CHAPTER 38
WIRING METHODS


  • SECTION E3801
    GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

    E3801.1 Scope.
    This chapter covers the wiring methods for services, feeders and branch circuits for electrical power and distribution.

    E3801.2 Allowable wiring methods.
    The allowable wiring methods for electrical installations shall be those listed in Table E3801.2. Single conductors shall be used only where part of one of the recognized wiring methods listed in Table E3801.2. As used in this code, abbreviations of the wiring-method types shall be as indicated in Table E3801.2.

    TABLE E3801.2
    ALLOWABLE WIRING METHODS

    ALLOWABLE WIRING METHODDESIGNATED
    ABBREVIATION
    Armored cable AC
    Electrical metallic tubing EMT
    Electrical nonmetallic tubing ENT
    Flexible metal conduit FMC
    Intermediate metal conduit IMC
    Liquidtight flexible conduit LFC
    Metal-clad cable MC
    Nonmetallic sheathed cable NM
    Rigid polyvinyl chloride conduit (Type PVC)RNC
    Rigid metallic conduit RMC
    Service entrance cable SE
    Surface raceways SR
    Underground feeder cable UF
    Underground service cable USE

    E3801.3 Circuit conductors.
    All conductors of a circuit, including equipment grounding conductors and bonding conductors, shall be contained in the same raceway, trench, cable or cord.

    E3801.4 Wiring method applications.
    Wiring methods shall be applied in accordance with Table E3801.4.

    TABLE E3801.4
    ALLOWABLE APPLICATIONS FOR WIRING METHODSa, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k

    ALLOWABLE APPLICATIONS
    (application allowed where marked with an “A“)
    ACEMTENTFMCIMC
    RMC
    RNC
    LFCa, gMCNMSRSEUFUSE
    Services AAhAiAAiAAA
    Feeders AAAAAAAAAbAAb
    Branch circuits AAAAAAAAAAcA
    Inside a building AAAAAAAAAAA
    Wet locations exposed to sunlight AAhAAAAAeAe
    Damp locations AAAdAAAAAA
    Embedded in noncinder concrete in dry location AAAAj
    In noncinder concrete in contact with grade AfAAfAj
    Embedded in plaster not exposed to dampness AAAAAAAAA
    Embedded in masonry AAAfAA
    In masonry voids and cells exposed to dampness or below grade line AfAAdAfAAAA
    Fished in masonry voids AAAAAAA
    In masonry voids and cells not exposed to
    dampness
    AAAAAAAAAA
    Run exposed AAAAAAAAAAA
    Run exposed and subject to physical damage Ag
    For direct burial AfAfAAfAA
    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
    a. Liquid-tight flexible nonmetallic conduit without integral reinforcement within the conduit wall shall not exceed 6 feet in length.
    b. Type USE cable shall not be used inside buildings.
    c. The grounded conductor shall be insulated.
    d. Conductors shall be a type approved for wet locations and the installation shall prevent water from entering other raceways.
    e. Shall be listed as “Sunlight Resistant.”
    f. Metal raceways shall be protected from corrosion and approved for the application. Aluminum RMC requires approved supplementary corrosion protection.
    g. RNC shall be Schedule 80.
    h. Shall be listed as “Sunlight Resistant” where exposed to the direct rays of the sun.
    i. Conduit shall not exceed 6 feet in length.
    j. Liquid-tight flexible nonmetallic conduit is permitted to be encased in concrete where listed for direct burial and only straight connectors listed for use with LFNC are used.
    k. In wet locations under any of the following conditions:
    1. The metallic covering is impervious to moisture.
    2. A lead sheath or moisture-impervious jacket is provided under the metal covering.
    3. The insulated conductors under the metallic covering are listed for use in wet locations and a corrosion-resistant jacket is provided over the metallic sheath.

    SECTION E3802
    ABOVE-GROUND INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS

    E3802.1 Installation and support requirements.
    Wiring methods shall be installed and supported in accordance with Table E3802.1.

    TABLE E3802.1
    GENERAL INSTALLATION AND SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS FOR WIRING METHODSa, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k

    INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS
    (Requirement applicable only to wiring methods marked “A“)
    AC
    MC
    EMT
    IMC
    RMC
    ENTFMC
    LFC
    NM
    UF
    RNCSESRaUSE
    Where run parallel with the framing member or furring strip, the wiring shall be not less than 11/4 inches from the edge of a furring strip or a framing member such as a joist, rafter or stud or shall be physically protected. AAAAA
    Bored holes in framing members for wiring shall be located not less than 11/4 inches from the edge of the framing member or shall be protected with a minimum 0.0625-inch steel plate or sleeve, a listed steel plate or other physical protection. AkAkAkAkAk
    Where installed in grooves, to be covered by wallboard, siding, paneling, carpeting, or similar finish, wiring methods shall be protected by0.0625-inch-thick steel plate, sleeve, or equivalent, a listed steel plate or by not less than 11/4-inch free space for the full length of the groove in which the cable or raceway is installed. AAAAAAA
    Securely fastened bushings or grommets shall be provided to protect wiring run through openings in metal framing members. AjAjAj
    The maximum number of 90-degree bends shall not exceed four between junction boxes. AAAA
    Bushings shall be provided where entering a box, fitting or enclosure unless the box or fitting is designed to afford equivalent protection. AAAAAA
    Ends of raceways shall be reamed to remove rough edges. AAAAA
    Maximum allowable on center support spacing for the wiring method in feet. 4.5b, c10l3b4.5b4.5i3d, l2.5e2.5
    Maximum support distance in inches from box or other terminations. 12b, f363612b, g12h, i3612
    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 degree = 0.0175 rad.
    a. Installed in accordance with listing requirements.
    b. Supports not required in accessible ceiling spaces between light fixtures where lengths do not exceed 6 feet.
    c. Six feet for MC cable.
    d. Five feet for trade sizes greater than 1 inch.
    e. Two and one-half feet where used for service or outdoor feeder and 4.5 feet where used for branch circuit or indoor feeder.
    f. Twenty-four inches where flexibility is necessary.
    g. Where flexibility after installation is necessary, lengths of flexible metal conduit and liquidtight flexible metal conduit measured from the last point where the raceway is securely fastened shall not exceed: 36 inches for trade sizes 1/2 through 11/4, 48 inches for trade sizes 11/2 through 2 and 5 feet for trade sizes 21/2 and larger.
    h. Within 8 inches of boxes without cable clamps.
    i. Flat cables shall not be stapled on edge.
    j. Bushings and grommets shall remain in place and shall be listed for the purpose of cable protection.
    k. See Sections R502.8 and R802.7 for additional limitations on the location of bored holes in horizontal framing members.

    E3802.2 Cables in accessible attics.
    Cables in attics or roof spaces provided with access shall be installed as specified in Sections E3802.2.1 and E3802.2.2.

    E3802.2.1 Across structural members.
    Where run across the top of floor joists, or run within 7 feet (2134 mm) of floor or floor joists across the face of rafters or studding, in attics and roof spaces that are provided with access, the cable shall be protected by substantial guard strips that are at least as high as the cable. Where such spaces are not provided with access by permanent stairs or ladders, protection shall only be required within 6 feet (1829 mm) of the nearest edge of the attic entrance.

    E3802.2.2 Cable installed through or parallel to framing members.
    Where cables are installed through or parallel to the sides of rafters, studs or floor joists, guard strips and running boards shall not be required, and the installation shall comply with Table E3802.1.

    E3802.3 Exposed cable.
    In exposed work, except as provided for in Sections E3802.2 and E3802.4, cable assemblies shall be installed as specified in Sections E3802.3.1 and E3802.3.2.

    E3802.3.1 Surface installation.
    Cables shall closely follow the surface of the building finish or running boards.

    E3802.3.2 Protection from physical damage.
    Where subject to physical damage, cables shall be protected by rigid metal conduit, intermediate metal conduit, electrical metallic tubing, Schedule 80 PVC rigid nonmetallic conduit, or other approved means. Where passing through a floor, the cable shall be enclosed in rigid metal conduit, intermediate metal conduit, electrical metallic tubing, Schedule 80 PVC rigid nonmetallic conduit or other approved means extending not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the floor.

    E3802.3.3 Locations exposed to direct sunlight.
    Insulated conductors and cables used where exposed to direct rays of the sun shall be listed or listed and marked, as being “sunlight resistant,” or shall be covered with insulating material, such as tape or sleeving, that is listed or listed and marked as being “sunlight resistant.”

    E3802.4 In unfinished basements and crawl spaces.
    Where type NM or SE cable is run at angles with joists in unfinished basements and crawl spaces, cable assemblies containing two or more conductors of sizes 6 AWG and larger and assemblies containing three or more conductors of sizes 8 AWG and larger shall not require additional protection where attached directly to the bottom of the joists. Smaller cables shall be run either through bored holes in joists or on running boards. Type NM or SE cable installed on the wall of an unfinished basement shall be permitted to be installed in a listed conduit or tubing or shall be protected in accordance with Table E3802.1. Conduit or tubing shall be provided with a suitable insulating bushing or adapter at the point where the cable enters the raceway. The sheath of the Type NM or SE cable shall extend through the conduit or tubing and into the outlet or device box not less than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm). The cable shall be secured within 12 inches (305 mm) of the point where the cable enters the conduit or tubing. Metal conduit, tubing, and metal outlet boxes shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor complying with Section E3908.13.

    E3802.5 Bends.
    Bends shall be made so as not to damage the wiring method or reduce the internal diameter of raceways.

    For types NM and SE cable, bends shall be so made, and other handling shall be such that the cable will not be damaged and the radius of the curve of the inner edge of any bend shall be not less than five times the diameter of the cable.

    E3802.6 Raceways exposed to different temperatures.
    Where portions of a raceway or sleeve are known to be subjected to different temperatures and where condensation is known to be a problem, as in cold storage areas of buildings or where passing from the interior to the exterior of a building, the raceway or sleeve shall be filled with an approved material to prevent the circulation of warm air to a colder section of the raceway or sleeve.

    E3802.7 Raceways in wet locations above grade.
    Where raceways are installed in wet locations above grade, the interior of such raceways shall be considered to be a wet location. Insulated conductors and cables installed in raceways in wet locations above grade shall be listed for use in wet locations.

    SECTION E3803
    UNDERGROUND INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS

    E3803.1 Minimum cover requirements.
    Direct buried cable or raceways shall be installed in accordance with the minimum cover requirements of Table E3803.1.

    TABLE E3803.1
    MINIMUM COVER REQUIREMENTS, BURIAL IN INCHESa, b, c, d, e

    LOCATION OF WIRING
    METHOD OR CIRCUIT
    TYPE OF WIRING METHOD OR CIRCUIT
    1
    Direct burial cables or conductors
    2
    Rigid metal conduit or intermediate metal conduit
    3
    Nonmetallic raceways listed for direct burial without concrete encasement or other approved raceways
    4
    Residential branch
    circuits rated 120 volts or less with GFCI protection and maximum
    overcurrent protection of 20 amperes
    5
    Circuits for control of irrigation and landscape lighting limited to not more than 30 volts and installed with type UF or in other identified cable
    or raceway
    All locations not specified below 24618126
    In trench below 2-inch-thick concrete or equivalent 1861266
    Under a building 0
    (In raceway only or
    Type MC identified
    for direct burial)
    000
    (In raceway only or
    Type MC identified for
    direct burial)
    0
    (In raceway only or
    Type MC identified

    for direct burial)
    Under minimum of 4-inch
    -thick concrete exterior slab with no vehicular traffic
    and the slab extending not less than 6 inches beyond the underground installation
    18446 (Direct burial)
    4 (In raceway)
    6 (Direct burial)
    4 (In raceway)
    Under streets, highways, roads, alleys, driveways
    and parking lots
    2424242424
    One- and two-family dwelling driveways and outdoor parking areas, and used only for dwelling-related purposes 1818181218
    In solid rock where covered
    by minimum of 2 inches concrete extending down to rock
    2 (In raceway only)222 (In raceway only)2 (In raceway only)
    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
    a. Raceways approved for burial only where encased concrete shall require concrete envelope not less than 2 inches thick.
    b. Lesser depths shall be permitted where cables and conductors rise for terminations or splices or where access is otherwise required.
    c. Where one of the wiring method types listed in columns 1 to 3 is combined with one of the circuit types in columns 4 and 5, the shallower depth of burial shall be permitted.
    d. Where solid rock prevents compliance with the cover depths specified in this table, the wiring shall be installed in metal or nonmetallic raceway permitted for direct burial. The raceways shall be covered by a minimum of 2 inches of concrete extending down to the rock.
    e. Cover is defined as the shortest distance in inches (millimeters) measured between a point on the top surface of any direct-buried conductor, cable, conduit or other raceway and the top surface of finished grade, concrete, or similar cover.

    E3803.2 Warning ribbon.
    Underground service conductors that are not encased in concrete and that are buried 18 inches (457 mm) or more below grade shall have their location identified by a warning ribbon that is placed in the trench not less than 12 inches (305 mm) above the underground installation.

    E3803.3 Protection from damage.
    Direct buried conductors and cables emerging from the ground shall be protected by enclosures or raceways extending from the minimum cover distance below grade required by Section E3803.1 to a point at least 8 feet (2438 mm) above finished grade. In no case shall the protection be required to exceed 18 inches (457 mm) below finished grade. Conductors entering a building shall be protected to the point of entrance. Where the enclosure or raceway is subject to physical damage, the conductors shall be installed in rigid metal conduit, intermediate metal conduit, Schedule 80 rigid nonmetallic conduit or the equivalent.

    E3803.4 Splices and taps.
    Direct buried conductors or cables shall be permitted to be spliced or tapped without the use of splice boxes. The splices or taps shall be made by approved methods with materials listed for the application.

    E3803.5 Backfill.
    Backfill containing large rock, paving materials, cinders, large or sharply angular substances, or corrosive material shall not be placed in an excavation where such materials cause damage to raceways, cables or other substructures or prevent adequate compaction of fill or contribute to corrosion of raceways, cables or other substructures. Where necessary to prevent physical damage to the raceway or cable, protection shall be provided in the form of granular or selected material, suitable boards, suitable sleeves or other approved means.

    E3803.6 Raceway seals.
    Conduits or raceways shall be sealed or plugged at either or both ends where moisture will enter and contact live parts.

    E3803.7 Bushing.
    A bushing, or terminal fitting, with an integral bushed opening shall be installed on the end of a conduit or other raceway that terminates underground where the conductors or cables emerge as a direct burial wiring method. A seal incorporating the physical protection characteristics of a bushing shall be considered equivalent to a bushing.

    E3803.8 Single conductors.
    All conductors of the same circuit and, where present, the grounded conductor and all equipment grounding conductors shall be installed in the same raceway or shall be installed in close proximity in the same trench.

    Exception: Conductors shall be permitted to be installed in parallel in raceways, multiconductor cables, and direct-buried single conductor cables. Each raceway or multiconductor cable shall contain all conductors of the same circuit, including equipment grounding conductors. Each direct-buried single conductor cable shall be located in close proximity in the trench to the other single conductor cables in the same parallel set of conductors in the circuit, including equipment grounding conductors.

    E3803.9 Ground movement.
    Where direct buried conductors, raceways or cables are subject to movement by settlement or frost, direct buried conductors, raceways or cables shall be arranged to prevent damage to the enclosed conductors or to equipment connected to the raceways.

    E3803.10 Wet locations.
    The interior of enclosures or raceways installed underground shall be considered to be a wet location. Insulated conductors and cables installed in such enclosures or raceways in underground installations shall be listed for use in wet locations. Connections or splices in an underground installation shall be approved for wet locations.

    E3803.11 Under buildings.
    Underground cable installed under a building shall be in a raceway.

    Exception: Type MC Cable shall be permitted under a building without installation in a raceway where the cable is listed and identified for direct burial or concrete encasement and one or more of the following applies:

    1. The metallic covering is impervious to moisture.

    2. A moisture-impervious jacket is provided under the metal covering.

    3. The insulated conductors under the metallic covering are listed for use in wet locations, and a corrosion-resistant jacket is provided over the metallic sheath.