Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the meanings shown in this chapter.
Words used in the present tense include the future; words stated in the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural and the plural, the singular.
Where terms are not defined in this code and are defined in the International Building Code, International Energy Conservation Code, International Fire Code, International Fuel Gas Code, International Mechanical Code, International Plumbing Code or International Residential Code, such terms shall have the meanings ascribed to them as in those codes.
Where terms are not defined through the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies.
95th-PERCENTILE RAINFALL EVENT. The rainfall event having a precipitation total greater than or equal to 95 percent of all rainfall events during a 24-hour period on an annual basis.
A-WEIGHTED SOUND LEVEL. Sound pressure level in decibels measured with a sound level meter using an A-weighted network.
ACCIDIFICATION. The dissolved acid from fossil fuel combustion used in electricity production, heating and transportation and deposited by rain into ecosystems.
[A]ADDITION. An extension or increase in floor area or height of a building or structure.
[E]AIR CURTAIN. A device that generates and discharges a laminar air stream installed at the building entrance intended to prevent the infiltration of external, unconditioned air into the conditioned spaces, or the loss of interior, conditioned air to the outside.
[A]ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an existing structure other than repair or addition.
[A]APPROVED. Acceptable to the code official.
[A]APPROVED AGENCY. An established and recognized agency regularly engaged in conducting tests or furnishing inspection services or commissioning services, where such agency has been approved.
[A]APPROVED SOURCE. An independent person, firm or corporation, approved by the code official, who is competent and experienced in the application of engineering principles to materials, methods or systems analyses.
AREA, TOTAL BUILDING FLOOR. The total of the total floor areas on all stories of the building.
AREA, TOTAL FLOOR. The total area of a story as measured from the interior side of the exterior walls.
ASBESTOS-CONTAINING MATERIALS. Building materials containing one or more of the following mineral fibers in any detectable amounts greater than 1 percent that have been intentionally added or are present as a contaminant: chrysotile, amosite, crocidolite, tremolite, actinolite, anthophyllite and any fibrous amphibole.
[F]AUTOMATIC. Self-acting, operating by its own mechanism when actuated by some impersonal influence, such as a change in current strength, pressure, temperature or mechanical configuration (see “Manual”).
AUTOMATIC TIME SWITCH CONTROL. A device or system that automatically controls lighting or other loads, including switching ON or OFF, based on time schedules.
BASIS OF DESIGN. A document that records the concepts, calculations, decisions and product selections used to meet the owner’s project requirements and to satisfy applicable regulatory requirements, standards and guidelines. The document includes both narrative descriptions and lists of individual items that support the design process. Also see the definition of “Owner’s project requirements.”
BICYCLE PARKING, LONG TERM. Bicycle racks or storage lockers provided for bicycle riders including, but not limited to, employees and students, anticipated to be at a building site for four or more hours.
BICYCLE PARKING, SHORT TERM. Bicycle racks or storage lockers provided for bicycle riders including, but not limited to, customers, visitors, and event audiences, anticipated to be at a building site for less than four hours.
BIO-BASED MATERIAL. A commercial or industrial material or product, other than food or feed, that is composed of, or derived from, in whole or in significant part, biological products or renewable domestic agricultural materials, including plant, animal, and marine materials, or forestry materials.
BRANCH CIRCUIT. All circuit conductors between the final branch-circuit overcurrent device and the load.
BROWNFIELD. A site in which the expansion, redevelopment or reuse of would be required to address the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant or contaminant. Brownfield sites include:
1.EPA-recognized brownfield sites as defined in Public Law 107-118 (H.R. 2869) “Small Business Liability Relief and Brownfields Revitalization Act,” 40 CFR, Part 300; and
2.Sites determined to be contaminated according to local or state regulation.
BTU. Abbreviation for British thermal unit, which is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound (454 g) of water 1 °F (0.56 °C) (1 Btu = 1055 J).
BUFFER. The number of feet of setback from a wetland or water body determined by a jurisdiction to be necessary to protect a specific wetland or water body. The width of the buffer varies based on characteristics of the wetland and surrounding areas including, but not limited to, the type and function of the wetland, soils, slopes, land uses, habitats, and needs for wildlife or water quality protection.
[A]BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy, including the energy using systems and site subsystems powered through the building’s electrical service.
BUILDING COMMISSIONING. See “Commissioning.”
BUILDING SITE. A lot, or a combination of adjoining lots, that are being developed and maintained subject to the provisions of this code. A building site includes public ways, private roadways, bikeways and pedestrian ways that are developed as an element of the total development.
BUILDING THERMAL ENVELOPE. The basement walls, exterior walls, floor, roof, and any other building elements that enclose conditioned space. This boundary also includes the boundary between conditioned space and any exempt or unconditioned space.
CAPTIVE KEY CONTROL. An automatic control device or system that energizes circuits when the key that unlocks the sleeping unit is inserted into the device and that de-energizes those circuits when the key is removed.
CARBON DIOXIDE EQUIVALENT (CO2e) EMISSIONS. A measure used to compare the emissions from various greenhouse gases based upon their 100-year time horizon global warming potential (GWP). CO2e emissions from carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) are included. The carbon dioxide equivalent for a gas is derived by multiplying the weight of the gas by the associated GWP.
CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY. A change in the purpose or level of activity within a building that involves a change in application of the requirements of this code.
CLIMATE ZONE. A geographical region based on climate criteria as specified in the International Energy Conservation Code.
CODE OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of this code, or a duly authorized representative.
COMBINATION OVEN/STEAMER. A chamber designed for heating, roasting, or baking food by a combination of conduction, convection, radiation, electromagnetic energy or steam.
[A]COMMISSIONING. A process that verifies and documents that the selected building and site systems have been designed, installed, and function in accordance with the owner’s project requirements and construction documents, and minimum code requirements
COMPOSITE WOOD PRODUCTS. Hardwood plywood, particleboard, and medium-density fiberboard.
Composite wood products do not include the following:
2.Structural panels as specified in DOC PS-2;
3.Structural composite lumber as specified in ASTM D5456;
4.Oriented strand board and glued laminated timber as specified in ANSI A190.1;
5.Prefabricated wood I-joists as specified in ASTM D5055; and
CONSERVATION AREA. Land designated by the jurisdiction or by state or federal government, as appropriate for conservation from development because of the land possessing natural values important to the community including, but not limited to, wildlife habitat, forest or other significant vegetation, steep slopes, ground water recharge area, riparian corridor or wetland.
CONSTRUCTION-COMPACTED SUBSOIL. Subsoils that are compacted through any of the following: clearing, grading, smearing and topsoil removal such that the infiltrative capacity of the soils or the bulk density of the soils is significantly altered in comparison to the reference soil properties.
[A]CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. Written, graphic and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of a project necessary for obtaining a building permit.
[M]CONTROL. A specialized automatic or manual device or system used to regulate the operation of lighting, equipment or appliances.
CO2e. Weight of each gas emitted when consuming a specific energy type in the building per unit of the specific energy type provided to the building at the utility meter multiplied by the global warming potential (GWP) of the specific gas, and then summed over all three gases emitted.
COURT. An open, uncovered space, unobstructed to the sky, bounded on three or more sides by exterior building walls or other enclosing devices.
[E]DAYLIGHT RESPONSIVE CONTROL. A device or system that provides automatic control of electric light levels based on the amount of daylight in a space.
DAYLIGHT SATURATION. The percentage of daylight hours throughout the year when not less than 28 footcandles (300 lux) of natural light is provided at a height of 30 inches (760 mm) above the floor.
DAYLIGHT ZONE. That portion of a building’s interior floor area that is illuminated by natural light.
DECIBELS (dB). Term used to identify ten times the common logarithm of the ratio of two like quantities proportional to the power of energy.
DECONSTRUCTION. The process of systematically disassembling a building, structure, or portion thereof, so that the materials, products, components, assemblies and modules can be salvaged for repurpose, reuse or recycling.
[E]DEMAND LIMIT. The shedding of loads when predetermined peak demand limits are about to be exceeded.
[E]DEMAND RESPONSE (DR). The ability of a building system to reduce the energy consumption for a specified time period after receipt of demand response signal typically from the power company or demand response provider. Signals requesting demand response are activated at times of peak usage or when power reliability is at risk.
[E]DEMAND RESPONSE, AUTOMATED (AUTO-DR). Fully automated demand response initiated by a signal from a utility or other appropriate entity, providing fully automated connectivity to customer energy end-use control strategies.
DEMAND-RESPONSE AUTOMATION INTERNET SOFTWARE. Software that resides in a building energy management control system that can receive a demand-response signal and automatically reduce heating, ventilating, air-conditioning (HVAC) and lighting system loads.
DEMOLITION. The process of razing, relocation, or removal of an existing building or structure, or a portion thereof.
DETENTION. The short-term storage of stormwater on a site in order to regulate the runoff from a given rainfall event and to control discharge rates to reduce the impact on downstream stormwater systems.
Dishwasher, door type. A machine designed to clean and sanitize plates, glasses, cups, bowls, utensils, and trays by applying sprays of detergent solution and a sanitizing final rinse, that is designed to accept a standard 20-inch by 20-inch (508 mm by 508 mm) dish rack which requires the raising of a door to place the rack into the wash/rinse chamber.
Dishwasher, multiple tank conveyor. A machine designed to clean and sanitize plates, glasses, cups, bowls, utensils, and trays by applying sprays of detergent solution and a sanitizing final rinse, using a conveyor or similar mechanism to carry dishes through a series of wash and rinse sprays utilizing one or more tanks within the machine. This type of machine may include a prewashing section before the washing section and an auxiliary rinse section between the power rinse and final rinse section.
Dishwasher, pot pan and utensil. A machine designed to clean and sanitize pots, pans, and kitchen utensils by applying sprays of detergent solutions and a sanitizing final rinse.
Dishwasher, rackless conveyor. A machine designed to clean and sanitize plates, glasses, cups, bowls, utensils, and trays by applying sprays of detergent solution and a sanitizing final rinse, using a conveyor or similar mechanism to carry dishes through a series of wash and rinse sprays within the machine. Rackless conveyor machines utilize permanently installed, vertical pegs to carry dishware through the wash and rinse cycles.
Dishwasher, single-tank conveyor. A machine designed to clean and sanitize plates, glasses, cups, bowls, utensils, and trays by applying sprays of detergent solution and a sanitizing final rinse, using a conveyor or similar mechanism to carry dishes through a series of wash and rinse sprays within the machine. This type of machine does not have a pumped rinse tank but may include a prewashing section ahead of the washing section.
Dishwasher, under counter. A machine designed to clean and sanitize plates, glasses, cups, bowls, utensils, and trays by applying sprays of detergent solution and a sanitizing final rinse, that has an overall height 38 inches (965 mm) or less, designed to be installed under food preparation workspaces.
DIVERSE USE CATEGORIES. Categories of occupancies and land uses which are designated as either community, retail or service facilities:
Community facilities. The community facilities category includes: child care; civic or community center; a building containing a place of worship; police or fire station; post office, public library, public park, school, senior care facility, homeless shelter, and similar social services facilities.
Retail uses. The retail use category includes: convenience store, florist, hardware store, pharmacy, grocery or supermarket and similar retail uses.
Service uses. The service use category includes: bank, coffee shop or restaurant; hair care; health club or fitness center; laundry or dry cleaner, medical or dental office and similar service uses.
[BG]DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete, independent living facilities for one or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation.
ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL SYSTEM, BUILDING (EMCS). A computerized, intelligent network of electronic devices, designed to automatically monitor and control the energy using systems in a building.
ENERGY STAR. A joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) designed to identify and promote energy-efficient products and practices.
ENERGY STAR QUALIFIED. Appliances or equipment that have been found to comply with ENERGY STAR requirements by a third-party organization recognized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).
[M]EQUIPMENT. All piping, ducts, vents, control devices and other components of systems other than appliances which are permanently installed and integrated to provide control of environmental conditions for buildings. This definition shall also include other systems specifically regulated in this code.
EUTROPHICATION. The process by which a body of water acquires a high concentration of nutrients, especially phosphates and nitrates.
[M]EVAPORATIVE COOLING SYSTEM. A system for cooling the air in a building or space by removing heat from the outdoor air by means of the evaporation of water. The system forces air through wet porous pads, causing the latent heat of evaporation to cool the air. Water is continuously circulated over the pads to replenish the evaporated water. Where the cooled air is sent directly into the building, the system is referred to as “direct evaporative cooling.” Where the cooled air is sent through heat exchangers re-circulating indoor air, the system is referred to as “indirect evaporative cooling.”
[A]EXISTING BUILDING. A building erected prior to the date of adoption of the appropriate code, or one for which a legal building permit has been issued.
[A]EXISTING STRUCTURE. A structure erected prior to the date of adoption of the appropriate code, or one for which a legal building permit has been issued.
EXTERIOR WALL, OBSTRUCTED. That portion of an exterior wall with limited access to natural light due to shading from buildings, structures, or geological formations,
FACILITY OPERATIONS. A facility is operational during the time when the primary activity that facility is designed for is taking place. For Group A and Group M occupancies, this is the time during which the facility is open to the public.
[E]FAN EFFICIENCY GRADE (FEG). A numerical rating identifier that specifies the fan’s aerodynamic ability to convert shaft power, or impeller power in the case of a direct driven fan, to air power. FEGs are based on fan peak (optimum) energy efficiency that indicates the quality of the fan energy usage and the potential for minimizing the fan energy usage.
Farmlands of statewide significance. Land, in addition to prime and unique farmlands, that is of statewide importance for the production of food, feed, fiber, forage and oil seed crops. Criteria for delineating this land is determined by the appropriate state agency.
Prime farmland. Land that has the best combination of physical and chemical characteristics for producing food, fiber, feed, forage, and oil seed crops and that is also available for these uses, including cropland, pastureland, forest land, range land and similar lands which are not water areas or urban or built-up land areas.
Unique farmland. Land other than prime farmland that is used for the production of specific high-value food or fiber crops. The land has the special combination of soil quality, location, growing season and moisture supply needed to economically produce sustained high-quality crops or high yields of a specific crop where the lands are treated and managed according to acceptable farming methods.
FEEDER CONDUCTORS. The circuit conductors between the service equipment, the source of a separately derived system, or other power supply source and the final branch-circuit overcurrent device.
[E]FENESTRATION. Products classified as either vertical fenestration or skylights.
FIBER PROCUREMENT SYSTEM. A system that ensures that fiber procured for the manufacture of wood and wood-based products comes from responsible or certified sources in accordance with ASTM D7612.
[M]FIREPLACE. An assembly consisting of a hearth and fire chamber of noncombustible material and provided with a chimney for use with solid fuels.
Factory-built fireplace. A listed and labeled fireplace and chimney system composed of factory-made components, and assembled in the field in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and the conditions of the listing.
Masonry fireplace. A field-constructed fireplace composed of solid masonry units, bricks, stones or concrete.
[BS]FLOOD HAZARD AREA. The greater of the following two areas:
1.The area within a floodplain subject to a 1-percent or greater chance of flooding in any given year;
2.The area designated as a flood hazard area on a community’s flood hazard map, or otherwise legally designated.
[BS]FLOOD OR FLOODING. A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of normally dry land from:
1.The overflow of inland or tidal waters.
2.The unusual and rapid accumulation of runoff of surface waters from any source.
[BS]FLOODPLAIN. An area of land at risk of being inundated with water during high flows. Floodplains are associated with both water courses, such as rivers and streams, and bodies of water, such as oceans and lakes.
[BE]FLOOR AREA, NET. The actual occupied area not including unoccupied accessory areas such as corridors, stairways, toilet rooms, mechanical rooms and closets.
FREEZER. Equipment designed to enclose a space of mechanically cooled and temperature-controlled air used to maintain prescribed frozen food holding temperatures.
FRYER, DEEP FAT. A unit with a width between 12 and 18 inches (305 and 457 mm) that cooks food by immersion in a tank of oil or fat more than 25 pounds (11 kg) and less than 50 pounds (23 kg).
FRYER, LARGE VAT. A unit with a width greater than 18 inches (457 mm) that cooks food by immersion in a tank of oil or fat more than 50 pounds (23 kg).
GEOTHERMAL. Systems that utilize the earth as a heat source or heat sink, including systems utilizing subsurface water or subsurface steam.
GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL (GWP). The cumulative radiative forcing effects of a gas over a 100-year time horizon resulting from the emission of a unit mass of gas relative to a reference gas. The GWP-weighted emissions of direct greenhouse gases in the U.S. Inventory are presented in terms of equivalent emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), using units of teragrams of carbon dioxide equivalents (TgCO2 Eq.). conversion: Tg=109 kg = 106 metric tons = 1 million metric tons.
[P]GRAY WATER. Waste from bathtubs, showers, lavatories, clothes washers, and laundry trays.
GREENFIELD. Land that has not been previously developed or has a history of only agricultural use.
GREENHOUSE GAS. A gas in the atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range.
GRIDDLE, DOUBLE-SIDED. Equipment used to cook food between flat, smooth, or grooved horizontal plates heated from above and underneath.
GRIDDLE, SINGLE-SIDED. Equipment used to cook food directly on a flat, smooth, or grooved horizontal plate heated from underneath.
GROUND SOURCE. See “Geothermal.”
HARDSCAPE. Paved areas on a building site.
HIGH-OCCUPANCY VEHICLE. A vehicle which is occupied by two or more people, including carpools, vanpools, and buses.
[A]HISTORIC BUILDINGS. A building or structure that is one or more of the following:
1.Listed, or certified as eligible for listing by the State Historic Preservation Officer or the Keeper of the National Register of Historic Places, in the National Register of Historic Places;
2.Designated as historic under an applicable state or local law; or
3.Certified as a contributing resource within a National Register listed, state designated, or locally designated historic district.
Ice machine, ice-making head. A factory-made assembly consisting of a condensing unit and ice-making section operating as an integrated unit, with means for making and harvesting ice, that combines the ice-making mechanism and the condensing unit in a single package, but requires a separate ice storage bin.
Ice machine, remote-condensing unit. A factory-made assembly consisting of a condensing unit and ice-making section operating as an integrated unit, with means for making and harvesting ice, where the ice-making mechanism and condenser or condensing unit are in separate sections.
Ice machine, self-contained unit. A factory-made assembly consisting of a condensing unit and ice-making section operating as an integrated unit, with means for making and harvesting ice and where the ice-making mechanism and storage compartment are combined into an integral cabinet.
IMPERVIOUS SURFACE. Paved concrete or asphalt and other similar surfaces that readily accommodate the flow of water with relatively little absorption, as typically used at exterior horizontal areas including, but not limited to, parking lots, bikeways, walkways, plazas and fire lanes.
INDEPENDENT SYSTEM OPERATOR (ISO). The electric system’s operator.
INFEASIBLE. An alteration of a building, site feature, or system that has little likelihood of being accomplished because existing physical or site constraints prohibit modification or addition of elements, spaces or features which are in full and strict compliance with the minimum requirements for new construction.
INFRASTRUCTURE. Facilities within a jurisdiction that provide community services and networks for travel and communication including: transportation services such as, but not limited to roads, bikeways and pedestrian ways and transit services; utility systems such as, but not limited to, water, sanitary sewage, stormwater management, telecommunications, power distribution and waste management; and community services such as, but not limited to, public safety, parks, schools and libraries.
INFRASTRUCTURE, ADEQUATE. The capacity of infrastructure systems, as determined by the jurisdiction, to serve the demands imposed by a new development on building sites without negatively impacting services to existing users of the infrastructure and without negatively impacting the overall functionality of the infrastructure. Adequacy can be determined based on existing infrastructure or on the infrastructure as augmented by a development project.
INVASIVE PLANT SPECIES. Species that are not native to the ecosystem under consideration and that cause, or are likely to cause, economic or environmental harm or harm to human, animal or plant health, defined by using the best scientific knowledge of that region. Invasive species shall include, but shall not be limited to, those nonnative species identified on:
1.Approved city, county or regional lists.
2.State noxious weeds laws, state invasive plant laws, and state invasive species laws.
3.Federal noxious weeds laws.
[A]JURISDICTION. The governmental unit that has adopted this code under due legislative authority.
[A]LABEL. An identification applied on a product by the manufacturer that contains the name of the manufacturer, the function and performance characteristics of the product or material, and the name and identification of an approved agency and that indicates that the representative sample of the product or material has been tested and evaluated by an approved agency.
[A]LABELED. Equipment, materials or products to which has been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection agency or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of the production of the above-labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that the equipment, material or product meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.
LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA). A technique to evaluate the relevant energy and material consumed and environmental emissions associated with the entire life of a building, product, process, material, component, assembly, activity or service.
LIGHTING BOUNDARY. Where the lot line abuts a public walkway, bikeway, plaza, or parking lot, the lighting boundary shall be a line 5 feet (1524 mm) from the lot line and located on the public property. Where the lot line abuts a public roadway or public transit corridor, the lighting boundary shall be the centerline of the public roadway or public transit corridor. In all other circumstances, the lighting boundary shall be at the lot line.
[A]LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services included in a list published by an organization acceptable to the code official and concerned with evaluation of products or services that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product or service meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.
[A]LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit.
[A]LOT LINE. A line dividing one lot from another, or from a street or any public place.
LOW EMISSION, HYBRID AND ELECTRIC VEHICLE. Vehicles that achieve EPA Tier 2, California LEV-II, or a minimum of EPA LEV standards, whether by means of hybrid, alternative fuel, or electric power.
LOW VOLTAGE DRY-TYPE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER. A NEMA ‘Class 1’ transformer that is air-cooled, does not use oil as a coolant, has an input voltage ≤ 600 volts, and is rated for operation at a frequency of 60 hertz.
[E]MANUAL. Capable of being operated by personal intervention (see “Automatic”).
MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REPORTING VALUE (MERV). Minimum efficiency-rated value for the effectiveness of air filters.
METER. A measuring device used to collect data and indicate usage.
MODIFIED ENERGY FACTOR (MEF). The capacity in cubic feet of the clothes container of a clothes washing machine, C, divided by the clothes washing total energy consumption in kWh per cycle. Total energy consumption per cycle is the sum of the machine electrical energy consumption per cycle, M; the hot water energy consumption per cycle, E; and the energy required for removal of the remaining moisture in the wash load per cycle, D. The equation is:
MUNICIPAL RECLAIMED WATER. Reclaimed water treated by a municipality.
NATIVE PLANT SPECIES. Species that are native to the ecosystem under consideration, defined by using the best scientific knowledge of that region. Consideration for inclusion as a native species shall include, but is not limited to, those species identified in any of the following:
1.Approved city, county and regional lists.
[P]NONPOTABLE WATER. Water not safe for drinking, personal or culinary utilization.
[BE]OCCUPANT LOAD. The occupant load as calculated in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 10 of the International Building Code.
[E]OCCUPANT SENSOR CONTROL. An automatic device or system that detects the presence or absence of people within an area and causes lighting, equipment, or appliances to be regulated accordingly.
ONCE-THROUGH COOLING. The use of water as a cooling medium where the water is passed through a heat exchanger one time and then discharged to the drainage system. This also includes the use of water to reduce the temperature of condensate or process water before discharging it to the drainage system.
ONSITE RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEM. An energy generation system located on the building or building site that derives its energy from a renewable energy source.
ORGANIC MATTER. Carbon-containing material composed of both living organisms and formerly living, decomposing plant and animal matter. Soil organic matter content is either naturally occurring or is a result of supplementation with compost or other partially decomposed plant and animal material.
OUTDOOR ORNAMENTAL FOUNTAIN. An outdoor fixture whose dominant use is aesthetic consisting of a catch basin, reservoir or chamber from which one or more jets or streams of water is emitted.
OVEN, CONVECTION. A chamber designed for heating, roasting, or baking food by conduction, convection, radiation, and/or electromagnetic energy.
OWNER’S PROJECT REQUIREMENTS. A written document that details the functional requirements of a project and the expectations of how it will be used and operated. These include project goals, measurable performance criteria, cost considerations, benchmarks, success criteria and supporting information.
OZONE DEPLETION. Destruction of the ozone gas in the upper atmospheric layer, caused by substances formed from breakdown of ozone-depleting substances.
[A]PERMIT. An official document or certificate issued by the code official that authorizes performance of a specified activity.
PERVIOUS CONCRETE. Hydraulic cement concrete with distributed, interconnected macroscopic voids that allows water to pass through the material with little resistance.
POST-CONSUMER RECYCLED CONTENT. The proportion of recycled material in a product generated by households or by commercial, industrial, and institutional facilities in their role as end users of the product that can no longer be used for its intended purpose. This includes returns of material from the distribution chain.
[P]POTABLE WATER. Water free from impurities present in amounts sufficient to cause disease or harmful physiological effects and conforming to the bacteriological and chemical quality requirements of the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards or the regulations of the public health authority having jurisdiction.
POWER CONVERSION SYSTEM. The equipment used to convert incoming electrical power, to the force causing vertical motion of the elevator. In a traction system, this would include the electrical drive, motor, and transmission.
PRECONSUMER (POST-INDUSTRIAL) RECYCLED CONTENT. The proportion of recycled material in a product diverted from the waste stream during the manufacturing process. Preconsumer recycled content does not include reutilization of material such as rework, regrind, or scrap generated in a process and capable of being reclaimed within the same process that generated it.
PRIMARY ENERGY USE. The total fuel-cycle energy embedded within building materials and all forms of energy required for building operation. Units of energy are reported in total Btu’s for building materials and total Btu’s per unit of energy (e.g., kWh, therms and gallons) consumed in the operation of building mechanical systems (HVAC and lighting). Total fuel-cycle energy includes energy required from the point of initial extraction, through processing and delivery to the final point of consumption into building materials or building operation.
PROCESS LOADS. Building energy loads that are not related to building space conditioning, lighting, service water heating or ventilation for human comfort.
PROGRAM OPERATOR. Body or bodies that conduct a Type III environmental declaration program. A program operator is a company or a group of companies, industrial sector or trade association, public authorities or agencies, or an independent scientific body or other organization.
[E]PROPOSED DESIGN. A description of the proposed building used to estimate annual energy use for determining compliance based on total building performance including improvements in design such as the use of passive solar energy design concepts and technologies, improved building thermal envelope strategies, increased equipment and systems efficiency, increased use of daylighting, improved control strategies and improved lighting sources that will result in a decrease in annual energy.
[E]R-VALUE (THERMAL RESISTANCE). The inverse of the time rate of heat flow through a body from one of its bounding surfaces to the other surface for a unit temperature difference between the two surfaces, under steady state conditions, per unit area (h × ft2 × °F/Btu) [(m2 × K)/W].
[P]RAINWATER. Water from natural precipitation.
REBOUND AVOIDANCE, EXTENDED AUTO-DR CONTROL. The rebound avoidance, extended Auto-DR control strategy is essentially an extension of the rebound avoidance, slow recovery strategy. Although a slow recovery strategy is critical to maximize the benefit of an Auto-DR strategy, the building energy management and control system (EMCS) programming for just such a strategy can be very complex or might not be possible for many conventional EMCS’s. A rebound avoidance, extended Auto-DR control strategy also includes logic and controls for avoiding a rebound peak when the control signal is stopped.
REBOUND AVOIDANCE, SEQUENTIAL EQUIPMENT RECOVERY. Sequential equipment recovery that disperses short duration equipment start up spikes gradually, thereby avoiding a larger whole building demand spike.
REBOUND AVOIDANCE, SLOW RECOVERY. Slow recovery strategies slowly recover the target parameter that was controlled in the demand response strategy. Where this strategy is applied, the zone setpoints are gradually restored to the normal setpoints. Where air moving systems are targeted, a limit strategy is applied to the adjustable speed drives; fan adjustable speed drive limits are gradually shifted up.
RECEIVING WATERS. Groundwater, creeks, streams, rivers, lakes or other water bodies that receive treated or untreated waste water or stormwater, including water from combined sewer systems and stormwater drains.
[P]RECLAIMED WATER. Nonpotable water that has been derived from the treatment of waste water by a facility or system licensed or permitted to produce water meeting the jurisdiction’s water requirements for its intended uses. Also known as “Recycled Water.”
RECYCLABILITY. Ability of a material or product to be captured and separated from a waste stream for conversion, reprocessing or reuse.
REFRIGERATOR. Equipment designed to enclose a space of mechanically cooled and temperature-controlled air used to maintain prescribed cold food holding temperatures.
[A]REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual who is registered or licensed to practice their respective design profession as defined by the statutory requirements of the professional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed.
[A]REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL IN RESPONSIBLE CHARGE. A registered design professional engaged by the owner to review and coordinate certain aspects of the project, as determined by the building official, for compatibility with the design of the building or structure, including submittal documents prepared by others, deferred submittal documents and phased submittal documents.
RELOCATABLE (RELOCATED) MODULAR BUILDING. A partially or completely assembled building using a modular construction process and designed to be reused or repurposed multiple times and transported to different building sites.
RENEWABLE ENERGY CREDIT (REC). A REC represents the property rights to the environmental, social, and other nonpower qualities of renewable electricity generation. A REC, and its associated attributes and benefits, is sold separately from the underlying physical electricity associated with an onsite renewable energy source.
RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE. Energy derived from solar radiation, wind, waves, tides, biogas, biomass, or geothermal energy.
[A]REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing building or building site for the purpose of its maintenance or to correct damage.
RETENTION (STORMWATER). The permanent holding of stormwater on a site, preventing the water from leaving the site as surface drainage and allowing for use of the water on site, or loss of the water through percolation, evaporation or absorption by vegetation.
REUSE. To divert a material, product, component, module, or a building from the waste stream in order to use it again.
[BS]ROOF COVERING. The covering applied to the roof deck for weather resistance, fire classification or appearance.
[BS]ROOF RECOVER. The process of installing an additional roof covering over a prepared existing roof covering without removing the existing roof covering.
[BS]ROOF REPAIR. Reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing roof for the purposes of its maintenance.
[BS]ROOF REPLACEMENT. The process of removing the existing roof covering, repairing any damaged substrate and installing a new roof covering.
SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS. A fully descriptive detailed account of the intended operation of energy using systems covering the operation of systems in narrative terms, accounting for all of the equipment that makes up the systems, how the systems are designed to operate, and how they are to be controlled.
SITE DISTURBANCE. Site preparation or construction that negatively affects the native vegetation of the site.
[BS]SKYLIGHT. Glass or other transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a slope of less than 60 degrees (1.05 rad) from horizontal.
[BS]SKYLIGHT, UNIT. A factory-assembled, glazed fenestration unit, containing one panel of glazing material that allows for natural lighting through an opening in the roof assembly while preserving the weather-resistant barrier of the roof.
[BG]SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people sleep, that can also include permanent provisions for living, eating, and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are not sleeping units.
SMOG. Emissions from industry and fossil-fueled transportation trapped at ground level reacting with sunlight producing photochemical smog.
[E]SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT (SHGC). The ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the fenestration assembly to the incident solar radiation. Solar heat gain includes directly transmitted solar heat and absorbed solar radiation which is then reradiated, conducted or convected into the space.
SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM. Devices such as photovoltaic (PV) modules and inverters that are used to transform solar radiation into energy.
SOLAR REFLECTANCE. A measure of the ability of a surface material to reflect sunlight. It is the fraction of incident sunlight reflected by a surface, expressed on a scale of 0 to 1. Solar reflectance is also referred to as "albedo."
SOLAR REFLECTANCE INDEX (SRI). A value that incorporates both solar reflectance and thermal emittance in a single measure to represent a surface's relative temperature in the sun. SRI compares a surface's temperature to those of standard black and standard white surfaces. It typically ranges from 0 for standard black to 100 for standard white, but can be less than 0 or greater than 100.
SOLAR THERMAL EQUIPMENT. A device that uses solar radiation to heat water, air or a heat transfer fluid to provide heat for service water heating, process heating, space heating or space cooling within a facility.
[E]STANDARD REFERENCE DESIGN. A building design that meets the minimum requirements of the International Energy Conservation Code.
STANDBY MODE (ELEVATOR). An operating mode during periods of inactivity in which electrical loads are reduced to conserve energy. For elevators, standby mode begins up to 5 minutes after an elevator is unoccupied and has parked and completed its last run and ends when the doors are re-opened. For escalators and moving walkways, standby mode begins after traffic has been absent for up to 5 minutes and ends when the next passenger arrives.
STEAM COOKER. Equipment in which potable steam is used for heating, cooking, and reconstituting food.
[BG]STORY. That portion of a building included between the upper surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next above. It is measured as the vertical distance from top to top of two successive tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces and, for the topmost story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the ceiling joists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of the roof rafters.
[A]STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed.
[BS]SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT. Any repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition or improvement of a building or structure, the cost of which equals or exceeds 50 percent of the market value of the structure before the improvement or repair is started. If the structure has sustained substantial damage, any repairs are considered substantial improvement regardless of the actual repair work performed. The term does not include either of the following:
1.Any project for improvement of a building required to correct existing health, sanitary or safety code violations identified by the code official and that are the minimum necessary to assure safe living conditions.
2.Any alteration of a historic structure provided that the alteration will not preclude the structure’s continued designation as a historic structure.
THERMAL EMITTANCE. The ratio of radiative power emitted by a sample to that emitted by a black body radiator at the same temperature.
TIME SWITCH CONTROL. An automatic control device or system that controls lighting or other loads, including switching off, based on time schedules.
TOPSOIL. The upper, outmost layer of soil having the highest concentration of organic matter and microorganisms and where the majority of biological soil activity occurs.
TRACTION ELEVATOR. An elevator system in which the cars are suspended by ropes wrapped around a sheave that is driven by an electric motor.
TRANSIT SERVICE. A service that a public transit agency serving the area has committed to provide including, but not limited to, bus, streetcar, light or heavy rail, passenger ferry or tram service.
TUBULAR DAYLIGHTING DEVICE (TDD). A non-operable fenestration unit primarily designed to transmit daylight from a roof surface to an interior space via a tubular conduit. The basic unit consists of an exterior glazed weathering surface, a light-transmitting tube with a reflective interior surface, and an interior-sealing device such as a translucent panel. The unit is either factory assembled, or field assembled from a manufacturing kit.
TYPE III ENVIRONMENTAL PRODUCT DECLARATION. A product declaration that provides quantified environmental data using predetermined parameters and, where relevant, additional environmental information, for either brand-specific or industry-wide environmental product declaration.
[E]U-FACTOR (THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE). The coefficient of heat transmission (air to air) through a building component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side air films (Btu/h × ft2 × °F) [W/(m2 × K)].
VEGETATIVE ROOF. An assembly of interacting components designed to waterproof and normally insulate a building’s top surface that includes, by design, vegetation and related landscaping elements.
[M]VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such air from, any space.
VERTICAL FENESTRATION. Windows (fixed or movable), opaque doors, glazed doors, glazed block, and combination opaque/glazed doors composed of glass or other transparent or translucent glazing materials and installed at a slope of at least 60 degrees (1.05 rad) from horizontal.
VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC). A volatile chemical compound based on carbon chains or rings that typically contain hydrogen and sometimes contain oxygen, nitrogen and other elements, and that has a vapor pressure of greater than 0.1 mm of mercury at room temperature.
VOLTAGE DROP. A decrease in voltage caused by losses in the circuit conductors connecting the power source to the load.
WATER FACTOR (WF). The quantity of water, in gallons per cycle (Q), divided by a clothes washing machine clothes container capacity in cubic feet (C). The equation is:
WATER FEATURE. An outdoor open water installation or natural open water way within a built landscape to retain water supplied from source other than rainwater naturally flowing into the feature.
WATERSENSE. A program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designed to identify and promote water-efficient products and practices.
WETLAND. Areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions.
ZERO ENERGY PERFORMANCE INDEX (zEPI). A scalar representing the ratio of the energy performance of a proposed design or an existing building compared to the mean energy performance of the building stock from the benchmark year of 2000.