivalent of not less than 4.0 kBtu/ft2 (13 kWh/m2) multiplied by the horizontal projection of the gross roof area in feet squared (metres squared) for single-story buildings, and not less than 7.0 kBtu/ft2 (22 kWh/m2) multiplied by the horizontal projection of the gross roof area in feet squared (metres squared) for all other buildings. The annual energy production shall be the combined sum of all on-site renewable energy systems. For equipment listed in Section 701.4.7.3.2 (7.4.7.3.2) that are also contained in Normative Appendix B, the installed equipment shall comply by meeting or exceeding both requirements.

    Documentation shall be provided to the AHJ that indicates that the RECs associated with the on-site renewable energy system will be retained and retired by the owner. Where the building owner does not have ownership of the RECs associated with the on-site renewable energy system, the owner shall obtain and retire an equal or greater quantity of RECs.

    701.4.2 (7.4.2)Building Envelope.

    The building envelope shall comply with ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 5, with the following modifications and additions.

    701.4.2.1 (7.4.2.1)Building Envelope Requirements.

    The building envelope shall comply with the requirements in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Tables 5.5-0 through 5.5-8, with the following modifications to values in each table. For the opaque elements, each U-factor, C-factor, and F-factor in Tables 5.5-4 through 5.5-8 shall be reduced by 5%. The “Insulation Min. R-Value” column in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Tables 5.5-4 through 5.5-8, shall not apply. For vertical fenestration and skylights, each U-factor shall be reduced by 5%. For skylights and east- and west-oriented vertical fenestration, each solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) in Tables 5.5-0 through 5.5-8 shall be reduced by 5%.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.The U-factor, C-factor, or F-factor shall not be modified where the corresponding R-value requirement is designated as “NR” (no requirement) in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Tables 5.5-4 through 5.5-8.

    2. 2.The SHGC shall not be modified where the SHGC requirement is designated as “NR” (no requirement) in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Tables 5.5-0 through 5.5-8.

    3. 3.Spaces that meet the requirements of Section 801.4.1 (8.4.1), regardless of space area, are exempt from the SHGC criteria for skylights.

    Informative Notes:

    1. 1.U-factors, C-factors, and F-factors for many common assemblies are provided in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Normative Appendix A.

    2. 2.Section 501.3.5.3 (5.3.5.3) of this code includes additional provisions related to roofs.

    701.4.2.2 (7.4.2.2) Single-Rafter Roof Insulation.

    Single-rafter roofs shall comply with the requirements in Normative Appendix A, Table A101.1 (A-1). These requirements supersede the requirements in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section A2.4.2.4. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section A2.4.2.4 and Table A2.4.2, shall not apply.

    701.4.2.3 (7.4.2.3) High-Speed Doors.

    High-speed doors that are intended to operate on average at least 75 cycles per day shall not exceed a maximum U-factor of 1.20 Btu/h·ft2·°F (6.81 W/m2·K). Opening rate, closing rate, and average cycles per day shall be included in construction drawings. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Sections 5.5.3.6 and 5.5.4.3, shall not apply for high-speed doors complying with all criteria in this section.

    701.4.2.4 (7.4.2.4) Air Curtains.

    Where air curtains are provided at building entrances or building entrance vestibules, for the distance from the air-curtain discharge nozzle to the floor, the air-curtain unit shall produce a minimum velocity of 6.6 ft/s (2.0 m/s), in accordance with ANSI/AMCA 220, and be installed in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions. Automatic controls shall be provided that will operate the air curtain with the opening and closing of the door. Air curtains and their controls shall comply with Section 1001.3.1.2.1 (10.3.1.2.1).

    701.4.2.5 (7.4.2.5) Vertical Fenestration Area.

    The total vertical fenestration area shall be less than 40% of the gross wall area. This requirement supersedes the requirement in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 5.5.4.2.1.

    701.4.2.6 (7.4.2.6) Permanent Projections.

    For Climate Zones 0 through 3 and Climate Zones 4B and 4C, the vertical fenestration on the west, south, and east shall be shaded by permanent projections that have an area-weighted average projection factor (PF) of not less than 0.50 for the first story above grade and 0.25 for other above-grade stories. The building is allowed to be rotated up to 45 degrees to the nearest cardinal orientation for purposes of calculations and showing compliance. Where different windows or glass doors have different PF values, each shall be evaluated separately, or an area-weighted PF value shall be calculated and used for all windows and glass doors. Horizontal projections shall extend over the full width of the glazing.

    Exceptions: Permanent projections are not required for the following buildings and fenestrations:

    1. 1.Where vertical fenestration is located within 18 in. (450 mm) of the lot line.

    2. 2.Where equivalent shading of the vertical fenestration is provided by buildings, structures, geological formations, or permanent exterior projections that are not horizontal, as determined by sun-angle studies at the peak solar altitude on the summer solstice and three hours before and after the peak solar altitude on the summer solstice.

    3. 3. Vertical fenestration with automatically controlled shading devices capable of modulating in multiple steps the amount of solar gain and light transmitted into the space in response to daylight levels or solar intensity that comply with all of the following:

      1. a.Exterior shading devices shall be capable of providing at least 90% coverage of the fenestration in the closed position.

      2. b.Interior shading devices shall be capable of providing at least 90% coverage of the fenestration in the closed position and have a minimum solar reflectance of 0.50 for the surface facing the fenestration.

      3. c.A manual override located in the same enclosed space as the vertical fenestration shall override operation of automatic controls no longer than four hours.

      4. d.Acceptance testing and commissioning shall be conducted as required by Chapter 10 (Section 10) to verify that automatic controls for shading devices respond to changes in illumination or radiation intensity.

    4. 4.Vertical fenestration with automatically controlled dynamic glazing capable of modulating in multiple steps the amount of solar gain and light transmitted into the space in response to daylight levels or solar intensity that comply with all of the following:

      1. a.Dynamic glazing shall have a lower labeled SHGC equal to or less than 0.12, lowest labeled visible transmittance (VT) no greater than 0.05, and highest labeled VT no less than 0.40.

      2. b.A manual override located in the same enclosed space as the vertical fenestration shall override operation of automatic controls no longer than 4 hours.

      3. c.Acceptance testing and commissioning shall be conducted as required by Chapter 10 (Section 10) to verify that automatic controls for dynamic glazing respond to changes in illumination or radiation intensity.

    5. 5.Existing buildings undergoing alteration, repair, relocation, or a change of occupancy.

    701.4.2.7 (7.4.2.7)SHGC of Vertical Fenestration.

    For SHGC compliance, the methodology in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 5.5.4.4.1, Exception 2, is allowed, provided that the SHGC multipliers in Table 701.4.2.7 (7.4.2.7) of this standard are used. This requirement supersedes the requirement in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Table 5.5.4.4.1; that table shall not apply. Vertical fenestration that is north oriented shall be allowed to have a maximum SHGC of 0.10 greater than that specified in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Tables 5.5-1 through 5.5-8. When this provision is used, separate calculations shall be performed for these sections of the building envelope, and these values shall not be averaged with any others for compliance purposes.

    TABLE 701.4.2.7 (TABLE 7.4.2.7)

    SHGC MULTIPLIERS FOR PERMANENT PROJECTIONS

    PFSHGC MULTIPLIERSHGC MULTIPLIER
    (ALL OTHERORIENTATIONS)(NORTH-ORIENTED)
    0 to 0.601.001.00
    > 0.60 to 0.700.920.96
    > 0.70 to 0.800.840.94
    > 0.80 to 0.900.770.93
    > 0.90 to 1.000.720.90

    701.4.2.8 (7.4.2.8) Building Envelope Trade-Off Option.

    The building envelope trade-off option in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 5.6, shall not apply unless the procedure incorporates the modifications and additions to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 noted in Section 701.4.2 (7.4.2).

    701.4.2.9 (7.4.2.9) Orientation.

    The vertical fenestration shall comply with either (a) or (b):

    Equation

    where:

    SHGCx = the SHGC for orientation x that complies with Section 701.4.2.7 (7.4.2.7).

    SHGCC = the SHGC criteria for each climate zone from Section 701.4.2.1 (7.4.2.1).

    Ax = fenestration area for orientation x.

    N = north (oriented less than 45 degrees of true north).

    S = south (oriented less than 45 degrees of true south).

    E = east (oriented less than or equal to 45 degrees of true east).

    W = west (oriented less than or equal to 45 degrees of true west).

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Vertical fenestration that complies with ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 5.5.4.4.1, Exception (3).

    2. 2.Buildings with shade on 75% of the west- and east-oriented vertical fenestration areas from permanent projections, existing buildings, existing permanent infrastructure, or topography at 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. on the summer solstice (June 21 in the northern hemisphere).

    3. 3.Alterations and additions with no increase in vertical fenestration area.

    4. 4.Buildings where the west- and east-oriented vertical fenestration areas do not exceed 20% of the gross wall area for each of those façades, and the SHGC on those faÇades is not greater than 90% of the criteria in Section 701.4.2.1 (7.4.2.1).

    5. 5.Buildings in Climate Zone 8.

    701.4.3 (7.4.3)Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning.

    The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning shall comply with ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section (6), with the following modifications and additions.

    701.4.3.1 (7.4.3.1)Minimum Equipment Efficiencies for the Alternate Renewables Approach.

    All building projects complying with the Alternate Renewables Approach in Section 701.4.1.1.2 (7.4.1.1.2) shall comply with the applicable equipment efficiency requirements in Normative Appendix B and the applicable ENERGY STAR requirements in Section 701.4.7.3.2 (7.4.7.3.2). Where equipment efficiency is not defined/listed in Normative Appendix B or in Section 701.4.7.3.2 (7.4.7.3.2), the equipment shall meet the minimum efficiency requirements defined/listed in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1. Specifically, this applies to the following products in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1:

    1. a.Table 6.8.1.3, “Water-Chilling Packages—Minimum Efficiency Requirements.”

    2. b.Table 6.8.1-11, “Air Conditioners and Condensing Units Serving Computer Rooms—Minimum Efficiency Requirements.”

    3. c.Table 6.8.1-12, “Commercial Refrigerator and Freezers—Minimum Efficiency Requirements.”

    4. d.Table 6.8.1-13, “Commercial Refrigeration— Minimum Efficiency Requirements.”

    5. e.Table 6.8.1-14, “Vapor Compression Based Indoor Pool Dehumidifiers—Minimum Efficiency Requirements.”

    6. f.Table 6.8.1-15, “Electrically Operated DXDOAS Units, Single-Package and Remote Condenser, without Energy Recovery—Minimum Efficiency Requirements.”

    7. g.Table 6.8.1-16, “Electrically Operated DXDOAS Units, Single Package and Remote Condenser, with Energy Recovery—Minimum Efficiency Requirements.”

    8. h.Table 10.8-1, “Minimum Nominal Full-Load Efficiency for NEMA Design A, NEMA Design B, and IEC Design N Motors (Excluding Fire Pump Electric Motors) at 60 Hz” (NEMA MG 1).

    9. i.Table 10.8-2, “Minimum Nominal Full-Load Efficiency for NEMA Design C and IEC Design H Motors at 60 Hz” (NEMA MG 1).

    10. j.Table 10.8-3, “Minimum Average Full-Load Efficiency for Polyphase Small Electric Motors.”

    11. k.Table 10.8-4, “Minimum Average Full-Load Efficiency for Capacitor-Start Capacitor-Run and Capacitor-Start Induction-Run Small Electric Motors.”

    12. l.Table 10.8-5, “Minimum Nominal Full-Load Efficiency for Fire Pump Electric Motors.”

    701.4.3.1.1 (7.4.3.1.1)Water-Cooled Centrifugal Chiller Packages Efficiency Adjustment.

    1. a.For Water-Cooled Centrifugal Units Rated per AHRI Standard 550/590 (I-P). Equipment not designed for operation at AHRI Standard 550/590 test conditions of 44.00°F leaving and 54.00°F entering chilled-fluid temperatures, and with 85.00°F entering and 94.30°F leaving condenser-fluid temperatures, shall have maximum full-load (FL) kW/ton and part-load rating requirements adjusted using the following equations:

      Equation

      where:

      FL = full-load kW/ton value from ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Table 6.8.1-3.

      FLadj = maximum full-load kW/ton rating, adjusted for nonstandard conditions.

      IPLV = IPLV value from ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Table 6.8.1-3.

      PLVadj = maximum NPLV rating, adjusted for nonstandard conditions.

      A = 0.000000145920 × (LIFT)4 – 0.0000346496 × (LIFT)3 + 0.00314196 × (LIFT)2 – 0.147199 × (LIFT) + 3.93073.

      B = 0.0015 × LvgEvap + 0.934.

      LIFT = LvgCond – LvgEvap.

      LvgCond = full-load condenser leaving fluid temperature, °F.

      LvgEvap = full-load evaporator leaving temperature, °F.

      The FLadj and PLVadj values are only applicable for centrifugal chillers meeting all of the following full-load design ranges:

      • 36.00°F ≤ LvgEvap ≤ 60.00°F.

      • LvgCond ≤ 115.00°F.

      • 20.00°F ≤ LIFT ≤ 80.00°F.

      Centrifugal chillers designed to operate outside of these ranges are not covered by this code.

    2. b.For Water-Cooled Centrifugal Units Rated per AHRI Standard 551/591 (SI). Equipment not designed for operation at AHRI Standard 551/591 test conditions of 7.00°C leaving and 12.00°C entering chilled-fluid temperatures, and with 30.00°C entering and 35.00°C leaving condenser-fluid temperatures, shall have maximum full-load (FL) COP and part-load rating requirements adjusted using the following code:

      Equation

      where:

      FL = full-load COP value from ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Table 6.8.1-3.

      FL adj = minimum full-load COP rating, adjusted for nonstandard conditions.

      IPLV = IPLV value from ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Table 6.8.1-3.

      PLV adj = minimum NPLV rating, adjusted for nonstandard conditions.

      A = 0.00000153181 × (LIFT)4 – 0.000202076 × (LIFT)3 + 0.0101800 × (LIFT)2 – 0.264958 × LIFT + 3.93073.

      B = 0.0027 × LvgEvap + 0.982.

      LIFT = LvgCond – LvgEvap.

      LvgCond = full-load condenser leaving fluid temperature, °C.

      LvgEvap = full-load evaporator leaving temperature, °C.

      The FL adj and PLVadj values are only applicable for centrifugal chillers meeting all of the following full-load design ranges:

      • 2.20°C ≤ LvgEvap ≤ 15.60°C.

      • LvgCond ≤ 46.00°C.

      • 11.00°C ≤ LIFT ≤ 44.00°C.

      Centrifugal chillers designed to operate outside of these ranges are not covered by this code.

    701.4.3.2 (7.4.3.2)Ventilation Controls for Densely Occupied Spaces.

    The requirements in this section supersede those in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 6.4.3.8. Demand control ventilation (DCV) shall be provided for densely occupied spaces served by systems with one or more of the following:

    1. a.An air-side economizer.

    2. b.Automatic modulating control of the outdoor air dampers.

    3. c.A design outdoor airflow greater than 1000 cfm (500 L/s).

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Systems with exhaust air energy recovery complying with Section 701.4.3.7 (7.4.3.7).

    2. 2.Systems with a design outdoor airflow less than 750 cfm (375 L/s).

    3. 3.Spaces where more than 75% of the space design outdoor airflow is used as makeup air or transfer air to provide makeup air for other spaces.

    4. 4.Spaces with one of the following occupancy categories as listed in ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1: cells in correctional facilities; daycare sickrooms; science laboratories; barbershops; beauty and nail salons; and bowling alleys (seating).

    The DCV system shall be designed to be in compliance with ASHRAE Standard 62.1, Section 6.2.7.1. Occupancy assumptions shall be shown in the design documents for spaces provided with DCV. All CO2 sensors used as part of a DCV system or any other system that dynamically controls outdoor air shall meet the following requirements:

    1. a.Spaces with CO2 sensors or air-sampling probes leading to a central CO2 monitoring station shall be provided with at least one sensor or probe for each 10,000 ft2 (1000 m2) of floor space. Sensors or probes shall be installed between 3 and 6 ft (1 and 2 m) above the floor.

    2. b.CO2 sensors shall have a rated accuracy of ±50 ppm at 1000 ppm.

    3. c.Outdoor air CO2 concentrations shall be determined by one of the following:

      1. 1.Outdoor air CO2 concentrations shall be dynamically measured using one or multiple CO2 sensors. The CO2 sensor locations shall be identified on the construction documents.

      2. 2.When documented statistical data on the local ambient CO2 concentrations are available, a fixed value typical of the location where the building is located shall be allowed in lieu of an outdoor sensor.

    4. d.Occupant CO2 generation rate assumptions shall be shown in the design documents.

    701.4.3.3 (7.4.3.3)Duct Leakage Tests.

    Leakage tests shall comply with the requirements in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 6.4.4.2.2, with the following modification. Ductwork that is designed to operate at static pressures in excess of 2 in. of water (500 Pa), and all ductwork located outdoors, shall be leak-tested according to industry-accepted test procedures.

    701.4.3.4 (7.4.3.4) Economizers.

    Systems shall include economizers meeting the requirements in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 6.5.1, except as modified by the following:

    1. a.The minimum size requirements for economizers for comfort cooling and for computer rooms are defined in Table 701.4.3.4 (7.4.3.4) and supersede the requirements in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Tables 6.5.1-1 and 6.5.1-2.

    2. b.Rooftop units with a capacity of less than 54,000 Btu/h (16 kW) shall have two stages of capacity control, with the first stage controlling the economizer and the second stage controlling mechanical cooling. Units with a capacity equal to or greater than 54,000 Btu/h (16 kW) shall comply with the staging requirements defined in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 6.5.3.1

    3. c.For systems that control to a fixed leaving air temperature (i.e., variable-air-volume [VAV] systems), the system shall be capable of resetting the supply air temperature up at least 5°F (3°C) during economizer operation.

    All the exceptions in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 6.5.1, shall apply except as modified by the following:

    1. a.Where the reduced renewable approach defined in Section 701.4.1.1.1 (7.4.1.1.1) is used, ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 6.5.1, Exception (9), shall be permitted to eliminate the economizer requirement, provided the requirements in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Table 6.5.1-3, are applied to the efficiency requirements required by Section 701.4.1.1.2 (7.4.1.1.2). If the standard renewable approach is chosen as defined in Section 701.4.1.1.1 (7.4.1.1.1) then the requirements in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Table 6.5.1-3, shall be applied to the efficiency requirements in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Tables 6.8.1-1 through 6.8.1-11.

    2. b.For water-cooled units with a capacity less than 54,000 Btu/h (16 kW) that are used in systems where heating and cooling loads are transferred within the building (i.e., water-source heat-pump systems), the requirement for an air or water economizer can be eliminated if the condenserwater temperature controls are capable of being set to maintain full-load heat-rejection capacity down to a 55°F (12°C) condenser-water supply temperature, and the HVAC equipment is capable of operating with a 55°F (12°C) condenserwater supply temperature.

    TABLE 701.4.3.4 (TABLE 7.4.3.4)

    MINIMUM SYSTEM SIZE FOR WHICH AN ECONOMIZER IS REQUIRED

    CLIMATE ZONESCOOLING CAPACITY FOR WHICH AN ECONOMIZER IS REQUIREDa
    0A, 0B, 1A, 1BNo economizer requirement
    2A, 2B, 3A, 3B, 3C, 4A, 4B, 4C, 5A, 5B, 5C, 6A, 6B, 7, 8≥ 33,000 Btu/h (9.7 kW)a
    1. a.Where economizers are required, the total capacity of all systems without economizers shall not exceed 480,000 Btu/h (140 kW) per building or 20% of the building’s air economizer capacity, whichever is greater.

    701.4.3.5 (7.4.3.5) Zone Controls.

    The exceptions to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section (6.5.2.1), shall be modified as follows:

    1. a.Exception (1) shall not be used.

    2. b.Exception (2)(a)(2) shall be replaced by the following text: “the design outdoor airflow rate for the zone.”

    701.4.3.6 (7.4.3.6)Fan System Power and Efficiency.

    701.4.3.6.1 (7.4.3.6.1) Fan System Power Limitation.

    Systems shall have fan power limitations 10% below limitations specified in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Table 6.5.3.1-1. This requirement supersedes the requirement in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section (6.5.3.1) and Table (6.5.3.1- 1). All exceptions in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 6.5.3.1, shall apply.

    701.4.3.6.2 (7.4.3.6.2) Fan Efficiency.

    The fan efficiency requirements defined in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 6.5.3.1.3, shall be used, except that the total efficiency of the fan at the design point of operation shall be within ten percentage points of the maximum total efficiency of the fan. All exceptions in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 6.5.3.1.3, shall apply.

    701.4.3.7 (7.4.3.7)Exhaust Air Energy Recovery.

    The exhaust air energy recovery requirements defined in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 6.5.6.1, including the requirements in Tables 6.5.6.1-1 and 6.5.6.1-2, shall be used except that the energy recovery effectiveness shall not be less than 60%, superseding the 50% effectiveness requirement in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 6.5.6.1.

    701.4.3.8 (7.4.3.8)Kitchen Exhaust Systems.

    The requirements in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 6.5.7.2 shall apply, except as follows: Sections 701.4.3.8.1 (7.4.3.8.1) and 701.4.3.8.2 (7.4.3.8.2) supersede the requirements in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Sections 6.5.7.2.2 and 6.5.7.2.3.

    701.4.3.8.1 (7.4.3.8.1)

    For kitchen/dining facilities with total kitchen hood exhaust airflow rate greater than 2000 cfm (950 L/s), the maximum exhaust flow rate for each hood shall be determined in accordance with Table 701.4.3.8.1 (7.4.3.8.1). For single hoods, or hood sections installed over appliances with different duty ratings, the maximum allowable exhaust flow rate for the hood or hood section shall be determined in accordance with Table 701.4.3.8.1 (7.4.3.8.1) for the highest appliance duty rating under the hood or hood section. Refer to ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 154 for definitions of hood type, appliance duty, and net exhaust flow rate.

    Exception: When at least 75% of all the replacement air is transfer air that would otherwise be exhausted.

    TABLE 701.4.3.8.1 (TABLE 7.4.3.8.1)

    MAXIMUM NET EXHAUST FLOW RATE PER LENGTH OF HOOD

    TYPE OF HOODLIGHT-DUTYEQUIPMENTMEDIUM-DUTYEQUIPMENTHEAVY-DUTYEQUIPMENTEXTRA-HEAVY-DUTYEQUIPMENT
    cfm perlinear footL/s perlinear metrecfm per linearfootL/s per linearmetrecfm per linearfootL/s per linearmetrecfm per linearfootL/s per linearmetre
    Wall-mounted canopy140217210325280433385596
    Single island a280433350541420650490758
    Double island (per side)175271210325280433385596
    Eyebrow175271175271Not allowedNot allowedNot allowedNot allowed
    Backshelf/Passover210325210325280433Not allowedNot allowed
    1. a.The total exhaust flow rate for all single-island hoods in a kitchen/dining facility shall be no more than 5000 cfm (2360 L/s).

    701.4.3.8.2 (7.4.3.8.2)

    Kitchen/dining facilities with total kitchen hood exhaust airflow rate greater than 2000 cfm (950 L/s) shall comply with at least one of the following:

    1. a.At least 50% of all replacement air must be transfer air that would otherwise be exhausted.

    2. b.At least 75% of kitchen hood exhaust air shall be controlled by demand ventilation system, which shall:

      1. 1.Be capable of reducing exhaust and replacement air system airflow rates by no more than the larger of:

        1. i.50% of total design exhaust and replacement air system airflow rate; or

        2. ii.The outdoor airflow and exhaust rates required to meet the ventilation and exhaust requirements of Sections 6.2 and 6.5 of ASHRAE Standard 62.1 for the zone.

      2. 2.Include controls to modulate airflow in response to appliance operation and to maintain full capture and containment of smoke, effluent, and combustion products during cooking and idle;

      3. 3.Include controls that result in full flow when the demand ventilation systems fail to modulate airflow in response to appliance operation; and

      4. 4.Allow occupants to temporarily override the systems to full flow.

    3. c.Listed energy recovery devices with a sensible heat recovery effectiveness of not less than 40% shall be applied on at least 50% of the total exhaust airflow.

    4. d.In Climate Zones 0B, 1B, 2B, 3B, 4B, 5B, 6B, 7B, and 8B, when makeup air is uncooled or cooled without the use of mechanical cooling, the capacity of any nonmechanical cooling systems (Informative Note: e.g., natural cooling or evaporative cooling) shall be demonstrated to be no less than the system capacity of a mechanical cooling system necessary to meet the same loads under design conditions.

    701.4.3.9 (7.4.3.9)Duct Insulation.

    Duct insulation shall comply with the minimum requirements in Normative Appendix A, Tables A-2 and A-3. These requirements supersede the requirements in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Table 6.8.2.

    701.4.3.10 (7.4.3.10) Automatic Control of HVAC and Lights in Hotel/Motel Guest Rooms.

    In hotels and motels with over 50 guest rooms, automatic controls for the lighting, switched outlets, television, and HVAC equipment serving each guest room shall be configured according to the following requirements.

    701.4.3.10.1 (7.4.3.10.1)Lighting and Switched Outlet Control.

    Within 30 minutes of all occupants leaving the guest room, power for lighting and switched outlets shall be automatically turned off.

    701.4.3.10.2 (7.4.3.10.2)Television Control.

    Within 30 minutes of all occupants leaving the guest room, televisions shall be automatically turned off or placed in sleep or standby mode.

    701.4.3.10.3 (7.4.3.10.3)HVAC Set-Point Control.

    Within 30 minutes of all occupants leaving the guest room, HVAC set points shall be automatically raised by at least 5°F (3°C) from the occupant set point in the cooling mode and automatically lowered by at least 5°F (3°C) from the occupant set point in the heating mode. When the guest room is unrented and unoccupied, HVAC set points shall be automatically reset to 80°F (27°C) or higher in the cooling mode and to 60°F (16°C) or lower in the heating mode. Unrented and unoccupied guest rooms shall be determined by either of the following criteria:

    1. a.The guest room has been continuously unoccupied for up to 16 hours.

    2. b.A networked guest-room control system indicates the guest room is unrented and the guest room is unoccupied for no more than 30 minutes.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.A networked guest-room control system may return the thermostat set points to their default set points 60 minutes prior to the time the room is scheduled to be occupied.

    2. 2.Cooling for humidity control shall be permitted during unoccupied periods.

    701.4.3.10.4 (7.4.3.10.4)Ventilation Control.

    Within 30 minutes of all occupants leaving the guest room, ventilation and exhaust fans shall be automatically turned off, or isolation devices serving each guest room shall automatically shut off the supply of outdoor air to the room and shut off exhaust air from the guest room. In conjunction with the automatic ventilation shutoff, an automatic preoccupancy purge cycle shall provide outdoor air ventilation as specified in Section 801.3.1.6 (8.3.1.6).

    701.4.3.10.5 (7.4.3.10.5)Automatic Control.

    Captive keycard systems shall not be used to comply with Section 701.4.3.10 (7.4.3.10).

    701.4.4 (7.4.4)Service Water Heating.

    The service water heating shall comply with ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 7, with the following modifications and additions.

    701.4.4.1 (7.4.4.1)Equipment Efficiency for the Alternate Renewables Approach.

    All building projects complying with the Alternate Renewables Approach in Section 701.4.1.1.2 (7.4.1.1.2) shall comply with the applicable equipment efficiency requirements in Normative Appendix B, Table B101.9 (B-9), and with the applicable ENERGY STAR requirements in Section 701.4.7.3.2 (7.4.7.3.2). These requirements supersede the requirements in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Table 7.8.

    701.4.4.2 (7.4.4.2)Insulation for Spa Pools.

    Pools heated to more than 90°F (32°C) shall have side and bottom surfaces insulated on the exterior with a minimum insulation value of R-12 (R-2.1).

    701.4.5 (7.4.5)Power.

    The power shall comply with ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 8.

    701.4.6 (7.4.6)Lighting.

    The lighting shall comply with ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 9, with the following modifications and additions.

    701.4.6.1 (7.4.6.1)Lighting Power Allowance

    TABLE 701.4.6.1A (TABLE 7.4.6.1A)

    LIGHTING POWER DENSITIES USING THE BUILDING AREA METHOD

    BUILDING AREA TYPEaLPD, W/ft2LPD, W/m2
    Automotive facility0.646.9
    Convention center0.515.5
    Courthouse0.748.0
    Dining: Bar lounge/leisure0.697.4
    Dining: Cafeteria/fast food0.667.1
    Dining: Family0.616.6
    Dormitory0.525.6
    Exercise center0.616.6
    Fire station0.505.4
    Gymnasium0.677.2
    Health care clinic0.687.3
    Hospital0.869.3
    Hotel/Motel0.707.5
    Library0.727.8
    Manufacturing facility0.606.5
    Motion picture theater0.626.7
    Multifamily0.495.3
    Museum0.687.3
    Office0.697.4
    Parking garage0.121.3
    Penitentiary0.677.2
    Performing arts theater0.859.1
    Police station0.687.3
    Post office0.626.7
    Religious facility0.707.5
    Retail0.919.8
    School/university0.677.2
    Sports arena0.768.2
    Town hall0.727.8
    Transportation0.515.5
    Warehouse0.414.4
    Workshop0.838.9
    1. a. In cases where both a general building area type and a specific building area type are listed, the specific building area type shall apply.

    TABLE 701.4.6.1B (TABLE 7.4.6.1B)

    LIGHTING POWER DENSITY (LPD) ALLOWANCES AND ROOM CAVITY RATIO (RCR) THRESHOLDS USING THE SPACE-BY-SPACE METHOD

    Informative Note: This table is divided into two sections. The first section covers space types that can be commonly found in multiple-building types. The second part covers space types that are typically found in a single-building type.

    COMMON SPACE TYPES aLPD, W/ft2LPD, W/m2RCR THRESHOLD
    Atrium
    < 20 ft (6.1 m) in height0.023/ft total height0.81/m total heightNA
    ≥ 20 ft (6.1m) and ≤ 40 ft (12.2 m) in height0.023/ft total height0.81/m total heightNA
    > 40 ft (12.2 m) in height0.30 + 0.015/ft total height3.2 + 0.53/m total heightNA
    Audience Seating Area
    Auditorium0.677.26
    Convention center0.657.04
    Gymnasium0.434.66
    Motion picture theater0.646.94
    Penitentiary0.444.74
    Performing arts theater1.3414.48
    Religious building0.9810.54
    Sports arena0.424.54
    All other audience seating areas0.404.34
    Banking Activity Area0.798.56
    Breakroom (see Lounge/Breakroom)
    Classroom/Lecture Hall/Training Room
    Penitentiary1.0611.44
    All other classrooms/lecture halls/training rooms0.748.04
    Conference/Meeting/Multipurpose Room0.9310.06
    Confinement Cells0.525.66
    Copy/Print Room0.505.46
    Corridor b
    Facility for the visually impaired (and not used primarily by the staff) c0.818.7width < 8 ft (2.4 m)
    Hospital0.818.7width < 8 ft (2.4 m)
    Manufacturing facility0.283.0width < 8 ft (2.4 m)
    All other corridors0.586.2width < 8 ft (2.4 m)
    Courtroom0.9810.56
    Computer Room1.1612.54
    Dining Area
    Penitentiary0.727.86
    Facility for the visually impaired (and not used primarily bystaff) c1.4815.94
    Bar/lounge or leisure dining0.626.74
    Cafeteria or fast food dining0.535.74
    Family dining0.545.84
    All other dining areas0.535.74
    Electrical/Mechanical Room g0.394.26
    Emergency Vehicle Garage0.535.74
    Food Preparation Area0.929.96
    Guest Room0.758.16
    Laboratory
    In or as a classroom1.0411.26
    All other laboratories1.2413.36
    Laundry/Washing Area0.434.64
    Loading Dock, Interior0.515.56
    Lobby
    Facility for the visually impaired(and not used primarily by the staff) c1.3014.04
    Elevator0.525.66
    Hotel0.687.34
    Motion picture theater0.384.14
    Performing arts theater0.828.86
    All other lobbies0.869.34
    Locker Room0.454.86
    Lounge/Breakroom
    Healthcare facility0.535.76
    All other lounges/breakrooms0.444.74
    Office
    Enclosed and ≤ 250 ft2 (23 m2)0.859.18
    Enclosed and > 250 ft2 (23 m2)0.859.18
    Open plan0.788.44
    Parking Area, Interior0.111.24
    Pharmacy Area1.2313.26
    Restroom
    Facility for the visually impaired(and not used primarily by the staff) c0.818.78
    All other restrooms0.758.18
    Sales Area d1.0611.46
    Seating Area, General0.384.14
    StairwayThe space containing the stairway shall determine the LPD requirements for the stairway.
    Stairwell0.505.410
    Storage Room
    < 50 ft2 (4.6m2)0.869.36
    ≥ 50 ft2 (4.6m2) and ≤ 1000 ft2 (93 m2)0.434.66
    All other storage rooms0.434.66
    Vehicular Maintenance Area0.535.74
    Workshop1.0911.76
    BUILDING TYPE SPECIFIC SPACE TYPES aLPD, W/ft2LPD, W/m2RCR THRESHOLD
    Facility for the Visually Impaired c
    Chapel (used primarily by residents)0.898.94
    Recreation room/common living room(and not used primarily by staff)1.5315.36
    Automotive (see Vehicular Maintenance Area)
    Convention Center—Exhibit Space0.697.434
    Dormitory—Living Quarters0.464.958
    Fire Station—Sleeping Quarters0.192.056
    Gymnasium/Fitness Center
    Exercise area0.505.44
    Playing area0.758.14
    Healthcare Facility
    Exam/treatment room1.1612.58
    Imaging room0.9810.56
    Medical supply room0.545.86
    Nursery0.9410.16
    Nurse’s station0.758.16
    Operating room1.8720.16
    Patient room0.454.86
    Physical therapy room0.859.16
    Recovery room0.899.66
    Library
    Reading area0.778.34
    Stacks1.0811.64
    Manufacturing Facility
    Detailed manufacturing area0.869.34
    Equipment room0.616.66
    Extra high bay area (> 50 ft [15.2 m] floor-to-ceiling height)0.737.94
    High bay area (25 ft [7.6 m] to 50 ft [15.2 m] floor-to-ceiling height)0.586.24
    Low bay area (< 25 ft [7.6 m] floor-to-ceiling height)0.616.64
    Museum
    General exhibition area0.616.66
    Restoration room0.778.36
    Performing Arts Theater—Dressing Room0.353.86
    Post Office—Sorting Area0.667.14
    Religious Buildings
    Fellowship hall0.424.54
    Worship/pulpit/choir area0.9810.54
    Retail Facilities
    Dressing/fitting room0.495.38
    Mall concourse0.798.54
    Sports Arena—Playing Areah
    Class I facility2.2624.34
    Class II facility1.4515.64
    Class III facility1.0811.64
    Class IV facility0.727.84
    Transportation Facility
    Baggage/carousel area0.404.34
    Airport concourse0.222.44
    Terminal ticket counter0.485.24
    Warehouse—Storage Area
    Medium-to-bulky, palletized items0.272.94
    Smaller, hand-carried itemse0.657.06
    1. a.In cases where both a common space type and a building area specific space type are listed, the building area specific space type shall apply.

    2. b.In corridors, the extra LPD allowance is permitted when the width of the corridor is less than 8 ft (2.4 m) and is not based on the RCR, see Section 701.4.6.1.1(c) [7.4.6.1.1(c)].

    3. c.A “Facility for the visually impaired” is a facility that can be documented as being designed to comply with the light levels in ANSI/IES RP-28 and is licensed or will be licensed by local/state authorities for either senior long-term care, adult daycare, senior support, and/or people with special visual needs.

    4. d.For accent lighting, see Section 701.4.6.1.1(d) [7.4.6.1.1(d)].

    5. e.Sometimes referred to as a “picking area.”

    6. f.Not used to keep footnote numbering consistent with ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.

    7. g.Electrical/mechanical rooms. An additional 0.50 W/ft2 (5.4 W/m2) shall be allowed, provided that the additional lighting is controlled separately from the base allowance of 0.39 W/ft2 (4.2 W/m2). The additional 0.50 W/ft2 (5.4 W/m2) allowance shall not be used for any other purpose.

    8. h.Class of play as defined by IES RP-6.

    701.4.6.1.1 (7.4.6.1.1)Interior Lighting Power Densities (LPDs).

    The interior lighting power allowance shall be determined using ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, either Section 9.5 or 9.6, with the following modifications:

    1. a.For those areas where the Building Area Method is used, the LPD from ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Table 9.5.1, shall be replaced with the corresponding LPD in Table 701.4.6.1A (7.4.6.1A).

    2. b.For those areas where the Space-by-Space Method is used, the LPD from ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Table 9.6.1, shall be replaced with the corresponding LPD in Table 701.4.6.1B (7.4.6.1B).

    3. c.Room geometry adjustment when using the Space-by-Space Method: ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 9.6.4, shall be replaced with the following. For corridor/transition spaces less than 8 ft (2.4 m) wide, or individual spaces where room cavity ratio (RCR) calculated for the empty room is documented to be greater than the RCR threshold for that space type shown in Table 701.4.6.1B (7.4.6.1B), the allowed LPD shall be 1.2 times the LPD in Table 701.4.6.1B (7.4.6.1B). RCR shall be calculated as described in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 9.6.4.

    4. d.Additional lighting power when using the Space-by-Space Method: For those areas where the Space-by-Space Method is used, the additional increase in the interior lighting power allowed by ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 9.6.2, for specific lighting functions shall be replaced by the requirements and allowances of this section. Additional power shall be allowed only if the specified lighting is installed and automatically controlled separately from the general lighting and is designed and installed to be turned off during nonbusiness hours. This additional power shall be used only for the specified luminaires and shall not be used for any other purpose. An increase in the interior lighting power allowance is permitted in the following cases:

      1. 1.For spaces in which lighting is specified to be installed in addition to the general lighting for the purpose of decorative appearance or for highlighting art or exhibits, provided that the additional lighting power shall not exceed 0.5W/ft2 (5.4 W/m2) of such spaces.

      2. 2.For lighting equipment installed in sales areas and specifically designed and directed to highlight merchandise, calculate the additional lighting power as follows:

        Equation.jpg

        where:

        Retail Area 1 = the floor area for all products not listed in Retail Areas 2, 3, or 4.

        Retail Area 2 = the floor area used for the sale of vehicles, sporting goods, and small electronics.

        Retail Area 3 = the floor area used for the sale of furniture, clothing, cosmetics, and artwork.

        Retail Area 4 = the floor area used for the sale of jewelry, crystal, and china.

        Exception: Other merchandise categories included in Retail Areas 2 through 4 where the authority having jurisdiction has approved the documented need for additional lighting power based on visual inspection, contrast, or other critical display.

    5. e.Any of the control factors from ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Table 9.6.3, shall be permitted to be applied, provided that the corresponding control method is not required by ANSI/ASHRAE/ICC/USGBC/IES Standard 189.1.

    6. f.An additional lighting power allowance shall be credited for institutional tuning of dimmable lighting systems that meet all of the following requirements:

      1. 1.Institutional tuning controls shall be accessible only to authorized personnel.

      2. 2.Construction documents shall state that maximum light output or power of controlled lighting shall be reduced by at least 15% from full output.

      3. 3.The maximum light output or power of the controlled lighting shall be measured without institutional tuning and with institutional tuning to verify reduction of light output or power by at least 15% when tuned. In daylighted areas these measurements shall be conducted at night.

    For controlled lighting in daylighted areas, the additional lighting power allowance shall be 0.05 times the controlled lighting power. In nondaylighted areas, the additional lighting power allowance shall be 0.10 times the controlled lighting power.

    701.4.6.1.2 (7.4.6.1.2)Exterior LPDs.

    The exterior lighting power allowance shall be determined using ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 9.4.3, with the following modification. The LPDs from ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Table 9.4.2-2, shall be multiplied by the appropriate LPD factor from Table 701.4.6.1.2 (7.4.6.1.2).

    TABLE 701.4.6.1.2 (TABLE 7.4.6.1.2)

    LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCE FACTORS

    LIGHTING ZONE
    LZ0LZ1LZ2LZ3LZ4
    For tradable areas, uncovered parking areas: parking areas and drives with measured SRI < 29 or without SRI measurementNot allowed10.750.830.63
    For tradable areas, uncovered parking areas: parking areas and drives with new concrete without added color pigment or with measured SRI ≥ 29Not allowed1111
    For tradable areas, other1.000.900.900.950.95
    For nontradable areas1.000.950.950.950.95

    701.4.6.2 (7.4.6.2)Occupancy Sensor Controls with Multilevel Switching or Dimming.

    The lighting in commercial and industrial storage stack areas shall be controlled by an occupant sensor with multilevel switching or dimming system that reduces lighting power a minimum of 50% within 20 minutes of all occupants leaving the stack area.

    Exception: Storage stack areas illuminated by highintensity discharge (HID) lighting with an LPD of 0.8 W/ft2 (8.6 W/m2) or less.

    701.4.6.3 (7.4.6.3)Automatic Controls for Egress and Security Lighting.

    Lighting in any area within a building that is required to be continuously illuminated for reasons of building security or emergency egress shall not exceed 0.1 W/ft2 (1 W/m2). Additional egress and security lighting shall be allowed, provided it is controlled by an automatic control device that turns off the additional lighting.

    701.4.6.4 (7.4.6.4)Controls for Exterior Sign Lighting.

    This section supersedes ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 9.4.1.4, for all exterior sign lighting. All exterior sign lighting, including internally illuminated signs and lighting on externally illuminated signs, shall comply with the requirements of Sections 701.4.6.4.1 (7.4.6.4.1) or 701.4.6.4.2 (7.4.6.4.2).

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Sign lighting that is specifically required by a health or life safety statute, ordinance, or regulation.

    2. 2.Signs in tunnels.

    701.4.6.4.1 (7.4.6.4.1)

    All sign lighting that operates more than one hour per day during daylight hours shall include controls to automatically reduce the input power to a maximum of 35% of full power for a period from one hour after sunset to one hour before sunrise.

    Exception: Sign lighting using neon lamps with controls to automatically reduce the input power to a maximum of 70% of full power for a period from one hour after sunset to one hour before sunrise.

    701.4.6.4.2 (7.4.6.4.2)

    All other sign lighting shall include the following:

    1. a.Controls to automatically reduce the input power to a maximum of 50% of full power for a period from midnight or within one hour of the end of business operations, whichever is later, until 6:00 am or business opening, whichever is earlier.

    2. b.Controls to automatically turn off during daylight hours.

    701.4.6.5 (7.4.6.5)Parking and Outdoor Sales Lighting.

    This section supersedes ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 9.4.1.4, for lighting serving uncovered parking areas and open areas in outdoor sales lots. Outdoor luminaires serving uncovered parking areas and open areas in outdoor sales lots shall be controlled by all of the following:

    1. a.Luminaires shall be controlled by a device that automatically turns off the luminaire during daylight hours.

    2. b.Luminaires shall be controlled by a timeclock or other control that automatically turns off the luminaire according to a timed schedule.

    3. c.For luminaires having a rated input wattage of more than 50 W and where the bottom of the luminaire is mounted 24 ft (7.3 m) or less above the ground, the luminaires shall be controlled by one or more devices that automatically reduce lighting power of each luminaire by a minimum of 50% when there is no activity detected in the controlled zone for a period no longer than 15 minutes. No more than 1500 input watts of lighting power shall be controlled together.

      Exceptions:

      1. 1.Lighting serving street frontage for vehicle sales lots.

      2. 2.Lighting for covered vehicle entrances or exits from buildings or parking structures where required for safety, security, or eye adaptation.

    701.4.7 (7.4.7)Other Equipment.

    The other equipment shall comply with ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 10, with the following modifications and additions.

    701.4.7.1 (7.4.7.1)Equipment Efficiency for the Alternate Renewables Approach.

    All building projects complying with the Alternate Renewables Approach in Section 701.4.1.1.2 (7.4.1.1.2) shall comply with the applicable equipment efficiency requirements in Normative Appendix B and the applicable ENERGY STAR requirements in Section 701.4.7.3.2 (7.4.7.3.2).

    701.4.7.2 (7.4.7.2)Supermarket Heat Recovery.

    Supermarkets with a floor area of 25,000 ft2 (2500 m2) or greater shall recover waste heat from the condenser heat rejection on permanently installed refrigeration equipment meeting one of the following criteria:

    1. a.Twenty-five percent (25%) of the refrigeration system full-load total heat rejection.

    2. b.Eighty percent (80%) of the space heat, service water heating, and dehumidification reheat.

    If a recovery system is used that is installed in the refrigeration system, the system shall not increase the saturated condensing temperature at design conditions by more than 5°F (3°C) and shall not impair other head pressure control/energy reduction strategies.

    701.4.7.3 (7.4.7.3) ENERGY STAR Equipment.

    All building projects shall comply with the requirements in Section 701.4.7.3.1 (7.4.7.3.1) and all building projects complying with the Alternate Renewables Approach in Section 701.4.1.1.2 (7.4.1.1.2) shall also comply with Section 701.4.7.3.2 (7.4.7.3.2).

    701.4.7.3.1 (7.4.7.3.1)ENERGY STAR Requirements for Equipment not Covered by Federal Appliance Efficiency Regulations (All Building Projects).

    The following equipment within the scope of the applicable ENERGY STAR program shall comply with the equivalent criteria required to achieve the ENERGY STAR label if installed prior to the issuance of the certificate of occupancy:

    1. a.Appliances:

      1. 1.Room air cleaners: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Room Air Cleaners.

      2. 2.Water coolers: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Water Coolers.

    2. b.Heating and Cooling:

      1. 1.Programmable thermostats: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Programmable Thermostats.

      2. 2.Ventilating fans: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Ventilating Fans.

    3. c.Electronics:

      1. 1.Cordless phones: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Telephony.

      2. 2.Audio and video: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Audio and Video.

      3. 3.Televisions: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Televisions.

      4. 4.Set-top boxes: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Set-Top Boxes.

    4. d.Office Equipment:

      1. 1.Computers: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Computers.

      2. 2.Copiers: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment.

      3. 3.Fax machines: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment.

      4. 4.Laptops: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Computers.

      5. 5.Mailing machines: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment.

      6. 6.Monitors: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Displays.

      7. 7.Multifunction devices (printer/fax/scanner): Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment.

      8. 8.Printers: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment.

      9. 9.Scanners: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment.

      10. 10.Computer servers: ENERGY Star Program Requirements for Computer Servers.

    5. e.Lighting:

      1. 1.Integral LED lamps: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Integral LED Lamps.

    6. f.Commercial Food Service:

      1. 1.Commercial fryers: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Fryers.

      2. 2.Commercial hot food holding cabinets: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Hot Food Holding Cabinets.

      3. 3.Commercial steam cookers: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Steam Cookers [see also water efficiency requirements in Section 601.3.2.5 (6.3.2.5)].

      4. 4.Commercial dishwashers: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Dishwashers.

      5. 5.Commercial griddles: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Griddles.

      6. 6.Commercial ovens: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Ovens [see also water efficiency requirements in Section 601.3.2.5 (6.3.2.5)].

    Exception: Products with minimum efficiencies addressed in the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) and the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) when complying with Section 701.4.1.1.2 (7.4.1.1.2).

    701.4.7.3.2 (7.4.7.3.2)ENERGY STAR Requirements for Equipment Covered by Federal Appliance Efficiency Regulations (Alternate Renewables Approach).

    For all building projects complying with the Alternate Renewables Approach in Section 701.4.1.1.2 (7.4.1.1.2), the following equipment within the scope of the applicable ENERGY STAR program shall comply with the equivalent criteria required to achieve the ENERGY STAR label if installed prior to the issuance of the certificate of occupancy. For those products listed below that are also contained in Normative Appendix B, the installed equipment shall comply by meeting or exceeding both the requirements in this section and in Normative Appendix B.

    1. a.Appliances:

      1. 1.Clothes washers: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Clothes Washers [see also the water efficiency requirements in Section 601.3.2.2 (6.3.2.2)].

      2. 2.Dehumidifiers: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Dehumidifiers.

      3. 3.Dishwashers: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements Product Specifications for Residential Dishwashers [see also the water efficiency requirements in Section 601.3.2.2 (6.3.2.2)].

      4. 4.Refrigerators and freezers: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Refrigerators and Freezers.

      5. 5.Room air conditioners: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements and Criteria for Room Air Conditioners.

    2. b.Heating and Cooling:

      1. 1.Residential air-source heat pumps: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for ASHPs and Central Air Conditioners [see also the energy efficiency requirements in Section 701.4.1 (7.4.1)].

      2. 2.Residential boilers: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Boilers [see also the energy efficiency requirements in Section 701.4.1 (7.4.1)].

      3. 3.Residential central air conditioners: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for ASHPs and Central Air Conditioners [see also the energy efficiency requirements in Section 701.4.1 (7.4.1)].

      4. 4.Residential ceiling fans: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Ceiling Fans.

      5. 5.Dehumidifiers: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Dehumidifiers.

      6. 6.Residential warm air furnaces: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Furnaces.

      7. 7.Residential geothermal heat pumps: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Geothermal Heat Pumps.

    3. c.Water Heaters: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Water Heaters.

    4. d.Lighting:

      1. 1.Lamps: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Lamps (Light Bulbs).

      2. 2.Luminaires: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Luminaires.

      3. 3.Residential light fixtures: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Light Fixtures.

    5. e.Commercial Food Service:

      1. 1.Commercial refrigerators and freezers: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers.

      2. 2.Commercial ice machines: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Ice Machines.

    6. f.Other Products:

      1. 1.Battery charging systems: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Products with Battery Charger Systems (BCSs).

      2. 2.External power adapters: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Single-Voltage AC-DC and AC-AC Power Supplies.

      3. 3.Vending machines: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines.

    701.4.7.4 (7.4.7.4)Programmable Thermostats.

    Residential programmable thermostats shall meet the requirements of NEMA Standards Publication DC 3, Annex A, “Energy-Efficiency Requirements for Programmable Thermostats.”

    701.4.7.5 (7.4.7.5)Refrigerated Display Cases.

    All open refrigerated display cases shall be covered by using field-installed strips, curtains, or doors.

    701.4.8 (7.4.8)Energy Cost Budget.

    The Energy Cost Budget option in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 11, shall not be used.

    701.5 (7.5)Performance Option.

    701.5.1 (7.5.1)Annual Energy Cost.

    The proposed building performance cost index with consideration of renewables shall be calculated in accordance with ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Normative Appendix G, and be equal to or less than the Performance Cost Index (PCI) Target, as determined from the following equation:

    Equation

    where:

    PCItarget = target PCI required for achieving compliance with the standard, unitless.

    BBUEC = the component of baseline building performance that is due to unregulated energy use, $.

    BBREC = the component of baseline building performance that is due to regulated energy use, or baseline building performance minus BBUEC, $.

    BPF = building performance factor taken from Table 701.5.2A (7.5.2A), unitless.

    REC = renewable energy production determined from Section 701.4.1.1.1 (7.4.1.1.1) and converted to cost, $.

    The proposed building PCI, without consideration of renewables, shall comply with the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 4.2.1.1.

    On-site renewable energy systems in the proposed design shall be calculated using the procedures in Normative Appendix C. For mixed-use buildings, the building performance factor (BPF) shall be determined by weighting each building type by floor area.

    701.5.2 (7.5.2)Annual Carbon Dioxide Equivalent (CO2e).

    The proposed design shall have an annual CO2e equal to or less than the annual CO2e of the baseline building design multiplied by the building performance factor (BPF) target determined from Table 701.5.2A (7.5.2A) using the Performance Rating Method in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Normative Appendix G. To determine the annual CO2e for each energy source in the baseline building design and proposed design, the energy consumption shall be multiplied by the CO2e emission factors from Table 701.5.2B (7.5.2B).

    TABLE 701.5.2A (TABLE 7.5.2A)

    ENERGY COST AND CO2e BUILDING PERFORMANCE FACTORS (BPF)

    BUILDING TYPEBUILDING PERFORMANCE FACTOR (BPF)
    Multifamily0.71
    Healthcare/hospital0.56
    Hotel/motel0.58
    Office0.54
    Restaurant0.59
    Retail0.50
    School0.37
    Semiheated warehousea0.44
    All others0.54
    1. a. Conditioned warehouses shall use the “All others” category.

    TABLE 701.5.2B (TABLE 7.5.2B)

    CO2e EMISSION FACTORS

    BUILDING PROJECT ENERGY SOURCECO2e, lb/MWhCO2e, kg/MWh
    Grid-delivered electricity and other fuels not specified in this table1348612
    LPG or propane601273
    Fuel oil (residual)685311
    Fuel oil (distillate)663301
    Coal820372
    Gasoline681309
    Natural gas509231
    District chilled water323146
    District steam855388
    District hot water807366

    The values in this table represent national averages for the United States and include both direct and indirect emissions.