CHAPTER 30
SANITARY DRAINAGE


  • SECTION P3001
    GENERAL

    P3001.1 Scope.
    The provisions of this chapter shall govern the materials, design, construction and installation of sanitary drainage systems. Plumbing materials shall conform to the requirements of this chapter. The drainage, waste and vent (DWV) system shall consist of all piping for conveying wastes from plumbing fixtures, appliances and appurtenances, including fixture traps; above-grade drainage piping; below-grade drains within the building (building drain); below- and above-grade venting systems; and piping to the public sewer or private septic system.

    P3001.2 Protection from freezing.
    No portion of the above grade DWV system other than vent terminals shall be located outside of a building, in attics or crawl spaces, concealed in outside walls, or in any other place subjected to freezing temperatures unless adequate provision is made to protect them from freezing by insulation or heat or both, except in localities having a winter design temperature above 32°F (0°C) (ASHRAE 97.5 percent column, winter, see Chapter 3).

    P3001.3 Flood-resistant installation.
    In flood hazard areas as established by Table R301.2(1), drainage, waste and vent systems shall be located and installed to prevent infiltration of floodwaters into the systems and discharges from the systems into floodwaters.

    SECTION P3002
    MATERIALS

    P3002.1 Piping within buildings.
    Drain, waste and vent (DWV) piping in buildings shall be as shown in Tables P3002.1(1) and P3002.1(2) except that galvanized wrought-iron or galvanized steel pipe shall not be used underground and shall be maintained not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above ground. Allowance shall be made for the thermal expansion and contraction of plastic piping.

    TABLE P3002.1(1)
    ABOVE-GROUND DRAINAGE AND VENT PIPE

    PIPESTANDARD
    Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe in IPS diameters, including schedule 40, DR 22 (PS 200) and DR 24 (PS 140); with a solid, cellular core or composite wall ASTM D 2661; ASTM F 628; ASTM F 1488; CSA B181.1
    Brass pipe ASTM B 43
    Cast-iron pipe ASTM A 74; CISPI 301; ASTM A 888
    Copper or copper-alloy pipe ASTM B 42; ASTM B 302
    Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K, L, M or DWV) ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251; ASTM B 306
    Galvanized steel pipe ASTM A 53
    Polyolefin pipe CSA B181.3
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe in IPS diameters, including schedule 40, DR 22 (PS 200) and DR 24 (PS 140); with a solid, cellular core or composite wall ASTM D 2665; ASTM F 891; CSA B181.2; ASTM F 1488
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe with a 3.25 inch O.D. and a solid, cellular core or composite wall ASTM D 2949; ASTM F 1488
    Stainless steel drainage systems, Types 304 and 316L ASME A 112.3.1
    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    TABLE P3002.1(2)
    UNDERGROUND BUILDING DRAINAGE AND VENT PIPE

    PIPESTANDARD
    Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe in IPS diameters, including schedule 40, DR 22 (PS 200) and DR 24 (PS 140); with a solid, cellular core or composite wallASTM D 2661; ASTM F 628; ASTM F 1488; CSA B181.1
    Asbestos-cement pipeASTM C 428
    Cast-iron pipeASTM A 74; CISPI 301; ASTM A 888
    Copper or copper alloy tubing (Type K, L, M or DWV)ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251; ASTM B 306
    Polyolefin pipeASTM F 1412; CSA B181.3
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe in IPS diameters, including schedule 40, DR 22 (PS 200) and DR 24 (PS 140); with a solid, cellular core or composite wallASTM D 2665; ASTM F 891; ASTM F 1488; CSA B181.2
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe with a 3.25 inch O.D. and a solid, cellular core or composite wallASTM D 2949; ASTM F 1488
    Stainless steel drainage systems, Type 316LASME A 112.3.1
    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    P3002.2 Building sewer.
    Building sewer piping shall be as shown in Table P3002.2. Forced main sewer piping shall conform to one of the standards for ABS plastic pipe, copper or copper-alloy tubing, PVC plastic pipe or pressure-rated pipe listed in Table P3002.2.

    TABLE P3002.2
    BUILDING SEWER PIPE

    MATERIALSTANDARD
    Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe in IPS diameters, including schedule 40, DR 22 (PS 200) and DR 24 (PS 140); with a solid, cellular core or composite wallASTM D 2661; ASTM F 628; ASTM F 1488
    Asbestos-cement pipeASTM C 428
    Cast-iron pipeASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; CISPI 301
    Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe in sewer and drain diameters, including SDR 42 (PS 20), PS35, SDR 35 (PS 45), PS50, PS100, PS140, SDR 23.5 (PS 150) and PS200; with a solid, cellular core or composite wall ASTM F 1488; ASTM D 2751
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe in sewer and drain diameters, including PS 25, SDR 41 (PS 28), PS 35, SDR 35 (PS 46), PS 50, PS 100, SDR 26 (PS 115), PS140 and PS 200; with a solid, cellular core or composite wallASTM F 891; ASTM F 1488; ASTM D 3034; CSA B182.2;CSA B182.4
    Concrete pipeASTM C 14; ASTM C 76; CSA A257.1M; CSA A257.2M
    Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K or L)ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251
    Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipe (SDR-PR)ASTM F 714
    Polyolefin pipeASTM F 1412; CSA B181.3
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe in IPS diameters, including schedule 40, DR 22 (PS 200) and DR 24 (PS 140); with solid, cellular core or composite wallASTM D 2665; ASTM D 2949; ASTM D 3034; ASTM F 1412; CSA B182.2; CSA B182.4
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe with a 3.25 inch O.D. and a solid, cellular core or composite wallASTM D 2949, ASTM F 1488
    Stainless steel drainage systems, Types 304 and 316LASME A 112.3.1
    Vitrified clay pipeASTM C 425; ASTM C 700
    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    P3002.3 Fittings.
    Pipe fittings shall be approved for installation with the piping material installed and shall comply with the applicable standards listed in Table P3002.3.

    TABLE P3002.3
    PIPE FITTINGS

    PIPE MATERIALFITTING STANDARD
    Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe in IPS diameters ASTM D 2661; ASTM D 3311; ASTM F 628; CSA B181.1
    Asbestos cement ASTM C 428
    Cast-iron ASME B 16.4; ASME B 16.12; ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; CISPI 301
    Acrylonotrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe in sewer and drain diameters ASTM D 2751
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe in sewer and drain diameters ASTM D 3034
    Copper or copper alloy ASME B 16.15; ASME B 16.18; ASME B 16.22;
    ASME B 16.23; ASME B 16.26; ASME B 16.29
    Gray iron and ductile iron AWWA C 110
    Polyolefin ASTM F 1412; CSA B181.3
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic in IPS diameters ASTM D 2665; ASTM D 3311; ASTM F 1866
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe with a 3.25 inch O.D. ASTM D 2949
    PVC fabricated fittings ASTM F 1866
    Stainless steel drainage systems, Types 304 and 316L ASME A 112.3.1
    Vitrified clay ASTM C 700
    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    P3002.3.1 Drainage.
    Drainage fittings shall have a smooth interior waterway of the same diameter as the piping served. All fittings shall conform to the type of pipe used. Drainage fittings shall have no ledges, shoulders or reductions which can retard or obstruct drainage flow in the piping. Threaded drainage pipe fittings shall be of the recessed drainage type, black or galvanized. Drainage fittings shall be designed to maintain one-fourth unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) grade. This section shall not be applicable to tubular waste fittings used to convey vertical flow upstream of the trap seal liquid level of a fixture trap.

    P3002.4 Other materials.
    Sheet lead, lead bends, lead traps and sheet copper shall comply with Sections P3002.4.1 through P3002.4.3.

    P3002.4.1 Sheet lead.
    Sheet lead for the following uses shall weigh not less than indicated below:

    1. Flashing of vent terminals, 3 psf (15 kg/m2).

    2. Prefabricated flashing for vent pipes, 21/2 psf (12 kg/m2).

    P3002.4.2 Lead bends and traps.
    Lead bends and lead traps shall not be less than 1/8-inch (3 mm) wall thickness.

    P3002.4.3 Sheet copper.
    Sheet copper for the following uses shall weigh not less than indicated below:

    1. General use, 12 ounces per square feet (4 kg/m2).

    2. Flashing for vent pipes, 8 ounces per square feet (2.5 kg/m2).

    SECTION P3003
    JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS

    P3003.1 Tightness.
    Joints and connections in the DWV system shall be gas tight and water tight for the intended use or pressure required by test.

    P3003.1.1 Threaded joints, general.
    Pipe and fitting threads shall be tapered.

    P3003.2 Prohibited joints.
    Running threads and bands shall not be used in the drainage system. Drainage and vent piping shall not be drilled, tapped, burned or welded.

    The following types of joints and connections shall be prohibited:

    1. Cement or concrete.

    2. Mastic or hot-pour bituminous joints.

    3. Joints made with fittings not approved for the specific installation.

    4. Joints between different diameter pipes made with elastomeric rolling O-rings.

    5. Solvent-cement joints between different types of plastic pipe.

    6. Saddle-type fittings.

    P3003.3 ABS plastic.
    Joints between ABS plastic pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.3.1 through P3003.3.3.

    P3003.3.1 Mechanical joints.
    Mechanical joints on drainage pipes shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 1173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA B602. Mechanical joints shall be installed only in underground systems unless otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P3003.3.2 Solvent cementing.
    Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. Solvent cement that conforms to ASTM D 2235 or CSA B181.1 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 2235, ASTM D 2661, ASTM F 628 or CSA B181.1. Solvent-cement joints shall be permitted above or below ground.

    P3003.3.3 Threaded joints.
    Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be permitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for plastic pipe. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.

    P3003.4 Asbestos-cement.
    Joints between asbestos-cement pipe or fittings shall be made with a sleeve coupling of the same composition as the pipe, sealed with an elastomeric ring conforming to ASTM D 1869.

    P3003.5 Brass.
    Joints between brass pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.5.1 through P3003.5.3.

    P3003.5.1 Brazed joints.
    All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5.8.

    P3003.5.2 Mechanical joints.
    Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P3003.5.3 Threaded joints.
    Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.

    P3003.6 Cast iron.
    Joints between cast-iron pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.6.1 through P3003.6.3.

    P3003.6.1 Caulked joints.
    Joints for hub and spigot pipe shall be firmly packed with oakum or hemp. Molten lead shall be poured in one operation to a depth of not less than 1 inch (25 mm). The lead shall not recede more than 1/8 inch (3 mm) below the rim of the hub and shall be caulked tight. Paint, varnish or other coatings shall not be permitted on the jointing material until after the joint has been tested and approved. Lead shall be run in one pouring and shall be caulked tight. Acid-resistant rope and acidproof cement shall be permitted.

    P3003.6.2 Compression gasket joints.
    Compression gaskets for hub and spigot pipe and fittings shall conform to ASTM C 564. Gaskets shall be compressed when the pipe is fully inserted.

    P3003.6.3 Mechanical joint coupling.
    Mechanical joint couplings for hubless pipe and fittings shall comply with CISPI 310 or ASTM C 1277. The elastomeric sealing sleeve shall conform to ASTM C 564 or CSA B602 and shall have a center stop. Mechanical joint couplings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.

    P3003.7 Concrete joints.
    Joints between concrete pipe and fittings shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 443, ASTM C 1173, CSA A257.3M or CSA B602.

    P3003.8 Coextruded composite ABS pipe.
    Joints between coextruded composite pipe with an ABS outer layer or ABS fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.8.1 and P3003.8.2.

    P3003.8.1 Mechanical joints.
    Mechanical joints on drainage pipe shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 1173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA B602. Mechanical joints shall not be installed in above-ground systems, unless otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P3003.8.2 Solvent cementing.
    Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. Solvent cement that conforms to ASTM D 2235 or CSA B181.1 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 2235, ASTM D 2661, ASTM F 628 or CSA B181.1. Solvent-cement joints shall be permitted above or below ground.

    P3003.9 Coextruded composite PVC pipe.
    Joints between coextruded composite pipe with a PVC outer layer or PVC fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.9.1 and P3003.9.2.

    P3003.9.1 Mechanical joints.
    Mechanical joints on drainage pipe shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM D 3212. Mechanical joints shall not be installed in above-ground systems, unless otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P3003.9.2 Solvent cementing.
    Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. A purple primer that conforms to ASTM F 656 shall be applied. Solvent cement not purple in color and conforming to ASTM D 2564, CSA B137.3 or CSA B181.2 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet, and shall be in accordance with ASTM D 2855. Solvent-cement joints shall be permitted above or below ground.

    P3003.10 Copper pipe.
    Joints between copper or copper-alloy pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.10.1 through P3003.10.4.

    P3003.10.1 Brazed joints.
    All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5.8.

    P3003.10.2 Mechanical joints.
    Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P3003.10.3 Soldered joints.
    Solder joints shall be made in accordance with the methods of ASTM B 828. All cut tube ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming to ASTM B 813 shall be applied. The joint shall be soldered with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32.

    P3003.10.4 Threaded joints.
    Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.

    P3003.11 Copper tubing.
    Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.11.1 through P3003.11.3.

    P3003.11.1 Brazed joints.
    All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5.8.

    P3003.11.2 Mechanical joints.
    Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P3003.11.3 Soldered joints.
    Solder joints shall be made in accordance with the methods of ASTM B 828. Cut tube ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming to ASTM B 813 shall be applied. The joint shall be soldered with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32.

    P3003.12 Steel.
    Joints between galvanized steel pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.12.1 and P3003.12.2.

    P3003.12.1 Threaded joints.
    Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.

    P3003.12.2 Mechanical joints.
    Joints shall be made with an approved elastomeric seal. Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P3003.13 Lead.
    Joints between lead pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.13.1 and P3003.13.2.

    P3003.13.1 Burned.
    Burned joints shall be uniformly fused together into one continuous piece. The thickness of the joint shall be at least as thick as the lead being joined. The filler metal shall be of the same material as the pipe.

    P3003.13.2 Wiped.
    Joints shall be fully wiped, with an exposed surface on each side of the joint not less than 3/4 inch (19 mm). The joint shall be at least 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) thick at the thickest point.

    P3003.14 PVC plastic.
    Joints between PVC plastic pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.14.1 through P3003.14.3.

    P3003.14.1 Mechanical joints.
    Mechanical joints on drainage pipe shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 1173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA B602. Mechanical joints shall not be installed in above-ground systems, unless otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P3003.14.2 Solvent cementing.
    Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. A purple primer that conforms to ASTM F 656 shall be applied. Solvent cement not purple in color and conforming to ASTM D 2564, CSA B137.3 or CSA B181.2 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet, and shall be in accordance with ASTM D 2855. Solvent-cement joints shall be permitted above or below ground.

    P3003.14.3 Threaded joints.
    Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be permitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for plastic pipe. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.

    P3003.15 Vitrified clay.
    Joints between vitrified clay pipe or fittings shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 425, ASTM C 1173 or CSA B602.

    P3003.16 Polyolefin plastic.
    Joints between polyolefin plastic pipe and fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.16.1 and P3003.16.2.

    P3003.16.1 Heat-fusion joints.
    Heat-fusion joints for polyolefin pipe and tubing joints shall be installed with socket-type heat-fused polyolefin fittings or electrofusion polyolefin fittings. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM F 1412 or CSA B181.3.

    P3003.16.2 Mechanical and compression sleeve joints.
    Mechanical and compression sleeve joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P3003.17 Polyethylene plastic pipe.
    Joints between polyethylene plastic pipe and fittings shall be underground and shall comply with Section P3003.17.1 or P3003.17.2.

    P3003.17.1 Heat fusion joints.
    Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. All joint surfaces shall be cut, heated to melting temperature and joined using tools specifically designed for the operation. Joints shall be undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 2657 and the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P3003.17.2 Mechanical joints.
    Mechanical joints in drainage piping shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 1173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA B602. Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P3003.18 Joints between different materials.
    Joints between different piping materials shall be made with a mechanical joint of the compression or mechanical-sealing type conforming to ASTM C 1173, ASTM C 1460 or ASTM C 1461. Connectors and adapters shall be approved for the application and such joints shall have an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 425, ASTM C 443, ASTM C 564, ASTM C 1440, ASTM D 1869, ASTM F 477, CSA A257.3M or CSA B602, or as required in Sections P3003.18.1 through P3003.18.6. Joints between glass pipe and other types of materials shall be made with adapters having a TFE seal. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P3003.18.1 Copper or copper-alloy tubing to cast-iron hub pipe.
    Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing and cast-iron hub pipe shall be made with a brass ferrule or compression joint. The copper or copper-alloy tubing shall be soldered to the ferrule in an approved manner, and the ferrule shall be joined to the cast-iron hub by a caulked joint or a mechanical compression joint.

    P3003.18.2 Copper or copper-alloy tubing to galvanized steel pipe.
    Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing and galvanized steel pipe shall be made with a brass converter fitting or dielectric fitting. The copper tubing shall be soldered to the fitting in an approved manner, and the fitting shall be screwed to the threaded pipe.

    P3003.18.3 Cast-iron pipe to galvanized steel or brass pipe.
    Joints between cast-iron and galvanized steel or brass pipe shall be made by either caulked or threaded joints or with an approved adapter fitting.

    P3003.18.4 Plastic pipe or tubing to other piping material.
    Joints between different types of plastic pipe or between plastic pipe and other piping material shall be made with an approved adapter fitting. Joints between plastic pipe and cast-iron hub pipe shall be made by a caulked joint or a mechanical compression joint.

    P3003.18.5 Lead pipe to other piping material.
    Joints between lead pipe and other piping material shall be made by a wiped joint to a caulking ferrule, soldering nipple, or bushing or shall be made with an approved adapter fitting.

    P3003.18.6 Stainless steel drainage systems to other materials.
    Joints between stainless steel drainage systems and other piping materials shall be made with approved mechanical couplings.

    P3003.19 Joints between drainage piping and water closets.
    Joints between drainage piping and water closets or similar fixtures shall be made by means of a closet flange or a waste connector and sealing gasket compatible with the drainage system material, securely fastened to a structurally firm base. The inside diameter of the drainage pipe shall not be used as a socket fitting for a 4-inch by 3-inch (102 mm by 76 mm) closet flange. The joint shall be bolted, with an approved gasket flange to fixture connection complying with ASME A112.4.3 or setting compound between the fixture and the closet flange or waste connector and sealing gasket. The waste connector and sealing gasket joint shall comply with the joint-tightness test of ASME A112.4.3 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.

    SECTION P3004
    DETERMINING DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS

    P3004.1 DWV system load.
    The load on DWV-system piping shall be computed in terms of drainage fixture unit (d.f.u.) values in accordance with Table P3004.1.

    TABLE P3004.1
    DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT (d.f.u.) VALUES FOR VARIOUS PLUMBING FIXTURES

    TYPE OF FIXTURE OR GROUP OF FIXTURESDRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT
    VALUE (d.f.u.)a
    Bar sink 1
    Bathtub (with or without shower head and/or whirlpool attachments) 2
    Bidet 1
    Clothes washer standpipe 2
    Dishwasher 2
    Floor drainb0
    Kitchen sink2
    Lavatory1
    Laundry tub2
    Shower stall2
    Water closet (1.6 gallons per flush)3
    Water closet (greater than 1.6 gallons per flush)4
    Full-bath group with bathtub (with 1.6 gallon per flush water closet, and with or without shower head and/or whirlpool attachment on the bathtub or shower stall)5
    Full-bath group with bathtub (water closet greater than 1.6 gallon per flush, and with or without shower head and/or whirlpool attachment on the bathtub or shower stall)6
    Half-bath group (1.6 gallon per flush water closet plus lavatory)4
    Half-bath group (water closet greater than 1.6 gallon per flush plus lavatory)5
    Kitchen group (dishwasher and sink with or without garbage grinder)2
    Laundry group (clothes washer standpipe and laundry tub)3
    Multiple-bath groupsc:
    1.5 baths
    2 baths
    2.5 baths
    3 baths
    3.5 baths

    7
    8
    9
    10
    11
    For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
    a. For a continuous or semicontinuous flow into a drainage system, such as from a pump or similar device, 1.5 fixture units shall be allowed per gpm of flow. For a fixture not listed, use the highest d.f.u. value for a similar listed fixture.
    b. A floor drain itself adds no hydraulic load. However, where used as a receptor, the fixture unit value of the fixture discharging into the receptor shall be applicable.
    c. Add 2 d.f.u. for each additional full bath.

    SECTION P3005
    DRAINAGE SYSTEM

    P3005.1 Drainage fittings and connections.
    Changes in direction in drainage piping shall be made by the appropriate use of sanitary tees, wyes, sweeps, bends or by a combination of these drainage fittings in accordance with Table P3005.1. Change in direction by combination fittings, heel or side inlets or increasers shall be installed in accordance with Table P3005.1 and Sections P3005.1.1 through P3005.1.4. based on the pattern of flow created by the fitting.

    TABLE P3005.1
    FITTINGS FOR CHANGE IN DIRECTION

    TYPE OF FITTING PATTERNCHANGE IN DIRECTION
    Horizontal to verticalcVertical to horizontalHorizontal to horizontal
    Sixteenth bend XXX
    Eighth bend XXX
    Sixth bend XXX
    Quarter bend XXaXa
    Short sweep XXa,bXa
    Long sweep XXX
    Sanitary tee Xc
    Wye XXX
    Combination wye and eighth bend XXX
    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
    a. The fittings shall only be permitted for a 2-inch or smaller fixture drain.
    b. Three inches and larger.
    c. For a limitation on multiple connection fittings, see Section P3005.1.1.

    P3005.1.1 Horizontal to vertical (multiple connection fittings).
    Double fittings such as double sanitary tees and tee-wyes or approved multiple connection fittings and back-to-back fixture arrangements that connect two or more branches at the same level shall be permitted as long as directly opposing connections are the same size and the discharge into directly opposing connections is from similar fixture types or fixture groups. Double sanitary tee patterns shall not receive the discharge of back-to-back water closets and fixtures or appliances with pumping action discharge.

    Exception: Back-to-back water closet connections to double sanitary tee patterns shall be permitted where the horizontal developed length between the outlet of the water closet and the connection to the double sanitary tee is 18 inches (457 mm) or greater.

    P3005.1.2 Heel- or side-inlet quarter bends, drainage.
    Heel-inlet quarter bends shall be an acceptable means of connection, except where the quarter bends serves a water closet. A low-heel inlet shall not be used as a wet-vented connection. Side-inlet quarter bends shall be an acceptable means of connection for both drainage, wet venting and stack venting arrangements.

    P3005.1.3 Heel- or side-inlet quarter bends, venting.
    Heel-inlet or side-inlet quarter bends, or any arrangement of pipe and fittings producing a similar effect, shall be acceptable as a dry vent where the inlet is placed in a vertical position. The inlet is permitted to be placed in a horizontal position only where the entire fitting is part of a dry vent arrangement.

    P3005.1.4 Water closet connection between flange and pipe.
    One-quarter bends 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter shall be acceptable for water closet or similar connections, provided a 4-inch by 3-inch (102 mm by 76 mm) flange is installed to receive the closet fixture horn. Alternately, a 4-inch by 3-inch (102 mm by 76 mm) elbow shall be acceptable with a 4-inch (102 mm) flange.

    P3005.1.5 Dead ends.
    Dead ends shall be prohibited except where necessary to extend a cleanout or as an approved part of a rough-in more than 2 feet (610 mm) in length.

    P3005.1.6 Provisions for future fixtures.
    Where drainage has been roughed-in for future fixtures, the drainage unit values of the future fixtures shall be considered in determining the required drain sizes. Such future installations shall be terminated with an accessible permanent plug or cap fitting.

    P3005.1.7 Change in size.
    The size of the drainage piping shall not be reduced in size in the direction of the flow. A 4-inch by 3-inch (102 mm by 76 mm) water closet connection shall not be considered as a reduction in size.

    P3005.2 Drainage pipe cleanouts.
    Drainage pipe cleanouts shall comply with Sections P3005.2.1 through P3005.2.11.

    Exception: These provisions shall not apply to pressurized building drains and building sewers that convey the discharge of automatic pumping equipment to a gravity drainage system.

    P3005.2.1 Materials.
    Cleanouts shall be liquid and gas tight. Cleanout plugs shall be brass or plastic.

    P3005.2.2 Spacing.
    Cleanouts shall be installed not more than 100 feet (30 480 mm) apart in horizontal drainage lines measured from the upstream entrance of the cleanout.

    P3005.2.3 Underground drainage cleanouts.
    When installed in underground drains, cleanouts shall be extended vertically to or above finished grade either inside or outside the building.

    P3005.2.4 Change of direction.
    Cleanouts shall be installed at each fitting with a change of direction more than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) in the building sewer, building drain and horizontal waste or soil lines. Where more than one change of direction occurs in a run of piping, only one cleanout shall be required in each 40 feet (12 192 mm) of developed length of the drainage piping.

    P3005.2.5 Accessibility.
    Cleanouts shall be accessible. The clearance in front of cleanouts shall be not less than 18 inches (457 mm) on 3-inch (76 mm) and larger pipes, and not less than 12 inches (305 mm) on smaller pipes. Concealed cleanouts shall be provided with access of sufficient size to permit removal of the cleanout plug and rodding of the system. Cleanout plugs shall not be concealed by permanent finishing material.

    P3005.2.6 Base of stacks.
    A cleanout shall be provided at the base of each waste or soil stack.

    P3005.2.7 Building drain and building sewer junction.
    There shall be a cleanout near the junction of the building drain and building sewer. This cleanout shall be either inside or outside the building wall, provided that it is brought up to finish grade or to the lowest floor level. An approved two-way cleanout shall be permitted to serve as the required cleanout for both the building drain and the building sewer. The cleanout at the junction of the building drain and building sewer shall not be required where a cleanout on a 3-inch (76 mm) or larger diameter soil stack is located within a developed length of 10 feet (3048 mm) of the building drain and building sewer junction.

    P3005.2.8 Direction of flow.
    Cleanouts shall be installed so that the cleanout opens to allow cleaning in the direction of the flow of the drainage line.

    P3005.2.9 Cleanout size.
    Cleanouts shall be the same nominal size as the pipe they serve up to 4 inches (102 mm). For pipes larger than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal size, the size of the cleanout shall be not less than 4 inches (102 mm).

    Exceptions:

    1. “P” trap connections with slip joints or ground joint connections, or stack cleanouts that are not more than one pipe diameter smaller than the drain served, shall be permitted.

    2. Cast-iron cleanouts sized in accordance with the referenced standards in Table P3002.3, ASTM A 74 for hub and spigot fittings or ASTM A 888 or CISPI 301 for hubless fittings.

    P3005.2.10 Cleanout equivalent.
    A fixture trap or a fixture with integral trap, readily removable without disturbing concealed piping shall be acceptable as a cleanout equivalent.

    P3005.2.11 Connections to cleanouts prohibited.
    Clean-out openings shall not be used for the installation of new fixtures except where approved and an acceptable alternate cleanout is provided.

    P3005.3 Horizontal drainage piping slope.
    Horizontal drainage piping shall be installed in uniform alignment at uniform slopes not less than 1/4 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) for 21/2 inch (64 mm) diameter and less, and not less than 1/8 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (1-percent slope) for diameters of 3 inches (76 mm) or more.

    P3005.4 Drain pipe sizing.
    Drain pipes shall be sized according to drainage fixture unit (d.f.u.) loads. The size of the drainage piping shall not be reduced in size in the direction of flow. The following general procedure is permitted to be used:

    1. Draw an isometric layout or riser diagram denoting fixtures on the layout.

    2. Assign d.f.u. values to each fixture group plus individual fixtures using Table P3004.1.

    3. Starting with the top floor or most remote fixtures, work downstream toward the building drain accumulating d.f.u. values for fixture groups plus individual fixtures for each branch. Where multiple bath groups are being added, use the reduced d.f.u. values in Table P3004.1, which take into account probability factors of simultaneous use.

    4. Size branches and stacks by equating the assigned d.f.u. values to pipe sizes shown in Table P3005.4.1.

    5. Determine the pipe diameter and slope of the building drain and building sewer based on the accumulated d.f.u. values, using Table P3005.4.2.

    P3005.4.1 Branch and stack sizing.
    Branches and stacks shall be sized in accordance with Table P3005.4.1. Below grade drain pipes shall be not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) in diameter. Drain stacks shall be not smaller than the largest horizontal branch connected.

    Exceptions:

    1. A 4-inch by 3-inch (102 mm by 76 mm) closet bend or flange.

    2. A 4-inch (102 mm) closet bend connected to a 3-inch (76 mm) stack tee shall not be prohibited.

    TABLE P3005.4.1
    MAXIMUM FIXTURE UNITS ALLOWED TO BE
    CONNECTED TO BRANCHES AND STACKS

    NOMINAL PIPE SIZE
    (inches)
    ANY HORIZONTAL
    FIXTURE BRANCH
    ANY ONE VERTICAL
    STACK OR DRAIN
    11/4a
    11/2 b34
    2b610
    21/2 b1220
    32048
    4160240
    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
    a. 11/4-inch pipe size limited to a single-fixture drain or trap arm. See Table P3201.7.
    b. No water closets.

    P3005.4.2 Building drain and sewer size and slope.
    Pipe sizes and slope shall be determined from Table P3005.4.2 on the basis of drainage load in fixture units (d.f.u.) computed from Table P3004.1.

    TABLE P3005.4.2
    MAXIMUM NUMBER OF FIXTURE UNITS ALLOWED
    TO BE CONNECTED TO THE BUILDING DRAIN,
    BUILDING DRAIN BRANCHES OR THE BUILDING SEWER

    DIAMETER OF
    PIPE (inches)
    SLOPE PER FOOT
    1/8 inch1/4 inch1/2 inch
    11/2a, bNote aNote a
    2b2127
    21/2b2431
    3364250
    4180216250
    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
    a. 11/2-inch pipe size limited to a building drain branch serving not more than two waste fixtures, or not more than one waste fixture if serving a pumped discharge fixture or garbage grinder discharge.
    b. No water closets.

    P3005.5 Connections to offsets and bases of stacks.
    Horizontal branches shall connect to the bases of stacks at a point located not less than 10 times the diameter of the drainage stack downstream from the stack. Horizontal branches shall connect to horizontal stack offsets at a point located not less than 10 times the diameter of the drainage stack downstream from the upper stack.

    SECTION P3006
    SIZING OF DRAIN PIPE OFFSETS

    P3006.1 Vertical offsets.
    An offset in a vertical drain, with a change of direction of 45 degrees (0.79 rad) or less from the vertical, shall be sized as a straight vertical drain.

    P3006.2 Horizontal offsets above the lowest branch.
    A stack with an offset of more than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the vertical shall be sized as follows:

    1. The portion of the stack above the offset shall be sized as for a regular stack based on the total number of fixture units above the offset.

    2. The offset shall be sized as for a building drain in accordance with Table P3005.4.2.

    3. The portion of the stack below the offset shall be sized as for the offset or based on the total number of fixture units on the entire stack, whichever is larger.

    P3006.3 Horizontal offsets below the lowest branch.
    In soil or waste stacks below the lowest horizontal branch, there shall be no change in diameter required if the offset is made at an angle not greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the vertical. If an offset greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the vertical is made, the offset and stack below it shall be sized as a building drain (see Table P3005.4.2).

    SECTION P3007
    SUMPS AND EJECTORS

    P3007.1 Building subdrains.
    Building subdrains that cannot be discharged to the sewer by gravity flow shall be discharged into a tightly covered and vented sump from which the liquid shall be lifted and discharged into the building gravity drainage system by automatic pumping equipment or other approved method. In other than existing structures, the sump shall not receive drainage from any piping within the building capable of being discharged by gravity to the building sewer.

    P3007.2 Valves required.
    A check valve and a full open valve located on the discharge side of the check valve shall be installed in the pump or ejector discharge piping between the pump or ejector and the gravity drainage system. Access shall be provided to such valves. Such valves shall be located above the sump cover required by Section P3007.3.2 or, where the discharge pipe from the ejector is below grade, the valves shall be accessibly located outside the sump below grade in an access pit with a removable access cover.

    P3007.3 Sump design.
    The sump pump, pit and discharge piping shall conform to the requirements of Sections P3007.3.1 through P3007.3.5.

    P3007.3.1 Sump pump.
    The sump pump capacity and head shall be appropriate to anticipated use requirements.

    P3007.3.2 Sump pit.
    The sump pit shall be not less than 18 inches (457 mm) in diameter and 24 inches (610 mm) deep, unless otherwise approved. The pit shall be accessible and located so that all drainage flows into the pit by gravity. The sump pit shall be constructed of tile, concrete, steel, plastic or other approved materials. The pit bottom shall be solid and provide permanent support for the pump. The sump pit shall be fitted with a gastight removable cover adequate to support anticipated loads in the area of use. The sump pit shall be vented in accordance with Chapter 31.

    P3007.3.3 Discharge pipe and fittings.
    Discharge pipe and fittings serving sump pumps and ejectors shall be constructed of materials in accordance with Sections P3007.3.3.1 and P3007.3.3.2 and shall be approved.

    P3007.3.3.1 Materials.
    Pipe and fitting materials shall be constructed of brass, copper, CPVC, ductile iron, PE, or PVC.

    P3007.3.3.2 Ratings.
    Pipe and fittings shall be rated for the maximum system operating pressure and temperature. Pipe fitting materials shall be compatible with the pipe material. Where pipe and fittings are buried in the earth, they shall be suitable for burial.

    P3007.3.4 Maximum effluent level.
    The effluent level control shall be adjusted and maintained to at all times prevent the effluent in the sump from rising to within 2 inches (51 mm) of the invert of the gravity drain inlet into the sump.

    P3007.3.5 Ejector connection to the drainage system.
    Pumps connected to the drainage system shall connect to a building sewer, building drain, soil stack, waste stack or horizontal branch drain. Where the discharge line connects into horizontal drainage piping, the connection shall be made through a wye fitting into the top of the drainage piping and such wye fitting shall be located not less than 10 pipe diameters from the base of any soil stack, waste stack or fixture drain.

    P3007.4 Sewage pumps and sewage ejectors.
    A sewage pump or sewage ejector shall automatically discharge the contents of the sump to the building drainage system.

    P3007.5 Macerating toilet systems.
    Macerating toilet systems shall comply with CSA B45.9 or ASME A112.3.4 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.

    P3007.6 Capacity.
    A sewage pump or sewage ejector shall have the capacity and head for the application requirements. Pumps or ejectors that receive the discharge of water closets shall be capable of handling spherical solids with a diameter of up to and including 2 inches (51 mm). Other pumps or ejectors shall be capable of handling spherical solids with a diameter of up to and including 1 inch (25.4 mm). The minimum capacity of a pump or ejector based on the diameter of the discharge pipe shall be in accordance with Table 3007.6.

    Exceptions:

    1. Grinder pumps or grinder ejectors that receive the discharge of water closets shall have a minimum discharge opening of 11/4 inches (32 mm).

    2. Macerating toilet assemblies that serve single water closets shall have a minimum discharge opening of 3/4 inch (19 mm).

    TABLE 3007.6
    MINIMUM CAPACITY OF SEWAGE PUMP OR SEWAGE EJECTOR

    DIAMETER OF THE DISCHARGE
    PIPE
    (inches)
    CAPACITY OF PUMP OR EJECTOR
    (gpm)
    221
    21/230
    346
    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m.

    SECTION P3008
    BACKWATER VALVES

    P3008.1 Sewage backflow.
    Where the flood level rims of plumbing fixtures are below the elevation of the manhole cover of the next upstream manhole in the public sewer, the fixtures shall be protected by a backwater valve installed in the building drain, branch of the building drain or horizontal branch serving such fixtures. Plumbing fixtures having flood level rims above the elevation of the manhole cover of the next upstream manhole in the public sewer shall not discharge through a backwater valve.

    P3008.2 Material.
    All bearing parts of backwater valves shall be of corrosion-resistant material. Backwater valves shall comply with ASME A112.14.1, CSA B181.1 or CSA B181.2.

    P3008.3 Seal.
    Backwater valves shall be constructed to provide a mechanical seal against backflow.

    P3008.4 Diameter.
    Backwater valves, when fully opened, shall have a capacity not less than that of the pipes in which they are installed.

    P3008.5 Location.
    Backwater valves shall be installed so that access is provided to the working parts for service and repair.

    SECTION P3009
    GRAY WATER RECYCLING SYSTEMS

    P3009.1 Scope.
    The provisions of Section P3009 shall govern the materials, design, construction and installation of gray water systems for flushing of water closets and urinals and for subsurface landscape irrigation. See Figures P3009.1(1) and P3009.1(2).

    FIGURE P3009.1(1)
    GRAY WATER RECYCLING SYSTEM FOR FLUSHING WATER CLOSETS AND URINALS

    FIGURE P3009.1(2)
    GRAY WATER RECYCLING SYSTEM FOR SUBSURFACE LANDSCAPE IRRIGATION

    P3009.2 Installation.
    In addition to the provisions of Section P3009, systems for flushing of water closets and urinals shall comply with Section P3009.13 and systems for subsurface landscape irrigation shall comply with Section P3009.14. Except as provided for in Section P3009, all systems shall comply with the provisions of the other sections of this code.

    P3009.3 Materials.
    Above-ground drain, waste and vent piping for gray water systems shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table P3002.1(1). Gray water underground building drainage and vent pipe shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table P3002.1(2).

    P3009.4 Tests.
    Drain, waste and vent piping for gray water systems shall be tested in accordance with Section P2503.

    P3009.5 Inspections.
    Gray water systems shall be inspected in accordance with Section P2503.

    P3009.6 Potable water connections.
    Only connections in accordance with Section 3009.13.1 shall be made between a gray water recycling system and a potable water system.

    P3009.7 Waste water connections.
    Gray water recycling systems shall receive only the waste discharge of bathtubs, showers, lavatories, clothes washers or laundry trays.

    P3009.8 Collection reservoir.
    Gray water shall be collected in an approved reservoir constructed of durable, nonabsorbent and corrosion-resistant materials. The reservoir shall be a closed and gas-tight vessel. Access openings shall be provided to allow inspection and cleaning of the reservoir interior.

    P3009.9 Filtration.
    Gray water entering the reservoir shall pass through an approved filter such as a media, sand or diatomaceous earth filter.

    P3009.9.1 Required valve.
    A full-open valve shall be installed downstream of the last fixture connection to the gray water discharge pipe before entering the required filter.

    P3009.10 Overflow.
    The collection reservoir shall be equipped with an overflow pipe having the same or larger diameter as the influent pipe for the gray water. The overflow pipe shall be trapped and shall be indirectly connected to the sanitary drainage system.

    P3009.11 Drain.
    A drain shall be located at the lowest point of the collection reservoir and shall be indirectly connected to the sanitary drainage system. The drain shall be the same diameter as the overflow pipe required in Section P3009.10.

    P3009.12 Vent required.
    The reservoir shall be provided with a vent sized in accordance with Chapter 31 and based on the diameter of the reservoir influent pipe.

    P3009.13 Flushing water systems.
    Systems for flushing water closets and urinals shall comply with Sections P3009.13.1 through P3009.13.6

    P3009.13.1 Collection reservoir.
    The holding capacity of the reservoir shall be a minimum of twice the volume of water required to meet the daily flushing requirements of the fixtures supplied with gray water, but not less than 50 gallons (189 L). The reservoir shall be sized to limit the retention time of gray water to a maximum of 72 hours.

    P3009.13.2 Disinfection.
    Gray water shall be disinfected by an approved method that employs one or more disinfectants such as chlorine, iodine or ozone that are recommended for use with the pipes, fittings and equipment by the manufacturer of the pipes, fittings and equipment.

    P3009.13.3 Makeup water.
    Potable water shall be supplied as a source of makeup water for the gray water system. The potable water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance with Section P2902. There shall be a full-open valve located on the makeup water supply line to the collection reservoir.

    P3009.13.4 Coloring.
    The gray water shall be dyed blue or green with a food-grade vegetable dye before such water is supplied to the fixtures.

    P3009.13.5 Materials.
    Distribution piping shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table P2905.4.

    P3009.13.6 Identification.
    Distribution piping and reservoirs shall be identified as containing nonpotable water. Piping identification shall be in accordance with Section P2901.1.

    P3009.14 Landscape irrigation systems.
    Subsurface landscape irrigation systems shall comply with Sections P3009.14.1 through P3009.14.11

    P3009.14.1 Collection reservoir.
    Reservoirs shall be sized to limit the retention time of gray water to a maximum of 24 hours.

    P3009.14.1.1 Identification.
    The reservoir shall be identified as containing nonpotable water.

    P3009.14.2 Valves required.
    A check valve and a full-open valve located on the discharge side of the check valve shall be installed on the effluent pipe of the collection reservoir.

    P3009.14.3 Makeup water.
    Makeup water shall not be required for subsurface landscape irrigation systems. Where makeup water is provided, the installation shall be in accordance with Section 3009.13.3.

    P3009.14.4 Disinfection.
    Disinfection shall not be required for gray water used or subsurface landscape irrigation systems.

    P3009.14.5 Coloring.
    Gray water used for subsurface landscape irrigation systems shall not be required to be dyed.

    P3009.14.6 Estimating gray water discharge.
    The system shall be sized in accordance with the gallons-per-day-per-occupant number based on the type of fixtures connected to the gray water system. The discharge shall be calculated by the following equation:

    C = A × B(Equation 30-1)

    where:

    A=Number of occupants:

    Number of occupants shall be determined by the actual number of occupants, but not less than two occupants for one bedroom and one occupant for each additional bedroom.

    B=Estimated flow demands for each occupant:

    Residential—25 gallons per day (94.6 lpd) per occupant for showers, bathtubs and lavatories and 15 gallons per day (56.7 lpd) per occupant for clothes washers or laundry trays.

    C=Estimated gray water discharge based on the total number of occupants.

    P3009.14.7 Percolation tests.
    The permeability of the soil in the proposed absorption system shall be determined by percolation tests or permeability evaluation.

    P3009.14.7.1 Percolation tests and procedures.
    At least three percolation tests in each system area shall be conducted. The holes shall be spaced uniformly in relation to the bottom depth of the proposed absorption system. More percolation tests shall be made where necessary, depending on system design.

    P3009.14.7.1.1 Percolation test hole.
    The test hole shall be dug or bored. The test hole shall have vertical sides and a horizontal dimension of 4 inches to 8 inches (102 mm to 203 mm). The bottom and sides of the hole shall be scratched with a sharp-pointed instrument to expose the natural soil. All loose material shall be removed from the hole and the bottom shall be covered with 2 inches (51 mm) of gravel or coarse sand.

    P3009.14.7.1.2 Test procedure, sandy soils.
    The hole shall be filled with clear water to a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) above the bottom of the hole for tests in sandy soils. The time for this amount of water to seep away shall be determined, and this procedure shall be repeated if the water from the second filling of the hole seeps away in 10 minutes or less. The test shall proceed as follows: Water shall be added to a point not more than 6 inches (152 mm) above the gravel or coarse sand. Thereupon, from a fixed reference point, water levels shall be measured at 10-minute intervals for a period of 1 hour. Where 6 inches (152 mm) of water seeps away in less than 10 minutes, a shorter interval between measurements shall be used, but in no case shall the water depth exceed 6 inches (152 mm). Where 6 inches (152 mm) of water seeps away in less than 2 minutes, the test shall be stopped and a rate of less than 3 minutes per inch (7.2 s/mm) shall be reported. The final water level drop shall be used to calculate the percolation rate. Soils not meeting the above requirements shall be tested in accordance with Section 3009.14.7.1.3.

    P3009.14.7.1.3 Test procedure, other soils.
    The hole shall be filled with clear water, and a minimum water depth of 12 inches (305 mm) shall be maintained above the bottom of the hole for a 4-hour period by refilling whenever necessary or by use of an automatic siphon. Water remaining in the hole after 4 hours shall not be removed. Thereafter, the soil shall be allowed to swell not less than 16 hours or more than 30 hours. Immediately after the soil swelling period, the measurements for determining the percolation rate shall be made as follows: Any soil sloughed into the hole shall be removed and the water level shall be adjusted to 6 inches (152 mm) above the gravel or coarse sand. Thereupon, from a fixed reference point, the water level shall be measured at 30-minute intervals for a period of 4 hours, unless two successive water level drops do not vary by more than 1/16 inch (1.59 mm). At least three water level drops shall be observed and recorded. The hole shall be filled with clear water to a point not more than 6 inches (152 mm) above the gravel or coarse sand whenever it becomes nearly empty. Adjustments of the water level shall not be made during the three measurement periods except to the limits of the last measured water level drop. When the first 6 inches (152 mm) of water seeps away in less than 30 minutes, the time interval between measurements shall be 10 minutes and the test run for 1 hour. The water depth shall not exceed 5 inches (127 mm) at any time during the measurement period. The drop that occurs during the final measurement period shall be used in calculating the percolation rate.

    P3009.14.7.1.4 Mechanical test equipment.
    Mechanical percolation test equipment shall be of an approved type.

    P3009.14.7.2 Permeability evaluation.
    Soil shall be evaluated for estimated percolation based on structure and texture in accordance with accepted soil evaluation practices. Borings shall be made in accordance with Section P3009.14.7.1 for evaluating the soil.

    P3009.14.8 Subsurface landscape irrigation site location.
    The surface grade of all soil absorption systems shall be located at a point lower than the surface grade of any water well or reservoir on the same or adjoining lot. Where this is not possible, the site shall be located so that surface water drainage from the site is not directed toward a well or reservoir. The soil absorption system shall be located with a minimum horizontal distance between various elements as indicated in Table P3009.14.8. Private sewage disposal systems in compacted areas, such as parking lots and driveways, are prohibited. Surface water shall be diverted away from any soil absorption site on the same or neighboring lots.

    TABLE P3009.14.8
    LOCATION OF GRAY WATER SYSTEM

    ELEMENTMINIMUM HORIZONTAL DISTANCE
    HOLDING TANK
    (feet)
    IRRIGATION
    DISPOSAL FIELD
    (feet)
    Buildings52
    Property line adjoining private property55
    Public water main1010
    Seepage pits55
    Septic tanks05
    Streams and lakes5050
    Water service55
    Water wells50100
    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    P3009.14.9 Installation.
    Absorption systems shall be installed in accordance with Sections P3009.14.9.1 through P3009.14.9.5 to provide landscape irrigation without surfacing of gray water.

    P3009.14.9.1 Absorption area.
    The total absorption area required shall be computed from the estimated daily gray water discharge and the design-loading rate based on the percolation rate for the site. The required absorption area equals the estimated gray water discharge divided by the design-loading rate from Table P3009.14.9.1.

    TABLE P3009.14.9.1
    DESIGN LOADING RATE

    PERCOLATION RATE
    (minutes per inch)
    DESIGN LOADING FACTOR
    (gallons per square foot per day)
    0 to less than 101.2
    10 to less than 300.8
    30 to less than 450.72
    45 to 600.4
    For SI: 1 minute per inch = min/25.4 mm,
    1 gallon per square foot = 40.7 L/m2.

    P3009.14.9.2 Seepage trench excavations.
    Seepage trench excavations shall be a minimum of 1 foot (304 mm) to a maximum of 5 feet (1524 mm) wide. Trench excavations shall be spaced a minimum of 2 feet (610 mm) apart. The soil absorption area of a seepage trench shall be computed by using the bottom of the trench area (width) multiplied by the length of pipe. Individual seepage trenches shall be a maximum of 100 feet (30 480 mm) in developed length.

    P3009.14.9.3 Seepage bed excavations.
    Seepage bed excavations shall be a minimum of 5 feet (1524 mm) wide and have more than one distribution pipe. The absorption area of a seepage bed shall be computed by using the bottom of the trench area. Distribution piping in a seepage bed shall be uniformly spaced a maximum of 5 feet (1524 mm) and a minimum of 3 feet (914 mm) apart, and a maximum of 3 feet (914 mm) and a minimum of 1 foot (305 mm) from the sidewall or headwall.

    P3009.14.9.4 Excavation and construction.
    The bottom of a trench or bed excavation shall be level. Seepage trenches or beds shall not be excavated where the soil is so wet that such material rolled between the hands forms a soil wire. All smeared or compacted soil surfaces in the sidewalls or bottom of seepage trench or bed excavations shall be scarified to the depth of smearing or compaction and the loose material removed. Where rain falls on an open excavation, the soil shall be left until sufficiently dry so a soil wire will not form when soil from the excavation bottom is rolled between the hands. The bottom area shall then be scarified and loose material removed.

    P3009.14.9.5 Aggregate and backfill.
    A minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) of aggregate ranging in size from 1/2 inch to 21/2 inches (12.7 mm to 64 mm) shall be laid into the trench below the distribution piping elevation. The aggregate shall be evenly distributed a minimum of 2 inches (51 mm) over the top of the distribution pipe. The aggregate shall be covered with approved synthetic materials or 9 inches (229 mm) of uncompacted marsh hay or straw. Building paper shall not be used to cover the aggregate. A minimum of 9 inches (229 mm) of soil backfill shall be provided above the covering.

    P3009.14.10 Distribution piping.
    Distribution piping shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter. Materials shall comply with Table P3009.14.10. The top of the distribution pipe shall be not less than 8 inches (203 mm) below the original surface. The slope of the distribution pipes shall be a minimum of 2 inches (51 mm) and a maximum of 4 inches (102 mm) per 100 feet (30 480 mm).

    TABLE P3009.14.10
    DISTRIBUTION PIPE

    MATERIALSTANDARD
    Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipeASTM F 405
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipeASTM D 2729
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe with a 3.5-inch O.D. and solid cellular core or composite wallASTM F 1488

    P3009.14.11 Joints.
    Joints in distribution pipe shall be made in accordance with Section P3003.