The provisions of this chapter shall apply to public swimming pools. Public swimming pools covered in this chapter include Class A, Class B, Class C and Class E pools.
The requirements contained in this chapter provide specifications for the design, equipment, operation, warning signs, installation, sanitation, new construction, and alteration of public swimming pools.
In addition to the requirements of this chapter, public swimming pools shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 3.
Finished pool dimensions, for other than Class A pools, shall be held within the construction tolerances shown in Table 401.4. Other dimensions, unless otherwise specified, shall have a tolerance of ± 2 inches (51 mm).
|DESIGN ASPECT||CONSTRUCTION TOLERANCE|
|Depth–deep area, including diving area||± 3 inches|
|Depth–shallow area||± 2 inches|
|Length–overall||± 3 inches|
|Step treads & risers||± 1/2 inch|
|Wall slopes||± 3 degrees|
|Waterline–pools with adjustable weir skimmers||± 1/4 inch|
|Waterline–pools with nonadjustable skimming systems (gutters)||± 1/8 inch|
|Width–overall||± 3 inches|
|All dimensions not otherwise specified herein||± 2 inches|
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 degree = 0.017 radians.
Dimensional tolerances for Class A pools shall be determined by the authority that governs such pools.
Except where required to meet the accessibility requirements in accordance with Section 307.9, the slope of the floor in the shallow area of a pool shall not exceed 1 unit vertical in 10 units horizontal (10-percent slope) for Class C pools and 1 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope) for Class B pools. The slope limit shall apply in any direction to the point of the first slope change, where a slope change exists. The point of the first slope change shall be defined as the point at which the floor slope exceeds 1 unit vertical in 10 units horizontal (10-percent slope) for Class C pools and 1 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope) for Class B pools.
Class A pools shall be designed and constructed to provide the dimensions determined by the authority that governs such pools.
This section covers diving requirements for Class B, Class C, and Class E pools. Manufactured and fabricated diving equipment and appurtenances shall not be installed on Type O pools.
Manufactured and fabricated diving equipment shall be in accordance with Section 808 and shall be designed for swimming pool use.
The installation of manufactured diving equipment shall be in accordance with Sections 402.3 through 402.12. Manufactured diving equipment shall be located in the deep area of the pool so as to provide the minimum dimensions shown in Table 402.12 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Installation and use instructions for manufactured diving equipment shall be provided by the manufacturer and shall specify the minimum water dimensions required for each diving board and diving stand combination. The manufacturer’s instructions shall refer to the water envelope type by dimensionally relating their products to Point A on the water envelopes shown in Table 402.12. The diving board manufacturer shall specify which boards fit on the design pool geometry types as indicated in Table 402.12.
Diving equipment shall have slip-resistant walking surfaces.
For the application of Table 402.12, Point A shall be the point from which dimensions of width, length and depth are established for the minimum diving water envelope. If the tip of the diving board or diving platform is located at a distance of WA (see Figure 804.1) or greater from the deep end wall and the water depth at that location is equal to or greater than the water depth requirement at Point A, the point on the water surface directly below the center of the tip of the diving board or diving platform shall be identified as Point A.
Where a pool is designed for use with diving equipment, the location of steps, pool stairs, ladders, underwater benches, special features and other accessory items shall be outside of the minimum diving water envelope. See Figure 322.2.
Where stationary diving platforms and diving rocks are built on site, flush with the wall and located in the diving area of the pool, Point A shall be in front of the wall at the platform or diving rock centerline.
Manufactured and fabricated diving equipment shall be located so that the tip of the board or platform is located directly above Point A as defined by Section 402.5.
The maximum elevation of a diving board above the design waterline shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
The height of an approved stationary diving apparatus, platform, or diving rock above the design waterline shall not exceed the limits of the manufacturer’s specifications or the limits of the design prepared by a design professional.
The diving equipment manufacturer shall specify the minimum headroom required above the tip of the board.
The minimum diving water envelopes shall be in accordance with Table 402.12.
MINUMUM DIVING WATER ENVELOPES (SEE FIGURE 402.12)
|POOLTYPE||MINIMUM DIMENSIONS||MINIMUM WIDTH OF POOL AT:|
|D1||D2||R||L1||L2||L3||L4||L5||Pt. A||Pt. B||Pt. C|
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
Ladders shall be provided with two grab rails or two handrails. There shall be a uniform distance between ladder treads, with a 7-inch (178 mm) minimum distance and a 12-inch (305 mm) maximum distance.
Exception: The distance between treads for the top and bottom riser can vary but shall be not less than 7 inches (178 mm) and not greater than 12 inches (305 mm).
Springboards located at a height greater than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the pool deck shall have a fall protection guard on each side of the springboard. The design and the selection of the materials of construction of the fall protection guards shall be determined by the manufacturer of the springboard support structure. The installation and maintenance of the fall protection guards shall be in accordance with the fall protection guard manufacturer’s instructions.
The maximum bather load of Class B and Class C pools shall be in accordance with Table 403.1.
MAXIMUM BATHER LOAD
|POOL/DECK AREA||SHALLOW INSTRUCTIONALOR WADING AREAS||DEEP AREA(NOT INCLUDING THE DIVING AREA)||DIVING AREA(PER EACH DIVING BOARD)|
|Pools with minimum deck area||15 sq. ft. per user||20 sq. ft. per user||300 sq. ft.|
|Pools with deck area at least equal to water surface area||12 sq. ft. per user||15 sq. ft. per user||300 sq. ft.|
|Pools with deck area at least twice the water surface area||8 sq. ft. per user||10 sq. ft. per user||300 sq. ft.|
For SI: 1 square foot = 0.09 square meters.
Rest ledges along the pool walls are permitted. They shall be not less than 4 feet (1220 mm) below the water surface. Where a ledge is provided, the width of the ledge shall be not less than 4 inches (102 mm) and not greater than 6 inches (152 mm).
Class F wading pools shall be separate pools with an independent circulation system, shall be physically separated from the main pool and shall be constructed in accordance with Sections 405.2 through 405.6.
The areas where the water depth at the edge of the pool exceeds 9 inches (229 mm) shall be considered as nonentry areas.
The floors of wading pools shall be uniform and sloped with a maximum slope of 1 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope).
The water depth shall not exceed 18 inches (457 mm).
The maximum distance from the top of the deck to the waterline shall not exceed 6 inches (152 mm).
Wading pools shall not have suction outlets. Skimmers or overflow gutters shall be installed and shall accommodate 100 percent of the circulation system flow rate.
Decks shall comply with the provisions of Section 306, except as otherwise required in this section.
A deck or unobstructed access shall be provided for not less than 90 percent of the pool perimeter.
Decking not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) in width shall be provided on the sides and rear of any diving equipment. A deck clearance of 4 feet (1219 mm) shall be provided around all other deck equipment.
Decks between pools, spas or any combination of pools and spas, shall have a width of not less than 6 feet (1829 mm).
Walking surfaces of decks within 4 feet (1219 mm) of a pool or spa shall be slip resistant.
A completely unobstructed minimum distance above the tip of the diving board shall be specified by the diving equipment manufacturer.
Public pools with diving equipment of 39 inches (991 mm) or greater in height, and pools designed for springboard or platform diving, shall comply with the dimensional design requirements of the diving equipment manufacturer or the authority that governs such pools.
Diving equipment shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications.
A label shall be permanently affixed to the diving equipment or jump board in a readily visible location and shall include all of the following:
1.The minimum diving water envelope required for each diving board and diving stand combination.
2.Manufacturer’s name and address.
3.Manufacturer’s identification and date of manufacture.
4.The maximum allowable weight of the user.
The diving equipment manufacturer shall provide diving equipment use instructions.
Diving equipment shall have slip-resistant tread surfaces.
Supports, platforms, stairs, and ladders for diving equipment shall be designed to carry the anticipated loads. Stairs and ladders shall be of corrosion-resistant materials, shall be easily cleanable and shall have slip-resistant treads. Diving stands higher than 21 inches (533 mm), measured from the deck to the top back end of the board, shall be provided with stairs or a ladder. Step treads shall be self-draining.
Diving equipment 39 inches (991 mm) or greater in height shall be provided with a top guardrail. Such guardrail shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the diving board and extend to the edge of the pool wall.
In new construction or substantial alteration, starting blocks intended for competitive swimming shall be located at a water depth of not less than 5 feet (1524 mm).
Swimming pool slides shall comply with the requirements of 16 CFR, Part 1207. The manufacturer of the slide shall provide installation and use instructions for the slide. Slides shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Play and water activity equipment shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Circulation systems for pools shall comply with Section 311 and the provisions of this section.
Circulation equipment shall be sized to turn over the entire water capacity of the pool as specified in Table 407.2. The system shall be designed to provide the required turnover rate based on the maximum pressure and flow rate recommended by the manufacturer of the filter with clean filter media.
|SWIMMING POOL CATEGORY||TURNOVER RATE IN HOURS|
|Class A, B, and C pools||Hours equal 11/2 times the average depth of pool in feet not to exceed 6 hours|
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
Filters shall be designed in accordance with Section 312, except as otherwise required in this section.
The following statement shall be posted in a conspicuous location within the areas of the air release:
DO NOT START THE SYSTEM AFTER MAINTENANCE WITHOUT FIRST PROPERLY REASSEMBLING THE FILTER AND SEPARATION TANK AND OPENING ALL AIR RELEASE VALVES.
Handholds shall comply with the provisions of Section 323.
Depth markers shall be installed at the maximum and minimum water depths and at all points of slope change. Depth markers shall be installed at water depth increments not to exceed 2 feet (607 mm). Depth markers shall be spaced at intervals not to exceed 25 feet (7620 mm).
The depth of water in feet (meters) shall be plainly and conspicuously marked on the vertical pool wall at or above the waterline.
Exception: Pools with a vanishing edge and rim flow gutters.
Depth markers shall indicate the actual pool depth within ± 3 inches (76 mm), at normal operating water level when measured 3 feet (914 mm) from the pool wall or at the tangent point where the cove radius meets the floor, whichever is deeper.
Depth markers on the vertical pool wall shall be positioned to be read from the waterside. Depth markers shall be placed so as to allow as much of the numbers to be visible above the waterline as possible.
Depth markers on the deck shall be located within 18 inches (457 mm) of the water edge and positioned to be read while standing on the deck facing the water.
Horizontal depth markers shall be slip resistant.
Depth markers shall be distributed uniformly on both sides and both ends of the pool.
Depth markers shall be not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in height. The color of the numbers shall contrast with the background on which they are applied and the color shall be of a permanent nature. The lettering shall spell out the words “feet” and “inches” or abbreviate them as “Ft.” and “In.” respectively. Where displayed in meters in addition to feet and inches, the word meter shall be spelled out or abbreviated as “M.”
Where the pool depth is 5 feet (1524 mm) or less, the “No Diving” symbol shall be displayed. The symbol shall be placed on the deck at intervals of not greater than 25 feet (7620 mm) and directly adjacent to a depth marker. Additional signage shall be in accordance with NEMA Z535.
Public pool Classes A, B, and C shall be provided with lifesaving equipment in accordance with Sections 409.4.1 through 409.4.3. Such lifesaving equipment shall be visually conspicuous and conveniently located at all times.
A swimming pool accessory pole not less than 12 feet (3658 mm) in length and including a body hook shall be provided.
A throwing rope attached to a ring buoy or similar flotation device shall be provided. The rope shall be not less than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) in diameter and shall have a length of not less than 11/2 times the maximum width of the pool or 50 feet (15 240 mm), whichever is less. A ring buoy shall have an outside diameter of not less than 15 inches (381 mm).
Pools covered by this chapter shall be provided with first aid equipment, including a first aid kit. First aid equipment and kits shall be located in an accessible location.
Pools shall have not less than two means of entry and exit that are located so as to serve both ends of a pool. Pool lifts, transfer walls and transfer systems that provide for pool entry and exit by persons with physical disabilities in accordance with Section 307.9 shall not be counted as the means of entry or exit that is required by this section.
Where areas have water depths of 24 inches (607 mm) or less at the pool wall, such areas shall be considered as providing their own natural mode for entry and exit.
Exception: Wading pools as outlined in Section 405.
A means of entry and exit shall be provided in shallow areas of pools and shall consist of pool stairs, a ramp or a beach entry.
The means of entry and exit in the deep area of pools shall consist of one of the following:
3.Grab rails with recessed treads.
7.Other designs that provide the minimum utility as specified in this code.
Swimming pools greater than 30 feet (9144 mm) in width shall be provided with entries and exits on each side of the deep area of the pool. The entries and exits on the sides of the deep area of a pool shall be located not more than 82 feet (25 m) apart.
Where the pool is designed for use with diving equipment, the entries and exits, pool stairs, ladders, underwater benches, special features and other accessories shall be located outside of the minimum diving water envelope indicated in Figure 322.2.
Treads shall have slip-resistant surfaces.
Treads shall be not less than 24 inches (607 mm) at the leading edge. Treads shall have an unobstructed surface area of not less than 240 square inches (0.154 m2) and an unobstructed horizontal depth of not less than 10 inches (254 mm) at the centerline.
Risers, except for the bottom riser, shall have a uniform height of not greater than 12 inches (305 mm) measured at the centerline. The bottom riser height is allowed to vary to the floor.
The vertical distance from the pool coping, deck, or step surface to the uppermost tread shall be not greater than 12 inches (305 mm).
Where stairs are located in water depths greater than 48 inches (1219 mm), the lowest tread shall be not less than 48 inches (1219 mm) below the deck and shall be recessed in the pool wall.
Sloping entries used as a pool entrance shall have a maximum slope of 1 unit vertical in 10 units horizontal (10-percent slope).
Where benches are used in conjunction with sloping entries, the vertical riser distance shall not exceed 12 inches (305 mm). Where steps are used in conjunction with sloping entries, the requirements of Section 411.2 shall apply.
A vertical drop exceeding 12 inches (305 mm) within a sloping entry shall be provided with a handrail.
Beach and sloping entry surfaces shall be of slip-resistant materials.
The design and construction of ladders shall comply with Section 322.
Swimouts, located in either the deep or shallow area of a pool, shall comply with all of the following:
1.The horizontal surface shall be not greater than 20 inches (508 mm) below the waterline.
2.An unobstructed surface shall be provided that is equal to or greater than that required for the top tread of the pool stairs in accordance with Section 411.2.
3.Where used as an entry and exit access, swimouts shall be provided with steps that comply with the pool stair requirements of Section 411.2.
4.The leading edge shall be visibly set apart.
Underwater seats and benches, whether used alone or in conjunction with pool stairs, shall comply with all of the following:
1.The horizontal surface shall be not greater than 20 inches (508 mm) below the waterline.
2.An unobstructed surface shall be provided that is not less than 10 inches (254 mm) in depth and not less than 24 inches (607 mm) in width.
3. Underwater seats and benches shall not be used as the required entry and exit access.
4.Where underwater seats are located in the deep area of the pool where manufactured or constructed diving equipment is installed, such seats shall be located outside of the minimum diving water envelope for diving equipment.
5.The leading edge shall be visually set apart.
6.The horizontal surface shall be at or below the waterline.
7.A tanning ledge or sun shelf used as the required entry and exit access shall be located not greater than 12 inches (305 mm) below the waterline.
Safety signage advising on the danger of diving into shallow areas and on the prevention of drowning shall be provided as required by the authority that governs such pools. Safety signage shall be as shown in Figure 412.1 or similar thereto.
A sign indicating the location of the nearest landline telephone that can be used to call emergency services shall be posted within sight of the main entry into a pool facility. The sign shall indicate the telephone numbers, including area code, that can be called for emergency services including, but not limited to, police, fire, ambulance and rescue services. If “9-1-1” telephone service is available for any of those services, “9-1-1” shall be indicated next to the telephone number for such services. The sign shall include the street address and city where the pool is located. The nearest landline telephone indicated by the sign shall be one that can be used free of charge to call for emergency services. A sign with the telephone number and address information required by this section shall be posted within sight of the landline telephone.
Signs shall be positioned for effective visual observation by users as required by the authority that governs such pools.
Signs shall be posted that clearly indicate the location of the pump emergency shutoff switch. Such switch shall be clearly identified as the pump emergency shutoff switch.