(This foreword is not part of this standard. It is merely informative and does not contain requirements necessary for conformance to the standard. It has not been processed according to the ANSI requirements for a standard and may contain material that has not been subject to public review or a consensus process. Unresolved objectors on informative material are not offered the right to appeal at ASHRAE or ANSI.)
ANSI/ASHRAE/USGBC/IES Standard 189.1 was originally created through a collaborative effort involving ASHRAE, the U.S. Green Building Council, and the Illuminating Engineering Society. Like its 2009 and 2011 predecessors, the 2014 version of the standard is written in code-intended language so that it may be referenced or adopted by enforcement authorities to provide the minimum acceptable level of design criteria for high-performance green buildings. States and local jurisdictions within the United States that wish to adopt Standard 189.1 into law may want to review applicable federal laws regarding preemption and related waivers that are available from the U.S. Department of Energy (www1.eere.energy.gov/ buildings/appliance_standards/ state_petitions.html).
Building projects, which are defined in the standard to include both the building and the site, result in potentially significant energy and environmental impacts through their design, construction, and operation. The U.S. Green Building Council reports that buildings in the United States are responsible for 38% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions, 41% of U.S. energy consumption, and 14% of U.S. water consumption, and contribute 5.5% to GDP per year just for construction. In addition, development frequently converts land from biologically diverse natural habitat that manages rain runoff to impervious hardscape with reduced biodiversity.
While buildings consume energy and have other environmental impacts, they also contribute significantly to national economies and provide critical amenities to building occupants who live in, work in, and otherwise use buildings. Based on a combination of research and practical experience, it is clear that buildings can provide these amenities with reduced energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, water use, heat island and light pollution effects, and impacts on the atmosphere, materials, and resources.
The far-reaching effects of buildings have led to many actions to reduce their energy and environmental impacts. To help meet its responsibility to support such actions, ASHRAE Standing Standard Project Committee (SSPC) 189.1 has used the ASHRAE continuous maintenance process to update the standard in response to input from all segments of the building community. Compliance with these updated provisions will further reduce energy and environmental impacts through high-performance building design, construction, and operation, while providing indoor environments that support the activities of building occupants.
The project committee members represent a broad cross section of the building community and include designers, owners, operators, installation contractors, equipment and product manufacturers, industry trade organizations, code officials, researchers, regulators, and sustainable development experts. This diverse group considers a variety of factors in developing the provisions of the standard, including published research, justification for proposals received from outside the committee, and the committee members’ professional judgment.
Provisions within the standard are not uniformly subjected to economic assessment. Cost-benefit assessment, while an important consideration in general, is not a necessary criterion for acceptance of any given change to the standard. However, the practicality and existing application of all the standard’s requirements are considered before they are included.
Standard 189.1 addresses site sustainability, water use efficiency, energy use efficiency, indoor environmental quality, and the building′s impact on the atmosphere, materials, and resources. The standard devotes a section to each of these subject areas, as well as a separate section related to plans for construction and high-performance operation.
All words and phrases that are defined in the standard are displayed in italics to indicate that they are being used in a manner that may differ from their common definition.
New provisions of the 2014 standard relative to the 2011 version are summarized below, but not all changes are identified specifically. Appendix H of the standard identifies all addenda to the 2011 version that are included in the 2014 edition.
Since Standard 189.1 adopts by reference many requirements from other ASHRAE standards, the 2014 version updates requirements to reflect the most current version of each referenced standard. Specifically, it refers to Standards 90.1-2013 and 62.1-2013.
Site Sustainability: All site requirements have been made mandatory, with the prescriptive and performance options moved to the mandatory requirements. In addition, the requirements relative to stormwater management have been enhanced, and new requirements have been added for bicycle parking; preferred parking for low-emission, hybrid, and electric vehicles; and a predesign assessment of native and invasive plants.
Water: The stringency of the water use requirements are increased for toilets, clothes washers, dishwashers, and green roofs.
Energy: Significant updates were made to reflect the publication of Standard 90.1-2013. These include revised building envelope provisions, which are now specified as a percent increase in stringency as compared to Standard 90.1-2013. Building envelope assemblies in compliance can be found in Informative Appendix E. Fenestration orientation requirements were also updated based on new research. Updates also include changes to the equipment efficiency tables that were originally in Appendix C in 189.1-2011 and are now in Appendix B. Energy Star references have also been updated, and clarity has been provided as to which apply to all buildings and which apply to the Alternative Renewables Approach. The continuous air-barrier requirements have been removed from the energy section, although buildings must still comply with Standard 90.1-2013 with no exceptions for climate zones. Either whole-building pressurization testing or an air-barrier commissioning program is now required in Section 10.
Energy Performance, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Renewables: The requirements for energy performance and renewable energy have been modified. Most of the modifications clarify existing requirements and reflect changes to Standard 90.1. The carbon dioxide emission factors for different energy sources have also been updated.
Indoor Environmental Quality: Lighting quality has been added to the scope of this section and requirements have been added for lighting controls in specific space types. The fact that Standard 62.1 no longer contains requirements for healthcare facilities, which are now covered by ANSI/ASHRAE/ASHE Standard 170, Ventilation of Health Care Facilities, is reflected by specific reference to Standard 170 for those facilities. The requirements for air sealing of filtration and air-cleaning equipment have been clarified, and new requirements for preoccupancy ventilation and building envelope moisture management have been added.
Building Impacts on the Atmosphere, Materials, and Resources: The requirements for areas to store and collect recyclables, including batteries and electronics, for construction waste management and for life-cycle assessment have been updated. New requirements were also added for multiple-attribute product declaration or certification and maximum mercury content levels of certain types of electric lamps.
Construction and Plans for Operation: In addition to the air-barrier testing requirements noted in bullet four above, this section has updated requirements related to the environmental impacts associated with the idling of construction vehicles and new requirements to reduce the entry of airborne contaminants associated with construction areas.
As was the case in the 2011 edition of the standard, each section (other than 5 and 10) follows a similar format:
X.1 General. This subsection includes a statement of scope and addresses other broad issues for the section.
x.2 Compliance Paths. This subsection indicates the compliance options available within a given section.
x.3 Mandatory Provisions. This subsection contains mandatory provisions that apply to all projects (i.e., provisions that must be met and may not be ignored in favor of equal or more stringent provisions found in other subsections).
x.4 Prescriptive Option. This subsection—an alternative to the Performance Option—contains prescribed provisions that must be met in addition to all mandatory provisions. Prescribed provisions are intended to offer a simple compliance approach that involves minimal calculations.
x.5 Performance Option. This subsection—an alternative to the Prescriptive Option—contains performance-based provisions that must be met in addition to all mandatory provisions. Performance provisions are intended to offer a more complex alternate compliance approach that typically involves simulation or other calculations, which are expected to result in the same or better performance than compliance with prescribed provisions.
SSPC 189.1 considers and responds to proposed changes to this continuous maintenance standard and provides interpretations of the standard’s requirements on request. Proposed changes to the standard may originate within or outside of the committee. The committee welcomes proposals for improving the standard using ANSI-approved ASHRAE continuous maintenance procedures. A continuous maintenance proposal (CMP) form can be found online at www.ashrae.org/standards-research--technology/standards--guidelines/continuous-maintenance. A hard copy of the form can be found in the back of this standard and may be completed and submitted at any time. The committee takes formal action on every proposal received, which often results in changes to the published standard. ASHRAE posts approved addenda in publication notices on the ASHRAE website. To receive notice of all public reviews, approved and published addenda, errata, and interpretations, as well as meeting notices, ASHRAE encourages interested parties to sign up for the ASHRAE Listserv for this standard (www.ashrae.org/resources--publications/periodicals/listserves).
The purpose of this standard is to provide minimum requirements for the siting, design, construction, and plan for operation of high-performance green buildings to
a.balance environmental responsibility, resource efficiency, occupant comfort and well being, and community sensitivity; and
b.support the goal of development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
This standard provides minimum criteria that
a.apply to the following elements of building projects:
1.New buildings and their systems.
2.New portions of buildings and their systems.
3.New systems and equipment in existing buildings.
b.address site sustainability, water use efficiency, energy efficiency, indoor environmental quality (IEQ), and the building’s impact on the atmosphere, materials, and resources.
The provisions of this standard do not apply to
a.single-family houses, multifamily structures of three stories or fewer above grade, manufactured houses (mobile homes), and manufactured houses (modular), and
b.buildings that use none of the following: electricity, fossil fuel, or water.
This standard shall not be used to circumvent any safety, health, or environmental requirements.
Certain terms, abbreviations, and acronyms are defined in this section for the purposes of this standard. These definitions are applicable to all sections of this standard.
Terms that are not defined herein, but that are defined in standards that are referenced herein (e.g.,ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1), shall have the meanings as defined in those standards.
Other terms that are not defined shall have their ordinarily accepted meanings within the context in which they are used. Ordinarily accepted meanings shall be based upon American standard English language usage, as documented in an unabridged dictionary accepted by the authority having jurisdiction.
acceptance representative: an entity identified by the owner who leads, plans, schedules, and coordinates the activities needed to implement the building acceptance testing activities. The acceptance representative may be a qualified employee or consultant of the owner. The individual serving as the acceptance representative shall be independent of the project design and construction management, though this individual may be an employee of a firm providing those services.
adapted plants: see plants, adapted plants.
adequate transit service: at least two buses (including bus rapid transit), streetcars, or light rail trains per hour on weekdays, operating between 6:00 a.m. and 9:00 a.m., and between 3:00 p.m. and 6:00 p.m., or at least five heavy passenger rail or ferries operating between 6:00 a.m. and 9:00 a.m., and between 3:00 p.m. and 6:00 p.m.
agricultural land: land that is, or was within ten years prior to the date of the building permit application for the building project, primarily devoted to the commercial production of horticultural, viticultural, floricultural, dairy, apiary, vegetable, or animal products or of berries, grain, hay, straw, turf, seed, finfish in upland hatcheries, or livestock, and that has long-term commercial significance for agricultural production. Land that meets this definition is agricultural land regardless of how the land is zoned by the local government with zoning jurisdiction over that land.
air, outdoor: see ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1.
airflow, minimum outdoor: the outdoor airflow provided by a ventilation system to meet requirements for indoor air quality, excluding any additional outdoor air intake to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical cooling.
alternate on-site sources of water: see water, alternate on-site sources of.
alternative daily cover: cover material, other than earthen material, placed on the surface of the active face of a municipal solid-waste landfill at the end of each operating day to control vectors, fires, odors, blowing litter, and scavenging.
attic and other roofs: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
authority having jurisdiction (AHJ): the agency or agent responsible for enforcing this standard.
automatic: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1
baseline building design: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
baseline building performance: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
Basis of Design (BoD): a document that records the concepts, calculations, decisions, and product selections used to meet the owner’s project requirements and to satisfy applicable regulatory requirements, standards, and guidelines. The document includes both narrative descriptions and lists of individual items that support the design process. (See owner’s project requirements.)
bilevel lighting control: lighting control in a space that provides at least one intermediate level of lighting power in addition to fully on and fully off. Continuous dimming systems are covered by this definition.
biobased product: a commercial or industrial product (other than food or feed) that is composed, in whole or in significant part, of biological products or renewable agricultural materials (including plant, animal, and marine materials) or forestry materials.
biodiverse plantings: nonhomogeneous, multiple-species plantings.
breathing zone: see ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1.
brownfield site: a site documented as contaminated by means of an ASTM E1903 Phase II Environmental Site Assessment or a site classified as a brownfield by a local, state, or federal government agency.
building entrance: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
building envelope: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
building project: a building, or group of buildings, and site that utilize a single submittal for a construction permit or that are within the boundary of contiguous properties under single ownership or effective control. (See owner.)
carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e): a measure used to compare the impact of various greenhouse gases based on their global warming potential (GWP). CO2e approximates the time-integrated warming effect of a unit mass of a given greenhouse gas, relative to that of carbon dioxide (CO2). GWP is an index for estimating the relative global warming contribution of atmospheric emissions of 1 kg of a particular greenhouse gas compared to emissions of 1 kg of CO2. The following GWP values are used based on a 100-year time horizon: 1 for CO2, 25 for methane (CH4), and 298 for nitrous oxide (N2O).
classroom: a space primarily used for scheduled instructional activities.
climate zone: see Section 5.1.4 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
commissioning authority (CxA): an entity identified by the owner who leads, plans, schedules, and coordinates the commissioning team to implement the building commissioning process. (See commissioning [Cx] process.)
commissioning (Cx) plan: a document that outlines the organization, schedule, allocation of resources, and documentation requirements of the building commissioning process. (See commissioning [Cx] process.)
commissioning (Cx) process: a quality-focused process for enhancing the delivery of a project. The process focuses upon verifying and documenting that the facility and all of its systems and assemblies are planned, designed, installed, tested, operated, and maintained to meet the owner’s project requirements. (See owner’s project requirements.)
conditioned space: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
construction checklist: a form used by the contractor to verify that appropriate components are on site, ready for installation, correctly installed, and functional.
construction documents: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
contaminant: see ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1.
continuous air barrier: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
cycles of concentration: the ratio of makeup rate to the sum of the blowdown and drift rates.
daylight area: area in an enclosed space that is in the primary sidelighted area, daylight area under roof monitors, or daylight area under skylights.
daylight area under roof monitors: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
daylight area under skylights: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
daylight hours: the period from 30 minutes after sunrise to 30 minutes before sunset.
demand control ventilation (DCV): see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
densely occupied space: those spaces with a design occupant density greater than or equal to 25 people per 1000 ft2 (100 m2).
design professional: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
designated park land: federal-, state-, or local-governmentowned land that is formally designated and set aside as park land or a wildlife preserve.
dwelling unit: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
dynamic glazing: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
electronics: computers and accessories; monitors; printers; and other equipment, such as scanners, fax machines, electric typewriters, cell phones, telephones, answering machines, shredders, postage machines, televisions, VHS/DVD players, portable cassette/CD players with radio devices, and stereo equipment.
emergency ride home: access to transportation home in the case of a personal emergency or unscheduled overtime for employees who commute via transit, carpool, or vanpool.
enclosed space: See ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
evapotranspiration (ET): the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration. Evaporation accounts for the movement of water to the air from sources such as the soil, canopy interception, and water bodies. Transpiration accounts for the movement of water within a plant and the subsequent loss of water as vapor through stomata in its leaves.
ETc: evapotranspiration of the plant material derived by multiplying ETo by the appropriate plant coefficient.
ETo: maximum evapotranspiration as defined by the standardized Penman-Monteith equation or from the National Weather Service, where available.
expressway: a divided highway with a minimum of four lanes, which has controlled access for a minimum of ten miles (16 kilometers) and a posted minimum speed of at least 45 mph (70 km/h).
fenestration: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
fenestration area: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
fish and wildlife habitat conservation area: areas with which state or federally designated endangered, threatened, or sensitive species have a primary association.
forest land: all designated state forests, national forests, and all land that is, or was within ten years prior to the date of the building permit for the building project, primarily devoted to growing trees for long-term commercial timber production.
generally accepted engineering standard: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
geothermal energy: heat extracted from the Earth’s interior and used to produce electricity or mechanical power or provide thermal energy for heating buildings or processes. Geothermal energy does not include systems such as heat pumps that use energy independent of the geothermal source to raise the temperature of the extracted heat.
greenfield site: a site of which 20% or less has been previously developed with impervious surfaces.
greyfield site: a site of which more than 20% is currently or has been previously developed with impervious surfaces.
gross roof area: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
gross wall area: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
hardscape: site paved areas, including roads, driveways, parking lots, walkways, courtyards, and plazas.
heat island effect: the tendency of urban areas to be at a warmer temperature than surrounding rural areas.
high-performance green building: a building designed, constructed, and capable of being operated in a manner that increases environmental performance and economic value over time, seeks to establish an indoor environment that supports the health of occupants, and enhances satisfaction and productivity of occupants through integration of environmentally preferable building materials and water-efficient and energy-efficient systems.
high-speed door: a nonswinging door used primarily to facilitate vehicular access or material transportation, and having an automatic closing device with an opening rate of not less than 32 in./s (810 mm/s) and a closing rate of not less than 24 in./s (610 mm/s).
hydrozoning: to divide the landscape irrigation system into sections in order to regulate each zone’s water needs based on plant materials, soil, and other factors.
improved landscape: any disturbed area of the site where new plant and/or grass materials are to be used, including green roofs, plantings for stormwater controls, planting boxes, and similar vegetative use. Improved landscape shall not include hardscape areas such as sidewalks, driveways, other paved areas, and swimming pools or decking.
integrated design process: a design process utilizing early collaboration among representatives of each stakeholder and participating consultant on the project. Unlike the conventional or linear design process, integrated design requires broad stakeholder/consultant participation.
integrated project delivery: see integrated design process.
interior projection factor: see projection factor, interior.
irrigation adequacy: a representation of how well irrigation meets the needs of the plant material. This reflects the percentage of required water for turf or plant material supplied by rainfall and controller-scheduled irrigations.
irrigation excess: a representation of the amount of irrigation water applied beyond the needs of the plant material. This reflects the percentage of water applied in excess of 100% of required water.
isolation devices: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
landscape establishment period: a time period, beginning on the date of completion of permanent plantings and not exceeding 18 months, intended to allow the permanent landscape to become sufficiently established to remain viable.
life-cycle assessment (LCA): a compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs, and the potential environmental impacts of a building system throughout its life cycle. LCA addresses the environmental aspects and potential environmental impacts (e.g., use of resources and environmental consequences of releases) throughout a building’s life cycle, from raw material acquisition through manufacturing, construction, use, operation, end-of-life treatment, recycling, and final disposal (end of life). The purpose is to identify opportunities to improve the environmental performance of buildings throughout their life cycles.
light rail: a streetcar-type vehicle that has step entry or level boarding entry and is operated on city streets, semiexclusive rights-of-way, or exclusive rights-of-way.
lighting power allowance: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
lighting quality: the degree to which the luminous environment in a space supports the requirements of the occupants.
lighting zone (LZ): an area defining limitations for outdoor lighting.
LZ0: undeveloped areas within national parks, state parks, forest land, rural areas, and other undeveloped areas as defined by the AHJ.
LZ1: developed areas of national parks, state parks, forest land, and rural areas.
LZ2: areas predominantly consisting of residential zoning, neighborhood business districts, light industrial with limited night time use, and residential mixed-use areas.
LZ3: all areas not included in LZ0, LZ1, LZ2, or LZ4.
LZ4: high-activity commercial districts in major metropolitan areas as designated by the local jurisdiction.
liner system (Ls): an insulation system for a metal building roof that includes the following components. A continuous membrane is installed below the purlins and uninterrupted by framing members. Uncompressed, unfaced insulation rests on top of the membrane between the purlins. For multilayer installations, the last rated R-value of insulation is for unfaced insulation draped over purlins and then compressed when the metal roof panels are attached. A minimum R-3 (R-0.5) thermal spacer block between the purlins and the metal roof panels is required unless compliance is shown by the overall assembly U-factor or otherwise noted.
low-impact trail: erosion-stabilized pathway or track that utilizes natural groundcover or installed system greater than 50% pervious. The pathway or track is designed and used only for pedestrian and nonmotorized vehicles (excluding power-assisted conveyances for individuals with disabilities).
low-voltage dry-type distribution transformers: transformers that are not oil- or fluid-cooled, with an input voltage less than or equal to 600 V, that range in size from 15 to 333 kVA for single-phase and 15 to 1000 kVA for three-phase equipment and are used for general-purpose applications as described in 42 USC§ 6291.
maintenance plan: see maintenance program in ANSI/ASHRAE/ACCA Standard 180.
makeup air: see ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1.
mechanical cooling: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1
minimum outdoor airflow rate: see airflow, minimum outdoor.
multilevel lighting control: lighting control in a space that provides at least two intermediate levels of lighting power in addition to fully on and fully off. Continuous dimming systems are covered by this definition.
native plants: see plants, native plants.
networked guest-room control system: an energy management control system, accessible from the hotel/motel front desk or other central location, that is capable of identifying reserved rooms according to a timed schedule and is capable of controlling each hotel/motel guest room separately.
nonpotable water: see water, nonpotable.
nonresidential: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
north-oriented: facing within 45 degrees of true north within the northern hemisphere (however, facing within 45 degrees of true south in the southern hemisphere).
occupant load: the number of persons for which the means of egress of a building or portion thereof is designed.
occupiable space: see ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1.
office furniture system: either a panel-based workstation comprising modular interconnecting panels, hang-on components, and drawer/filing components, or a freestanding grouping of furniture items and their components that have been designed to work in concert.
on-site renewable energy system: photovoltaic, solar thermal, geothermal energy, and wind systems used to generate energy and located on the building project.
once-through cooling: the use of water as a cooling medium where the water is passed through a heat exchanger one time and is then discharged to the drainage system. This also includes the use of water to reduce the temperature of condensate or process water before discharging it to the drainage system.
open-graded (uniform-sized) aggregate: materials such as crushed stone or decomposed granite that provide 30% to 40% void spaces.
outdoor air: see air, outdoor.
outdoor air fault condition: a situation in which the measured minimum outdoor airflow of a ventilation system is 10% or more below the setpoint value that corresponds to the occupancy and operation conditions at the time of the measurement.
owner: the party in responsible control of development, construction, or operation of a project at any given time.
owner’s project requirements (OPR): a written document that details the functional requirements of a project and the expectations of how it will be used and operated. These include project goals, measurable performance criteria, cost considerations, benchmarks, success criteria, and supporting information.
permanently installed: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
permeable pavement: pervious concrete or porous asphalt that allows the movement of water and air through the paving material, and which is primarily used as paving for roads, parking lots, and walkways. Permeable paving materials have an open-graded coarse aggregate with interconnected voids.
permeable pavers: units that present a solid surface but allow natural drainage and migration of water into the base below by permitting water to drain through the spaces between the pavers.
a.adapted plants: plants that reliably grow well in a given habitat with minimal attention from humans in the form of winter protection, pest protection, water irrigation, or fertilization once root systems are established in the soil. Adapted plants are considered to be low maintenance but not invasive.
b.invasive plants: species of plants that are not native to the building project site and that cause or are likely to cause environmental harm. At a minimum, the list of invasive species for a building project site includes plants included in city, county, and regional lists and state and federal noxious weeds laws.
c.native plants: plants that adapted to a given area during a defined time period and are not invasive. In America, the term often refers to plants growing in a region prior to the time of settlement by people of European descent.
porous pavers (open-grid pavers): units where at least 40% of the surface area consists of holes or openings that are filled with sand, gravel, other porous material, or vegetation.
postconsumer recycled content: proportion of recycled material in a product generated by households or by commercial, industrial, and institutional facilities in their role as end-users of the product, which can no longer be used for its intended purpose. This includes returns of material from the distribution chain. (See recycled material.)
potable water: see water, potable.
preconsumer recycled content: proportion of recycled material in a product diverted from the waste stream during the manufacturing process. Content that shall not be considered preconsumer recycled includes the reutilization of materials such as rework, regrind, or scrap generated in a process and capable of being reclaimed within the same process that generated it. (See recycled material.)
primary sidelighted area: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
projection factor (PF): see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
projection factor (PF), interior: the ratio of the horizontal depth of the interior shading projection divided by the sum of the height of the fenestration above the interior shading projection and, if the interior projection is below the bottom of the fenestration, the vertical distance from the bottom of the fenestration to the top of the farthest point of the interior shading projection, in consistent units.
proposed building performance: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
proposed design: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
public way: a street, alley, transit right of way, or other parcel of land open to the outdoors and leading to a street or transit right of way that has been deeded, dedicated, or otherwise permanently appropriated to the public for public use and that has a clear width and height of not less than 10 ft (3 m).
recovered material: material that would have otherwise been disposed of as waste or used for energy recovery (e.g., incinerated for power generation) but has instead been collected and recovered as a material input, in lieu of new primary material, for a recycling or a manufacturing process.
recycled content: proportion by mass of recycled material in a product or packaging. Only preconsumer and postconsumer materials shall be considered as recycled content. (See recycled material.)
recycled material: material that has been reprocessed from recovered (reclaimed) material by means of a manufacturing process and made into a final product or into a component for incorporation into a product. (See recovered material.)
residential: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
roof: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
roof area, gross: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
roof monitor: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
salvaged material: material, component, or assembly removed in a whole form from a structure or site in which it was permanently installed and subsequently reused in the building project.
seating: task and guest chairs used with office furniture systems.
secondary sidelighted area: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
semiheated space: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
service water heating: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
sidelighting: daylighting provided by vertical fenestration mounted below the ceiling plane.
sidelighting effective aperture: the relationship of daylight transmitted through windows to the primary sidelighted areas. The sidelighting effective aperture is calculated according to the following formula:
where “Window VLT” is the visible light transmittance of windows as determined in accordance with Section 126.96.36.199 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
single-rafter roof: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
site: a contiguous area of land that is under the ownership or control of one entity.
skylight: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
skylight effective aperture: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
smart controller (weather-based irrigation controller): a device that estimates or measures depletion of water from the soil moisture reservoir and operates an irrigation system to replenish water as needed while minimizing excess.
soil gas retarder system: a combination of measures that retard vapors in the soil from entering the occupied space.
solar energy system: any device or combination of devices or elements that rely upon direct sunlight as an energy source, including but not limited to any substance or device that collects sunlight for use in
a.heating or cooling of a structure or building;
b.heating or pumping of water;
c.industrial, commercial, or agricultural processes; and
d.generation of electricity.
solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC): see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
solar reflectance index (SRI): a measure of a constructed surface’s ability to reflect solar heat, as shown by a small temperature rise. A standard black surface (reflectance 0.05, emittance 0.90) is 0 and a standard white surface (reflectance 0.80, emittance 0.90) is 100.
space: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
SWAT: smart water application technology as defined by the Irrigation Association.
task lighting: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
transfer air: see ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1.
tubular daylighting device: a means to capture sunlight from a rooftop. Sunlight is then redirected down from a highly reflective shaft and diffused throughout interior space.
turfgrass: grasses that are regularly mowed and, as a consequence, form a dense growth of leaf blades, shoots, and roots.
variable-air-volume (VAV) system: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
vendor: a company that furnishes products to project contractors and/or subcontractors for on-site installation.
verification: the process by which specific documents, components, equipment, assemblies, systems, and interfaces among systems are confirmed to comply with the criteria described in the owner’s project requirements. (See owner’s project requirements.)
vertical fenestration: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
wall: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
wall area, gross: see ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
water, alternate on-site sources of: alternate on-site sources of water include, but are not limited to
a.rainwater or stormwater harvesting,
b.air conditioner condensate,
c.gray water from interior applications and treated as required,
d.swimming pool filter backwash water,
e.cooling tower blowdown water,
f.foundation drain water,
g.industrial process water, and
h.on-site wastewater treatment plant effluent.
water, nonpotable: water that is not potable water. (See water, potable.)
water, potable: water from public drinking water systems or from natural freshwater sources, such as lakes, streams, and aquifers, where water from such natural sources would or could meet drinking water standards.
water, reclaimed: nonpotable water derived from the treatment of waste water by a facility or system licensed or permitted to produce water meeting the jurisdiction’s water requirements for its intended uses, including but not limited to above-surface landscape irrigation.
water factor (WF):
a.clothes washer (residential and commercial): the quantity of water in gallons (litres) used to wash each cubic foot (cubic metre) of machine capacity.
b.residential dishwasher: the quantity of water use in gallons (litres) per full machine wash and rinse cycle.
weatherproofing system: a group of components, including associated adhesives and primers, that when installed create a protective envelope against water and wind.
wetlands: those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. This definition incorporates all areas that would meet the definition of “wetlands” under applicable federal or state guidance, whether or not they are officially designated, delineated, or mapped, including man-made areas that are designed, constructed, or restored to include the ecological functions of natural wetlands.
yearly average day-night average sound levels: level of the time-mean-square A-weighted sound pressure averaged over a one-year period with ten decibles (dB) added to sound levels occurring in each night-time period from 2200 hours to 0700 hours, expressed in decibles.
|AHJ||authority having jurisdiction|
|AHRI||Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute|
|ANSI||American National Standards Institute|
|ASME||American Society of Mechanical Engineers|
|ASTM||American Society for Testing and Materials International|
|BIFMA||The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer’s Association|
|BMS||Building Management System|
|BoD||Basis of Design|
|Btu||British thermal unit|
|Btu/h||British thermal unit per hour|
|CDPH||California Department of Public Health|
|cfm||cubic feet per minute (ft3/min)|
|CIE||Commission Internationale de L’Eclairage(International Commission on Illumination)|
|CITES||Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora|
|CO2e||carbon dioxide equivalent|
|CSA||Canadian Standards Association|
|DCV||demand control ventilation|
|EISA||Energy Independence and Security Act|
|EMS||Energy Management System|
|EPAct||U.S. Energy Policy Act|
|EPD||environmental product declaration|
|ESC||erosion and sedimentation control|
|ETS||environmental tobacco smoke|
|FF&E||furniture, fixtures, and equipment|
|gpm||gallons per minute|
|GWP||global warming potential|
|HVAC||heating, ventilation, and air conditioning|
|HVAC&R||heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration|
|IAPMO||International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials|
|IAQ||indoor air quality|
|IEQ||indoor environmental quality|
|IES||Illuminating Engineering Society of North America|
|LPD||lighting power density|
|MDF||medium density fiberboard|
|MERV||minimum efficiency reporting value|
|mph||miles per hour|
|M&V||measurement and verification|
|NAECA||National Appliance Energy Conservation Act|
|OITC||outdoor-indoor transmission class|
|O&M||operation and maintenance|
|OPR||owner’s project requirements|
|ppm||parts per million|
|SCAQMD||South Coast Air Quality Management District|
|SHGC||solar heat gain coefficient|
|SMACNA||Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association|
|SRI||solar reflectance index|
|STC||sound transmission class|
|USDA||United States Department of Agriculture|
|USEPA||United States Environmental Protection Agency|
|USFEMA||United States Federal Emergency Management Agency|
|USGBC||United States Green Building Council|
|VAV||variable air volume|
|VOC||volatile organic compound|
|VRF||variable refrigerant flow system|
a.Prescriptive Option (x.4) or
b.Performance Option (x.5).
The standards referenced in this standard and listed in Section 11 shall be considered part of the requirements of this standard to the prescribed extent of such reference. Where differences exist between provisions of this standard and a referenced standard, the provisions of this standard shall apply. Informative references in Informative Appendix G are cited to acknowledge sources and are not part of this standard.
The normative appendices to this standard are considered to be integral parts of the mandatory requirements of this standard, which for reasons of convenience are placed apart from all other normative elements.
The informative appendices to this standard and informative notes located within this standard contain additional information and are not mandatory or part of this standard.
This section addresses requirements for building projects that pertain to site selection, site development, mitigation of heat island effect, light pollution reduction, and mitigation of transportation impacts.
All of the provisions of Section 5 are mandatory provisions.
The building project shall take place in or on one of the following:
a.An existing building envelope.
b.A brownfield site.
c.A greyfield site.
d.A greenfield site that is within 1/2 mi (800 m) of residential land that is developed, or that has one or more buildings under construction, with an average density of ten dwelling units per acre (4 units per ha) unless that site is agricultural land or forest land. Proximity is determined by drawing a circle with a 1/2 mi (800 m) radius around the center of the proposed site.
e.A greenfield site that is within 1/2 mi (800 m) of not less than ten basic services and that has pedestrian access between the building and the services, unless that site is agricultural land or forest land. Basic services include but are not limited to (1) financial institutions, (2) places of worship, (3) convenience or grocery stores, (4) day care facilities, (5) dry cleaners, (6) fire stations, (7) beauty shops, (8) hardware stores, (9) laundry facilities, (10) libraries, (11) medical/dental offices, (12) senior care facilities, (13) parks, (14) pharmacies, (15) post offices, (16) restaurants, (17) schools, (18) supermarkets, (19) theaters, (20) community centers, (21) fitness centers, (22) museums, and (23) local government facilities. Proximity is determined by drawing a circle with a 1/2 mi (800 m) radius around the center of the proposed site.
f.A greenfield site that is either within 1/2 mi (800 m) of an existing or planned and funded commuter rail, light rail, or subway station, or within 1/4 mi (400 m) of adequate transit service usable by building occupants, unless that site is agricultural land or forest land. Proximity is determined by drawing a circle with a 1/2 mi (800 m) radius around the center of the proposed site.
g.A greenfield site that is agricultural land, and the building’s purpose is related to the agricultural use of the land.
h.A greenfield site that is forest land, and the building’s purpose is related to the forestry use of the land.
i.A greenfield site that is designated park land, and the building’s purpose is related to the use of the land as a park.
There shall be no site disturbance or development of the following:
a.Previously undeveloped land having an elevation lower than 5 ft (1.5 m) above the elevation of the 100-year flood, as defined by USFEMA.
Exceptions to 188.8.131.52(a):
1.Development of low-impact trails shall be allowed anywhere within a flood zone.
2.Development of building structures shall be allowed in alluvial “AO” designated flood zones, provided that such structures include engineered floodproofing up to an elevation that is at least as high as the minimum lowest floor elevation determined by the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ), and provided that the site includes drainage paths constructed to guide floodwaters around and away from the structures.
b.Land within 150 ft (50 m) of any fish and wildlife habitat conservation area.
Exceptions to 184.108.40.206(b):
1.Development of low-impact trails shall be allowed, provided that such trails are located at least 15 ft (4.5 m) from the area.
2.Site disturbance or development shall be allowed, provided that it involves plantings or habitat enhancement of the functions and values of the area.
c.Land within 100 ft (35 m) of any wetland.
Exceptions to 220.127.116.11(c):
1.Development of low-impact trails shall be allowed, provided that such trails are located at least 15 ft (4.5 m) from the wetland.
2.Site disturbance or development shall be allowed, provided that it involves plantings or habitat enhancement of the functions and values of the wetland.
A predesign inventory and assessment of the natural resources of the building project site shall be submitted with the site design and construction documents. The inventory and assessment shall include all of the following:
a.Location of any prohibited development areas identified in Section 18.104.22.168 that are located on or adjacent to the building project site.
b.Identification of invasive plant species on the site.
c.Identification of native plant species on the site.
d.Identification of site features designated for preservation.
Invasive plants shall be removed from the building project site and destroyed or disposed of in a land fill. Invasive plants shall not be planted on the building project site.
Stormwater management systems shall be provided on the building site. Except to the extent that other stormwater management approaches are required by a local, state, or federal jurisdiction, these systems shall be limited to one or more of the following management methods:
d.Stormwater collection and use
Projects on greenfield sites shall comply with at least one of the following:
a.Stormwater management systems shall retain on site no less than the volume of precipitation during a single 24 h period equal to the 95th percentile precipitation event. Building projects with stormwater management systems that are designed to retain volumes greater than that of the 98th percentile precipitation event shall conduct a hydrologic analysis of the building site to determine the water balance of the site prior to its development, clearing, and filling and to demonstrate that the stormwater management system will not cause ecological impairment by starving receiving waters downstream of the site.
b.The stormwater management system design shall maintain site water balance (the combined runoff, infiltration, and evapotranspiration) based on a hydrologic analysis of the site’s conditions prior to development, clearing, and filling. Postconstruction runoff rate, volume, and duration shall not exceed rates preceding development, clearing, or filling of the site.
Projects on greyfield sites shall retain on site no less than the volume of precipitation during a single 24 h period equal to or greater than the 60th percentile precipitation event.
Exception: Where any fraction of the 60th percentile precipitation event cannot be retained, that fraction shall be treated to limit total suspended solids to 25 mg/L in the remaining discharge.
Building project sites shall be designed and constructed to comply with one of the following requirements:
a.The discharge of the design storm shall occur over a period of not less than 48 h.
b.The discharge flow duration curve at any point in time shall be plus or minus 10% of the flow duration curve for channel-forming discharges for the site prior to its development, clearing, or filling.
The stormwater management system shall direct or concentrate off-site discharge to avoid increased erosion or other drainage-related damage to adjoining lots or public property.
Stormwater management systems on areas of brownfield sites where contaminated soils are left in place shall not use infiltration practices that will result in pollutant discharges to groundwater. Stormwater discharge from brownfield sites shall be treated to limit total suspended solids to 25 mg/L. Stormwater management systems shall not penetrate, damage, or otherwise compromise remediation actions at the building site.
The use of tar sealants shall be prohibited in any application exposed to stormwater, wash waters, condensates, irrigation water, snowmelt, or icemelt.
At least 50% of the site hardscape that is not covered by solar energy systems shall be provided with one or any combination of the following:
a.Existing trees and vegetation or new biodiverse plantings of native plants and adapted plants, which shall be planted either prior to the final approval by the AHJ or in accordance with a contract established to require planting no later than 12 months after the final approval by the AHJ so as to provide the required shade no later than ten years after the final approval. The effective shade coverage on the hardscape shall be the arithmetic mean of the shade coverage calculated at 10 a.m., noon, and 3 p.m. on the summer solstice.
b.Paving materials with a minimum initial solar reflectance index (SRI) of 29. A default SRI value of 35 for new concrete without added color pigment is allowed to be used instead of measurements.
c.Open-graded (uniform-sized) aggregate, permeable pavement, permeable pavers, and porous pavers (open-grid pavers). Permeable pavement and permeable pavers shall have a percolation rate of not less than 2 gal/min·ft2 (100 L/min·m2).
d.Shading through the use of structures, provided that the top surface of the shading structure complies with the provisions of Section 22.214.171.124.
e.Parking under a building, provided that the roof of the building complies with the provisions of Section 126.96.36.199.
f.Buildings or structures that provide shade to the site hardscape. The effective shade coverage on the hardscape shall be the arithmetic mean of the shade coverage calculated at 10 a.m., noon, and 3 p.m. on the summer solstice.
Above-grade building walls and retaining walls shall be shaded in accordance with this section. The building is allowed to be rotated up to 45 degrees to the nearest cardinal orientation for purposes of calculations and showing compliance. Compliance with this section shall be achieved through the use of shade-providing plants, manmade structures, existing buildings, hillsides, permanent building projections, on-site renewable energy systems, or a combination of these, using the following criteria:
a.Shade shall be provided on at least 30% of the east and west above-grade walls and retaining walls from grade level to a height of 20 ft (6 m) above grade or the top of the exterior wall, whichever is less. Shade coverage shall be calculated at 10 a.m. for the east walls and 3 p.m. for the west walls on the summer solstice.
b.Where shading is provided by vegetation, such vegetation shall be existing trees and vegetation or new biodiverse plantings of native plants and adapted plants. Such planting shall occur prior to the final approval by the AHJ or in accordance with a contract established to require planting no later than 12 months after the final approval by the AHJ so as to provide the required shade no later than ten years after the final approval. Vegetation shall be appropriately sized, selected, planted, and maintained so that it does not interfere with overhead or underground utilities. Trees shall be placed a minimum of 5 ft (1.5 m) from and within 50 ft (15 m) of the building or retaining wall.
Exceptions to 188.8.131.52:
1.The requirements of this section are satisfied if 75% or more of the opaque wall surfaces on the east and west have a minimum SRI of 29. Each wall is allowed to be considered separately for this exception.
2.East wall shading is not required for buildings located in Climate Zones 5, 6, 7, and 8. West wall shading is not required for buildings located in Climate Zones 7 and 8.
This section applies to the building and covered parking roof surfaces for building projects in Climate Zones 1, 2, and 3. A minimum of 75% of the entire roof surface not used for roof penetrations and associated equipment; on-site renewable energy systems, such as photovoltaics or solar thermal energy collectors, including necessary space between rows of panels or collectors; portions of the roof used to capture heat for building energy technologies; rooftop decks or walkways; or vegetated (green) roofing systems shall be covered with products that
a.have a minimum three-year-aged SRI of 64 for a lowsloped roof. A low-sloped roof has a slope of less than or equal to 2:12.
b.have a minimum three-year-aged SRI of 15 for a steepsloped roof. A steep sloped roof has a slope of more than 2:12.
Exceptions to 184.108.40.206:
1.Building projects where an annual energy analysis simulation demonstrates that the total annual building energy cost and total annual CO2e, as calculated in accordance with Sections 7.5.2 and 7.5.3, are both a minimum of 2% less for the proposed roof than for a roof material complying with the requirements of Section 220.127.116.11(a).
2.Roofs used to shade or cover parking and roofs over semiheated spaces, provided that they have a minimum initial SRI of 29. A default SRI value of 35 for new concrete without added color pigment is allowed to be used instead of measurements.
The SRI shall be calculated in accordance with ASTM E1980 for mediumspeed wind conditions using a convection coefficient of 2.1 Btu/h·ft2·°F (11.9 W/m2·°C) for the following conditions:
a.For materials other than roofs, the SRI shall be based upon solar reflectance, as measured in accordance with ASTM E1918 or ASTM C1549, and the thermal emittance, as measured in accordance with ASTM E408 or ASTM C1371. The values for solar reflectance and thermal emittance shall be determined and certified by an independent third party.
b.For roofing products, the SRI values shall be based on a minimum three-year-aged solar reflectance and thermal emittance, as measured in accordance with the CRRC-1 standard, and shall be certified by the manufacturer.
TABLE 18.104.22.168A Maximum Allowable Glare Ratings for Building-Mounted Luminaires
Within Two Mounting Heights of Any Property Linea,b
|Distance in Mounting Heights to Nearest Property Line||LZ0||LZ1||LZ2||LZ3||LZ4|
|≥ 1 and <2||G0||G0||G1||G1||G2|
|≥0.5 and <1||G0||G0||G0||G1||G1|
a.For property lines that abut public walkways, bikeways, plazas, and parking lots, the property line may be considered to be 5 feet (1.5 m) beyond the actual property line for purpose of determining compliance with this section. For property lines that abut public roadways and public transit corridors, the property line may be considered to be the centerline of the public roadway or public transit corridor for the purpose of determining compliance with this section
b.Backlight, uplight, and glare ratings are defined based on specific lumen limits per IES TM-15 Addendum A.
TABLE 22.214.171.124B Maximum Allowable Backlight, Uplight, and Glare (BUG) Ratingsa,b,c,d
|Allowed Backlight Rating|
|>2 mounting heights from property line||B1||B3||B4||B5||B5|
|1 to 2 mounting heights from property line||B1||B2||B3||B4||B4|
|0.5 to 1 mounting height to property line||B0||B1||B2||B3||B3|
|<0.5 mounting height to property line||B0||B0||B0||B1||B2|
|Allowed Uplight Rating||U0||U1||U2||U3||U4|
|Allowed Glare Rating||G0||G1||G2||G3||G4|
a.Except where installed on a building surface, luminaires that are located at a distance of two times the mounting height of the luminaire or less from a property line shall have the backlight of the luminaire aimed towards and perpendicular to the nearest property line. Backlight is that part of the luminaire’s lumen output that was used to determine the backlight rating in its final angular position.
b.For property lines that abut public walkways, bikeways, plazas, and parking lots, the property line may be considered to be 5 feet (1.5 m) beyond the actual property line for purpose of determining compliance with this section. For property lines that abut public roadways and public transit corridors, the property line may be considered to be the centerline of the public roadway or public transit corridor for the purpose of determining compliance with this section.
c.If the luminaire is installed in other than the intended manner, or is an adjustable luminaire for which the aiming is specified, the rating shall be determined by the actual photometric geometry in the aimed orientation.
d.Backlight, uplight, and glare ratings are defined based on specific lumen limits per IES TM-15 Addendum A.
All exterior lighting shall meet one of the following uplight requirements:
Exceptions to 126.96.36.199:
1.Lighting in Lighting Zones 3 and 4, solely for uplighting structures, building façades, or landscaping.
2.Lighting in Lighting Zones 1 and 2, solely for uplighting structures, building façades, or landscaping, provided the applicable lighting power densities do not exceed 50% of the lighting power allowances in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Table 9.4.2-2.
1.Specialized signal, directional, and marker lighting associated with transportation.
2.Advertising signage or directional signage.
3.Lighting integral to equipment or instrumentation and installed by its manufacturer.
4.Lighting for theatrical purposes, including performance, stage, film production, and video production.
5.Lighting for athletic playing areas.
6.Lighting that is in use for no more than 60 continuous days and is not re-installed any sooner than 60 days after being uninstalled.
7.Lighting for industrial production, material handling, transportation sites, and associated storage areas.
8.Theme elements in theme/amusement parks.
9.Roadway lighting required by governmental authorities.
10.Lighting classified for and used in hazardous locations as specified in NFPA 70.
11.Lighting for swimming pools and water features.
TABLE 188.8.131.52 Maximum Allowable Percentage of Uplight
|Percentage of total exterior fixture lumens allowed to be emittedabove 90 degrees or higher from nadir (straight down)||0%||0%||1%||2%||5%|
Each primary building entrance shall be provided with a pedestrian walkway that extends to either a public way or a transit stop. Walkways across parking lots shall be clearly delineated.
Bicycle parking spaces shall be provided for at least five percent of the occupant load of each building but not less than two parking spaces. Occupants who are nonambulatory, under restraint, or under custodial care need not be included in the total occupant load for the building. Building projects with dwelling units shall be provided with at least 0.5 bicycle parking spaces per bedroom for each building but not less than two parking spaces.
1.Building projects with dwelling units that provide each unit with a private garage or private locked storage space of sufficient size to store a bicycle.
2.The number of bicycle parking spaces shall be allowed to be reduced subject to AHJ approval of a transportation plan, prepared by a design professional, that demonstrates the likelihood that building occupants will use public transportation and/or walk to the building project site.
Not fewer than two bicycle parking spaces shall be located within 50 ft (15.2 m) of, and be visible from, the building entrance being served. All other bicycle parking spaces shall be located inside the building, or the nearest point of the bicycle parking area(s) shall be within 50 ft (15.2 m) of the building entrance being served. Bicycle parking shall not obstruct pedestrian access to the building.
Horizontal bicycle parking racks shall provide a space for each bicycle that is not less than 18 in. (305 mm) in width and not less than 72 in. (1829 mm) in length. Each space shall provide at least two points of contact between the bicycle frame and rack. Each space shall have access to a clear exit pathway not less than 36 in. (914 mm) in width.
Each bicycle parking space shall be provided with a securely mounted rack or other facilities for locking or securing a bicycle. A rack shall allow the locking of the frame and the front or rear wheel of the bicycle to the rack using a U-shaped shackle lock.
All bicycle parking spaces shall be visible from the entrance being served; secured in a locker, cage or room; or provided with valet service or security cameras. Signage shall be provided to identify parking that is not visible from the building entrance.
Where on-site vehicle parking is provided for a building that has a building occupant load greater than 100, at least one of the following shall be provided:
a.Provisions for preferred parking spaces. At least five percent of the parking spaces provided shall be designated as preferred parking for vehicles that meet both the minimum greenhouse gas and air pollution scores as required for USEPA SmartWay designation. Preferred parking spaces shall be located on the shortest route of travel from the parking facility to a building entrance but shall not take precedence over parking spaces that are required to be accessible for individuals with disabilities. Where buildings have multiple entrances with adjacent parking, parking spaces shall be dispersed and located near the entrances. Such parking spaces shall be provided with signage approved by the AHJ that specifies the permitted usage.
b.Provisions for electric vehicle charging infrastructure. Two or more electric vehicle charging systems shall be available to the building occupants and shall be located no more than 1/4 mi (400 m) from the building project.
This section specifies requirements for potable water and nonpotable water use efficiency, both for the site and for the building, and water monitoring.
The water systems shall comply with Section 6.3, “Mandatory Provisions,” and either
Site water use and building water use are not required to use the same option, i.e., prescriptive or performance, for demonstrating compliance.
A minimum of 60% of the area of the improved landscape shall be in biodiverse planting of native plants and adapted plants other than turfgrass.
Exception: The area of dedicated athletic fields, golf courses, and driving ranges shall be excluded from the calculation of the improved landscape for schools, residential common areas, or public recreational facilities.
Hydrozoning of automatic irrigation systems to water different plant materials, such as turfgrass versus shrubs, is required. Landscaping sprinklers shall not be permitted to spray water directly on a building or within 3 ft (1 m) of a building.
Any irrigation system for the project site shall be controlled by a qualifying smart controller that uses evapotranspiration (ET) and weather data to adjust irrigation schedules and that complies with the minimum requirements or an on-site rain or moisture sensor that automatically shuts the system off after a predetermined amount of rainfall or sensed moisture in the soil. Qualifying smart controllers shall meet the minimum requirements, as listed below, when tested in accordance with IA SWAT Climatological-Based Controllers 8th Draft Testing Protocol. Smart controllers that use ET shall use the following inputs for calculating appropriate irrigation amounts:
a.Irrigation adequacy—80% minimum ETc.
b.Irrigation excess—not to exceed 10%.
Exception to 184.108.40.206: A temporary irrigation system used exclusively for the establishment of new landscape shall be exempt from this requirement. Temporary irrigation systems shall be removed or permanently disabled at such time as the landscape establishment period has expired.
Plumbing fixtures (water closets and urinals) and fittings (faucets and showerheads) shall comply with the following requirements, as shown in Table 220.127.116.11:
a.Water closets (toilets)—flushometer valve type. For single-flush, maximum flush volume shall be determined in accordance with ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1 and shall not exceed 1.28 gal (4.8 L). For dual-flush, the fullflush volume shall not exceed 1.28 gal (4.8 L) per flush. Dual-flush fixtures shall also comply with the provisions of ASME A112.19.14.
b.Water closets (toilets)—tank-type. Tank-type water closets shall be certified to the performance criteria of the USEPA WaterSense Tank-Type High-Efficiency Toilet Specification and shall have a maximum full-flush volume of 1.28 gal (4.8 L). Dual-flush fixtures shall also comply with the provisions of ASME A112.19.14.
c.Urinals. Maximum flush volume when determined in accordance with ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1—0.5 gal (1.9 L). Flushing urinals shall comply with the performance criteria of the USEPA WaterSense Specification for Flushing Urinals. Nonwater urinals shall comply with ASME A112.19.19 (vitreous china) or IAPMO Z124.9 (plastic) as appropriate.
d.Public lavatory faucets. Maximum flow rate—0.5 gpm (1.9 L/min) when tested in accordance with ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1.
e.Public metering self-closing faucet. Maximum water use—0.25 gal (1.0 L) per metering cycle when tested in accordance with ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1.
f.Residential bathroom lavatory sink faucets. Maximum flow rate—1.5 gpm (5.7 L/min) when tested in accordance with ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1. Residential bathroom lavatory sink faucets shall comply with the performance criteria of the USEPA WaterSense High-Efficiency Lavatory Faucet Specification.
g.Residential kitchen faucets. Maximum flow rate—1.8 gpm (6.8 L/min) when tested in accordance with ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1. Kitchen faucets shall be permitted to temporarily increase the flow greater than 1.8 gpm (6.8 L/min) but shall not exceed 2.2 gpm (8.3 L/min) and must automatically revert to the established maximum flow rate of 1.8 gpm (6.8 L/min) upon physical release of the activation mechanism or closure of the faucet valve.
h.Residential showerheads. Maximum flow rate—2.0 gpm (7.6 L/min) when tested in accordance with ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1. Residential showerheads shall comply with the performance requirements of the USEPA WaterSense Specification for Showerheads.
i.Residential shower compartment (stall) in dwelling units and guest rooms. The allowable flow rate from all shower outlets (including rain systems, waterfalls, bodysprays, and jets) that can operate simultaneously shall be limited to a total of 2.0 gpm (7.6 L/min).
Exception to 18.104.22.168(i): Where the area of a shower compartment exceeds 2600 in.2 (1.7 m2), an additional flow of 2.0 gpm (7.6 L/min) shall be permitted for each multiple of 2600 in.2 (1.7 m2) of floor area or fraction thereof.
TABLE 22.214.171.124 Plumbing Fixtures and Fittings Requirements
|Water closets (toilets)—flushometer single-flush valve type||Single-flush volume of 1.28 gal (4.8 L)|
|Water closets (toilets)—flushometer dual-flush valve type||Full-flush volume of 1.28 gal (4.8 L)|
|Water closets (toilets)—single-flush tank-type||Single-flush volume of 1.28 gal (4.8 L)|
|Water closets (toilets)—dual-flush tank-type||Effective dual-flush volume of 1.28 gal (4.8 L)|
|Urinals||Flush volume 0.5 gal (1.9 L)|
|Public lavatory faucets||Flow rate0.5 gpm (1.9 L/min)|
|Public metering self-closing faucet||0.25 gal (1.0 L) per metering cycle|
|Residential bathroom lavatory sink faucets||Flow rate—1.5 gpm (5.7 L/min)|
|Residential kitchen faucets||Flow rate—1.8 gpm (6.8 L/min)*|
|Residential showerheads||Flow rate—2.0 gpm (7.6 L/min)|
|Residential shower compartment (stall) in dwelling units and guest rooms||Flow rate from all shower outlets total of 2.0 gpm (7.6 L/min)|
* With provision for a temporary override to 2.2 gpm (8.3 L/min) as specified in Section 126.96.36.199(g).
a.Clothes washers and dishwashers installed within dwelling units shall comply with the ENERGY STAR® Program Requirements for Clothes Washers and ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Dishwashers. Maximum water use shall be as follows:
1.Clothes washers—Maximum water factor of 5.4 gal/ft3 of drum capacity (0.72 L/L of drum capacity).
2.Dishwashers—Standard-size dishwashers shall have a maximum water factor of 3.8 gal/full operating cycle (14.3 L/full operating cycle). Compact sizes shall have a maximum water factor of 3.5 gal/full operating cycle (13.2 L/full operating cycle). Standard and compact size shall be defined by ENERGY STAR criteria.
(See also the energy efficiency requirements in Section 188.8.131.52.)
b.Clothes washers installed in publicly accessible spaces (e.g., multifamily and hotel common areas) and coin- and card-operated clothes washers of any size used in laundromats shall have a maximum water factor of 4.0 gal/ft3 of drum capacity-normal cycle (0.53 L/L of drum capacitynormal cycle). (See also the energy efficiency requirements in Sections 184.108.40.206).
a.Once-through cooling with potable water is prohibited.
b.Cooling towers and evaporative coolers shall be equipped with makeup and blowdown meters, conductivity controllers, and overflow alarms in accordance with the thresholds listed in Table 6.3.3A. Cooling towers shall be equipped with efficient drift eliminators that achieve drift reduction to a maximum of 0.002% of the recirculated water volume for counterflow towers, and 0.005% of the recirculated water flow for cross-flow towers.
c.Building projects located in regions where the ambient mean coincident wet-bulb temperature at 1% design cooling conditions is greater than or equal to 72°F (22°C) shall have a system for collecting condensate from air-conditioning units with a capacity greater than 65,000 Btu/h (19 kW), and the condensate shall be recovered for reuse.
a.The use of potable water or reclaimed water for roof spray systems to thermally condition the roof shall be prohibited.
Exception to 220.127.116.11(a): Where approved by the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ), on-site treated reclaimed water may be used for roof spray systems.
b.Inground irrigation systems on vegetated roofs using potable or off-site treated reclaimed water shall be prohibited.
c.The use of potable water or reclaimed water for irrigation of vegetated (green) roofs is prohibited after vegetation establishment period or 18 month after the initial installation, whichever is less. After the landscape plants are established, the irrigation system using potable water or reclaimed water shall be removed from site.
Exception to 18.104.22.168(c): Where approved by the AHJ, onsite treated reclaimed water may be used for vegetated roof irrigation systems during and after the vegetation establishment period.
TABLE 6.3.3A Subsystem Water Measurement Thresholds
|Cooling towers (meter on makeup water and blowdown)||Cooling tower flow through tower >500 gpm (30 L/s)|
|Evaporative coolers||Makeup water >0.6 gpm (0.04 L/s)|
|Steam and hot-water boilers||>500,000 Btu/h (50 kW) input|
|Total irrigated landscape area with controllers||>25,000 ft2 (2500 m2)|
|Separate campus or project buildings||Consumption >1000 gal/day (3800 L/day)|
|Separately leased or rental space||Consumption >1000 gal/day (3800 L/day)|
|Any large water-using process||Consumption >1000 gal/day (3800 L/day)|
TABLE 6.3.3B Water Supply Source Measurement Thresholds
|Water Source||Main Measurement Threshold|
|Potable water||1000 gal/day (3800 L/day)|
|Municipally reclaimed water||1000 gal/day (3800 L/day)|
|Alternate sources of water||500 gal/day (1900 L/day)|
Measurement devices with remote communication capability shall be provided to collect water consumption data for the domestic water supply to the building. Both potable and reclaimed water entering the building project shall be monitored or submetered. In addition, for individual leased, rented, or other tenant or subtenant space within any building totaling in excess of 50,000 ft2 (5000 m2), separate submeters shall be provided. For subsystems with multiple similar units, such as multicell cooling towers, only one measurement device is required for the subsystem. Any project or building, or tenant or subtenant space within a project or building, such as a commercial car wash or aquarium, shall be submetered where consumption is projected to exceed 1000 gal/day (3800 L/day).
Measurement devices with remote capability shall be provided to collect water use data for each water supply source (e.g., potable water, reclaimed water, rainwater) to the building project that exceeds the thresholds listed in Table 6.3.3A. Utility company service entrance/interval meters are allowed to be used.
Provide submetering with remote communication measurement to collect water use data for each of the building subsystems if such subsystems are sized above the threshold levels listed in Table 6.3.3B.
All building measurement devices, monitoring systems, and submeters installed to comply with the thresholds limits in Section 22.214.171.124 shall be configured to communicate water consumption data to a meter data management system. At a minimum, meters shall provide daily data and shall record hourly consumption of water.
The meter data management system shall be capable of electronically storing water meter, monitoring systems, and submeter data and creating user reports showing calculated hourly, daily, monthly, and annual water consumption for each measurement device and submeter and provide alarming notification capabilities as needed to support the requirements of the Water User Efficiency Plan for Operation in Section 10.3.2.1.2.
For golf courses and driving ranges, only municipally reclaimed water and/or alternate on-site sources of water shall be used to irrigate the landscape. For other landscaped areas, a maximum of one-third of improved landscape area is allowed to be irrigated with potable water. The area of dedicated athletic fields shall be excluded from the calculation of the improved landscape for schools, residential common areas, or public recreational facilities. All other irrigation shall be provided from alternate on-site sources of water or municipally reclaimed water.
Exception: Potable water is allowed to be temporarily used on such newly installed landscape for the landscape establishment period. The amount of potable water that may be applied to the newly planted areas during the temporary landscape establishment period shall not exceed 70% of ETo for turfgrass and 55% of ETo for other plantings. If municipally reclaimed water is available at a water main within 200 ft (60 m) of the project site, it shall be used in lieu of potable water during the landscape establishment period. After the landscape establishment period has expired, all irrigation water use shall comply with the requirements established elsewhere in this standard.
The water being discharged from cooling towers for air-conditioning systems, such as chilled-water systems, shall be limited in accordance with method (a) or (b):
a.For make-up waters having less than 200 ppm (200 mg/L) of total hardness expressed as calcium carbonate, by achieving a minimum of five cycles of concentration.
b.For make-up waters with more than 200 ppm (200 mg/L) of total hardness expressed as calcium carbonate, by achieving a minimum of 3.5 cycles of concentration.
Exception to 126.96.36.199: Where the total dissolved solids concentration of the discharge water exceeds 1500 mg (1500 ppm/L), or the silica exceeds 150 ppm (150 mg/L) measured as silicon dioxide before the above cycles of concentration are reached.
Commercial food service operations (e.g., restaurants, cafeterias, food preparation kitchens, caterers, etc.)
a.shall use high-efficiency prerinse spray valves (i.e., valves that function at 1.3 gpm (4.9 L/min) or less and comply with a 26-second performance requirement when tested in accordance with ASTM F2324);
b.shall use dishwashers that comply with the requirements of the ENERGY STAR Program for Commercial Dishwashers;
c.shall use boilerless/connectionless food steamers that consume no more than 2.0 gal/hour (7.5 L/hour) in the full operational mode;
d.shall use combination ovens that consume not more than 10 gal/hour (38 L/hour) in the full operational mode;
e.shall use air-cooled ice machines that comply with the requirements of the ENERGY STAR Program for Commercial Ice Machines; and
f.shall be equipped with hands-free faucet controllers (foot controllers, sensor-activated, or other) for all faucet fittings within the food preparation area of the kitchen and the dish room, including pot sinks and washing sinks.
Medical and laboratory facilities, including clinics, hospitals, medical centers, physician and dental offices, and medical and nonmedical laboratories of all types shall use all of the following:
a.Only water-efficient steam sterilizers equipped with (1) water-tempering devices that allow water to flow only when the discharge of condensate or hot water from the sterilizer exceeds 140°F (60°C) and (2) mechanical vacuum equipment in place of venturi-type vacuum systems for vacuum sterilizers.
b.Film processor water recycling units where large frame xray films of more than 6 in. (150 mm) in either length or width are processed (small dental x-ray equipment is exempt from this requirement).
c.Digital imaging and radiography systems where the digital networks are installed.
d.A dry-hood scrubber system, or, if the applicant determines that a wet-hood scrubber system is required, the scrubber shall be equipped with a water recirculation system. For perchlorate hoods and other applications where a hood wash-down system is required, the hood shall be equipped with self-closing valves on those wash-down systems.
e.Only dry vacuum pumps, unless fire and safety codes for explosive, corrosive, or oxidative gasses require a liquid ring pump.
f.Only efficient water treatment systems that comply with the following criteria:
1.For all filtration processes, pressure gages shall determine and display when to backwash or change cartridges.
2.For all ion exchange and softening processes, recharge cycles shall be set by volume of water treated or based upon conductivity or hardness.
3.For reverse osmosis and nanofiltration equipment, with capacity greater than 27 gal/h (100 L/h), reject water shall not exceed 60% of the feed water and shall be used as scrubber feed water or for other beneficial uses on the project site.
4.Simple distillation is not acceptable as a means of water purification.
g.Food service operations within medical facilities shall comply with Section 188.8.131.52.
Water use shall comply with the following:
a.Ornamental fountains and other ornamental water features shall be supplied either by alternate on-site sources of water or by municipally reclaimed water delivered by the local water utility acceptable to the AHJ. Fountains and other features shall be equipped with (1) makeup water meters, (2) leak detection devices that shut off water flow if a leak of more than 1.0 gal/h (3.8 L/h) is detected, and (3) equipment to recirculate, filter, and treat all water for reuse within the system.
Exception to 6.4.3(a): Where alternate on-site sources of water or municipally reclaimed water are not available within 500 ft (150 m) of the building project site, potable water is allowed to be used for water features with less than 10,000 gallon (38,000 L) capacity.
b.Pools and spas
1.Backwash water: Recover filter backwash water for reuse on landscaping or other applications, or treat and reuse backwash water within the system.
2.Filtration: For filters with removable cartridges, only reusable cartridges and systems shall be used. For filters with backwash capability, use only pool filter equipment that includes a pressure drop gage to determine when the filter needs to be backwashed, and a sight glass enabling the operator to determine when to stop the backwash cycle.
3.Pool splash troughs, if provided, shall drain back into the pool system.
Calculations shall be made in accordance with generally accepted engineering standards and handbooks acceptable to the AHJ.
Potable water (and municipally reclaimed water, where used) intended to irrigate improved landscape shall be limited to 35% of the water demand for that landscape. The water demand shall be based upon ET for that climatic area and shall not exceed 70% of ETo for turfgrass areas and 55% of ETo for all other plant material after adjustment for rainfall.
This section specifies requirements for energy efficiency for buildings and appliances, for on-site renewable energy systems, and for energy measuring.
The energy systems shall comply with Section 7.3, “Mandatory Provisions,” and either
The exceptions to the requirement for a continuous air barrier in Section 184.108.40.206 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 for specific climate zones and constructions shall not apply.
Building project design shall show allocated space and pathways for future installation of on-site renewable energy systems and associated infrastructure that provide the annual energy production equivalent of not less than 6.0 kBtu/ft2 (20 kWh/m2) for single-story buildings and not less than 10.0 kBtu/ft2 (32 kWh/m2) multiplied by the gross roof area in ft2 (m2) for all other buildings.
1.Building projects that have an annual daily average incident solar radiation available to a flat plate collector oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location less than 1.2 kBtu/ft2·day (4.0 kWh/m2·day), accounting for existing buildings, permanent infrastructure that is not part of the building project, topography, or trees.
2.Building projects that comply with Section 220.127.116.11.
Measurement devices with remote communication capability shall be provided to collect energy consumption data for each energy supply source to the building, including gas, electricity, and district energy, that exceeds the thresholds listed in Table 18.104.22.168A. The measurement devices shall have the capability to automatically communicate the energy consumption data to a data acquisition system.
For all buildings that exceed the threshold in Table 22.214.171.124A, subsystem measurement devices with remote capability (including current sensors or flowmeters) shall be provided to measure energy consumption data of each subsystem for each use category that exceeds the thresholds listed in Table 126.96.36.199B.
The energy consumption data from the subsystem measurement devices shall be automatically communicated to the data acquisition system.
TABLE 188.8.131.52A Energy Source Thresholds
|Electrical service||>200 kVA|
|On-site renewableelectric power||All systems > 1 kVA (peak)|
|Gas and district services||>1,000,000 Btu/h (300 kW)|
|Geothermal energy||>1,000,000 Btu/h (300 kW) heating|
|On-site renewable thermal energy||>100,000 Btu/h (30 kW)|
TABLE 184.108.40.206B System Energy Use Thresholds
|Use (Total of All Loads)||Subsystem Threshold|
|HVAC system||Connected electric load > 100kVA|
|HVAC system||Connected gas or district services load > 500,000 Btu/h (150 kW)|
|People moving||Sum of all feeders > 50 kVA|
|Lighting||Connected load > 50 kVA|
|Process and plug process||Connected load > 50 kVAConnected gas or district services load > 250,000 Btu/h (75 kW)|
All building measurement devices shall be configured to automatically communicate the energy data to the data acquisition system. At a minimum, measurement devices shall provide daily data and shall record hourly energy profiles. Such hourly energy profiles shall be capable of being used to assess building performance at least monthly.
The data acquisition system shall be capable of electronically storing the data from the measurement devices and other sensing devices for a minimum of 36 months and creating user reports showing hourly, daily, monthly, and annual energy consumption.
Exception: Portions of buildings used as residential.
When a requirement is provided below, it supersedes the requirement in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1. For all other criteria, the building project shall comply with the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
Building projects shall contain on-site renewable energy systems that provide the annual energy production equivalent of not less than 6.0 kBtu/ft2 (20 kWh/m2) multiplied by the gross roof area in ft2 (m2) for single-story buildings, and not less than 10.0 kBtu/ft2 (32 kWh/m2) multiplied by the gross roof area in ft2 (m2) for all other buildings. The annual energy production shall be the combined sum of all on-site renewable energy systems.
Exceptions: Buildings that demonstrate compliance with both of the following are not required to contain on-site renewable energy systems:
1.An annual daily average incident solar radiation available to a flat plate collector oriented due south at an angle from horizontal equal to the latitude of the collector location less than 4.0 kWh/m2·day (1.2 kBtu/ft2/day), accounting for existing buildings, permanent infrastructure that is not part of the building project, topography, and trees.
2.A commitment to purchase renewable electricity products complying with the Green-e Energy National Standard for Renewable Electricity Products of at least 7 kWh/ft2 (75 kWh/m2) of conditioned space each year until the cumulative purchase totals 70 kWh/ft2 (750 kWh/m2) of conditioned space.
Building projects complying with this approach shall comply with the applicable equipment efficiency requirements in Normative Appendix B, the water-heating efficiency requirements in Section 220.127.116.11, equipment efficiency requirements in Section 18.104.22.168, and the applicable ENERGY STAR® requirements in Section 22.214.171.124.2, and shall contain on-site renewable energy systems that provide the annual energy production equivalent of not less than 4.0 kBtu/ft2 (13 kWh/m2) multiplied by the gross roof area in ft2 (m2) for single-story buildings, and not less than 7.0 kBtu/ft2 (22 kWh/m2) multiplied by the gross roof area in ft2 (m2) for all other buildings. The annual energy production shall be the combined sum of all on-site renewable energy systems. For equipment listed in Section 126.96.36.199.2 that are also contained in Normative Appendix B, the installed equipment shall comply by meeting or exceeding both requirements.
The building envelope shall comply with the requirements in Tables 5.5-1 through 5.5-8 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, with the following modifications to values in each table. For the opaque elements, each U-factor, C-factor, and F-factor in Tables 5.5-4 through 5.5-8 shall be reduced by ten percent. The “Insulation Min. R-Value” column in Tables 5.5-4 through 5.5-8 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 shall not apply. For vertical fenestration, each U-factor shall be reduced by ten percent. For east-oriented and west-oriented vertical fenestration, each solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) in Tables 5.5-4 through 5.5-8 shall be reduced by ten percent.
1.The U-factor, C-factor, or F-factor shall not be modified where the corresponding R-value requirement is designated as “NR” (no requirement) in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 Tables 5.5-4 through 5.5-8.
2.The SHGC shall not be modified where the SHGC requirement is designated as “NR” (no requirement) in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 Tables 5.5-4 through 5.5-8.
3.Spaces that meet the requirements of Section 8.4.1, regardless of space area, are exempt from the SHGC criteria for skylights.
Single-rafter roofs shall comply with the requirements in Table A-1 in Normative Appendix A. These requirements supersede the requirements in Section A188.8.131.52 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1. Section A184.108.40.206 and Table A2.4.2 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 shall not apply.
High-speed doors that are intended to operate on average at least 75 cycles per day shall not exceed a maximum U-factor of 1.20 Btu/hr·ft2·°F (6.81 W/m2·K). Opening rate, closing rate, and average cycles per day shall be included in construction drawings. Sections 220.127.116.11 and 18.104.22.168 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 shall not apply for high-speed doors complying with all criteria in this section.
The total vertical fenestration area shall be less than 40% of the gross wall area. This requirement supersedes the requirement in Section 22.214.171.124.1 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
For Climate Zones 1 through 5, the vertical fenestration on the west, south, and east shall be shaded by permanent projections that have an area-weighted average projection factor (PF) of not less than 0.50. The building is allowed to be rotated up to 45 degrees to the nearest cardinal orientation for purposes of calculations and showing compliance.
1.Vertical fenestration that receives direct solar radiation for fewer than 250 hours per year because of shading by permanent external buildings, existing permanent infrastructure, or topography.
2.Vertical fenestration with automatically controlled shading devices capable of modulating in multiple steps the amount of solar gain and light transmitted into the space in response to daylight levels or solar intensity that comply with all of the following:
a.Exterior shading devices shall be capable of providing at least 90% coverage of the fenestration in the closed position.
b.Interior shading devices shall be capable of providing at least 90% coverage of the fenestration in the closed position and have a minimum solar reflectance of 0.50 for the surface facing the fenestration.
c.A manual override located in the same enclosed space as the vertical fenestration shall override operation of automatic controls no longer than four hours.
d.Acceptance testing and commissioning shall be conducted as required by Section 10 to verify that automatic controls for shading devices respond to changes in illumination or radiation intensity.
3.Vertical fenestration with automatically controlled dynamic glazing capable of modulating in multiple steps the amount of solar gain and light transmitted into the space in response to daylight levels or solar intensity that comply with all of the following:
a.Dynamic glazing shall have a lower labeled SHGC equal to or less than 0.12, lowest labeled visible transmittance (VT) no greater than 0.05, and highest labeled VT no less than 0.40.
b.A manual override located in the same enclosed space as the vertical fenestration shall override operation of automatic controls no longer than 4 hours.
c.Acceptance testing and commissioning shall be conducted as required by Section 10 to verify that automatic controls for dynamic glazing respond to changes in illumination or radiation intensity.
For SHGC compliance, the methodology in Exception (2) to Section 126.96.36.199.1 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 is allowed, provided that the SHGC multipliers in Table 188.8.131.52 of this standard are used. This requirement supersedes the requirement in Table 184.108.40.206.1 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1. Table 220.127.116.11.1 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 shall not apply. Vertical fenestration that is north oriented shall be allowed to have a maximum SHGC of 0.10 greater than that specified in Tables 5.5-1 through 5.5-8 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1. When this provision is utilized, separate calculations shall be performed for these sections of the building envelope, and these values shall not be averaged with any others for compliance purposes.
TABLE 18.104.22.168 SHGC Multipliers for Permanent Projections
|SHGC Multiplier||SHGC Multiplier|
|PF||(All Other Orientations)||(North-Oriented)|
The building envelope trade-off option in Section 5.6 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 shall not apply unless the procedure incorporates the modifications and additions to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 noted in Section 7.4.2.
The vertical fenestration shall comply with either (a) or (b):
a.AW ≤ (AN + AS)/4 and AE ≤ (AN + AS)/4
b.AW × SHGCW ≤ (AN× SHGCC + AS× SHGCC)/6 and AE × SHGCE ≤ (AN× SHGCC + AS× SHGCC)/6
|SHGCx||=||the SHGC for orientation x that complies with Section 22.214.171.124|
|SHGCC||=||the SHGC criteria for each climate zone from Section 126.96.36.199|
|Ax||=||fenestration area for orientation x|
|N||=||north (oriented less than 45 degrees of true north)|
|S||=||south (oriented less than 45 degrees of true south)|
|E||=||east (oriented less than or equal to 45 degrees of true east)|
|W||=||west (oriented less than or equal to 45 degrees of true west)|
1.Vertical fenestration that complies with the exception to Section 188.8.131.52.1(c) of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
2.Buildings with shade on 75% of the west- and east-oriented vertical fenestration areas from permanent projections, existing buildings, existing permanent infrastructure, or topography at 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. on the summer solstice (June 21 in the northern hemisphere).
3.Alterations and additions with no increase in vertical fenestration area.
4.Buildings where the west-oriented and east-oriented vertical fenestration areas do not exceed 20% of the gross wall area for each of those façades and the SHGC on those façades is not greater than 90% of the criteria in Section 184.108.40.206.
5.Buildings in Climate Zone 8.
All building projects complying with the Alternate Renewables Approach in Section 220.127.116.11.2 shall comply with the applicable equipment efficiency requirements in Normative Appendix B and the applicable ENERGY STAR requirements in Section 18.104.22.168.2.
The requirements in this section supersede those in Section 22.214.171.124 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1. Demand control ventilation (DCV) shall be provided for densely occupied spaces served by systems with one or more of the following:
a.An air-side economizer.
b.Automatic modulating control of the outdoor air dampers.
c.A design outdoor airflow greater than 1000 cfm (500 L/s).
Exceptions to 126.96.36.199:
1.Systems with exhaust air energy recovery complying with Section 188.8.131.52.
2.Systems with a design outdoor airflow less than 750 cfm (375 L/s).
3.Spaces where more than 75% of the space design outdoor airflow is utilized as makeup air or transfer air to provide makeup air for other space(s).
4.Spaces with one of the following occupancy categories as defined in ASHRAE Standard 62.1: cells in correctional facilities; daycare sickrooms; science laboratories; barbers; beauty and nail salons; and bowling alleys (seating).
The DCV system shall be designed to be in compliance with Section 6.2.7 of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1. Occupancy assumptions shall be shown in the design documents for spaces provided with DCV. All CO2 sensors used as part of a DCV system or any other system that dynamically controls outdoor air shall meet the following requirements:
a.Spaces with CO2 sensors or air-sampling probes leading to a central CO2 monitoring station shall be provided with at least one sensor or probe for each 10,000 ft2 (1000 m2) of floor space. Sensors or probes shall be installed between 3 and 6 ft (1 and 2 m) above the floor.
b.CO2 sensors must be accurate to ±50 ppm at 1000 ppm.
c.Outdoor air CO2 concentrations shall be determined by one of the following:
1.Outdoor air CO2 concentrations shall be dynamically measured using a CO2 sensor.
2.When documented statistical data are available on the local ambient CO2 concentrations, a fixed value typical of the location where the building is located shall be allowed in lieu of an outdoor sensor.
d.Occupant CO2 generation rate assumptions shall be shown in the design documents.
a.The minimum size requirements for economizers for comfort cooling and for computer rooms are defined in Table 184.108.40.206 and supersede the requirements in Table 6.5.1 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 as defined in Tables 6.5.1-1 and 6.5.1-2.
b.Rooftop units with a capacity of less than 54,000 Btu/h (16 kW) shall have two stages of capacity control, with the first stage controlling the economizer and the second stage controlling mechanical cooling. Units with a capacity equal to or greater than 54,000 Btu/h (16 kW) shall comply with the staging requirements defined in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 220.127.116.11
c.For systems that control to a fixed leaving air temperature (i.e., variable-air-volume [VAV] systems), the system shall be capable of resetting the supply air temperature up at least 5°F (3°C) during economizer operation.
a.Where the reduced renewable approach defined in Section 18.104.22.168.1 is used, Exception (9) to Section 6.5.1 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 shall be permitted to eliminate the economizer requirement, provided the requirements in Table 6.5.1-3 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 are applied to the efficiency requirements required by Section 22.214.171.124.2. If the standard renewable approach is chosen as defined in Section 126.96.36.199.1 then the requirements in Table 6.5.1-3 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 shall be applied to the efficiency requirements in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 Tables 6.8.1-1 through 6.8.1-11.
b.For water-cooled units with a capacity less than 54,000 Btu/h (16 kW) that are used in systems where heating and cooling loads are transferred within the building (i.e., water-source heat pump systems), the requirement for an air or water economizer can be eliminated if the condenser-water temperature controls are capable of being set to maintain full-load heat rejection capacity down to a 55°F (12°C) condenser-water supply temperature, and the HVAC equipment is capable of operating with a 55°F (12°C) condenser-water supply temperature.
TABLE 188.8.131.52 Minimum System Size for which an Economizer is Required
|Climate Zones||Cooling Capacity for which an Economizer is Requireda|
|1A, 1B||No economizer requirement|
|2A, 2B, 3A, 3B, 3C, 4A, 4B, 4C, 5A, 5B, 5C, 6A, 6B, 7, 8||≥33,000 Btu/h (9.7 kW)a|
a.Where economizers are required, the total capacity of all systems without economizers shall not exceed 480,000 Btu/h (140 kW) per building or 20% of the building’s air economizer capacity, whichever is greater.
The exceptions to Section 184.108.40.206 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 shall be modified as follows:
a.Exception (1) shall not be used.
b.Exception (2)(a)(2) shall be replaced by the following text: “the design outdoor airflow rate for the zone.”
Systems shall have fan power limitations 10% below limitations specified in Table 220.127.116.11-1 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1. This requirement supersedes the requirement in Section 18.104.22.168 and Table 22.214.171.124-1 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1. All exceptions in Section 126.96.36.199 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 shall apply.
The fan-efficiency requirements defined in Section 188.8.131.52.3 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 shall be used, except that the total efficiency of the fan at the design point of operation shall be within ten percentage points of the maximum total efficiency of the fan. All exceptions in Section 184.108.40.206.3 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 shall apply.
The exhaust air energy recovery requirements defined in Section 220.127.116.11 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, including the requirements in Tables 18.104.22.168-1 and 22.214.171.124-2, shall be used except that the energy recovery effectiveness shall not be less than 60%, superseding the 50% effectiveness requirement in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, Section 126.96.36.199.
The requirements in Sections 188.8.131.52, 184.108.40.206, and 220.127.116.11 of ASHRAE/ANSI/IES Standard 90.1 shall apply, except as follows: Sections 18.104.22.168.1 and 22.214.171.124.2 supersede the requirements in Sections 126.96.36.199.3 and 188.8.131.52.4 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
TABLE 184.108.40.206 Maximum Net Exhaust Flow Rate in cfm per Linear Foot of Hood Length
|Type of Hood||Light-DutyEquipment||Medium-DutyEquipment||Heavy-DutyEquipment||Extra Heavy-DutyEquipment|
|Double island (per side)||175||210||280||385|
|Eyebrow||175||175||Not allowed||Not allowed|
a.The total exhaust flow rate for all single-island hoods in a kitchen/dining facility shall be no more than 5000 cfm.
For kitchen/dining facilities with total kitchen hood exhaust airflow rate greater than 2000 cfm, the maximum exhaust flow rate for each hood shall be determined in accordance with Table 220.127.116.11. For single hoods, or hood sections installed over appliances with different duty ratings, the maximum allowable exhaust flow rate for the hood or hood section shall be determined in accordance with Table 18.104.22.168 for the highest appliance duty rating under the hood or hood section. Refer to ASHRAE Standard 154 for definitions of hood type, appliance duty, and net exhaust flow rate.
Exception: When at least 75% of all the replacement air is transfer air that would otherwise be exhausted.
Kitchen/dining facilities with total kitchen hood exhaust airflow rate greater than 2000 cfm shall comply with at least one of the following:
a.At least 50% of all replacement air must be transfer air that would otherwise be exhausted.
b.At least 75% of kitchen hood exhaust air shall be controlled by a demand ventilation system(s), which shall
1.be capable of reducing exhaust and replacement air system airflow rates by no more than the larger of
2.include controls to modulate airflow in response to appliance operation and to maintain full capture and containment of smoke, effluent, and combustion products during cooking and idle;
3.include controls that result in full flow when the demand ventilation system(s) fail to modulate airflow in response to appliance operation; and
4.allow occupants to temporarily override the system(s) to full flow.
c.Listed energy recovery devices with a sensible heat recovery effectiveness of not less than 40% shall be applied on at least 50% of the total exhaust airflow.
d.In Climate Zones 1B, 2B, 3B, 4B, 5B, 6B, 7B, and 8B, when makeup air is uncooled or cooled without the use of mechanical cooling, the capacity of any nonmechanical cooling system(s) (for example, natural cooling or evaporative cooling) shall be demonstrated to be no less than the system capacity of a mechanical cooling system(s) necessary to meet the same loads under design conditions.
Duct insulation shall comply with the minimum requirements in Tables A-2 and A-3 in Normative Appendix A. These requirements supersede the requirements in Tables 6.8.2-1 and 6.8.2-2 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
In hotels and motels with over 50 guest rooms, automatic controls for the lighting, switched outlets, television, and HVAC equipment serving each guest room shall be configured according to the following requirements.
Within 30 minutes of all occupants leaving the guest room, power for lighting and switched outlets shall be automatically turned off.
Within 30 minutes of all occupants leaving the guest room, televisions shall be automatically turned off or placed in sleep or standby mode.
Within 30 minutes of all occupants leaving the guest room, HVAC setpoints shall be automatically raised by at least 5°F (3°C) from the occupant setpoint in the cooling mode and automatically lowered by at least 5°F (3°C) from the occupant setpoint in the heating mode. When the guest room is unrented and unoccupied, HVAC setpoints shall be automatically reset to 80°F (27°C) or higher in the cooling mode and to 60°F (16°C) or lower in the heating mode. Unrented and unoccupied guest rooms shall be determined by either of the following criteria:
a.The guest room has been continuously unoccupied for up to 16 hours.
b.A networked guest-room control system indicates the guest room is unrented and the guest room is unoccupied for no more than 30 minutes.
Exception to 22.214.171.124.3:
1.A networked guest-room control system may return the thermostat setpoints to their default setpoints 60 minutes prior to the time the room is scheduled to be occupied.
2.Cooling for humidity control shall be permitted during unoccupied periods.
Within 30 minutes of all occupants leaving the guest room, ventilation and exhaust fans shall be automatically turned off, or isolation devices serving each guest room shall automatically shut off the supply of outdoor air to the room and shut off exhaust air from the guest room. In conjunction with the automatic ventilation shutoff, an automatic preoccupancy purge cycle shall provide outdoor air ventilation as specified in Section 126.96.36.199.
Captive keycard systems shall not be used to comply with Section 188.8.131.52.
All building projects complying with the Alternate Renewables Approach in Section 184.108.40.206.2 shall comply with the applicable equipment efficiency requirements in Table B-9 in Normative Appendix B and the applicable ENERGY STAR requirements in Section 220.127.116.11.2. These requirements supersede the requirements in Table 7.8 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1.
Pools heated to more than 90°F (32°C) shall have side and bottom surfaces insulated on the exterior with a minimum insulation value of R-12 (R-2.1).
Building projects shall contain automatic systems, such as demand limiting or load shifting, that are capable of reducing electric peak demand of the building by not less than 10% of the projected peak demand. Standby power generation shall not be used to achieve the reduction in peak demand.
Exception: Building projects complying with the Alternate Renewables Approach in Section 18.104.22.168.2 and containing automatic systems, such as demand limiting or load shifting, that are capable of reducing electric peak demand by not less than 5% of the projected peak demand.
TABLE 22.214.171.124A LPD Factors when Using the Building Area Method
|Building Area Type||LPD Factor|
|All Other Building Area Types||1.00|
TABLE 126.96.36.199B Lighting Power Density (LPD) Factors When Using the Space-by-Space Method
|Common Space Types|
|Space Type||LPD Factor|
|Audience seating area|
|… in an auditorium||1.00|
|… in a convention center||1.00|
|… in a gymnasium||0.85|
|… in a motion picture theater||1.00|
|… in a penitentiary||1.00|
|… in a performing arts theater||1.00|
|… in a religious building||1.00|
|… in a sports arena||1.00|
|… in all other audience seating areas||1.00|
|Classroom/lecture hall/training room|
|… in a penitentiary||1.00|
|… in all other classrooms/lecture halls/training rooms||0.85|
|… in a facility for the visually impaired (and used primarily by residents)||1.00|
|… in a hospital||1.00|
|… in a manufacturing facility||1.00|
|… in all other corridors||0.85|
|… in a penitentiary||1.00|
|… in a facility for the visually impaired (and used primarily by residents)||1.00|
|… in bar/lounge or leisure dining||1.00|
|… in cafeteria or fast food dining||1.00|
|… in family dining||0.85|
|… in all other dining areas||0.90|
|… in or as a classroom||1.00|
|… in all other laboratories||0.95|
|… in a facility for the visually impaired (and used primarily by residents)||1.00|
|… for an elevator||0.85|
|… in a hotel||1.00|
|… in a motion picture theater||0.95|
|… in a performing arts theater||1.00|
|… all other lobbies||0.95|
|… in a healthcare facility||0.85|
|… in all other lounge/breakrooms||0.85|
|… open plan||0.85|
|All other common space types||1.00|
|Building-Type Specific Space Types|
|Space Type||LPD Factor|
|Convention center Exhibit space||0.85|
|… in an exercise area||0.85|
|… in a playing area||1.00|
|… in an exam/treatment room||0.85|
|… in an imaging room||1.00|
|… in a medical supply room||0.90|
|… in a nursery||0.85|
|… in a nurses station||0.90|
|… in an operating room||1.00|
|… in a patient room||0.90|
|… in a physical therapy room||0.85|
|… in a recovery room||1.00|
|… in a reading area||1.00|
|… in the stacks||0.95|
|… in a detailed manufacturing area||1.00|
|… in an equipment room||1.00|
|… in an extra high bay area||1.00|
|… in a high bay area||0.85|
|… in a low bay area||0.85|
|… in a baggage/carousel area||0.90|
|… in an airport concourse||0.90|
|… at a terminal ticket counter||0.85|
|… for medium to bulky, palletized items||0.85|
|… for smaller, hand-carried items||1.00|
|All other building-type specific space types||1.00|
TABLE 188.8.131.52C Lighting Power Allowance Factors
|For tradable areas||1.00||0.90||0.90||0.95||0.95|
|For nontradable areas||1.00||0.95||0.95||0.95||0.95|
c.Control factors from Table 9.6.3 in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 shall not be used for any control methodologies required in this standard.
The exterior lighting power allowance shall be determined using Section 9.4.3 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 with the following modification. The LPDs from Table 9.4.2-2 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 shall be multiplied by the appropriate LPD Factor from Table 184.108.40.206C
The lighting in commercial and industrial storage stack areas shall be controlled by an occupant sensor with multilevel switching or dimming system that reduces lighting power a minimum of 50% within 20 minutes of all occupants leaving the stack area.
Exception: Storage stack areas illuminated by high-intensity discharge (HID) lighting with a lighting power density of 0.8 W/ft2 (8.6 W/m2) or less.
Lighting in any area within a building that is required to be continuously illuminated for reasons of building security or emergency egress shall not exceed 0.1 W/ft2 (1 W/m2). Additional egress and security lighting shall be allowed, provided it is controlled by an automatic control device that turns off the additional lighting.
All exterior sign lighting, including internally illuminated signs and lighting on externally illuminated signs, shall comply with the requirements of Sections 220.127.116.11.1 or 18.104.22.168.2.
1.Sign lighting that is specifically required by a health or life safety statute, ordinance, or regulation.
2.Signs in tunnels.
All sign lighting that operates more than one hour per day during daylight hours shall include controls to automatically reduce the input power to a maximum of 35% of full power for a period from one hour after sunset to one hour before sunrise.
Exception: Sign lighting using metal halide, high-pressure sodium, induction, cold cathode, or neon lamps that includes controls to automatically reduce the input power to a maximum of 70% of full power for a period from one hour after sunset to one hour before sunrise.
All other sign lighting shall include the following:
a.Controls to automatically reduce the input power to a maximum of 70% of full power for a period from midnight or within one hour of the end of business operations, whichever is later, until 6:00 am or business opening, whichever is earlier.
b.Controls to automatically turn off during daylight hours.
This section supersedes Section 22.214.171.124 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 for lighting serving uncovered parking areas. Outdoor luminaires serving uncovered parking areas shall be controlled by all of the following:
a.Luminaires shall be controlled by a device that automatically turns off the luminaire during daylight hours.
b.Luminaires shall be controlled by a timeclock or other control that automatically turns off the luminaire according to a timed schedule.
c.For luminaires having a rated input wattage of more than 50 W and where the bottom of the luminaire is mounted 24 ft (7.3 m) or less above the ground, the luminaires shall be controlled by one or more devices that automatically reduce lighting power of each luminaire by a minimum of 40% when there is no activity detected in the controlled zone for a period no longer than 15 minutes. No more than 1500 input watts of lighting power shall be controlled together.
Exceptions to 126.96.36.199(c):
1.Lighting serving uncovered parking areas does not include lighting for outdoor sales, including vehicle sales lots.
2.Lighting for covered vehicle entrances or exits from buildings or parking structures where required for safety, security, or eye adaptation.
All building projects complying with the Alternate Renewables Approach in Section 188.8.131.52.2 shall comply with the applicable equipment efficiency requirements in Normative Appendix B and the applicable ENERGY STAR requirements in Section 184.108.40.206.2.
Supermarkets with a floor area of 25,000 ft2 (2500 m2) or greater shall recover waste heat from the condenser heat rejection on permanently installed refrigeration equipment meeting one of the following criteria:
a.25% of the refrigeration system full-load total heat rejection.
b.80% of the space heat, service water heating, and dehumidification reheat.
If a recovery system is used that is installed in the refrigeration system, the system shall not increase the saturated condensing temperature at design conditions by more than 5°F (3°C) and shall not impair other head pressure control/energy reduction strategies.
All building projects shall comply with the requirements in Section 220.127.116.11.1 and all building projects complying with the Alternate Renewables Approach in Section 18.104.22.168.2 shall also comply with Section 22.214.171.124.2.
The following equipment within the scope of the applicable ENERGY STAR program shall comply with the equivalent criteria required to achieve the ENERGY STAR label if installed prior to the issuance of the certificate of occupancy:
b.Heating and Cooling
1.Computers: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Computers
2.Copiers: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment
3.Fax machines: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment
4.Laptops: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Computers
5.Mailing machines: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment
6.Monitors: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Displays
7.Multifunction devices (printer/fax/scanner): Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment
8.Printers: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment
9.Scanners: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment
10.Computer servers: ENERGY Star Program Requirements for Computer Servers
1.Integral LED lamps: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Integral LED Lamps
f.Commercial Food Service
1.Commercial fryers: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Fryers
2.Commercial hot food holding cabinets: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Hot Food Holding Cabinets
4.Commercial dishwashers: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Dishwashers
5.Commercial griddles: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Griddles
For all building projects complying with the Alternate Renewables Approach in Section 126.96.36.199.2, the following equipment within the scope of the applicable ENERGY STAR program shall comply with the equivalent criteria required to achieve the ENERGY STAR label if installed prior to the issuance of the certificate of occupancy. For those products listed below that are also contained in Normative Appendix B, the installed equipment shall comply by meeting or exceeding both the requirements in this section and in Normative Appendix B.
2.Dehumidifiers: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Dehumidifiers
4.Refrigerators and freezers: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Refrigerators and Freezers
5.Room air conditioners: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements and Criteria for Room Air Conditioners
b.Heating and Cooling
4.Residential ceiling fans: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Ceiling Fans
5.Dehumidifiers: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Dehumidifiers
6.Residential warm air furnaces: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Furnaces
7.Residential geothermal heat pumps: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Geothermal Heat Pumps
c.Water Heaters: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Water Heaters
e.Commercial Food Service
1.Battery charging systems: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Products with Battery Charger Systems (BCSs)
2.External power adapters: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Single-Voltage AC-DC and AC-AC Power Supplies
3.Vending machines: ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines
Residential programmable thermostats shall meet the requirements of NEMA Standards Publication DC 3, Annex A, “Energy-Efficiency Requirements for Programmable Thermostats.”
All open refrigerated display cases shall be covered by using field-installed strips, curtains, or doors.
a.Annual Energy Cost. The proposed building performance shall be equal to or less than the baseline building performance multiplied by one minus the percentage reduction in Table 7.5.2A using the Performance Rating Method in Normative Appendix G of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1. On-site renewable energy systems in the proposed design shall be calculated using Table C.1(15) of Normative Appendix C. For mixed-use buildings, the percent reduction shall be determined by weighting each building type by floor area.
b.Annual Carbon Dioxide Equivalent (CO2e). The proposed design shall have an annual CO2e equal to or less than the annual CO2e of the baseline building design multiplied by one minus the percentage reduction in Table 7.5.2A using the Performance Rating Method in Normative Appendix G of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1. To determine the annual CO2e for each energy source in the baseline building design and proposed design, the energy consumption shall be multiplied by the CO2e emission factors from Table 7.5.2B.
TABLE 7.5.2A Performance Option A: Energy Cost and CO2e Reductions
|Building Type||Percent Reduction|
a.Conditioned warehouses shall use the “Other” category.
b.When the modeled energy use that is not regulated energy use exceeds 35% of the total proposed building energy use, the reduction shall be calculated using the following equation: Percent reduction = 0.55 ‒ 0.99 × Percent Nonregulated Energy. The reduction shall be no lower than 5%.
TABLE 7.5.2B CO2e Emission Factors
|Building Project Energy Source||CO2e, lb/kWh (kg/kWh)|
|Grid delivered electricity and other fuels not specified in this table||1.387 (0.630)|
|LPG or propane||0.600 (0.272)|
|Fuel oil (residual)||0.751 (0.341)|
|Fuel oil (distillate)||0.706 (0.320)|
|Natural gas||0.483 (0.219)|
|District chilled water||0.332 (0.151)|
|District steam||0.812 (0.368)|
|District hot water||0.767 (0.348)|
Note: The values in this table represent national averages for the United States and include both direct and indirect emissions.
a.Annual Energy Cost. The building project shall have an annual energy cost less than or equal to that achieved by compliance with Sections 7.3 and 7.4, and Sections 188.8.131.52, 184.108.40.206, 6.3.2, 6.4.2, 8.3.1, and 8.4.1. Comparisons shall be made using Normative Appendix C.
b.Annual Carbon Dioxide Equivalent (CO2e). The building project shall have an annual CO2e less than or equal to that achieved by compliance with Sections 7.3 and 7.4, and Sections 220.127.116.11, 18.104.22.168, 6.3.2, 6.4.2, 8.3.1, and 8.4.1. Comparisons shall be made using Normative Appendix C. To determine the CO2e value for each energy source in the baseline building design and proposed design, the energy consumption shall be multiplied by the emissions factor. CO2e emission factors shall be taken from Table 7.5.2B.
This section specifies requirements for indoor environmental quality, including indoor air quality, environmental tobacco smoke control, outdoor air delivery monitoring, thermal comfort, building entrances, acoustic control, lighting quality, daylighting, and low-emitting materials.
The indoor environmental quality shall comply with Section 8.3, “Mandatory Provisions,” and either
Daylighting and low-emitting materials are not required to use the same option, i.e., prescriptive or performance, for demonstrating compliance.
The building shall comply with Sections 4 through 7 of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1 with the following modifications and additions. Health care facilities shall comply with the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/ASHE Standard 170. When a requirement is provided below, this supersedes the requirements in ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1 or ANSI/ASHRAE/ASHE 170, whichever is applicable to the building.
Each mechanical ventilation system shall be configured to allow for the measurement of the outdoor air intake for use in testing and balancing, recommissioning, and outdoor air monitoring as required in Section 22.214.171.124.2.
Each mechanical ventilation system shall have a permanently installed device to measure the minimum outdoor airflow that meets the following requirements:
a.The device shall employ methods described in ASHRAE Standard 111.
b.The device shall have an accuracy of ±10% of the minimum outdoor airflow. Where the minimum outdoor air-flow varies, as in demand control ventilation systems, the device shall maintain this accuracy over the entire range of occupancy and system operation.
c.The device shall be capable of notifying the building operator, either by activating a local indicator or sending a signal to a building monitoring system, whenever an outdoor air fault condition exists. This notification shall require manual reset.
Exception to 126.96.36.199.2: Constant-volume air supply systems that do not employ demand control ventilation and that use an indicator to confirm that the intake damper is open to the position determined during system startup and balancing, needed to maintain the design minimum outdoor airflow.
a.Particulate Matter. The following requirements shall apply in all buildings.
Exception to 188.8.131.52(a): In health care facilities, the particulate filter requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/ASHE Standard 170 shall apply.
1.Wetted Surfaces. Particulate matter filters or air cleaners having a minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of not less than 8 when rated in accordance with ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 52.2 shall be provided upstream of all cooling coils or other devices with wetted surfaces through which air is supplied to an occupiable space. These requirements supersede the requirements in Section 5.8 of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1.
2.Particulate Matter Smaller than 10 Micrometers (PM10). Particulate matter filters or air cleaners shall be provided in accordance with Section 184.108.40.206 of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1 with the following modification. Such filters or air cleaners shall have a MERV of not less than 8 when rated in accordance with ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 52.2.
3.Particulate Matter Smaller than 2.5 Micrometers (PM2.5). Particulate matter filters or air cleaners shall be provided in accordance with Section 220.127.116.11 of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1 with the following modification. Such filters or air cleaners shall have a MERV of not less than 13 when rated in accordance with ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 52.2.
b.Ozone. Air cleaning devices for ozone shall be provided for buildings located in an area that is designated “non-attainment” with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone as determined by the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ). Such air-cleaning devices shall have an ozone removal efficiency of no less than 40% where installed, operated, and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer recommendations. Such air-cleaning devices shall be operated whenever the outdoor ozone level is expected to exceed the NAAQS. This requirement supersedes the requirements of Section 18.104.22.168 of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1. This requirement applies to all buildings, including health care facilities covered by ANSI/ASHRAE/ASHE Standard 170.
c.Sealing. Where particulate matter filters or air cleaners are required by Section 22.214.171.124, filter tracks, filter supports, filters, and access doors shall be sealed in accordance with the following:
1.Where filter track and filter support systems incorporate multiple filters, the gap between each filter shall be sealed with a gasket and the gap between the filter and its track or support shall be sealed using gaskets that expand when the filter is removed. Filter support systems shall include a filter-to-support gasket permanently installed on the filter support, except for filter track and filter support systems that seal around the filter by means of a friction fit.
2.Filter tracks and filter supports shall be sealed to the HVAC equipment housing and ducts by a sealant or other sealing method.
3.Filter access doors shall be sealed to minimize filter bypass and air leakage into or out of the system.
4.Gaskets and seals used to comply with the requirements of this section shall be capable of effecting a seal for the anticipated life of the equipment, and the system shall be designed such that the seals are readily accessible.
5.Field- or shop-fabricated spacers shall not be installed for the purpose of replacing the intended size filter with a smaller size filter.
a.Smoking shall not be allowed inside the building. Signage stating such shall be posted within 10 ft (3 m) of each building entrance.
b.Any exterior designated smoking areas shall be located a minimum of 25 ft (7.5 m) away from building entrances, outdoor air intakes, and operable windows.
All building entrances shall employ an entryway floor system comprising a scraper surface, an absorption surface, and a finishing surface, in that order, in the direction of travel entering the building and in accordance with Sections 126.96.36.199.1, 188.8.131.52.2, and 184.108.40.206.3. Each surface shall be at least as wide as the entrance. The length shall be measured in the primary direction of travel.
Exceptions to 220.127.116.11:
1.Entrances to individual dwelling units.
2.Entrances that employ an entryway floor system that is not less than 4 ft (1.3 m) in length to provide access to spaces that are less than 3000 ft2 (300 m2) in area and that are not used as a pass-through to other parts of the building.
3.Doors the purpose of which is to meet code requirements for means of egress and not entry into the building.
4.Entrances that are locked for use by limited authorized personnel.
The scraper surface
a.shall be immediately outside, inside, or spanning the entry;
b.shall be a minimum of 3 ft (1 m) long; and
c.shall be constructed using materials that scrape away snow, dirt, and debris.
The absorption surface
a.shall be inside,
b.shall be a minimum of 3 ft (1 m) long, and
c.shall be constructed using materials that perform both a scraping action and a moisture wicking action.
The finishing surface
a.shall be a minimum of 4 ft (1.2 m) long and
b.shall be constructed using materials that capture particles and moisture.
Guest room ventilation systems controlled according to Section 18.104.22.168.4 shall have an automatic preoccupancy purge cycle that shall provide outdoor air ventilation at the design ventilation rate for 60 minutes, or at a rate and duration equivalent to one air change. In guest rooms with a networked guest room control system, the purge cycle shall be completed within 60 minutes prior to the time the room is scheduled to be occupied. Where guest rooms are not connected to a networked guest room control system, the preoccupancy purge cycle shall occur daily.
Ventilation systems serving zones that are not continuously occupied shall have controls designed to automatically provide outdoor air to the zones prior to their scheduled occupancy where the zones served by the ventilation system have been unoccupied for 24 hours or longer. This preoccupancy ventilation shall be provided continuously at the system design minimum outdoor airflow for a period of one hour prior to the expected occupancy, or at an outdoor air rate and for a time period that provides the same number of air changes as the design minimum outdoor airflow for one hour.
If the preoccupancy ventilation period requires ventilation earlier than as required by Section 6.4.3 of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1, the preoccupancy ventilation start time of Section 22.214.171.124 shall take precedence.
Exception: Spaces with special requirements for processes, activities, or contents that require a thermal environment outside that which humans find thermally acceptable, such as food storage, natatoriums, shower rooms, saunas, and drying rooms.
Wall and roof-ceiling assemblies that are part of the building envelope shall have a composite outdoor-indoor transmission class (OITC) rating of 40 or greater or a composite sound transmission class (STC) rating of 50 or greater, and fenestration that is part of the building envelope shall have an OITC or STC rating of 30 or greater for any of the following conditions:
a.Buildings within 1000 ft (300 m) of expressways.
b.Buildings within 5 mi (8 km) of airports serving more than 10,000 commercial jets per year.
c.Where yearly average day-night average sound levels at the property line exceed 65 dB.
Exception to 126.96.36.199: Buildings that may have to adhere to functional and operational requirements such as factories, stadiums, storage, enclosed parking structure, and utility buildings.
Interior wall and floor/ceiling assemblies separating interior rooms and spaces shall be designed in accordance with all of the following:
a.Wall and floor-ceiling assemblies separating adjacent dwelling units, dwelling units and public spaces, adjacent tenant spaces, tenant spaces and public places, and adjacent classrooms shall have a composite STC rating of 50 or greater.
b.Wall and floor-ceiling assemblies separating hotel rooms, motel rooms, and patient rooms in nursing homes and hospitals shall have a composite STC rating of 45 or greater.
c.Wall and floor-ceiling assemblies separating classrooms from rest rooms and showers shall have a composite STC rating of 53 or greater.
d.Wall and floor-ceiling assemblies separating classrooms from music rooms, mechanical rooms, cafeteria, gymnasiums, and indoor swimming pools shall have a composite STC rating of 60 or greater.
Building projects that include construction or expansion of a ground-level foundation and which are located on brownfield sites or in “Zone 1” counties identified to have a significant probability of radon concentrations higher than 4 picocuries/ litre on the USEPA map of radon zones, shall have a soil gas retarding system installed between the newly constructed space and the soil.
Lighting for at least 90% of enclosed office spaces with less than 250 ft2 (23.3 m2) of floor area shall comply with at least one of the following:
a.Provide multilevel lighting control.
b.Provide bilevel lighting control and separate task lighting.
Lighting for conference rooms, meeting rooms, multipurpose rooms, gymnasiums, auditoriums, ballrooms, cafeterias, classrooms, and other training or lecture rooms shall be provided with multilevel lighting control. Lighting settings or the lighting controlled by each manual control shall be labeled at the control device(s). The lighting in gymnasiums, auditoriums, ball-rooms, and cafeterias shall also consist of at least two separately controlled groups of luminaires.
Either a dynamic heat and moisture analysis in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 160 or steady-state water vapor transmission analysis in accordance with Sections 188.8.131.52 and 184.108.40.206 shall be performed on above-grade portions of the building envelope and on interior partitions as described in Section 220.127.116.11. Conditions conducive to condensate formation, as demonstrated by analysis, shall not occur at any location within the building envelope or partition components or on the interior side of surfaces not specifically designed and constructed to manage moisture.
Exception: Where analysis indicates that incidental condensate occurs in components engineered to allow or manage such condensate without damage to the building envelope components.
The analysis shall be conducted using the average of at least ten consecutive years of weather data for the outdoor air temperature for the warmest three months of the year (summer condition) and the outdoor air temperature for the coldest three months of the year (winter condition). The analysis shall include all building envelope components, including interior wall finishes of the exterior walls.
A separate analysis shall be performed in spaces where process or occupancy requirements dictate dew-point conditions that are unique with respect to other spaces in the building, such as kitchens, water therapy rooms, swimming-pool enclosures, ice rink enclosures, shower rooms, locker rooms, operating rooms in health care facilities, and exhibit areas in museums.
For exterior building envelope components of humid spaces, the analysis shall use the outdoor air temperature conditions described in Section 18.104.22.168.
For walls, floors and ceilings between occupied spaces and adjacent spaces, the analysis shall be performed using design summer (cooling) conditions and design winter (heating) conditions of both types of conditioned space.
Exception: Spaces and their individual mechanical systems that are designed to control condensation and moisture accumulation in the adjacent building envelope, walls, or ceilings.
Flashing or sealants shall be installed around fenestration, door assemblies, and penetrations associated with mechanical equipment and utility services, except where there is a mechanism for drainage to the outdoors or where the materials are designed for long-term contact with water.
a.The space is in a building with three stories or fewer above grade.
b.The space area is greater than 2500 ft2 (232 m2).
c.The space is located directly under a roof and average ceiling heights are greater than 15 ft (4.6 m).
Exceptions to 22.214.171.124:
1.Spaces in buildings located in Climate Zones 7 or 8.
2.Auditoria, motion picture theaters, performing arts theaters, museums, places of worship, and refrigerated warehouses.
3.Enclosed spaces where documentation shows that existing structures or natural objects block direct sunlight on at least 50% of the roof over the enclosed space at all three of the following times on the date of the spring equinox: three hours before solar noon (peak solar altitude), at solar noon, and three hours after solar noon.
A minimum of 50% of the floor area shall be in the daylight area as defined in Section 3. For the purposes of Section 126.96.36.199.1, the definition of daylight area shall be modified such that partitions and other obstructions that are less than the ceiling height are disregarded. Daylight areas shall be under skylights, under roof monitors, or in the primary or secondary sidelighted areas and shall meet at least one of the following requirements:
a.The combined area of the skylights within the space shall be no less than 3% of the calculated daylight area under skylights.
b.The space shall have a skylight effective aperture of at least 1%.
c.The combined area within the space of any vertical fenestration in roof monitors shall be no less than 20% of the calculated daylight area under roof monitors.
d.Primary sidelighted areas shall have a sidelighting effective aperture of no less than 0.15.
e.Secondary sidelighted areas shall have a sidelighting effective aperture of no less than 0.30.
The visible transmittance of skylights and roof monitors for daylight areas used to comply with Section 188.8.131.52.1 shall be no less than 0.40.
Exception: Enclosed spaces that have a skylight effective aperture of at least 1%.
Skylights used to comply with Section 184.108.40.206.1 shall have a glazing material or diffuser that has a measured haze value greater than 90%, tested according to ASTM D1003 or other test method approved by the AHJ.
1.Skylights with a measured haze value less than or equal to 90% whose combined area does not exceed 5% of the total skylight area.
2.Tubular daylighting devices having a diffuser.
3.Skylights designed to prevent direct sunlight from entering the occupied space below during occupied hours.
4.Skylights in transportation terminals and concourses, sports arenas, convention centers, and shopping malls.
Office spaces and class-rooms shall comply with the following criteria:
a.All north-, south-, and east-facing façades shall have a minimum sidelighting effective aperture as prescribed in Table 220.127.116.11.
b.For all façades, the combined width of the primary side-lighted areas shall be at least 75% of the length of the façade wall.
c.All opaque interior surfaces in daylight areas shall have average visible light reflectances greater than or equal to 80% for ceilings, 40% for partitions higher than 60 in. (1.5 m), and 60% for walls.
Exceptions to 18.104.22.168:
1.Spaces with tasks that requires dark conditions (e.g., photographic processing).
2.Spaces covered by and in compliance with Section 22.214.171.124 without use of any exception.
3.Daylight areas where the height of existing adjacent structures above the window is at least twice the distance between the window and the adjacent structures, measured from the top of the glazing.
TABLE 126.96.36.199 Minimum Sidelighting Effective Aperture
|Climate Zone||Minimum SidelightingEffective Aperture|
|1, 2, 3A, 3B||0.10|
|3C, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8||0.15|
Each west-, south-, and east-facing façade, shall be designed with a shading projection factor (PF). The PF shall be not less than 0.5. Shading is allowed to be external or internal using the interior PF. The building is allowed to be rotated up to 45 degrees for purposes of calculations and showing compliance. The following shading devices are allowed to be used:
a.Louvers, sun shades, light shelves, and any other permanent device. Any vertical fenestration that employs a combination of interior and external shading is allowed to be separated into multiple segments for compliance purposes. Each segment shall comply with the requirements for either external or interior projection factor.
b.Building self-shading through roof overhangs or recessed windows.
Exceptions to 188.8.131.52:
1.Translucent panels and glazing systems with a measured haze value greater than 90%, tested according to ASTM D1003 (notwithstanding its scope) or other test method approved by the AHJ, and that are entirely 8 ft (2.5 m) above the floor, do not require external shading devices.
2.Vertical fenestration that receives direct solar radiation for less than 250 hours per year because of shading by permanent external buildings, existing permanent infrastructure, or topography.
3.Vertical fenestration with automatically controlled shading devices in compliance with Exception (2) of Section 184.108.40.206.
4.Vertical fenestration with automatically controlled dynamic glazing in compliance with Exception (3) of Section 220.127.116.11.
Reported emissions or volatile organic compound (VOC) contents specified in the following subsections shall be from a representative product sample and conducted with each product reformulation or at a minimum of every three years. Products certified under third-party certification programs as meeting the specific emission or VOC content requirements listed in the following subsections are exempted from this three-year testing requirement but shall meet all the other requirements as listed.
Products in this category include carpet, resilient, and wood flooring adhesives; base cove adhesives; ceramic tile adhesives; drywall and panel adhesives; aerosol adhesives; adhesive primers; acoustical sealants; firestop sealants; HVAC air duct sealants; sealant primers; and caulks. All adhesives and sealants used on the interior of the building (defined as inside of the weatherproofing system and applied on site) shall comply with the requirements of either Section 18.104.22.168.1 or 22.214.171.124.2.
Emissions shall be determined according to CDPH/EHLB/Standard Method V1.1 (commonly referred to as California Section 01350) and shall comply with the limit requirements for either office or classroom spaces regardless of the space type.
VOC content shall comply with and shall be determined according to the following limit requirements:
Exceptions to 126.96.36.199.2: The following solvent welding and sealant products are not required to meet the emissions or the VOC content requirements listed above.
1.Cleaners, solvent cements, and primers used with plastic piping and conduit in plumbing, fire suppression, and electrical systems.
2.HVAC air duct sealants when the air temperature of the space in which they are applied is less than 40°F (4.5°C).
Products in this category include anticorrosive coatings, basement specialty coatings, concrete/masonry sealers, concrete curing compounds, dry fog coatings, faux finishing coatings, fire-resistive coatings, flat and nonflat topcoats, floor coatings, graphic arts (sign) coatings, high-temperature coatings, industrial maintenance coatings, low solids coatings, mastic texture coatings, metallic pigmented coatings, multicolor coatings, pretreatment wash primers, primers, reactive penetrating sealers, recycled coatings, shellacs (clear and opaque), specialty primers, stains, stone consolidants, swimming-pool coatings, tub- and tile-refining coatings, undercoaters, waterproofing membranes, wood coatings (clear wood finishes), wood preservatives, and zinc primers. Paints and coatings used on the interior of the building (defined as inside of the weatherproofing system and applied on-site) shall comply with either Section 188.8.131.52.1 or 184.108.40.206.2.
Emissions shall be determined according to CDPH/EHLB/Standard Method V1.1 (commonly referred to as California Section 01350) and shall comply with the limit requirements for either office or classroom spaces regardless of the space type.
VOC content shall comply with and be determined according to the following limit requirements:
a.Flat and nonflat topcoats, primers, undercoaters, and anti-corrosive coatings: Green Seal Standard GS-11.
b.Concrete/masonry sealers (waterproofing concrete/masonry sealers), concrete curing compounds, dry fog coatings, faux finishing coatings, fire resistive coatings, floor coatings, graphic arts (sign) coatings, industrial maintenance coatings, mastic texture coatings, metallic pigmented coatings, multicolor coatings, pretreatment wash primers, reactive penetrating sealers, recycled coatings, shellacs (clear and opaque), specialty primers, stains, wood coatings (clear wood finishes), wood preservatives, and zinc primers: California Air Resources Board Suggested Control Measure for Architectural Coatings or SCAQMD Rule 1113
c.Basement specialty coatings, high-temperature coatings, low solids coatings, stone consolidants, swimming-pool coatings, tub- and tile-refining coatings, and waterproofing membranes: California Air Resources Board Suggested Control Measure for Architectural Coatings
Floor covering materials installed in the building interior shall comply with the following:
a.Carpet: Carpet shall be tested in accordance with and shown to be compliant with the requirements of CDPH/EHLB/Standard Method V1.1 (commonly referred to as California Section 01350). Products that have been verified and labeled to be in compliance with Section 9 of CDPH/EHLB/Standard Method V1.1 (commonly referred to as California Section 01350) comply with this requirement.
b.Hard surface flooring in office spaces and classrooms: Materials shall be tested in accordance with and shown to be compliant with the requirements of CDPH/EHLB/ Standard Method V1.1 (commonly referred to as California Section 01350).
Composite wood, wood structural panel, and agrifiber products used on the interior of the building (defined as inside of the weatherproofing system) shall contain no added urea-formaldehyde resins. Laminating adhesives used to fabricate on-site and shop-applied composite wood and agrifiber assemblies shall contain no added urea-formaldehyde resins. Composite wood and agrifiber products are defined as follows: particleboard, medium density fiberboard (MDF), wheatboard, strawboard, panel substrates, and door cores. Materials considered furniture, fixtures, and equipment (FF&E) are not considered base building elements and are not included in this requirement. Emissions for products covered by this section shall be determined according to and shall comply with one of the following:
a.Third-party certification shall be submitted indicating compliance with the California Air Resource Boards (CARB) regulation, Airborne Toxic Control Measure to Reduce Formaldehyde Emissions from Composite Wood Products. Third-party certifier shall be approved by CARB.
b.CDPH/EHLB/Standard Method V1.1 (commonly referred to as California Section 01350) and shall comply with the limit requirements for either office or classroom spaces regardless of the space type.
Exception to 220.127.116.11: Structural panel components such as plywood, particle board, wafer board, and oriented strand board identified as “EXPOSURE 1,” “EXTERIOR,” or “HUD-APPROVED” are considered acceptable for interior use.
At least 95% of the total number of installed office furniture system workstations and at least 95% of the total number of seating units installed shall comply with ANSI/BIFMA X7.1.
At least 50% of the total number of installed office furniture system workstations and at least 50% of the total number of seating units installed shall comply with Section 7.6.2 of ANSI/BIFMA e3.
These systems include ceiling and wall insulation, acoustical ceiling panels, tackable wall panels, gypsum wall board and panels, and wall coverings. Emissions for these products shall be determined according to CDPH/EHLB/Standard Method V1.1 (commonly referred to as California Section 01350) and shall comply with the limit requirements for either office or classroom spaces regardless of the space type.
Luminaires that are located entirely or partially within 3 ft (0.9 m) horizontally of any permanently installed presentation surfaces, including whiteboards, blackboards, chalkboards, and screens for projection units, shall be controlled separately from all other luminaires in the space and be capable of being turned off. Control settings for these luminaires shall be labeled at the control device. At least one luminaire shall be located entirely or partially within 3 ft (0.9 m) horizontally of each permanently installed whiteboard, blackboard, or chalkboard that is not self-illuminated.
In buildings three stories and fewer above grade, enclosed spaces, including conditioned and unconditioned spaces, with floor area greater than 5000 ft2 (465 m2) directly under a roof with average ceiling heights greater than 15 ft (4.6 m) and with a lighting power allowance for general lighting equal to or greater than 0.5 W/ft2 (5.4 W/m2), a physical or computer model for the building project shall be used to demonstrate a calculated illuminance from daylight of no less than 25 fc (250 lux) at 9:00 a.m. and 3:00 p.m. on the date of the spring equinox for at least half of the space. Daylight illuminances resulting from a physical model or computer daylighting model are to be calculated for a plane 2.5 ft (0.8 m) above the floor and need not include storage racks or internal obstructions other than walls and permanent partitions. The simulation shall include daylight illuminance calculations with no more than 5 ft (1.5 m) between calculation points.
a.Computer models shall be built using daylight simulation software based on the ray-tracing or radiosity methodology.
b.Simulation and normalized physical model results shall be based on external daylight illuminance using either the CIE Overcast Sky Model or the CIE Clear Sky Model for the location of the project.
c.For office spaces, the same model (including shading) used to show compliance with Section 18.104.22.168 shall be used in the calculation of illuminances.
Exceptions to 22.214.171.124:
1.Buildings in Climate Zones 7 or 8.
2.Auditoria, motion picture theaters, performing arts theaters, museums, places of worship, and refrigerated warehouses.
3.Enclosed spaces where it is documented that existing structures or natural objects block direct beam sunlight on at least 50% of the roof over the enclosed space at all three of the following times on the date of the spring equinox: three hours before solar noon (peak solar altitude), at solar noon, and three hours after solar noon.
The physical or computer model for the building project shall demonstrate that at least 75% of the area within one ceiling height of the perimeter walls has a calculated daylight illuminance of at least 25 fc (250 lux) at 9:00 a.m. and 3:00 p.m. on the date of the spring equinox. The physical or computer daylighting model shall calculate daylight illuminance on a plane 2.5 ft (0.8 m) above the floor with no more than 5 ft (1.5 m) between calculation points. The simulation need not include storage racks or internal obstructions other than walls and permanent partitions.
a.Computer models shall use daylight simulation software based on the ray-tracing or radiosity methodology.
b.Simulation and normalized physical model results shall be based on external daylight illuminance using either the CIE Overcast Sky Model or the CIE Clear Sky Model for the location of the project.
c.For office spaces, the same model (including shading) used to show compliance with Section 126.96.36.199 shall be used in the calculation of illuminances.
Exceptions to 188.8.131.52:
1.Spaces with tasks that require dark conditions (e.g., photographic processing).
2.Spaces that are covered by and compliant with the requirements of Section 184.108.40.206 without using exceptions.
3.Daylight areas where the height of existing adjacent structures above the window is at least twice the distance between the window and the adjacent structures, measured from the top of the glazing.
It shall be demonstrated that direct sun does not strike anywhere on a worksurface in any daylighted space for more than 20% of the occupied hours during an equinox day in regularly occupied office spaces. If the worksurface height is not defined, a height of 2.5 ft (0.75 m) above the floor shall be used.
The emissions of all the materials listed below and used within the building (defined as inside of the weatherproofing system and applied on-site) shall be modeled for individual VOC concentrations. The sum of each individual VOC concentration from the materials listed below shall be shown to be in compliance with the limits as listed in Section 4.3 of the CDPH/EHLB/Standard Method V1.1 (commonly referred to as California Section 01350) and shall be compared to 100% of its corresponding listed limit. In addition, the modeling for the building shall include at a minimum the criteria listed in Normative Appendix D of this standard. Emissions of materials used for modeling VOC concentrations shall be obtained in accordance with the testing procedures of CDPH/EHLB/Standard Method V1.1 (commonly referred to as California Section 01350) unless otherwise noted below.
a.Tile, strip, panel, and plank products, including vinyl composition tile, resilient floor tile, linoleum tile, wood floor strips, parquet flooring, laminated flooring, and modular carpet tile.
b.Sheet and roll goods, including broadloom carpet, sheet vinyl, sheet linoleum, carpet cushion, wallcovering, and other fabric.
c.Rigid panel products, including gypsum board, other wall paneling, insulation board, oriented strand board, medium density fiber board, wood structural panel, acoustical ceiling tiles, and particleboard.
e.Containerized products, including adhesives, sealants, paints, other coatings, primers, and other “wet” products.
f.Cabinets, shelves, and worksurfaces that are permanently attached to the building before occupancy. Emissions of these items shall be obtained in accordance with the ANSI/BIFMA M7.1.
g.Office furniture systems and seating installed prior to initial occupancy. Emissions of these items shall be obtained in accordance with the ANSI/BIFMA M7.1.
Exception to 8.5.2: Salvaged materials that have not been refurbished or refinished within one year prior to installation.
Lighting systems shall be provided and shall be controllable by the occupant(s) so as to meet the illuminance and uniformity requirements specified in items (a) through (c) for each permanently installed presentation system. Lighting control settings required to meet each of the specified levels shall be labeled at the control device.
a.Lighting system and controls shall be capable of illuminating permanently installed white boards to at least an average of 300 lux vertical illuminance, and the ratio of average-to-minimum illuminance over the full area of the whiteboard shall be equal to or less than 3:1.
b.Lighting system and controls shall be capable of illuminating permanently installed screens for front-screen projection units to no greater than 50 lux vertical illuminance, and the ratio of maximum-to-average illuminance over the full area of the projection screen shall be equal to or less than 2:1. Compliance with this provision shall not be met by turning off all the luminaires in the space.
c.Lighting system and controls shall be capable of illuminating permanently installed screens for rear-screen projection units at a level no greater than 150 lux vertical illuminance, and the ratio of maximum-to-average illuminance over the full area of the projection screen shall be equal to or less than 2:1. Compliance with this provision shall not be met by turning off all the luminaires in the space.
This section specifies requirements for the building’s impact on the atmosphere, materials, and resources, including construction waste management, refrigerants, storage and collection of recyclables, and reduced impact materials.
The building materials shall comply with Section 9.3, “Mandatory Provisions,” and either
A minimum of 50% of nonhazardous construction and demolition waste material generated prior to the issuance of the final certificate of occupancy shall be diverted from disposal in landfills and incinerators by reuse, recycling, repurposing, and/or composting. Excavated soil and land-clearing debris shall not be included in the waste diversion calculation. Alternative daily cover and waste-to-energy incineration shall not be included as diverted material. All diversion calculations shall be based on either weight or volume, but not both, throughout the construction process.
Informative Note: Reuse includes donation of materials to charitable organizations; salvage of existing materials on-site; reclamation of products by manufacturers; and return of packaging materials to the manufacturer, shipper, or other source for reuse as packaging in future shipments.
For new building projects on sites with less than 5% existing buildings, structures, or hardscape, the total amount of construction waste generated prior to the issuance of the final certificate of occupancy on the project shall not exceed 42 yd3 or 12,000 lbs per 10,000 ft2 (35 m3 or 6000 kg per 1000 m2) of new building floor area. This shall apply to all waste whether diverted, landfilled, incinerated, or otherwise disposed of. Excavated soil and land-clearing debris shall not be included in the calculation. The amount of waste shall be tracked throughout the construction process in accordance with the construction waste management plan required in Section 220.127.116.11.
Prior to issuance of a demolition or building permit, a preconstruction waste management plan shall be submitted to the owner. The plan shall
a.identify the construction and demolition waste materials expected to be diverted,
b.determine whether construction and demolition waste materials are to be source-separated or comingled,
c.identify service providers and designate destination facilities for construction and demolition waste materials generated at the job site, and
d.identify the average diversion rate for facilities that accept or process comingled construction and demolition materials. Separate average percentages shall be included for those materials collected by construction and demolition materials processing facilities that end up as alternative daily cover and incineration.
This section applies to all materials, products, and/or assemblies installed prior to the issuance of the final certificate of occupancy.
Materials shall be harvested and/or extracted and products and/or assemblies shall be manufactured according to the laws and regulations of the country of origin.
Wood products in the project, other than recovered or reused wood, shall not contain wood from endangered wood species unless the trade of such wood conforms with the requirements of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).
Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) based refrigerants in HVAC&R systems shall not be used. Fire suppression systems shall not contain ozone-depleting substances (CFCs, hydrochlorofluorocarbons [HCFCs], or Halons).
Areas for recyclables and discarded goods shall be provided as described in this section. These areas shall be coordinated with the anticipated collection services to maximize the effectiveness of the dedicated areas. Instructions regarding the identification and handling of recyclables and discarded goods in these areas shall be posted in or adjacent to each dedicated area.
There shall be area(s) that serve the entire building and are dedicated to the collection and storage of nonhazardous materials for recycling, including paper, corrugated cardboard, glass, plastics, and metals.
For building projects with residential spaces, there shall be an area that serves the entire building and is designed for the collection and storage of discarded but clean items in good condition. Charitable organizations or others to arrange for periodic pickups shall be identified and posted.
An area shall be provided that serves the entire building and is designed for the collection and storage of fluorescent and HID lamps and ballasts and facilitates proper disposal and/or recycling according to jurisdictional hazardous waste requirements.
Separate containers or areas shall be provided that serve the entire building and are designed for the collection and storage of electronics, alkaline batteries, and rechargeable batteries and facilitate disposal or recycling according to jurisdictional requirements.
Electric lamps used in the building project shall not contain mercury in an amount exceeding, per lamp, the maximum mercury content levels of Table 9.3.5.
1.Eight-foot models of straight fluorescent T8 lamps.
2.High-output and very-high-output, straight fluorescent lamps greater than 1.25 in. (32 mm) in diameter.
3.Mogul bi-pin-based lamps.
4.Preheat straight fluorescent lamps of any size.
5.U-bend and circline fluorescent lamps.
8.Special-purpose lamps: appliance, black light, germicidal, bug, colored, plant, straight fluorescent reflector, reprographic, shatter resistant, cold temperature, and three-way lamps.
TABLE 9.3.5 Maximum Mercury Content for Electric Lamps
|Lamp||Maximum Mercury Content|
|Screw-base compact fluorescent lamps <25 W||4 mg|
|Screw-base compact fluorescent lamps ≥25 W and <40 W||5 mg|
|Pin-base compact fluorescent lamps, all wattages||5 mg|
|Straight fluorescent T5 normal lifetime lampsa||3 mg|
|Straight fluorescent T8 normal lifetime lampsa||4 mg|
|Straight fluorescent T5 and T8 long lifetime lampsb||5 mg|
|T12 eight-foot straight fluorescent lamps||15 mg|
a.Electric lamps with a rated lifetime less than 25,000 h when tested on an electronic fluorescent ballast, including T8 instant-start ballasts and T5 programmed-start ballasts, and turned off and on every three hours.
b.Electric lamps with a rated lifetime equal to or greater than 25,000 hours when tested on an electronic fluorescent ballast, including T8 instant-start ballasts and T5 programmed-start ballasts, and turned off and on every three hours.
The building project shall comply with any two of the following: Sections 18.104.22.168, 22.214.171.124, 126.96.36.199, or 188.8.131.52. Calculations shall only include materials permanently installed in the project. A value of 45% of the total construction cost shall be permitted to be used in lieu of the actual total cost of materials.
The sum of the recycled content and the salvaged material content shall constitute a minimum of 10%, based on cost, of the total materials in the building project.
The recycled content of a material shall be the postconsumer recycled content plus one-half of the preconsumer recycled content, determined by weight (mass). The recycled fraction of the material in a product or an assembly shall then be multiplied by the cost of the product or assembly to determine its contribution to the 10% requirement.
The annual average industry values, by country of production, for the recycled content of steel products manufactured in basic oxygen furnaces and electric arc furnaces shall be permitted to be used as the recycled content of the steel. For the purpose of calculating the recycled content contribution of concrete, the constituent materials in concrete (e.g., the cementitious materials, aggregates, and water) shall be permitted to be treated as separate components and calculated separately.
The salvaged material content shall be determined based on the actual cost of the salvaged material or the cost of a comparable alternative component material.
A minimum of 15% of building materials or products used, based on cost, shall be regionally extracted/harvested/recovered or manufactured within a radius of 500 mi (800 km) of the project site. If only a fraction of a product or material is extracted/harvested/recovered or manufactured locally, then only that percentage (by weight) shall contribute to the regional value.
Exception: For building materials or products shipped in part by rail or water, the total distance to the project shall be determined by weighted average, whereby that portion of the distance shipped by rail or water shall be multiplied by 0.25 and added to that portion not shipped by rail or water, provided that the total does not exceed 500 mi (800 km).
A minimum of 5% of building materials used, based on cost, shall be biobased products. Biobased products shall
a.comply with the minimum biobased contents of the USDA’s BioPreferred Program;
b.contain the “USDA Certified Biobased Product” label; or
c.be composed of solid wood, engineered wood, bamboo, wool, cotton, cork, agricultural fibers, or other biobased materials with at least 50% biobased content.
Wood building components, including but not limited to structural framing, sheathing, flooring, subflooring, wood window sash and frames, doors, and architectural millwork, used to comply with this requirement shall contain not less than 60% certified wood content tracked through a chain of custody process, either by physical separation or percentage-based approaches, or wood that qualifies as a salvaged material. Certified wood content documentation shall be provided by sources certified through a forest certification system with principles, criteria, and standards developed using ISO/IEC Guide 59, or the WTO Technical Barriers to Trade. Wood building components from a vendor shall be permitted to comply when the annual average amount of certified wood products purchased by the vendor, for which they have chain of custody verification not older than two years, is 60% or greater of their total annual wood products purchased.
A minimum of ten different products installed in the building project at the time of issuance of certificate of occupancy shall comply with one of the following subsections. Declarations, reports, and assessments shall be submitted to the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) and shall contain documentation of the critical peer review by an independent third party, results from the review, the reviewer’s name, company name, contact information, and date of the review or certification.
A Type III industry-wide environmental product declaration (EPD) shall be submitted for each product. Where the program operator explicitly recognizes the EPD as fully representative of the product group on a national level, it is considered industry-wide. In the case where an industry-wide EPD represents only a subset of an industry group, as opposed to being industry-wide, the manufacturer shall be explicitly recognized as a participant by the EPD program operator. All EPD shall be consistent with ISO Standards 14025 and 21930, with at least a cradle-to-gate scope. Each product complying with this section shall be counted as one product for compliance with Section 184.108.40.206.
A product-specific Type III EPD shall be submitted for each product. The product-specific declaration shall be manufacturer-specific for a product family. Type III EPDs shall be certified as complying with the goal and scope for the cradle-to-gate requirements in accordance with ISO Standards 14025 and 21930. Each product complying with this section shall be counted as two products for compliance with Section 220.127.116.11.
A material specific assessment shall be submitted for each product in accordance with one of the following standards, where applicable. The assessment shall be certified as meeting the minimum performance level specified in each standard. Each product complying with this section shall be counted as two products for compliance with Section 18.104.22.168.
A report by a third-party that has critically reviewed the life-cycle assessment (LCA) of a product based on ISO Standards 14040 and 14044 that demonstrates compliance with the goal and scope for the cradle-to-gate requirements. Each product complying with this section shall be counted as two products for compliance with Section 22.214.171.124.
An LCA shall be performed in accordance with ISO Standard 14044 for a minimum of two building alternatives, considering at least those material components included for consideration in Section 9.4.1, both of which shall conform to the owner’s project requirements (OPR). Each building alternative shall consist of a common design, construction, and materials for the locale, including building size and use, as commonly approved by the AHJ. Each building alternative shall comply with Sections 6, 7, and 8. The service life of the buildings shall be not less than that determined using Table 10.3.2.3, except that the design life of long-life buildings shall be no less than 75 years.
The building alternative chosen for the project shall have a 5% improvement over the other building alternative assessed in the LCA in a minimum of two of the impact categories. The impact categories are land use (or habitat alteration), resource use, climate change, ozone layer depletion, human health effects, ecotoxicity, smog, acidification, and eutrophication.
The LCA shall include the following three steps:
Step 1: Perform a life-cycle inventory (LCI). The LCI accounts for all the individual environmental flows to and from the material components in a building throughout its life cycle.
a.The LCI shall include the materials and energy consumed and the emissions to air, land, and water for each of the following stages:
1.Extracting and harvesting materials and fuel sources from nature.
2.Processing building materials and manufacturing building components.
3.Transporting materials and components.
4.Assembly and construction.
5.Maintenance, repair, and replacement during the design life with or without operational energy consumption.
6.Demolition, disposal, recycling, and reuse of the building at the end of its life cycle.
b.The LCI shall account for emissions to air for the following:
1.The six principal pollutants for which the USEPA has set National Ambient Air Quality Standards as required by the Clean Air Act and its amendments: carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, lead, sulfur oxides, particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), and ozone.
2.Greenhouse gases (not including water vapor and ozone) as described in the Inventory of U.S. Green-house Gas Emissions and Sinks: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, hydro-chlorofluorocarbons, bromofluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds.
3.Hazardous air pollutants listed in the Clean Air Act and its amendments.
Step 2: Compare the two building alternatives using a published third-party impact indicator method that includes, at a minimum the impact categories listed in Section 126.96.36.199. An LCA report shall be prepared that meets the requirements for third-party reporting in ISO Standard 14044 and also includes the following:
a.A description of the two building alternatives, including
1.a description of the system boundary used,
2.the design life of each building, and
3.the physical differences between buildings.
b.The impact indicator method and impact categories used.
c.The results of the LCA indicating a minimum of 5% improvement in the proposed building compared to the other building alternative for a minimum of two impact categories, including an explanation of the rationale for the weighting and averaging of the impacts.
Step 3: Conduct a critical review by an external expert independent of those performing the LCA.
The following shall be submitted to the AHJ:
a.The LCA report.
b.The documentation of critical peer review by a third party including the results from the review and the reviewer’s name and contact information.
This section specifies requirements for construction and plans for operation, including the commissioning (Cx) process, building acceptance testing, measurement and verification, energy use reporting, durability, transportation management, erosion and sediment control, construction, and indoor air quality during construction.
All of the provisions of Section 10 are mandatory provisions.
Acceptance testing shall be performed on all buildings in accordance with this section using generally accepted engineering standards and handbooks acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ).
An acceptance testing process shall be incorporated into the design and construction of the building project that verifies systems specified in this section perform in accordance with construction documents.
Complete the following:
a.Designate a project acceptance representative to lead, review, and oversee completion of acceptance testing activities.
b.Construction documents shall indicate who is to perform acceptance tests and the details of the tests to be performed.
c.Acceptance representative shall review construction documents to verify that relevant sensor locations, devices, and control sequences are properly documented.
Complete the following:
a.Verify proper installation and start up of the systems.
b.Perform acceptance tests. For each acceptance test, complete test form and include a signature and license number, as appropriate, for the party who has performed the test.
c.Verify that a systems manual has been prepared that includes operation and maintenance (O&M) documentation and full warranty information and provides operating staff the information needed to understand and optimally operate building systems.
The following systems, if included in the building project, shall have acceptance testing:
a.Mechanical systems: heating, ventilating, air conditioning, indoor air quality (IAQ), and refrigeration systems (mechanical and/or passive) and associated controls.
b.Lighting systems: automatic daylighting controls, manual daylighting controls, occupancy sensing devices, and automatic shut-off controls.
c.Fenestration control systems: Automatic controls for shading devices and dynamic glazing.
d.Renewable energy systems.
e.Water measurement devices, as required in Section 6.3.3.
f.Energy measurement devices, as required in Section 7.3.3.
The owner shall retain completed acceptance test forms.
For buildings that exceed 5000 ft2 (500 m2) of gross floor area, commissioning shall be performed in accordance with this section using generally accepted engineering standards and handbooks acceptable to the AHJ. Buildings undergoing the Cx process will be deemed to comply with the requirements of Section 10.3.1.1, Building Acceptance Testing.
A Cx process shall be incorporated into the predesign, design, construction, and first year occupancy of the building project that verifies that the delivered building and its components, assemblies, and systems comply with the documented owner’s project requirements (OPR). Procedures, documentation, tools, and training shall be provided to the building operating staff to sustain features of the building assemblies and systems for the service life of the building. This material shall be assembled and organized into a systems manual that provides necessary information to the building operating staff to operate and maintain all commissioned systems identified within the building project.
The following activities shall be completed:
a.Designate a project commissioning authority (CxA) to lead, review, and oversee completion of the Cx process activities prior to completion of schematic design.
b.The owner, in conjunction with the design team as necessary, shall develop the OPR during the predesign phase. The OPR shall be updated during the design phase as necessary by the design team, in conjunction with the owner and the Cx team. The OPR will be distributed to all parties participating in project programming, design, construction, and operations, and to the Cx team members.
d.The CxA shall review both the OPR and BoD to ensure that no conflicting requirements or goals exist and that the OPR and BoD, based on the professional judgment and experience of the CxA, are sufficiently detailed for the project being undertaken.
e.Construction phase commissioning requirements shall be incorporated into project specifications and other construction documents developed by the design team.
f.The CxA shall conduct two focused OPR reviews of the construction documents, the first at near 50% design completion and the second of the final construction documents prior to delivery to the contractor. The purpose of these reviews is to verify that the documents achieve the construction phase OPR and that the BoD document fully supports the OPR with sufficient details.
g.Develop and implement a commissioning (Cx) plan containing all required forms and procedures for the complete testing of all equipment, systems, and controls included in Section 10.3.1.2.4.
The following activities shall be completed:
a.Verify the installation and performance of the systems to be commissioned, including completion of the construction checklist and verification.
Exception to 10.3.1.2.2(a): Systems that, because their operation is seasonally dependent, cannot be fully commissioned in accordance with the Cx plan at time of occupancy. These systems shall be commissioned at the earliest time after occupancy when operation of systems is allowed to be fully demonstrated as determined by CxA.
b.It shall be verified that the owner requirements for the training of operating personnel and building occupants is completed. Where systems cannot be fully commissioned at the time of occupancy because of seasonal dependence, the training of personnel and building occupants shall be completed when the systems operation can be fully demonstrated by the CxA.
c.Complete preliminary Cx report.
d.Verify that a systems manual has been prepared that includes O&M documentation and full warranty information and provides operating staff the information needed to understand and operate the commissioned systems as designed.
Complete the following:
a.Complete any commissioning activities called out in the Cx plan for systems whose commissioning can only be completed subsequent to building occupancy, including trend logging and off-season testing.
b.Verify that the owner requirements for training operating personnel and building occupants are completed for those systems whose seasonal operational dependence mean they were unable to be fully commissioned prior to building occupancy.
c.Complete a final Cx report.
The following systems and associated controls, if included in the building project, shall be commissioned:
a.Heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems (mechanical and/or passive).
b.Building envelope systems, components, and assemblies to verify the airtightness and thermal and moisture integrity. Building envelope airtightness commissioning shall also comply with Section 10.3.1.2.5.
d.Fenestration control systems: Automatic controls for shading devices and dynamic glazing.
g.Domestic and process water pumping and mixing systems.
h.Service water heating systems.
i.Renewable energy systems.
j.Water measurement devices, as required in Section 6.3.3.
k.Energy measurement devices, as required in Section 7.3.3.
Building envelope airtightness shall comply with one of the following:
a.Whole building pressurization testing shall be conducted in accordance with ASTM E779, CAN/CGSB-149.10-M86, CAN/CGSB-149.15-96 or equivalent. The measured air leakage rate of the building envelope shall not exceed 0.25 cfm/ft2 (1.25 L/s·m2) under a pressure differential of 0.3 in. wc (75 Pa), with this air leakage rate normalized by the sum of the above- and below-grade building envelope areas of the conditioned and semiheated space.
b.An air-barrier commissioning program consistent with generally accepted engineering standards that consists of the following elements shall be implemented:
1.A third-party design review shall be conducted and documented to assess the design documentation describing the air-barrier systems and materials, the manner in which continuity will be maintained across joints between air-barrier components and at all envelope penetrations, and the constructability of the air-barrier systems.
2.Incremental field inspection and testing of air-barrier components shall be conducted and documented during construction to ensure proper construction of key components while they are still accessible for inspection and repair.
Owner shall retain the systems manual and final Cx report.
Develop and implement an ESC plan for all construction activities. The ESC plan shall conform to the erosion and sedimentation control requirements of the most current version of the USEPA NPDES General Permit for Stormwater Discharges From Construction Activities or local erosion and sedimentation control standards and codes, whichever is more stringent, and regardless of size of project.
Develop and implement an IAQ construction management plan to include the following:
a.Air conveyance materials shall be stored and covered so that they remain clean. All filters and controls shall be in place and operational when HVAC systems are operated during building flush-out or baseline IAQ monitoring. Except for system startup, testing, balancing, and commissioning, permanent HVAC systems shall not be used during construction.
b.After construction ends, prior to occupancy and with all interior finishes installed, a postconstruction, preoccupancy building flush-out as described under Section 10.3.1.4(b)(1), or postconstruction, preoccupancy baseline IAQ monitoring as described under Section 10.3.1.4(b)(2) shall be performed:
1.Postconstruction, preoccupancy flush-out. A total air volume of outdoor air in total air changes as defined by Equation 10-1 shall be supplied while maintaining an internal temperature of a minimum of 60°F (15°C) and relative humidity no higher than 60%. For buildings located in nonattainment areas, filtration and/or air cleaning as described in Section 188.8.131.52 shall be supplied when the Air Quality Index forecast exceeds 100 (category orange, red, purple, or maroon). One of the following options shall be followed:
i.Continuous postconstruction, preoccupancy flush-out. The flush-out shall be continuous and supplied at an outdoor airflow rate no less than that determined in Section 184.108.40.206.
ii.Continuous postconstruction, preoccupancy/ postoccupancy flush-out. If occupancy is desired prior to completion of the flush-out, the space is allowed to be occupied following delivery of half of the total air changes calculated from Equation 10-1 to the space. The space shall be ventilated at a minimum rate of 0.30 cfm per ft2 (1.5 L/s per m2) of outdoor air or the outdoor airflow rate determined in Section 220.127.116.11, whichever is greater. These conditions shall be maintained until the total air changes calculated according to Equation 10-1 have been delivered to the space. The flush out shall be continuous.
|TAC||=||total air changes|
|Vot||=||system design outdoor air intake flow, cfm (L/s) (according to Equation 6-8 of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1)|
|A||=||floor area, ft2 (m2)|
|H||=||ceiling height, ft (m)|
2.Postconstruction, preoccupancy baseline IAQ monitoring. Baseline IAQ testing shall be conducted after construction ends and prior to occupancy. The ventilation system shall be operated continuously within ±10% of the outdoor airflow rate provided by the ventilation system at design occupancy for a minimum of 24 hours prior to IAQ monitoring. Testing shall be done using protocols consistent with the USEPA Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Toxic Organic Pollutants in Ambient Air, TO-1, TO-11, TO-17 and ASTM Standard Method D 5197. The testing shall demonstrate that the contaminant maximum concentrations listed in Table 10.3.1.4 are not exceeded in the return airstreams of the HVAC systems that serve the space intended to be occupied. If the return airstream of the HVAC system serving the space intended to be occupied cannot be separated from other spaces either already occupied or not occupied at all, for each portion of the building served by a separate ventilation system, the testing shall demonstrate that the contaminant maximum concentrations at breathing zone listed in Table 10.3.1.4 are not exceeded in the larger of the following number of locations: (a) no fewer than one location per 25,000 ft2 (2500 m2) or (b) in each contiguous floor area. For each sampling point where the maximum concentration limits are exceeded, conduct additional flush-out with outdoor air, and retest the specific parameter(s) exceeded to demonstrate that the requirements are achieved. Repeat procedure until all requirements have been met. When retesting noncomplying building areas, take samples from the same locations as in the first test.
TABLE 10.3.1.4 Maximum Concentration of Air Pollutants Relevant to IAQ
|Contaminant||Maximum Concentration, µg/m3 (Unless Otherwise Noted)|
|Nonvolatile Organic Compounds|
|Carbon monoxide (CO)||9 ppm and no greater than 2 ppm above outdoor levels|
|Ozone||0.075 ppm (8-h)|
|Particulates (PM2.5)||35 (24-h)|
|Particulates (PM10)||150 (24-h)|
|Volatile Organic Compounds|
|t-Butyl methyl ether (Methyl-t-butyl ether)||8000|
|Dichloromethane (Methylene chloride)||400|
|Tetrachloroethene (Tetrachloroethylene, Perchloroethylene)||35|
|1,1,1-Trichloroethane (Methyl chloroform)||1000|
|Total volatile organic compounds (TVOC)||b|
a.This test is only required if carpets and fabrics with styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) latex backing material are installed as part of the base building systems.
b.TVOC reporting shall be in accordance with CDPH/EHLB/Standard MethodV1.1 and shall be in conjunction with the individual VOCs listed above.
The following items to control moisture shall be implemented during construction:
a.Materials stored on-site or materials installed that are absorptive shall be protected from moisture damage.
b.Building construction materials that show visual evidence of biological growth due to the presence of moisture shall not be installed on the building project.
Construction-related vehicles shall not idle on the construction site for more than five minutes in any 60-minute period, except where necessary to perform their construction-related function. Signage shall be posted at vehicle entrances to the building project providing notice of this requirement.
The construction documents shall identify operable windows, doors, and air intake openings that serve occupied spaces, including those not associated with the building project, that are in the area of construction activity or within 35 ft (11 m) of the limits of construction activity. Such windows, doors, and air intake openings that are under control of the owner shall be closed, or other measures shall be taken to limit contaminant entry.
Management of the affected building(s) not under the control of the building project owner shall be notified in writing of planned construction activity and possible entry of contaminants into their building(s).
Specific area(s) on the construction site shall be designated for collection of recyclable and reusable materials. Alternatively, off-site storage and sorting of materials shall be permitted. Diversion efforts shall be tracked throughout the construction process.
Prior to issuance of the final certificate of occupancy, a final construction waste management report documenting compliance with Section 9.3.1 shall be submitted to the owner and AHJ.
This section specifies the items to be included in plans for operation of a building project that falls under the requirements of this standard.
A site sustainability portion of the plan for operation shall be developed and shall contain the following provisions:
a.When trees and vegetation are used to comply with the shade requirements of Section 5.3.4, the plan for operation shall include the maintenance procedures needed to maintain healthy vegetation growth. The plan shall also outline the procedures for replacing any vegetation used to comply with the provisions in Section 5.
b.For roof materials selected to comply with the requirements of Section 18.104.22.168, the plan for operation shall include the maintenance procedures for keeping the roof surfaces cleaned in accordance with manufacturers recommendations.
The plan for operation shall specify water use verification activities for building projects to track and assess building water consumption. The plan shall describe the procedures needed to comply with the requirements outlined below.
Use the water measurement devices and collection/storage infrastructure specified in Section 6.3.3 to collect and store water use data for each device, starting no later than after building acceptance testing has been completed and certificate of occupancy has been issued.
The plan shall specify the procedures for tracking and assessing the building project water use and the frequency for benchmark comparisons. The initial assessment shall be completed after 12 months but no later than 18 months after a certificate of occupancy has been issued. Ongoing assessments shall be completed at least every three years. The plan shall include the following:
a.Usage reports. Develop a plan for collecting building project water use data for water sources and subsystems measured in Section 6.3.3.
b.Benchmark water performance. Develop a plan to enter building operating characteristics and water use data into the ENERGY STAR® Portfolio Manager. For building parameter inputs into Portfolio Manager (e.g., number of occupants, hours of operation, etc.), use actual average values.
c.Assess water use performance. Develop a plan to assess building project water use efficiency.
All documents associated with the measurement and verification of the buildings water use shall be retained by the owner for a minimum of three years.
The plan for operation shall specify energy performance verification activities for building projects to track and assess building energy performance. The plan shall describe the procedures needed to comply with the requirements outlined in the following subsections.
Use the energy measurement devices and collection/storage infrastructure specified in Section 7.3.3 to collect and store energy data for each device, starting no later than after acceptance testing has been completed and certificate of occupancy has been issued.
The plan for operation shall specify the procedures for tracking and assessing the building project energy performance, and the frequency for benchmark comparisons. The initial assessment shall be completed after 12 months but no later than 18 months after a certificate of occupancy has been issued. Ongoing assessments shall be completed at least every three years. The plan shall include the following:
a.Energy usage reports. Develop a plan for collecting building project energy data for energy sources and system energy loads measured in Section 7.3.3. The reports shall include the following, as a minimum:
1.Hourly load profile for each day.
2.Monthly average daily load profile.
3.Monthly and annual energy use.
4.Monthly and annual peak demand.
b.Track energy performance. Develop a plan to enter building operating characteristics and energy consumption data into the ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager for those building types addressed by this program to track building performance. For building parameter inputs into Portfolio Manager (e.g., number of occupants, hours of operation, number of PCs, etc.), use actual average values.
c.Assess energy performance. Develop a plan to assess building project energy performance.
All documents associated with the measurement and verification of the buildings energy efficiency shall be retained by owner.
The plan for operation shall include the requirements of Section 8 of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1 and shall describe additional procedures, as outlined in Sections 10.3.2.1.4.1 through 10.3.2.1.4.6, for implementing a regular indoor environmental quality measurement and verification program after building occupancy.
The plan for operation shall document procedures for implementing a regular outdoor airflow monitoring program after building occupancy and shall meet the following requirements:
a.For each mechanical ventilation system where direct outdoor airflow measurement is required according to Section 22.214.171.124, a procedure shall be in place to respond when there is notification that the minimum outdoor airflow is in an outdoor air fault condition. For systems that use a damper indicator instead of a direct measurement, per the exception to Section 126.96.36.199, a procedure shall be in place to respond when there is notification that the indicator identifies that the damper is out of position.
b.For each mechanical ventilation system where direct minimum outdoor airflow measurement is required according to Section 188.8.131.52, the minimum outdoor airflow shall be recorded every three months in either electronic or written form.
c.For systems that use a damper indicator, per the exception to Section 184.108.40.206, the minimum outdoor airflow shall be measured and recorded in either electronic or written form every two years for air-handling systems with a design supply airflow rate of more than 2000 cfm (1000 L/s). The minimum outdoor airflow shall be measured using methods as described in ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 111 and with an accuracy of ±10% or better.
Ventilation systems shall be operated such that spaces are ventilated when these spaces are expected to be occupied.
The following documentation shall be maintained concerning outdoor airflow measurement and verification:
a.A list of each air system requiring direct outdoor air flow measurement.
b.Monitoring procedures and monitoring frequencies for each monitored sensing device, including a description of the specific response measures to be taken if needed.
c.Ventilation systems shall be operated such that spaces are ventilated when these spaces are expected to be occupied.
d.Operation and calibration check procedures and the records associated with operation checks and recalibration.
The plan for operation shall document procedures for maintaining and monitoring indoor air quality after building occupancy and shall contain the following:
a.For buildings located in nonattainments areas for PM2.5 as defined by the USEPA, air filtration and/or air cleaning equipment as defined in Section 220.127.116.11(a) shall be operated continuously during occupied hours or when the USEPA Air Quality Index exceeds 100 or equivalent designations by the local authorities for PM2.5.
Exception to 10.3.2.1.4.4(a): Spaces without mechanical ventilation.
b.For buildings located in nonattainments areas for ozone as defined by the USEPA, air-cleaning equipment as defined in Section 18.104.22.168(b) shall be operated continuously during occupied hours during the local summer and fall seasons, or when the USEPA Air Quality Index exceeds 100 or equivalent designations by the local authorities for ozone.
Exception to 10.3.2.1.4.4(b): Spaces without mechanical ventilation.
c.Biennial monitoring of Indoor Air Quality by one of the following methods:
1.Performing IAQ testing as described in Section 10.3.1.4.
2.Monitoring occupant perceptions of indoor air quality by any method, including but not limited to occupant questionnaires.
3.Each building shall have an occupant complaint/response program for IEQ.
A green cleaning plan shall be developed for the building project in compliance with Green Seal Standard, GS-42.
Exception: Dwelling units of a building project.
Document all measurement and verification data.
A maintenance plan shall be developed for mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and fire protection systems. The plan shall include the following:
b.The plan shall address all elements of Section 4 of ANSI/ASHRAE/ACCA Standard 180 and shall develop required inspection and maintenance tasks similar to Section 5 of ANSI/ASHRAE/ACCA Standard 180 for electrical and plumbing systems in buildings that meet the definition of commercial buildings in ANSI/ASHRAE/ACCA Standard 180.
c.Outdoor air delivery monitors required by Section 22.214.171.124 shall be visually inspected at least once each quarter and cleaned or repaired as necessary and calibrated at the manufacturers recommended interval or not less than once per year, whichever is more frequent.
d.For systems with a damper indicator and with less than 2000 cfm (1000 L/s) of supply air, the system components that control the minimum outdoor airflow shall be visually inspected every two years. Records of this inspection shall be maintained on-site either in electronic or written form.
e.Documentation of the plan and of completed maintenance procedures shall be maintained on the building site at all times in
1.electronic format for storage on the building energy management system (EMS), building management system (BMS), computerized maintenance management system (CMMS), or other computer storage means, or
2.maintenance manuals specifically developed and maintained for documenting completed maintenance activities.
A service life plan that is consistent with the OPR shall be developed to estimate to what extent structural, building envelope (not mechanical and electrical), and hardscape materials will need to be repaired or replaced during the service life of the building. The design service life of the building shall be no less than that determined using Table 10.3.2.3. The estimated service life shall be documented for building assemblies, products, and materials that will need to be inspected, repaired, and/or replaced during the service life of the building. Site improvements and hardscape shall also be included. Documentation in the service life plan shall include the building project design service life and basis for determination, and the following for each assembly or component:
a.Building assembly description.
b.Materials or products.
c.Design or estimated service life, years.
e.Maintenance access for components with an estimated service life less than the service life of the building.
Provide a service life plan at the completion of design development. The owner shall retain a copy of the service life plan for use during the life of building.
TABLE 10.3.2.3 Minimum Design Service Life for Buildings
|Category||Minimum Service Life||Building Types|
|Temporary||Up to 10 years||Nonpermanent construction buildings (sales offices, bunkhouses) Temporary exhibition buildings|
|Medium life||25 years||Industrial buildings Stand-alone parking structures|
|Long life||50 years||All buildings not temporary or medium life, including the parking structures below buildings designed for long life category|
A transportation management plan shall be developed compliant with the following requirements. Owner shall retain a copy of the transportation management plan.
The plan shall include the following:
a.Preferred parking for carpools and vanpools with parking facilities.
b.A plan for bicycle transportation.
For owner-occupied buildings, or for the employees in the owner-occupied portions of a building, the building owner shall offer at least one of the following primary benefits to the owners employees:
a.Incentivize employees to commute using mass transit, vanpool, carpool, or nonmotorized forms of transportation.
b.Initiate a telework or flexible work schedule program that reduces by at least 5% the number of commuting trips by the owners employees.
c.Initiate a ridesharing or carpool matching program, either in-house or through an outside organization.
Exception to 10.3.2.4.2: Multifamily residential building project.
In addition, the owner shall provide all of the following to the owners employees:
a.Access to an emergency ride home for employees, either provided in-house or by an outside organization.
b.A central point of contact in charge of commuter benefits.
c.Maintenance of commuter benefits in a centralized location.
d.Active promotion of commuter benefits to employees.
The building owner
a.shall provide a copy of the plan to tenants within the building and
b.shall not include parking fees in lease rates, or shall identify the value of parking in the lease.
There are no prescriptive options.
There are no performance options.
Section numbers indicate where the reference occurs in this document.
|Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) 2111 Wilson Blvd, Suite 500 Arlington, VA 22201, United States 1-703-524-8800; www.ahrinet.org|
|ANSI/AHRI 210/240-2008 (with Addenda 1 and 2)||Performance Rating of Unitary Air-Conditioning and Air-Source Heat Pump Equipment||Appendix C|
|ANSI/AHRI 310/380-2004||Standard for Packaged Terminal Air-Conditioners and Heat Pumps||Appendix C|
|ANSI/AHRI 340/360-2007 (with Addenda 1 and 2)||Performance Rating of Commercial and Industrial Unitary Air-Conditioning and Heat Pump Equipment||Appendix C|
|ANSI/AHRI 390-2003||Performance Rating of Single Packaged Terminal Air-Conditioners and Heat Pumps||Appendix C|
|AHRI 550/590-2011 (with Addenda 1, 2, and 3)AHRI 551/591-2011 (with Addenda 1, 2, and 3)||Performance Rating of Water Chilling Packages Using the Vapor Compression Cycle||Appendix C|
|ANSI/AHRI 560-2000||Absorption Water Chilling an Water Heating Packages||Appendix C|
|AHRI 1200-2010||Performance Rating of Commercial Refrigerated Display Merchandisers and Storage Cabinets||Appendix C|
|AHRI 1230-2010 (with Addendum 1)||Performance Rating of Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Multi-Split Air-Conditioning and Heat Pump Equipment||Appendix C|
|American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 25 West 43rd Street New York, NY 20036, United States 1-212-642-4900; www.ansi.org|
|ANSI Z21.10.3-2011||Gas Water Heater, Volume 3, Storage, with Input Ratings above 75,000 BTU/h, Circulating with Instantaneous Water Heaters||Appendix C|
|ANSI Z21.47-2012||Gas-Fired Central Furnaces (Except Direct Vent and Separated Combustion System Furnaces)||Appendix C|
|ANSI Z83.8-2013||Gas Unit Heaters and Duct Furnaces||Appendix C|
|American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Three Park Avenue New York, NY 10016-5990, United States 1-800-843-2763 and 1-973-882-1170; www.asme.org|
|ASME A112.18.1-2012/CSA B125.1-12||Plumbing Supply Fittings||126.96.36.199|
|ASME A112.19.2-2013/CSA B45.1-13||Vitreous China Plumbing Fixtures and Hydraulic Requirements for Water Closets and Urinals||188.8.131.52|
|ASME A112.19.14-2006||Six-Liter Water Closets Equipped with a Dual Flushing Device||184.108.40.206|
|ASME A112.19.19-2006||Vitreous China Nonwater Urinals||220.127.116.11|
|ASHRAE1791 Tullie Circle NE Atlanta, GA 30329, United States 1-404-636-8400; www.ashrae.org|
|ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-2010||Thermal Comfort Conditions for Human Occupancy||8.3.2, 10.3.1.2.1|
|ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2013||Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality||3.2, 18.104.22.168, 8.3, 10.3.1.4, 10.3.2.1.4|
|ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013||Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings||3.1, 3.2, 22.214.171.124, 126.96.36.199, 7.3.1, 7.4.1, 7.4.2, 7.4.3, 7.4.4, 7.4.5, 7.4.6, 7.4.7, 7.4.8, Appendix A, Appendix C, Appendix D|
|ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 111-2008||Measurement, Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing of Building HVAC Systems||188.8.131.52.2, 10.3.2.1.4|
|ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 154-2003||Ventilation for Commercial Cooking Operations|
|ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 160-2009||Criteria for Moisture-Control Design Analysis in Buildings||8.3.6|
|ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 169-2006||Weather Data for Building Design Standards||Appendix A|
|ANSI/ASHRAE/ASHE Standard 170-2008||Ventilation of Health Care Facilities||8.3.1|
|ANSI/ASHRAE/ACCA Standard 180-2008||Standard Practice for Inspection and Maintenance of Commercial Building HVAC Systems||3.2, 10.3.2.2|
|Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) 1111 19th Street NW, Suite 402 Washington, DC, 20036, United States 1-202-872-5955; www.aham.org|
|ANSI/AHAM RAC-1-R2008||Room Air Conditioners||Appendix C|
|ASTM International 100 Barr Harbor Dr. West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States 1-610-832-9585; www.astm.org|
|ASTM C518-10||Standard Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus||Appendix C|
|ASTM C1371-04a||Standard Test Method for Determination of Emittance of Materials Near Room Temperature Using Portable Emissometers||184.108.40.206|
|ASTM C1549-09||Standard Test Method for Determination of Solar Reflectance Near Ambient Temperature Using a Portable Solar Reflectometer||220.127.116.11|
|ASTM D1003-11e1||Standard Test Method for Haze and Luminous Transmittance of Transparent Plastics||18.104.22.168.3, 22.214.171.124|
|ASTM D5197-09e1||Standard Test Method for Determination of Formaldehyde and Other Carbonyl Compounds in Air (Active Sampler Methodology)||10.3.1.4|
|ASTM E90-09||Standard Test Method for Laboratory Measurement of Airborne Sound Transmission Loss of Building Partitions and Elements||126.96.36.199|
|ASTM E408-71(2008)||Standard Test Methods for Total Normal Emittance of Surfaces Using Inspection-Meter Techniques||188.8.131.52|
|ASTM E413-10||Classification for Rating Sound Insulation||184.108.40.206|
|ASTM E779-10||Standard Test Method for Determining Air Leakage Rate by Fan Pressurization||10.3.1.2.5|
|ASTM E1332-10a||Standard Classification for the Determination of Outdoor-Indoor Transmission Class||220.127.116.11|
|ASTM E1903-11||Standard Guide for Environmental Site Assessments: Phase II Environmental Site Assessment Process||3.2|
|ASTM E1918-06||Standard Test Method for Measuring Solar Reflectance of Horizontal and Low-Sloped Surfaces in the Field||18.104.22.168|
|ASTM E1980-11||Standard Practice for Calculating Solar Reflectance Index of Horizontal and Low-Sloped Opaque Surfaces||22.214.171.124|
|The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturers Association (BIFMA)678 Front Avenue NW, Suite 150 Grand Rapids, MI 49504-5368, United States 1-616-285-3963; www.bifma.org; firstname.lastname@example.org|
|ANSI/BIFMA M7.1-2011||Standard Test Method For Determining VOC Emissions From Office Furniture Systems, Components and Seating||126.96.36.199 and 8.5.2|
|ANSI/BIFMA X7.1-2011||Standard for Formaldehyde and TVOC Emissions of Low-Emitting Office Furniture Systems and Seating||188.8.131.52|
|ANSI/BIFMA e3-2012||Furniture Sustainability Standard||184.108.40.206, 220.127.116.11.3|
|California Air Resources Board (CARB) 1001 I Street P.O. Box 2815 Sacramento, CA 95812, United States 1-916-322-2990; www.arb.ca.gov/homepage.htm|
|CARB SCM for Architectural Coatings-2007||California Air Resources Board (ARB) Suggested Control Measure for Architectural Coatings||18.104.22.168.2|
|No-Added Formaldehyde Based Resins||Airborne Toxic Control Measure to Reduce Formaldehyde Emissions from Composite Wood Products. California Code of Regulations, Title 17, Sections 93120-93120.12||8.5.2|
|California Department of Public Health (CDPH) Indoor Air Quality Section 850 Marina Bay Parkway Richmond, CA 94804, United States 1-510-620-2802; www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/IAQ and www.cal-iaq.org|
|CDPH/EHLB/Standard Method V1.1||Standard Method for the Testing and Evaluation of Volatile Organic Chemical Emissions from Indoor Sources Using Environmental Chambers—Version 1.1||22.214.171.124.1, 126.96.36.199.1, 188.8.131.52, 184.108.40.206, 220.127.116.11, 8.5.2, Table 10.3.1.4, Appendix F|
|Canadian General Standards Board Place du Portage III, 6B1 11 Laurier Street Gatineau, Quebec K1A 1G6 Canada 819-956-0425 www.tpsgc-pwgsc.gc.ca/ongc-cgsb/index-eng.html|
|CAN/CGSB 149.10-M86||Determination of the Airtightness of Building Envelopes by the Fan Depressurization Method||10.3.1.2.5|
|CAN/CGSB 149.15-96||Determination of the Overall Envelope Airtightness of Buildings by the Fan Pressurization Method Using the Buildings Air Handling Systems||10.3.1.2.5|
|Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) International Environment House 11 Chemin des Anémones CH-1219 Châtelaine, Geneva, Switzerland +41-(0)22-917-81-39/40|
|CITES- 1973, amended 1979 and 1983||Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora||9.3.2|
|Cooling Roof Rating Council (CRRC) 449 15th Street, Suite 200 Oakland, CA 94612 United States 1-866-465-2523; www.coolroofs.org|
|ANSI/CRRC Standard-1-2012||ANSI/CRRC-1 Standard||18.104.22.168|
|Cooling Technology Institute (CTI)2611 FM 1960West, Suite A-101 Houston, TX 77068-3730; P.O. Box 73383 Houston, TX 77273-3383|
|CTI ATC-105 (00)||Acceptance Test Code for Water Cooling Towers||Appendix C|
|CTI ATC-105S (11)||Acceptance Test Code for Closed-Circuit Cooling Towers||Appendix C|
|CTI ATC-106 (11)||Acceptance Test Code for Mechanical Draft Evaporative Vapor Condensers||Appendix C|
|CTI STD-201RS (13)||Performance Rating of Evaporative Heat Rejection Equipment||Appendix C|
|CTI STD-201OM (13)||Operations Manual for Thermal Performance Certification of Evaporative Heat Rejection Equipment||Appendix C|
|Cooling Tower Technology Institute (CTI) P.O Box 73383 Houston, TX 77273, United States 1-281-583-4087; www.cti.org|
|CTI ATC-105 (2/2000)||Acceptance Test Code||Appendix C|
|CTI STD 201 (1/2009)||Standard for the Certification of Water Cooling Tower Thermal Performance||Appendix C|
|Green-e c/o Center for Resource Solutions 1012 Torney Ave., Second Floor San Francisco, CA 94129, United States 1- 415-561-2100; www.green-e.org|
|Version 1.6, Dec 5, 2008||Green-e Energy National Standard for Renewable Electricity Products||22.214.171.124(2)|
|Green Seal 1001 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 827 Washington, DC 20036-5525, United States 1-202-872-6400; www.greenseal.org|
|GS-11, July 12, 2013||Environmental Standard for Paints and Coatings||126.96.36.199.2|
|GS-36, July 12, 2013||Standard for Commercial Adhesives||188.8.131.52.2|
|GS-42, July 12, 2013||Environmental Standard for Cleaning Services||10.3.2.1.4.5|
|Illuminating Engineering Society of North America 120 Wall Street, Floor 17 New York, NY 10005-4001, United States 1-212-248-5017, www.ies.org|
|TM-15-2011 including addendum a||Luminaire Classification System for Outdoor Luminaires||184.108.40.206|
|International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO)5001 East Philadelphia Street Ontario, CA 91761, United States 1-909-472-4100; www.iapmo.org|
|Z124.9-2004||Plastic Urinal Fixtures||220.127.116.11|
|International Organization for Standardization (ISO) ISO Central Secretariat, 1 rue de Varembee, Case postale 56 CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland +41-22-749-01-11; www.iso.org|
|ISO-13256-1-1998||Water-Source Heat Pumps—Testing and Rating for Performance—Part 1: Water-to-Air and Brine-to-Air Heat Pumps||Appendix C|
|ISO 14025-2006||Environmental Labels and Declarations—Type III||18.104.22.168|
|Environmental Declarations—Principles and Procedures|
|ISO 14040-2006||Environmental Management—Life Cycle Assessment— Principles and Framework||22.214.171.124|
|ISO 14044-2006||Environmental Management—Life Cycle Assessment— Requirements and Guidelines||9.5.1, 126.96.36.199|
|ISO 21930-2007||Sustainability in Building Construction—Environmental Declaration of Building Products||188.8.131.52|
|ISO/IEC Guide 59-1994||Code of Good Practice for Standardization||184.108.40.206.1|
|Irrigation Association (IA) 6540 Arlington Boulevard Falls Church, VA 22042-6638, United States1-703-536-7080; www.irrigation.org|
|Smart Water Application Technology (SWAT)Climatological Based Controllers 8th Draft Testing Protocol – November 2006||Smart Water Application Technology (SWAT), Turf and Landscape Irrigation Equipment Climatologically Based Controllers||220.127.116.11|
|National Archives and Records Administration Office of the Federal Register 800 North Capital, N.W. Suite 700 Washington DC, 20408 http://www.gpo.gov/about/|
|42 USC§ 6291||Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE CHAPTER 77—ENERGY CONSERVATION SUBCHAPTER III—IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY Part A—Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products Other than Automobiles Sec. 6291—Definitions||Appendix C, Table C-17|
|National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) 1300 North 17th Street, Suite 1752 Rosslyn, VA 22209, United States 1-703-841-3200; www.nema.org|
|ANSI/NEMA MG-1-2011||Motors and Generators||Appendix C|
|NEMA DC 3, Annex A-2010||Energy-Efficiency Requirements for Programmable Thermostats||18.104.22.168|
|National Fire Protection Association 1 Battery March Park Quincy, MA 02169-7471 United States 1-617-770-0700; www.nfpa.org|
|NFPA 70 -2011||National Electrical Code||5.3.3|
|Natural Stone Council P.O. Box 539 Hollis, NH 03049, United States 978-391-4130; www.naturalstonecouncil.org; email@example.com|
|NSC 373-2013||Sustainability Assessment for Natural Dimension Stone||22.214.171.124|
|NSF International 789 Dixboro Road Ann Arbor, MI 48105, United States 734-769-8010; www.nsf.org; firstname.lastname@example.org|
|NSF/ANSI 140-2013||Sustainability Assessment for Carpet||126.96.36.199|
|NSF/ANSI 332-2012||Sustainability Assessment for Resilient Floor Coverings||188.8.131.52|
|NSF/ANSI 336-2011||Sustainability Assessment for Commercial Furnishings Fabric||184.108.40.206|
|NSF/ANSI 342-2012||Sustainability Assessment for Wallcoverings||220.127.116.11|
|NSF/ANSI 347-2012||Sustainability Assessment for Single Ply Roofing Membranes||18.104.22.168|
|South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) California Air Resources Board 1001 I Street P.O. Box 2815 Sacramento, CA 95812, United States 1-916-322-2990; www.arb.ca.gov|
|SCAQMD Rule 1113, Amended June 3, 2011||Architectural Coatings||22.214.171.124|
|SCAQMD Rule 1168, Amended January 7, 2005||Adhesive and Sealant Applications||126.96.36.199|
|Tile Council of North America 100 Clemson Research Boulevard Anderson, SC 29625, United States 864-646-8453; www.tcnatile.com; email@example.com|
|ANSI A138.1-2012||Standard Specifications for Sustainable Ceramic Tiles, Glass Tiles, and Tile Installation Materials||188.8.131.52|
|Underwriters Laboratories Inc. 333 Pfingsten Road Northbrook, IL 60062, United States 847-272-8800; www.ul.com; firstname.lastname@example.org|
|UL 100-2012||Standard for Sustainability for Gypsum Boards and Panels||UL 100-2012|
|UL 102-2012||Standard for Sustainability for Door Leafs||UL 102-2012|
|UL 727-2006||Standard for Oil-Fired Central Furnaces||Appendix C|
|UL 731-2012||Standard for Oil-Fired Unit Heaters||Appendix C|
|United States Congress Washington, DC 20515, United States 1-202-224-3121; http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=109_cong_bills&docid=f:h6enr.txt.pdfand www.govtrack.us/data/us/bills.text/110/h/h6.pdf|
|42 USC§ 6291||Title 42—The Public Health and Welfare Chapter 77— Energy Conservation Subchapter III—Improving Energy Efficiency Part A—Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products other than Automobiles Sec. 6291— Definitions||Appendix B|
|EPAct 2005 HR6 Public Law 109-58||The Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005||184.108.40.206, 220.127.116.11|
|EISA 2007 HR6 Public Law 110-140||The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007||7.4.3, 7.4.7|
|United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) BioPreferred Program 1400 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20250, United States 1-202-720-2791; www.biopreferred.gov|
|7 CFR Part 3201 Subpart B, (Includes Rounds 17) August 29, 2011; Round 8, April 4, 2012; Round 9, November 19, 2012; Round 10, June 11, 2013||Guidelines for Designating Biobased Products for Federal Procurement; Designated Items||18.104.22.168|
|United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Energy Information Administration Washington, DC 20585, United States 1-202-586-5000; www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cbecs/contents.html and http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/state|
|EIA Average Energy Prices||State and U.S. Historical Data||Appendix D|
|Title 10 Energy Chapter II Department of Energy Part 430||Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products||Appendix C|
|Title 10 Energy Chapter II Department of Energy Part 431||Energy Efficiency Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment||Appendix C|
|United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Ariel Rios Building 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20460, United States 1-919-541-0800; www.epa.gov ENERGY STAR ® 1-888-782-7937 WaterSense 1-866-987-7367 and 1-202-564-2660|
|Clean Air Act of 1970 and as amended in 1990||Clean Air Act||22.214.171.124|
|Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 50 (40 CFR 50), as amended July 1, 2004||National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards||126.96.36.199, 188.8.131.52|
|EPA-420-F-07-063, November 2007||SmartWay Program Requirements for Certified Passenger Vehicles, http://epa.gov/greenvehicles/ Aboutratings.do#aboutsmartway||5.3.7|
|January 21, 2005||NPDES General Permit for Stormwater Discharges From Construction Activities||10.3.1.3|
|Version 5.2, July 1, 2009 Version 6.0, September 10, 2013 (Effective date June 2, 2014)||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Computers||7.4.7|
|Version 2.0, April 1, 2013||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Imaging Equipment||7.4.7|
|Version 3.0, June 22, 2012||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements and Criteria for Room Air Conditioners||7.4.7|
|Version 4.1, January 1, 2009||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for ASHPs and Central Air Conditioners||7.4.7|
|Version 2.1, April 1, 2002||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Boilers||7.4.7|
|Version 2.0, May 9, 2013||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Water Coolers||7.4.7|
|Version 1.0, August 28, 2013||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Lamps (Light Bulbs)||7.4.7|
|Version 6.1, January 25, 2013||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Clothes Washers||184.108.40.206, 7.4.7|
|Version 2.0, July 18, 2012||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Dishwashers||220.127.116.11, 7.4.7|
|Version 2.0, April 22, 2011||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Fryers||7.4.7|
|Version 2.0, February 1, 2013||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Ice Makers||18.104.22.168, 7.4.7|
|Version 1.2, August 1, 2003||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Steam Cookers||7.4.7|
|Version 6.0, January 16, 2013||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Displays||7.4.7|
|Version 3.0, May 1, 2013||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Audio and Video||7.4.7|
|Version 3.0, October 1, 2012||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Dehumidifiers||7.4.7|
|Version 5.2, June 5, 2013||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements Product Specification for Residential Dishwashers||22.214.171.124, 7.4.7|
|Version 4.0, June 13, 2011||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Furnaces||7.4.7|
|Version 3.1, January 1, 2012||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Geothermal Heat Pumps||7.4.7|
|Version 2.0, November 15, 2010||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Hot Food Holding Cabinets||7.4.7|
|Version 1.1, September 12, 2011||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Products with Battery Charger Systems (BCSs)||7.4.7|
|Version 3.0, March 1, 2013||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines||7.4.7|
|Version 5.0, May 31, 2013 (Effective Date September 15, 2014)||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Refrigerators and Freezers||7.4.7|
|Version 3.0, August 15, 2011||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Ceiling Fans||7.4.7|
|Version 2.0, October 11, 2012||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Water Heaters||7.4.7|
|Version 2.3, June 25, 2012||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Roof Products||126.96.36.199|
|Version 1.2, July 1, 2004||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Room Air Cleaners||7.4.7|
|Version 3.2, December 23, 2011||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Ventilating Fans||7.4.7|
|Version 1.0, August 1, 2012||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Uninterruptible Power Supplies||7.4.7|
|Version 2.1, April 1, 2009||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers||7.4.7|
|Version 2.2, November 1, 2008||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Telephony||7.4.7|
|Version 6.0, September 6, 2012||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Televisions||7.4.7|
|Version 1.0, October 1, 2007||WaterSense Tank-Type High-Efficiency Lavatory Specification||188.8.131.52|
|Version 1.1, May 19, 2011||WaterSense Tank-Type High-Efficiency Toilet Specification||184.108.40.206|
|EPA 402-R-93-071, September 1993||USEPA Map of Radon Zones||8.3.5|
|EPA 430-R-13-001, April 2011||Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 19902011||9.5.1|
|Version 3.0, October 2, 2012||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Set-Top Boxes||7.4.7|
|Version 1.2, December 21, 2012||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Luminaires||220.127.116.11|
|Version 1.2, June 26, 2013||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Griddles||7.4.7|
|Version 2.0, April 1, 2013||ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Ovens||7.4.7|
|EPA 625/R-96/0106, January 1999||Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Toxic Organic Pollutants in Ambient Air, Sections TO-1, TO-11, TO-17||10.3.1.4|
|United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, United States 1-919-541-2258; www.epa.gov|
|EPA 625/R-96/0106, January 1999||Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Toxic Organic Pollutants in Ambient Air, Sections TO-1, TO-11, TO-17||10.3.1.4|
|World Trade Organization (WTO) Centre William Rappard Rue de Lausanne 154, CH-1211 Geneva 21, Switzerland 41-22-739-51-11; www.wto.org|
|WTO TBT-1994||WTO Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement Annex 3 Code of Good Practice for the Preparation, Adoption and Application of Standards||18.104.22.168.1|