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  • IECC—COMMERCIAL PROVISIONS

    CHAPTER1 [CE]
    SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION

    PART1SCOPE AND APPLICATION

    SECTIONC101
    SCOPE AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

    C101.1Title.

    This code shall be known as the International Energy Conservation Code of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], and shall be cited as such. It is referred to herein as “this code.”

    C101.2Scope.

    This code applies to commercial buildings and the buildings’ sites and associated systems and equipment.

    C101.3Intent.

    This code shall regulate the design and construction of buildings for the use and conservation of energy over the life of each building. This code is intended to provide flexibility to permit the use of innovative approaches and techniques to achieve this objective. This code is not intended to abridge safety, health or environmental requirements contained in other applicable codes or ordinances.

    C101.4Applicability.

    Where, in any specific case, different sections of this code specify different materials, methods of construction or other requirements, the most restrictive shall govern. Where there is a conflict between a general requirement and a specific requirement, the specific requirement shall govern.

    C101.4.1Mixed occupancy.

    Where a building includes both residential and commercial occupancies, each occupancy shall be separately considered and meet the applicable provisions of IECC—Commercial Provisions or IECC—Residential Provisions.

    C101.5Compliance.

    Residential buildings shall meet the provisions of IECC—Residential Provisions. Commercial buildings shall meet the provisions of IECC—Commercial Provisions.

    C101.5.1Compliance materials.

    The code official shall be permitted to approve specific computer software, worksheets, compliance manuals and other similar materials that meet the intent of this code.

    SECTIONC102
    ALTERNATE MATERIALS—METHOD
    OF CONSTRUCTION, DESIGN
    OR INSULATING SYSTEMS

    C102.1General.

    This code is not intended to prevent the use of any material, method of construction, design or insulating system not specifically prescribed herein, provided that such construction, design or insulating system has been approved by the code official as meeting the intent of this code.

    C102.1.1Above code programs.

    The code official or other authority having jurisdiction shall be permitted to deem a national, state or local energy efficiency program to exceed the energy efficiency required by this code. Buildings approved in writing by such an energy efficiency program shall be considered in compliance with this code. The requirements identified as “mandatory” in Chapter 4 shall be met.

    PART2ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT

    SECTIONC103
    CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS

    C103.1General.

    Construction documents and other supporting data shall be submitted in one or more sets with each application for a permit. The construction documents shall be prepared by a registered design professional where required by the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed. Where special conditions exist, the code official is authorized to require necessary construction documents to be prepared by a registered design professional.

    Exception: The code official is authorized to waive the requirements for construction documents or other supporting data if the code official determines they are not necessary to confirm compliance with this code.

    C103.2Information on construction documents.

    Construction documents shall be drawn to scale upon suitable material. Electronic media documents are permitted to be submitted where approved by the code official. Construction documents shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed, and show in sufficient detail pertinent data and features of the building, systems and equipment as herein governed. Details shall include, but are not limited to, the following as applicable:

    1. 1.Insulation materials and their R-values.

    2. 2.Fenestration U-factors and solar heat gain coefficients (SHGCs).

    3. 3.Area-weighted U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) calculations.

    4. 4.Mechanical system design criteria.

    5. 5.Mechanical and service water heating system and equipment types, sizes and efficiencies.

    6. 6.Economizer description.

    7. 7.Equipment and system controls.

    8. 8.Fan motor horsepower (hp) and controls.

    9. 9.Duct sealing, duct and pipe insulation and location.

    10. 10.Lighting fixture schedule with wattage and control narrative.

    11. 11.Location of daylight zones on floor plans.

    12. 12.Air sealing details.

    C103.2.1Building thermal envelope depiction.

    The building’s thermal envelope shall be represented on the construction drawings.

    C103.3Examination of documents.

    The code official shall examine or cause to be examined the accompanying construction documents and shall ascertain whether the construction indicated and described is in accordance with the requirements of this code and other pertinent laws or ordinances. The code official is authorized to utilize a registered design professional, or other approved entity not affiliated with the building design or construction, in conducting the review of the plans and specifications for compliance with the code.

    C103.3.1Approval of construction documents.

    When the code official issues a permit where construction documents are required, the construction documents shall be endorsed in writing and stamped “Reviewed for Code Compliance.” Such approved construction documents shall not be changed, modified or altered without authorization from the code official. Work shall be done in accordance with the approved construction documents.

    One set of construction documents so reviewed shall be retained by the code official. The other set shall be returned to the applicant, kept at the site of work and shall be open to inspection by the code official or a duly authorized representative.

    C103.3.2Previous approvals.

    This code shall not require changes in the construction documents, construction or designated occupancy of a structure for which a lawful permit has been heretofore issued or otherwise lawfully authorized, and the construction of which has been pursued in good faith within 180 days after the effective date of this code and has not been abandoned.

    C103.3.3Phased approval.

    The code official shall have the authority to issue a permit for the construction of part of an energy conservation system before the construction documents for the entire system have been submitted or approved, provided adequate information and detailed statements have been filed complying with all pertinent requirements of this code. The holders of such permit shall proceed at their own risk without assurance that the permit for the entire energy conservation system will be granted.

    C103.4Amended construction documents.

    Changes made during construction that are not in compliance with the approved construction documents shall be resubmitted for approval as an amended set of construction documents.

    C103.5Retention of construction documents.

    One set of approved construction documents shall be retained by the code official for a period of not less than 180 days from date of completion of the permitted work, or as required by state or local laws.

    SECTIONC104
    INSPECTIONS

    C104.1General.

    Construction or work for which a permit is required shall be subject to inspection by the code official or his or her designated agent, and such construction or work shall remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes until approved. It shall be the duty of the permit applicant to cause the work to remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes. Neither the code official nor the jurisdiction shall be liable for expense entailed in the removal or replacement of any material, product, system or building component required to allow inspection to validate compliance with this code.

    C104.2Required inspections.

    The code official or his or her designated agent, upon notification, shall make the inspections set forth in Sections C104.2.1 through C104.2.6.

    C104.2.1Footing and foundation inspection.

    Inspections associated with footings and foundations shall verify compliance with the code as to R-value, location, thickness, depth of burial and protection of insulation as required by the code and approved plans and specifications.

    C104.2.2Framing and rough-in inspection.

    Inspections at framing and rough-in shall be made before application of interior finish and shall verify compliance with the code as to types of insulation and corresponding R-values and their correct location and proper installation; fenestration properties (U-factor, SHGC and VT) and proper installation; and air leakage controls as required by the code and approved plans and specifications.

    C104.2.3Plumbing rough-in inspection.

    Inspections at plumbing rough-in shall verify compliance as required by the code and approved plans and specifications as to types of insulation and corresponding R-values and protection; required controls; and required heat traps.

    C104.2.4Mechanical rough-in inspection.

    Inspections at mechanical rough-in shall verify compliance as required by the code and approved plans and specifications as to installed HVAC equipment type and size; required controls, system insulation and corresponding R-value; system and damper air leakage; and required energy recovery and economizers.

    C104.2.5Electrical rough-in inspection.

    Inspections at electrical rough-in shall verify compliance as required by the code and approved plans and specifications as to installed lighting systems, components and controls; and installation of an electric meter for each dwelling unit.

    C104.2.6Final inspection.

    The building shall have a final inspection and shall not be occupied until approved. The final inspection shall include verification of the installation and proper operation of all required building controls, and documentation verifying activities associated with required building commissioning have been conducted and findings of noncompliance corrected. Buildings, or portions thereof, shall not be considered for a final inspection until the code official has received a letter of transmittal from the building owner acknowledging that the building owner has received the Preliminary Commissioning Report as required in Section C408.2.4.

    C104.3Reinspection.

    A building shall be reinspected when determined necessary by the code official.

    C104.4Approved inspection agencies.

    The code official is authorized to accept reports of third-party inspection agencies not affiliated with the building design or construction, provided such agencies are approved as to qualifications and reliability relevant to the building components and systems they are inspecting.

    C104.5Inspection requests.

    It shall be the duty of the holder of the permit or their duly authorized agent to notify the code official when work is ready for inspection. It shall be the duty of the permit holder to provide access to and means for inspections of such work that are required by this code.

    C104.6Reinspection and testing.

    Where any work or installation does not pass an initial test or inspection, the necessary corrections shall be made to achieve compliance with this code. The work or installation shall then be resubmitted to the code official for inspection and testing.

    C104.7Approval.

    After the prescribed tests and inspections indicate that the work complies in all respects with this code, a notice of approval shall be issued by the code official.

    C104.7.1Revocation.

    The code official is authorized to, in writing, suspend or revoke a notice of approval issued under the provisions of this code wherever the certificate is issued in error, or on the basis of incorrect information supplied, or where it is determined that the building or structure, premise, or portion thereof is in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provisions of this code.

    SECTIONC105
    VALIDITY

    C105.1General.

    If a portion of this code is held to be illegal or void, such a decision shall not affect the validity of the remainder of this code.

    SECTIONC106
    REFERENCED STANDARDS

    C106.1Referenced codes and standards.

    The codes and standards referenced in this code shall be those listed in Chapter 6, and such codes and standards shall be considered as part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such reference and as further regulated in Sections C106.1.1 and C106.1.2.

    C106.1.1Conflicts.

    Where conflicts occur between provisions of this code and referenced codes and standards, the provisions of this code shall apply.

    C106.1.2Provisions in referenced codes and standards.

    Where the extent of the reference to a referenced code or standard includes subject matter that is within the scope of this code, the provisions of this code, as applicable, shall take precedence over the provisions in the referenced code or standard.

    C106.2Application of references.

    References to chapter or section numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified by number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section or provision of this code.

    C106.3Other laws.

    The provisions of this code shall not be deemed to nullify any provisions of local, state or federal law.

    SECTIONC107
    FEES

    C107.1Fees.

    A permit shall not be issued until the fees prescribed in Section C107.2 have been paid, nor shall an amendment to a permit be released until the additional fee, if any, has been paid.

    C107.2Schedule of permit fees.

    A fee for each permit shall be paid as required, in accordance with the schedule as established by the applicable governing authority.

    C107.3Work commencing before permit issuance.

    Any person who commences any work before obtaining the necessary permits shall be subject to an additional fee established by the code official that shall be in addition to the required permit fees.

    C107.4Related fees.

    The payment of the fee for the construction, alteration, removal or demolition of work done in connection to or concurrently with the work or activity authorized by a permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed by law.

    C107.5Refunds.

    The code official is authorized to establish a refund policy.

    SECTIONC108
    STOP WORK ORDER

    C108.1Authority.

    Where the code official finds any work regulated by this code being performed in a manner either contrary to the provisions of this code or dangerous or unsafe, the code official is authorized to issue a stop work order.

    C108.2Issuance.

    The stop work order shall be in writing and shall be given to the owner of the property involved, the owner’s authorized agent, or to the person doing the work. Upon issuance of a stop work order, the cited work shall immediately cease. The stop work order shall state the reason for the order and the conditions under which the cited work will be permitted to resume.

    C108.3Emergencies.

    Where an emergency exists, the code official shall not be required to give a written notice prior to stopping the work.

    C108.4Failure to comply.

    Any person who shall continue any work after having been served with a stop work order, except such work as that person is directed to perform to remove a violation or unsafe condition, shall be liable to a fine as set by the applicable governing authority.

    SECTIONC109
    BOARD OF APPEALS

    C109.1General.

    In order to hear and decide appeals of orders, decisions or determinations made by the code official relative to the application and interpretation of this code, there shall be and is hereby created a board of appeals. The code official shall be an ex officio member of said board but shall not have a vote on any matter before the board. The board of appeals shall be appointed by the governing body and shall hold office at its pleasure. The board shall adopt rules of procedure for conducting its business, and shall render all decisions and findings in writing to the appellant with a duplicate copy to the code official.

    C109.2Limitations on authority.

    An application for appeal shall be based on a claim that the true intent of this code or the rules legally adopted thereunder have been incorrectly interpreted, the provisions of this code do not fully apply or an equally good or better form of construction is proposed. The board shall not have authority to waive requirements of this code.

    C109.3Qualifications.

    The board of appeals shall consist of members who are qualified by experience and training and are not employees of the jurisdiction.

    CHAPTER2 [CE]
    DEFINITIONS

    SECTIONC201
    GENERAL

    C201.1Scope.

    Unless stated otherwise, the following words and terms in this code shall have the meanings indicated in this chapter.

    C201.2Interchangeability.

    Words used in the present tense include the future; words in the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural and the plural includes the singular.

    C201.3Terms defined in other codes.

    Terms that are not defined in this code but are defined in the International Building Code, International Fire Code, International Fuel Gas Code, International Mechanical Code, International Plumbing Code or the International Residential Code shall have the meanings ascribed to them in those codes.

    C201.4Terms not defined.

    Terms not defined by this chapter shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies.

    SECTIONC202
    GENERAL DEFINITIONS

    ABOVE-GRADE WALL. See “Wall, above-grade.”

    ACCESSIBLE. Admitting close approach as a result of not being guarded by locked doors, elevation or other effective means (see “Readily accessible”).

    ADDITION. An extension or increase in the conditioned space floor area or height of a building or structure.

    AIR BARRIER. Materials assembled and joined together to provide a barrier to air leakage through the building envelope. An air barrier may be a single material or a combination of materials.

    AIR CURTAIN. A device, installed at the building entrance, that generates and discharges a laminar air stream intended to prevent the infiltration of external, unconditioned air into the conditioned spaces, or the loss of interior, conditioned air to the outside.

    ALTERATION. Any construction, retrofit or renovation to an existing structure other than repair or addition that requires a permit. Also, a change in a building, electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing system that involves an extension, addition or change to the arrangement, type or purpose of the original installation that requires a permit.

    APPROVED. Approval by the code official as a result of investigation and tests conducted by him or her, or by reason of accepted principles or tests by nationally recognized organizations.

    APPROVED AGENCY. An established and recognized agency regularly engaged in conducting tests or furnishing inspection services, when such agency has been approved by the code official.

    AUTOMATIC. Self-acting, operating by its own mechanism when actuated by some impersonal influence, as, for example, a change in current strength, pressure, temperature or mechanical configuration (see “Manual”).

    BELOW-GRADE WALL. See “Wall, below-grade.”

    BOILER, MODULATING. A boiler that is capable of more than a single firing rate in response to a varying temperature or heating load.

    BOILER SYSTEM. One or more boilers, their piping and controls that work together to supply steam or hot water to heat output devices remote from the boiler.

    BUBBLE POINT. The refrigerant liquid saturation temperature at a specified pressure.

    BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy, including any mechanical systems, service water heating systems and electric power and lighting systems located on the building site and supporting the building.

    BUILDING COMMISSIONING. A process that verifies and documents that the selected building systems have been designed, installed, and function according to the owner’s project requirements and construction documents, and to minimum code requirements.

    BUILDING ENTRANCE. Any door, set of doors, doorway, or other form of portal that is used to gain access to the building from the outside by the public.

    BUILDING SITE. A continguous area of land that is under the ownership or control of one entity.

    BUILDING THERMAL ENVELOPE. The basement walls, exterior walls, floor, roof and any other building elements that enclose conditioned space or provide a boundary between conditioned space and exempt or unconditioned space.

    C-FACTOR (THERMAL CONDUCTANCE). The coefficient of heat transmission (surface to surface) through a building component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow per unit area and the unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side surfaces (Btu/h · ft2 · °F) [W/(m2 · K)].

    CIRCULATING HOT WATER SYSTEM. A specifically designed water distribution system where one or more pumps are operated in the service hot water piping to circulate heated water from the water-heating equipment to the fixture supply and back to the water-heating equipment.

    CLIMATE ZONE. A geographical region based on climatic criteria as specified in this code.

    CODE OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of this code, or a duly authorized representative.

    COEFFICENT OF PERFORMANCE (COP) – COOLING. The ratio of the rate of heat input, in consistent units, for a complete refrigerating system or some specific portion of that system under designated operating conditions.

    COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE (COP) – HEATING. The ratio of the rate of heat delivered to the rate of energy input, in consistent units, for a complete heat pump system, including the compressor and, if applicable, auxiliary heat, under designated operating conditions.

    COMMERCIAL BUILDING. For this code, all buildings that are not included in the definition of “Residential building.”

    COMPUTER ROOM. A room whose primary function is to house equipment for the processing and storage of electronic data and that has a design electronic data equipment power density exceeding 20 watts per square foot of conditioned floor area.

    CONDENSING UNIT. A factory-made assembly of refrigeration components designed to compress and liquefy a specific refrigerant. The unit consists of one or more refrigerant compressors, refrigerant condensers (air-cooled, evaporatively cooled, or water-cooled), condenser fans and motors (where used) and factory-supplied accessories.

    CONDITIONED FLOOR AREA. The horizontal projection of the floors associated with the conditioned space.

    CONDITIONED SPACE. An area, room or space that is enclosed within the building thermal envelope and is directly or indirectly heated or cooled. Spaces are indirectly heated or cooled where they communicate through openings with conditioned spaces, where they are separated from conditioned spaces by uninsulated walls, floors or ceilings, or where they contain uninsulated ducts, piping or other sources of heating or cooling.

    CONTINUOUS AIR BARRIER. A combination of materials and assemblies that restrict or prevent the passage of air through the building thermal envelope.

    CONTINUOUS INSULATION (ci). Insulating material that is continuous across all structural members without thermal bridges other than fasteners and service openings. It is installed on the interior or exterior or is integral to any opaque surface of the building envelope.

    CRAWL SPACE WALL. The opaque portion of a wall that encloses a crawl space and is partially or totally below grade.

    CURTAIN WALL. Fenestration products used to create an external nonload-bearing wall that is designed to separate the exterior and interior environments.

    DAYLIGHT RESPONSIVE CONTROL. A device or system that provides automatic control of electric light levels based on the amount of daylight in a space.

    DAYLIGHT ZONE. That portion of a building’s interior floor area that is illuminated by natural light.

    DEMAND CONTROL VENTILATION (DCV). A ventilation system capability that provides for the automatic reduction of outdoor air intake below design rates when the actual occupancy of spaces served by the system is less than design occupancy.

    DEMAND RECIRCULATION WATER SYSTEM. A water distribution system where pumps prime the service hot water piping with heated water upon demand for hot water.

    DUCT. A tube or conduit utilized for conveying air. The air passages of self-contained systems are not to be construed as air ducts.

    DUCT SYSTEM. A continuous passageway for the transmission of air that, in addition to ducts, includes duct fittings, dampers, plenums, fans and accessory air-handling equipment and appliances.

    [B] DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete independent living facilities for one or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation.

    DYNAMIC GLAZING. Any fenestration product that has the fully reversible ability to change its performance properties, including U-factor, solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), or visible transmittance (VT).

    ECONOMIZER, AIR. A duct and damper arrangement and automatic control system that allows a cooling system to supply outside air to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical cooling during mild or cold weather.

    ECONOMIZER, WATER. A system where the supply air of a cooling system is cooled indirectly with water that is itself cooled by heat or mass transfer to the environment without the use of mechanical cooling.

    ENCLOSED SPACE. A volume surrounded by solid surfaces such as walls, floors, roofs, and openable devices such as doors and operable windows.

    ENERGY ANALYSIS. A method for estimating the annual energy use of the proposed design and standard reference design based on estimates of energy use.

    ENERGY COST. The total estimated annual cost for purchased energy for the building functions regulated by this code, including applicable demand charges.

    [M] ENERGY RECOVERY VENTILATION SYSTEM. Systems that employ air-to-air heat exchangers to recover energy from exhaust air for the purpose of preheating, pre-cooling, humidifying or dehumidifying outdoor ventilation air prior to supplying the air to a space, either directly or as part of an HVAC system.

    ENERGY SIMULATION TOOL. An approved software program or calculation-based methodology that projects the annual energy use of a building.

    ENTRANCE DOOR. Fenestration products used for ingress, egress and access in nonresidential buildings, including, but not limited to, exterior entrances that utilize latching hardware and automatic closers and contain over 50-percent glass specifically designed to withstand heavy use and possibly abuse.

    EQUIPMENT ROOM. A space that contains either electrical equipment, mechanical equipment, machinery, water pumps or hydraulic pumps that are a function of the building’s services.

    EXTERIOR WALL. Walls including both above-grade walls and basement walls.

    FAN BRAKE HORSEPOWER (BHP). The horsepower delivered to the fan’s shaft. Brake horsepower does not include the mechanical drive losses (belts, gears, etc.).

    FAN EFFICIENCY GRADE (FEG). A numerical rating identifying the fan’s aerodynamic ability to convert shaft power, or impeller power in the case of a direct-driven fan, to air power.

    FAN SYSTEM BHP. The sum of the fan brake horsepower of all fans that are required to operate at fan system design conditions to supply air from the heating or cooling source to the conditioned spaces and return it to the source or exhaust it to the outdoors.

    FAN SYSTEM DESIGN CONDITIONS. Operating conditions that can be expected to occur during normal system operation that result in the highest supply fan airflow rate to conditioned spaces served by the system.

    FAN SYSTEM MOTOR NAMEPLATE HP. The sum of the motor nameplate horsepower of all fans that are required to operate at design conditions to supply air from the heating or cooling source to the conditioned spaces and return it to the source or exhaust it to the outdoors.

    FENESTRATION. Products classified as either vertical fenestration or skylights.

    Skylight. Glass or other transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a slope of less than 60 degrees (1.05 rad) from horizontal.

    Vertical fenestration. Windows (fixed or moveable), opaque doors, glazed doors, glazed block and combination opaque/glazed doors composed of glass or other transparent or translucent glazing materials and installed at a slope of at least 60 degrees (1.05 rad) from horizontal.

    FENESTRATION PRODUCT, FIELD-FABRICATED. A fenestration product whose frame is made at the construction site of standard dimensional lumber or other materials that were not previously cut, or otherwise formed with the specific intention of being used to fabricate a fenestration product or exterior door. Field fabricated does not include site-built fenestration.

    FENESTRATION PRODUCT, SITE-BUILT. A fenestration designed to be made up of field-glazed or field-assembled units using specific factory cut or otherwise factory-formed framing and glazing units. Examples of site-built fenestration include storefront systems, curtain walls, and atrium roof systems.

    F-FACTOR. The perimeter heat loss factor for slab-on-grade floors (Btu/h · ft · °F) [W/(m · K)].

    FLOOR AREA, NET. The actual occupied area not including unoccupied accessory areas such as corridors, stairways, toilet rooms, mechanical rooms and closets.

    GENERAL LIGHTING. Lighting that provides a substantially uniform level of illumination throughout an area. General lighting shall not include decorative lighting or lighting that provides a dissimilar level of illumination to serve a specialized application or feature within such area.

    GENERAL PURPOSE ELECTRIC MOTOR (SUBTYPE I). A motor that is designed in standard ratings with either of the following:

    1. 1.Standard operating characteristics and standard mechanical construction for use under usual service conditions, such as those specified in NEMA MG1, paragraph 14.02, “Usual Service Conditions,” and without restriction to a particular application or type of application.

    2. 2.Standard operating characteristics or standard mechanical construction for use under unusual service conditions, such as those specified in NEMA MG1, paragraph 14.03, “Unusual Service Conditions,” or for a particular type of application, and that can be used in most general purpose applications.

    General purpose electric motors (Subtype I) are constructed in NEMA T-frame sizes or IEC metric equivalent, starting at 143T.

    GENERAL PURPOSE ELECTRIC MOTOR (SUBTYPE II). A motor incorporating the design elements of a general purpose electric motor (Subtype I) that is configured as one of the following:

    1. 1.A U-frame motor.

    2. 2.A Design C motor.

    3. 3.A close-coupled pump motor.

    4. 4.A footless motor.

    5. 5.A vertical, solid-shaft, normal-thrust motor (as tested in a horizontal configuration).

    6. 6.An 8-pole motor (900 rpm).

    7. 7.A polyphase motor with voltage of not more than 600 volts (other than 230 or 460 volts).

    GREENHOUSE. A structure or a thermally isolated area of a building that maintains a specialized sunlit environment exclusively used for, and essential to, the cultivation, protection or maintenance of plants.

    HEAT TRAP. An arrangement of piping and fittings, such as elbows, or a commercially available heat trap that prevents thermosyphoning of hot water during standby periods.

    HEATED SLAB. Slab-on-grade construction in which the heating elements, hydronic tubing, or hot air distribution system is in contact with, or placed within or under, the slab.

    HIGH SPEED DOOR. A nonswinging door used primarily to facilitate vehicular access or material transportation, with a minimum opening rate of 32 inches (813 mm) per second, a minimum closing rate of 24 inches (610 mm) per second and that includes an automatic-closing device.

    HISTORIC BUILDING. Any building or structure that is one or more of the following:

    1. 1.Listed, or certified as eligible for listing by the State Historic Preservation Officer or the Keeper of the National Register of Historic Places, in the National Register of Historic Places.

    2. 2.Designated as historic under an applicable state or local law.

    3. 3.Certified as a contributing resource within a National Register-listed, state-designated or locally designated historic district.

    HUMIDISTAT. A regulatory device, actuated by changes in humidity, used for automatic control of relative humidity.

    INFILTRATION. The uncontrolled inward air leakage into a building caused by the pressure effects of wind or the effect of differences in the indoor and outdoor air density or both.

    INTEGRATED PART LOAD VALUE (IPLV). A single-number figure of merit based on part-load EER, COP or kW/ton expressing part-load efficiency for air-conditioning and heat pump equipment on the basis of weighted operation at various load capacities for equipment.

    LABELED. Equipment, materials or products to which have been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection agency or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of the production of the above-labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that the equipment, material or product meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.

    LINER SYSTEM (Ls). A system that includes the following:

    1. 1.A continuous vapor barrier liner membrane that is installed below the purlins and that is uninterrupted by framing members.

    2. 2.An uncompressed, unfaced insulation resting on top of the liner membrane and located between the purlins.

    For multilayer installations, the last rated R-value of insulation is for unfaced insulation draped over purlins and then compressed when the metal roof panels are attached.

    LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services included in a list published by an organization acceptable to the code official and concerned with evaluation of products or services that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product or service meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.

    LOW-SLOPED ROOF. A roof having a slope less than 2 units vertical in 12 units horizontal.

    LOW-VOLTAGE DRY-TYPE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER. A transformer that is air-cooled, does not use oil as a coolant, has an input voltage less than or equal to 600 volts and is rated for operation at a frequency of 60 hertz.

    LOW-VOLTAGE LIGHTING. Lighting equipment powered through a transformer such as a cable conductor, a rail conductor and track lighting.

    MANUAL. Capable of being operated by personal intervention (see “Automatic”).

    NAMEPLATE HORSEPOWER. The nominal motor horsepower rating stamped on the motor nameplate.

    NONSTANDARD PART LOAD VALUE (NPLV). A single-number part-load efficiency figure of merit calculated and referenced to conditions other than IPLV conditions, for units that are not designed to operate at AHRI standard rating conditions.

    OCCUPANT SENSOR CONTROL. An automatic control device or system that detects the presence or absence of people within an area and causes lighting, equipment or appliances to be regulated accordingly.

    ON-SITE RENEWABLE ENERGY. Energy derived from solar radiation, wind, waves, tides, landfill gas, biomass or the internal heat of the earth. The energy system providing on-site renewable energy shall be located on the project site.

    OPAQUE DOOR. A door that is not less than 50-percent opaque in surface area.

    POWERED ROOF/WALL VENTILATORS. A fan consisting of a centrifugal or axial impeller with an integral driver in a weather-resistant housing and with a base designed to fit, usually by means of a curb, over a wall or roof opening.

    PROPOSED DESIGN. A description of the proposed building used to estimate annual energy use for determining compliance based on total building performance.

    RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM. A heating system that transfers heat to objects and surfaces within a conditioned space, primarily by infrared radiation.

    READILY ACCESSIBLE. Capable of being reached quickly for operation, renewal or inspection without requiring those to whom ready access is requisite to climb over or remove obstacles or to resort to portable ladders or access equipment (see “Accessible”).

    REFRIGERANT DEW POINT. The refrigerant vapor saturation temperature at a specified pressure.

    REFRIGERATED WAREHOUSE COOLER. An enclosed storage space capable of being refrigerated to temperatures above 32°F (0°C), that can be walked into and has a total chilled storage area of not less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2).

    REFRIGERATED WAREHOUSE FREEZER. An enclosed storage space capable of being refrigerated to temperatures at or below 32°F (0°C), that can be walked into and has a total chilled storage area of not less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2).

    REFRIGERATION SYSTEM, LOW TEMPERATURE. Systems for maintaining food product in a frozen state in refrigeration applications.

    REFRIGERATION SYSTEM, MEDIUM TEMPERATURE. Systems for maintaining food product above freezing in refrigeration applications.

    REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual who is registered or licensed to practice their respective design profession as defined by the statutory requirements of the professional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed.

    REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing building for the purpose of its maintenance or to correct damage.

    REROOFING. The process of recovering or replacing an existing roof covering. See “Roof recover” and “Roof replacement.”

    RESIDENTIAL BUILDING. For this code, includes detached one- and two-family dwellings and multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) as well as Group R-2, R-3 and R-4 buildings three stories or less in height above grade plane.

    ROOF ASSEMBLY. A system designed to provide weather protection and resistance to design loads. The system consists of a roof covering and roof deck or a single component serving as both the roof covering and the roof deck. A roof assembly includes the roof covering, underlayment, roof deck, insulation, vapor retarder and interior finish.

    ROOF RECOVER. The process of installing an additional roof covering over an existing roof covering without removing the existing roof covering.

    ROOF REPAIR. Reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing roof for the purpose of its maintenance.

    ROOF REPLACMENT. The process of removing the existing roof covering, repairing any damaged substrate and installing a new roof covering.

    ROOFTOP MONITOR. A raised section of a roof containing vertical fenestration along one or more sides.

    R-VALUE (THERMAL RESISTANCE). The inverse of the time rate of heat flow through a body from one of its bounding surfaces to the other surface for a unit temperature difference between the two surfaces, under steady state conditions, per unit area (h · ft2 · °F/Btu) [(m2 · K)/W].

    SATURATED CONDENSING TEMPERATURE. The saturation temperature corresponding to the measured refrigerant pressure at the condenser inlet for single component and azeotropic refrigerants, and the arithmetic average of the dew point and bubble point temperatures corresponding to the refrigerant pressure at the condenser entrance for zeotropic refrigerants.

    SCREW LAMP HOLDERS. A lamp base that requires a screw-in-type lamp, such as a compact-fluorescent, incandescent or tungsten-halogen bulb.

    SERVICE WATER HEATING. Supply of hot water for purposes other than comfort heating.

    [B] SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people sleep, which can also include permanent provisions for living, eating, and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are not sleeping units.

    SMALL ELECTRIC MOTOR. A general purpose, alternating current, single speed induction motor.

    SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT (SHGC). The ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the fenestration assembly to the incident solar radiation. Solar heat gain includes directly transmitted solar heat and absorbed solar radiation which is then reradiated, conducted or convected into the space.

    STANDARD REFERENCE DESIGN. A version of the proposed design that meets the minimum requirements of this code and is used to determine the maximum annual energy use requirement for compliance based on total building performance.

    STOREFRONT. A nonresidential system of doors and windows mulled as a composite fenestration structure that has been designed to resist heavy use. Storefront systems include, but are not limited to, exterior fenestration systems that span from the floor level or above to the ceiling of the same story on commercial buildings, with or without mulled windows and doors.

    THERMOSTAT. An automatic control device used to maintain temperature at a fixed or adjustable set point.

    TIME SWITCH CONTROL. An automatic control device or system that controls lighting or other loads, including switching off, based on time schedules.

    U-FACTOR (THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE). The coefficient of heat transmission (air to air) through a building component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side air films (Btu/h · ft2 · °F) [W/(m2 · K)].

    VARIABLE REFRIGERANT FLOW SYSTEM. An engineered direct-expansion (DX) refrigerant system that incorporates a common condensing unit, at least one variable-capacity compressor, a distributed refrigerant piping network to multiple indoor fan heating and cooling units each capable of individual zone temperature control, through integral zone temperature control devices and a common communications network. Variable refrigerant flow utilizes three or more steps of control on common interconnecting piping.

    [M] VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such air from, any space.

    [M] VENTILATION AIR. That portion of supply air that comes from outside (outdoors) plus any recirculated air that has been treated to maintain the desired quality of air within a designated space.

    VISIBLE TRANSMITTANCE [VT]. The ratio of visible light entering the space through the fenestration product assembly to the incident visible light. Visible transmittance includes the effects of glazing material and frame and is expressed as a number between 0 and 1.

    WALK-IN COOLER. An enclosed storage space capable of being refrigerated to temperatures above 32°F (0°C) and less than 55°F (12.8°C) that can be walked into, has a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) and has a total chilled storage area of less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2).

    WALK-IN FREEZER. An enclosed storage space capable of being refrigerated to temperatures at or below 32°F (0°C) that can be walked into, has a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) and has a total chilled storage area of less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2).

    WALL, ABOVE-GRADE. A wall associated with the building thermal envelope that is more than 15 percent above grade and is on the exterior of the building or any wall that is associated with the building thermal envelope that is not on the exterior of the building.

    WALL, BELOW-GRADE. A wall associated with the basement or first story of the building that is part of the building thermal envelope, is not less than 85 percent below grade and is on the exterior of the building.

    WATER HEATER. Any heating appliance or equipment that heats potable water and supplies such water to the potable hot water distribution system.

    ZONE. A space or group of spaces within a building with heating or cooling requirements that are sufficiently similar so that desired conditions can be maintained throughout using a single controlling device.

    CHAPTER3 [CE]
    GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

    SECTIONC301
    CLIMATE ZONES

    C301.1General.

    Climate zones from Figure C301.1 or Table C301.1 shall be used in determining the applicable requirements from Chapter 4. Locations not in Table C301.1 (outside the United States) shall be assigned a climate zone based on Section C301.3.

    FIGURE C301.1

    CLIMATE ZONES

    TABLE C301.1

    CLIMATE ZONES, MOISTURE REGIMES, AND WARM-HUMID DESIGNATIONS BY STATE, COUNTY AND TERRITORY

    Key: A – Moist, B – Dry, C – Marine. Absence of moisture designation indicates moisture regime is irrelevant. Asterisk (*) indicates a warm-humid location.
    US STATES
    ALABAMA
    3A Autauga*
    2A Baldwin*
    3A Barbour*
    3A Bibb
    3A Blount
    3A Bullock*
    3A Butler*
    3A Calhoun
    3A Chambers
    3A Cherokee
    3A Chilton
    3A Choctaw*
    3A Clarke*
    3A Clay
    3A Cleburne
    3A Coffee*
    3A Colbert
    3A Conecuh*
    3A Coosa
    3A Covington*
    3A Crenshaw*
    3A Cullman
    3A Dale*
    3A Dallas*
    3A DeKalb
    3A Elmore*
    3A Escambia*
    3A Etowah
    3A Fayette
    3A Franklin
    3A Geneva*
    3A Greene
    3A Hale
    3A Henry*
    3A Houston*
    3A Jackson
    3A Jefferson
    3A Lamar
    3A Lauderdale
    3A Lawrence
    3A Lee
    3A Limestone
    3A Lowndes*
    3A Macon*
    3A Madison
    3A Marengo*
    3A Marion
    3A Marshall
    2A Mobile*
    3A Monroe*
    3A Montgomery*
    3A Morgan
    3A Perry*
    3A Pickens
    3A Pike*
    3A Randolph
    3A Russell*
    3A Shelby
    3A St. Clair
    3A Sumter
    3A Talladega
    3A Tallapoosa
    3A Tuscaloosa
    3A Walker
    3A Washington*
    3A Wilcox*
    3A Winston
    ALASKA
    7 Aleutians East
    7 Aleutians West
    7 Anchorage
    8 Bethel
    7 Bristol Bay
    7 Denali
    8 Dillingham
    8 Fairbanks North Star
    7 Haines
    7 Juneau
    7 Kenai Peninsula
    7 Ketchikan Gateway
    7 Kodiak Island
    7 Lake and Peninsula
    7 Matanuska-Susitna
    8 Nome
    8 North Slope
    8 Northwest Arctic
    7 Prince of Wales-Outer Ketchikan
    7 Sitka
    7 Skagway-Hoonah-Angoon
    8 Southeast Fairbanks
    7 Valdez-Cordova
    8 Wade Hampton
    7 Wrangell-Petersburg
    7 Yakutat
    8 Yukon-Koyukuk
    ARIZONA
    5B Apache
    3B Cochise
    5B Coconino
    4B Gila
    3B Graham
    3B Greenlee
    2B La Paz
    2B Maricopa
    3B Mohave
    5B Navajo
    2B Pima
    2B Pinal
    3B Santa Cruz
    4B Yavapai
    2B Yuma
    ARKANSAS
    3A Arkansas
    3A Ashley
    4A Baxter
    4A Benton
    4A Boone
    3A Bradley
    3A Calhoun
    4A Carroll
    3A Chicot
    3A Clark
    3A Clay
    3A Cleburne
    3A Cleveland
    3A Columbia*
    3A Conway
    3A Craighead
    3A Crawford
    3A Crittenden
    3A Cross
    3A Dallas
    3A Desha
    3A Drew
    3A Faulkner
    3A Franklin
    4A Fulton
    3A Garland
    3A Grant
    3A Greene
    3A Hempstead*
    3A Hot Spring
    3A Howard
    3A Independence
    4A Izard
    3A Jackson
    3A Jefferson
    3A Johnson
    3A Lafayette*
    3A Lawrence
    3A Lee
    3A Lincoln
    3A Little River*
    3A Logan
    3A Lonoke
    4A Madison
    4A Marion
    3A Miller*
    3A Mississippi
    3A Monroe
    3A Montgomery
    3A Nevada
    4A Newton
    3A Ouachita
    3A Perry
    3A Phillips
    3A Pike
    3A Poinsett
    3A Polk
    3A Pope
    3A Prairie
    3A Pulaski
    3A Randolph
    3A Saline
    3A Scott
    4A Searcy
    3A Sebastian
    3A Sevier*
    3A Sharp
    3A St. Francis
    4A Stone
    3A Union*
    3A Van Buren
    4A Washington
    3A White
    3A Woodruff
    3A Yell
    CALIFORNIA
    3C Alameda
    6B Alpine
    4B Amador
    3B Butte
    4B Calaveras
    3B Colusa
    3B Contra Costa
    4C Del Norte
    4B El Dorado
    3B Fresno
    3B Glenn
    4C Humboldt
    2B Imperial
    4B Inyo
    3B Kern
    3B Kings
    4B Lake
    5B Lassen
    3B Los Angeles
    3B Madera
    3C Marin
    4B Mariposa
    3C Mendocino
    3B Merced
    5B Modoc
    6B Mono
    3C Monterey
    3C Napa
    5B Nevada
    3B Orange
    3B Placer
    5B Plumas
    3B Riverside
    3B Sacramento
    3C San Benito
    3B San Bernardino
    3B San Diego
    3C San Francisco
    3B San Joaquin
    3C San Luis Obispo
    3C San Mateo
    3C Santa Barbara
    3C Santa Clara
    3C Santa Cruz
    3B Shasta
    5B Sierra
    5B Siskiyou
    3B Solano
    3C Sonoma
    3B Stanislaus
    3B Sutter
    3B Tehama
    4B Trinity
    3B Tulare
    4B Tuolumne
    3C Ventura
    3B Yolo
    3B Yuba
    COLORADO
    5B Adams
    6B Alamosa
    5B Arapahoe
    6B Archuleta
    4B Baca
    5B Bent
    5B Boulder
    5B Broomfield
    6B Chaffee
    5B Cheyenne
    7 Clear Creek
    6B Conejos
    6B Costilla
    5B Crowley
    6B Custer
    5B Delta
    5B Denver
    6B Dolores
    5B Douglas
    6B Eagle
    5B Elbert
    5B El Paso
    5B Fremont
    5B Garfield
    5B Gilpin
    7 Grand
    7 Gunnison
    7 Hinsdale
    5B Huerfano
    7 Jackson
    5B Jefferson
    5B Kiowa
    5B Kit Carson
    7 Lake
    5B La Plata
    5B Larimer
    4B Las Animas
    5B Lincoln
    5B Logan
    5B Mesa
    7 Mineral
    6B Moffat
    5B Montezuma
    5B Montrose
    5B Morgan
    4B Otero
    6B Ouray
    7 Park
    5B Phillips
    7 Pitkin
    5B Prowers
    5B Pueblo
    6B Rio Blanco
    7 Rio Grande
    7 Routt
    6B Saguache
    7 San Juan
    6B San Miguel
    5B Sedgwick
    7 Summit
    5B Teller
    5B Washington
    5B Weld
    5B Yuma
    CONNECTICUT
    5A (all)
    DELAWARE
    4A (all)
    DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
    4A (all)
    FLORIDA
    2A Alachua*
    2A Baker*
    2A Bay*
    2A Bradford*
    2A Brevard*
    1A Broward*
    2A Calhoun*
    2A Charlotte*
    2A Citrus*
    2A Clay*
    2A Collier*
    2A Columbia*
    2A DeSoto*
    2A Dixie*
    2A Duval*
    2A Escambia*
    2A Flagler*
    2A Franklin*
    2A Gadsden*
    2A Gilchrist*
    2A Glades*
    2A Gulf*
    2A Hamilton*
    2A Hardee*
    2A Hendry*
    2A Hernando*
    2A Highlands*
    2A Hillsborough*
    2A Holmes*
    2A Indian River*
    2A Jackson*
    2A Jefferson*
    2A Lafayette*
    2A Lake*
    2A Lee*
    2A Leon*
    2A Levy*
    2A Liberty*
    2A Madison*
    2A Manatee*
    2A Marion*
    2A Martin*
    1A Miami-Dade*
    1A Monroe*
    2A Nassau*
    2A Okaloosa*
    2A Okeechobee*
    2A Orange*
    2A Osceola*
    2A Palm Beach*
    2A Pasco*
    2A Pinellas*
    2A Polk*
    2A Putnam*
    2A Santa Rosa*
    2A Sarasota*
    2A Seminole*
    2A St. Johns*
    2A St. Lucie*
    2A Sumter*
    2A Suwannee*
    2A Taylor*
    2A Union*
    2A Volusia*
    2A Wakulla*
    2A Walton*
    2A Washington*
    GEORGIA
    2A Appling*
    2A Atkinson*
    2A Bacon*
    2A Baker*
    3A Baldwin
    4A Banks
    3A Barrow
    3A Bartow
    3A Ben Hill*
    2A Berrien*
    3A Bibb
    3A Bleckley*
    2A Brantley*
    2A Brooks*
    2A Bryan*
    3A Bulloch*
    3A Burke
    3A Butts
    3A Calhoun*
    2A Camden*
    3A Candler*
    3A Carroll
    4A Catoosa
    2A Charlton*
    2A Chatham*
    3A Chattahoochee*
    4A Chattooga
    3A Cherokee
    3A Clarke
    3A Clay*
    3A Clayton
    2A Clinch*
    3A Cobb
    3A Coffee*
    2A Colquitt*
    3A Columbia
    2A Cook*
    3A Coweta
    3A Crawford
    3A Crisp*
    4A Dade
    4A Dawson
    2A Decatur*
    3A DeKalb
    3A Dodge*
    3A Dooly*
    3A Dougherty*
    3A Douglas
    3A Early*
    2A Echols*
    2A Effingham*
    3A Elbert
    3A Emanuel*
    2A Evans*
    4A Fannin
    3A Fayette
    4A Floyd
    3A Forsyth
    4A Franklin
    3A Fulton
    4A Gilmer
    3A Glascock
    2A Glynn*
    4A Gordon
    2A Grady*
    3A Greene
    3A Gwinnett
    4A Habersham
    4A Hall
    3A Hancock
    3A Haralson
    3A Harris
    3A Hart
    3A Heard
    3A Henry
    3A Houston*
    3A Irwin*
    3A Jackson
    3A Jasper
    2A Jeff Davis*
    3A Jefferson
    3A Jenkins*
    3A Johnson*
    3A Jones
    3A Lamar
    2A Lanier*
    3A Laurens*
    3A Lee*
    2A Liberty*
    3A Lincoln
    2A Long*
    2A Lowndes*
    4A Lumpkin
    3A Macon*
    3A Madison
    3A Marion*
    3A McDuffie
    2A McIntosh*
    3A Meriwether
    2A Miller*
    2A Mitchell*
    3A Monroe
    3A Montgomery*
    3A Morgan
    4A Murray
    3A Muscogee
    3A Newton
    3A Oconee
    3A Oglethorpe
    3A Paulding
    3A Peach*
    4A Pickens
    2A Pierce*
    3A Pike
    3A Polk
    3A Pulaski*
    3A Putnam
    3A Quitman*
    4A Rabun
    3A Randolph*
    3A Richmond
    3A Rockdale
    3A Schley*
    3A Screven*
    2A Seminole*
    3A Spalding
    4A Stephens
    3A Stewart*
    3A Sumter*
    3A Talbot
    3A Taliaferro
    2A Tattnall*
    3A Taylor*
    3A Telfair*
    3A Terrell*
    2A Thomas*
    3A Tift*
    2A Toombs*
    4A Towns
    3A Treutlen*
    3A Troup
    3A Turner*
    3A Twiggs*
    4A Union
    3A Upson
    4A Walker
    3A Walton
    2A Ware*
    3A Warren
    3A Washington
    2A Wayne*
    3A Webster*
    3A Wheeler*
    4A White
    4A Whitfield
    3A Wilcox*
    3A Wilkes
    3A Wilkinson
    3A Worth*
    HAWAII
    1A (all)*
    IDAHO
    5B Ada
    6B Adams
    6B Bannock
    6B Bear Lake
    5B Benewah
    6B Bingham
    6B Blaine
    6B Boise
    6B Bonner
    6B Bonneville
    6B Boundary
    6B Butte
    6B Camas
    5B Canyon
    6B Caribou
    5B Cassia
    6B Clark
    5B Clearwater
    6B Custer
    5B Elmore
    6B Franklin
    6B Fremont
    5B Gem
    5B Gooding
    5B Idaho
    6B Jefferson
    5B Jerome
    5B Kootenai
    5B Latah
    6B Lemhi
    5B Lewis
    5B Lincoln
    6B Madison
    5B Minidoka
    5B Nez Perce
    6B Oneida
    5B Owyhee
    5B Payette
    5B Power
    5B Shoshone
    6B Teton
    5B Twin Falls
    6B Valley
    5B Washington
    ILLINOIS
    5A Adams
    4A Alexander
    4A Bond
    5A Boone
    5A Brown
    5A Bureau
    5A Calhoun
    5A Carroll
    5A Cass
    5A Champaign
    4A Christian
    5A Clark
    4A Clay
    4A Clinton
    5A Coles
    5A Cook
    4A Crawford
    5A Cumberland
    5A DeKalb
    5A De Witt
    5A Douglas
    5A DuPage
    5A Edgar
    4A Edwards
    4A Effingham
    4A Fayette
    5A Ford
    4A Franklin
    5A Fulton
    4A Gallatin
    5A Greene
    5A Grundy
    4A Hamilton
    5A Hancock
    4A Hardin
    5A Henderson
    5A Henry
    5A Iroquois
    4A Jackson
    4A Jasper
    4A Jefferson
    5A Jersey
    5A Jo Daviess
    4A Johnson
    5A Kane
    5A Kankakee
    5A Kendall
    5A Knox
    5A Lake
    5A La Salle
    4A Lawrence
    5A Lee
    5A Livingston
    5A Logan
    5A Macon
    4A Macoupin
    4A Madison
    4A Marion
    5A Marshall
    5A Mason
    4A Massac
    5A McDonough
    5A McHenry
    5A McLean
    5A Menard
    5A Mercer
    4A Monroe
    4A Montgomery
    5A Morgan
    5A Moultrie
    5A Ogle
    5A Peoria
    4A Perry
    5A Piatt
    5A Pike
    4A Pope
    4A Pulaski
    5A Putnam
    4A Randolph
    4A Richland
    5A Rock Island
    4A Saline
    5A Sangamon
    5A Schuyler
    5A Scott
    4A Shelby
    5A Stark
    4A St. Clair
    5A Stephenson
    5A Tazewell
    4A Union
    5A Vermilion
    4A Wabash
    5A Warren
    4A Washington
    4A Wayne
    4A White
    5A Whiteside
    5A Will
    4A Williamson
    5A Winnebago
    5A Woodford
    INDIANA
    5A Adams
    5A Allen
    5A Bartholomew
    5A Benton
    5A Blackford
    5A Boone
    4A Brown
    5A Carroll
    5A Cass
    4A Clark
    5A Clay
    5A Clinton
    4A Crawford
    4A Daviess
    4A Dearborn
    5A Decatur
    5A De Kalb
    5A Delaware
    4A Dubois
    5A Elkhart
    5A Fayette
    4A Floyd
    5A Fountain
    5A Franklin
    5A Fulton
    4A Gibson
    5A Grant
    4A Greene
    5A Hamilton
    5A Hancock
    4A Harrison
    5A Hendricks
    5A Henry
    5A Howard
    5A Huntington
    4A Jackson
    5A Jasper
    5A Jay
    4A Jefferson
    4A Jennings
    5A Johnson
    4A Knox
    5A Kosciusko
    5A LaGrange
    5A Lake
    5A LaPorte
    4A Lawrence
    5A Madison
    5A Marion
    5A Marshall
    4A Martin
    5A Miami
    4A Monroe
    5A Montgomery
    5A Morgan
    5A Newton
    5A Noble
    4A Ohio
    4A Orange
    5A Owen
    5A Parke
    4A Perry
    4A Pike
    5A Porter
    4A Posey
    5A Pulaski
    5A Putnam
    5A Randolph
    4A Ripley
    5A Rush
    4A Scott
    5A Shelby
    4A Spencer
    5A Starke
    5A Steuben
    5A St. Joseph
    4A Sullivan
    4A Switzerland
    5A Tippecanoe
    5A Tipton
    5A Union
    4A Vanderburgh
    5A Vermillion
    5A Vigo
    5A Wabash
    5A Warren
    4A Warrick
    4A Washington
    5A Wayne
    5A Wells
    5A White
    5A Whitley
    IOWA
    5A Adair
    5A Adams
    6A Allamakee
    5A Appanoose
    5A Audubon
    5A Benton
    6A Black Hawk
    5A Boone
    6A Bremer
    6A Buchanan
    6A Buena Vista
    6A Butler
    6A Calhoun
    5A Carroll
    5A Cass
    5A Cedar
    6A Cerro Gordo
    6A Cherokee
    6A Chickasaw
    5A Clarke
    6A Clay
    6A Clayton
    5A Clinton
    5A Crawford
    5A Dallas
    5A Davis
    5A Decatur
    6A Delaware
    5A Des Moines
    6A Dickinson
    5A Dubuque
    6A Emmet
    6A Fayette
    6A Floyd
    6A Franklin
    5A Fremont
    5A Greene
    6A Grundy
    5A Guthrie
    6A Hamilton
    6A Hancock
    6A Hardin
    5A Harrison
    5A Henry
    6A Howard
    6A Humboldt
    6A Ida
    5A Iowa
    5A Jackson
    5A Jasper
    5A Jefferson
    5A Johnson
    5A Jones
    5A Keokuk
    6A Kossuth
    5A Lee
    5A Linn
    5A Louisa
    5A Lucas
    6A Lyon
    5A Madison
    5A Mahaska
    5A Marion
    5A Marshall
    5A Mills
    6A Mitchell
    5A Monona
    5A Monroe
    5A Montgomery
    5A Muscatine
    6A O’Brien
    6A Osceola
    5A Page
    6A Palo Alto
    6A Plymouth
    6A Pocahontas
    5A Polk
    5A Pottawattamie
    5A Poweshiek
    5A Ringgold
    6A Sac
    5A Scott
    5A Shelby
    6A Sioux
    5A Story
    5A Tama
    5A Taylor
    5A Union
    5A Van Buren
    5A Wapello
    5A Warren
    5A Washington
    5A Wayne
    6A Webster
    6A Winnebago
    6A Winneshiek
    5A Woodbury
    6A Worth
    6A Wright
    KANSAS
    4A Allen
    4A Anderson
    4A Atchison
    4A Barber
    4A Barton
    4A Bourbon
    4A Brown
    4A Butler
    4A Chase
    4A Chautauqua
    4A Cherokee
    5A Cheyenne
    4A Clark
    4A Clay
    5A Cloud
    4A Coffey
    4A Comanche
    4A Cowley
    4A Crawford
    5A Decatur
    4A Dickinson
    4A Doniphan
    4A Douglas
    4A Edwards
    4A Elk
    5A Ellis
    4A Ellsworth
    4A Finney
    4A Ford
    4A Franklin
    4A Geary
    5A Gove
    5A Graham
    4A Grant
    4A Gray
    5A Greeley
    4A Greenwood
    5A Hamilton
    4A Harper
    4A Harvey
    4A Haskell
    4A Hodgeman
    4A Jackson
    4A Jefferson
    5A Jewell
    4A Johnson
    4A Kearny
    4A Kingman
    4A Kiowa
    4A Labette
    5A Lane
    4A Leavenworth
    4A Lincoln
    4A Linn
    5A Logan
    4A Lyon
    4A Marion
    4A Marshall
    4A McPherson
    4A Meade
    4A Miami
    5A Mitchell
    4A Montgomery
    4A Morris
    4A Morton
    4A Nemaha
    4A Neosho
    5A Ness
    5A Norton
    4A Osage
    5A Osborne
    4A Ottawa
    4A Pawnee
    5A Phillips
    4A Pottawatomie
    4A Pratt
    5A Rawlins
    4A Reno
    5A Republic
    4A Rice
    4A Riley
    5A Rooks
    4A Rush
    4A Russell
    4A Saline
    5A Scott
    4A Sedgwick
    4A Seward
    4A Shawnee
    5A Sheridan
    5A Sherman
    5A Smith
    4A Stafford
    4A Stanton
    4A Stevens
    4A Sumner
    5A Thomas
    5A Trego
    4A Wabaunsee
    5A Wallace
    4A Washington
    5A Wichita
    4A Wilson
    4A Woodson
    4A Wyandotte
    KENTUCKY
    4A (all)
    LOUISIANA
    2A Acadia*
    2A Allen*
    2A Ascension*
    2A Assumption*
    2A Avoyelles*
    2A Beauregard*
    3A Bienville*
    3A Bossier*
    3A Caddo*
    2A Calcasieu*
    3A Caldwell*
    2A Cameron*
    3A Catahoula*
    3A Claiborne*
    3A Concordia*
    3A De Soto*
    2A East Baton Rouge*
    3A East Carroll
    2A East Feliciana*
    2A Evangeline*
    3A Franklin*
    3A Grant*
    2A Iberia*
    2A Iberville*
    3A Jackson*
    2A Jefferson*
    2A Jefferson Davis*
    2A Lafayette*
    2A Lafourche*
    3A La Salle*
    3A Lincoln*
    2A Livingston*
    3A Madison*
    3A Morehouse
    3A Natchitoches*
    2A Orleans*
    3A Ouachita*
    2A Plaquemines*
    2A Pointe Coupee*
    2A Rapides*
    3A Red River*
    3A Richland*
    3A Sabine*
    2A St. Bernard*
    2A St. Charles*
    2A St. Helena*
    2A St. James*
    2A St. John the
    Baptist*
    2A St. Landry*
    2A St. Martin*
    2A St. Mary*
    2A St. Tammany*
    2A Tangipahoa*
    3A Tensas*
    2A Terrebonne*
    3A Union*
    2A Vermilion*
    3A Vernon*
    2A Washington*
    3A Webster*
    2A West Baton
    Rouge*
    3A West Carroll
    2A West Feliciana*
    3A Winn*
    MAINE
    6A Androscoggin
    7 Aroostook
    6A Cumberland
    6A Franklin
    6A Hancock
    6A Kennebec
    6A Knox
    6A Lincoln
    6A Oxford
    6A Penobscot
    6A Piscataquis
    6A Sagadahoc
    6A Somerset
    6A Waldo
    6A Washington
    6A York
    MARYLAND
    4A Allegany
    4A Anne Arundel
    4A Baltimore
    4A Baltimore (city)
    4A Calvert
    4A Caroline
    4A Carroll
    4A Cecil
    4A Charles
    4A Dorchester
    4A Frederick
    5A Garrett
    4A Harford
    4A Howard
    4A Kent
    4A Montgomery
    4A Prince George’s
    4A Queen Anne’s
    4A Somerset
    4A St. Mary’s
    4A Talbot
    4A Washington
    4A Wicomico
    4A Worcester
    MASSACHSETTS
    5A (all)
    MICHIGAN
    6A Alcona
    6A Alger
    5A Allegan
    6A Alpena
    6A Antrim
    6A Arenac
    7 Baraga
    5A Barry
    5A Bay
    6A Benzie
    5A Berrien
    5A Branch
    5A Calhoun
    5A Cass
    6A Charlevoix
    6A Cheboygan
    7 Chippewa
    6A Clare
    5A Clinton
    6A Crawford
    6A Delta
    6A Dickinson
    5A Eaton
    6A Emmet
    5A Genesee
    6A Gladwin
    7 Gogebic
    6A Grand Traverse
    5A Gratiot
    5A Hillsdale
    7 Houghton
    6A Huron
    5A Ingham
    5A Ionia
    6A Iosco
    7 Iron
    6A Isabella
    5A Jackson
    5A Kalamazoo
    6A Kalkaska
    5A Kent
    7 Keweenaw
    6A Lake
    5A Lapeer
    6A Leelanau
    5A Lenawee
    5A Livingston
    7 Luce
    7 Mackinac
    5A Macomb
    6A Manistee
    6A Marquette
    6A Mason
    6A Mecosta
    6A Menominee
    5A Midland
    6A Missaukee
    5A Monroe
    5A Montcalm
    6A Montmorency
    5A Muskegon
    6A Newaygo
    5A Oakland
    6A Oceana
    6A Ogemaw
    7 Ontonagon
    6A Osceola
    6A Oscoda
    6A Otsego
    5A Ottawa
    6A Presque Isle
    6A Roscommon
    5A Saginaw
    6A Sanilac
    7 Schoolcraft
    5A Shiawassee
    5A St. Clair
    5A St. Joseph
    5A Tuscola
    5A Van Buren
    5A Washtenaw
    5A Wayne
    6A Wexford
    MINNESOTA
    7 Aitkin
    6A Anoka
    7 Becker
    7 Beltrami
    6A Benton
    6A Big Stone
    6A Blue Earth
    6A Brown
    7 Carlton
    6A Carver
    7 Cass
    6A Chippewa
    6A Chisago
    7 Clay
    7 Clearwater
    7 Cook
    6A Cottonwood
    7 Crow Wing
    6A Dakota
    6A Dodge
    6A Douglas
    6A Faribault
    6A Fillmore
    6A Freeborn
    6A Goodhue
    7 Grant
    6A Hennepin
    6A Houston
    7 Hubbard
    6A Isanti
    7 Itasca
    6A Jackson
    7 Kanabec
    6A Kandiyohi
    7 Kittson
    7 Koochiching
    6A Lac qui Parle
    7 Lake
    7 Lake of the Woods
    6A Le Sueur
    6A Lincoln
    6A Lyon
    7 Mahnomen
    7 Marshall
    6A Martin
    6A McLeod
    6A Meeker
    7 Mille Lacs
    6A Morrison
    6A Mower
    6A Murray
    6A Nicollet
    6A Nobles
    7 Norman
    6A Olmsted
    7 Otter Tail
    7 Pennington
    7 Pine
    6A Pipestone
    7 Polk
    6A Pope
    6A Ramsey
    7 Red Lake
    6A Redwood
    6A Renville
    6A Rice
    6A Rock
    7 Roseau
    6A Scott
    6A Sherburne
    6A Sibley
    6A Stearns
    6A Steele
    6A Stevens
    7 St. Louis
    6A Swift
    6A Todd
    6A Traverse
    6A Wabasha
    7 Wadena
    6A Waseca
    6A Washington
    6A Watonwan
    7 Wilkin
    6A Winona
    6A Wright
    6A Yellow
    Medicine
    MISSISSIPPI
    3A Adams*
    3A Alcorn
    3A Amite*
    3A Attala
    3A Benton
    3A Bolivar
    3A Calhoun
    3A Carroll
    3A Chickasaw
    3A Choctaw
    3A Claiborne*
    3A Clarke
    3A Clay
    3A Coahoma
    3A Copiah*
    3A Covington*
    3A DeSoto
    3A Forrest*
    3A Franklin*
    3A George*
    3A Greene*
    3A Grenada
    2A Hancock*
    2A Harrison*
    3A Hinds*
    3A Holmes
    3A Humphreys
    3A Issaquena
    3A Itawamba
    2A Jackson*
    3A Jasper
    3A Jefferson*
    3A Jefferson Davis*
    3A Jones*
    3A Kemper
    3A Lafayette
    3A Lamar*
    3A Lauderdale
    3A Lawrence*
    3A Leake
    3A Lee
    3A Leflore
    3A Lincoln*
    3A Lowndes
    3A Madison
    3A Marion*
    3A Marshall
    3A Monroe
    3A Montgomery
    3A Neshoba
    3A Newton
    3A Noxubee
    3A Oktibbeha
    3A Panola
    2A Pearl River*
    3A Perry*
    3A Pike*
    3A Pontotoc
    3A Prentiss
    3A Quitman
    3A Rankin*
    3A Scott
    3A Sharkey
    3A Simpson*
    3A Smith*
    2A Stone*
    3A Sunflower
    3A Tallahatchie
    3A Tate
    3A Tippah
    3A Tishomingo
    3A Tunica
    3A Union
    3A Walthall*
    3A Warren*
    3A Washington
    3A Wayne*
    3A Webster
    3A Wilkinson*
    3A Winston
    3A Yalobusha
    3A Yazoo
    MISSOURI
    5A Adair
    5A Andrew
    5A Atchison
    4A Audrain
    4A Barry
    4A Barton
    4A Bates
    4A Benton
    4A Bollinger
    4A Boone
    5A Buchanan
    4A Butler
    5A Caldwell
    4A Callaway
    4A Camden
    4A Cape Girardeau
    4A Carroll
    4A Carter
    4A Cass
    4A Cedar
    5A Chariton
    4A Christian
    5A Clark
    4A Clay
    5A Clinton
    4A Cole
    4A Cooper
    4A Crawford
    4A Dade
    4A Dallas
    5A Daviess
    5A DeKalb
    4A Dent
    4A Douglas
    4A Dunklin
    4A Franklin
    4A Gasconade
    5A Gentry
    4A Greene
    5A Grundy
    5A Harrison
    4A Henry
    4A Hickory
    5A Holt
    4A Howard
    4A Howell
    4A Iron
    4A Jackson
    4A Jasper
    4A Jefferson
    4A Johnson
    5A Knox
    4A Laclede
    4A Lafayette
    4A Lawrence
    5A Lewis
    4A Lincoln
    5A Linn
    5A Livingston
    5A Macon
    4A Madison
    4A Maries
    5A Marion
    4A McDonald
    5A Mercer
    4A Miller
    4A Mississippi
    4A Moniteau
    4A Monroe
    4A Montgomery
    4A Morgan
    4A New Madrid
    4A Newton
    5A Nodaway
    4A Oregon
    4A Osage
    4A Ozark
    4A Pemiscot
    4A Perry
    4A Pettis
    4A Phelps
    5A Pike
    4A Platte
    4A Polk
    4A Pulaski
    5A Putnam
    5A Ralls
    4A Randolph
    4A Ray
    4A Reynolds
    4A Ripley
    4A Saline
    5A Schuyler
    5A Scotland
    4A Scott
    4A Shannon
    5A Shelby
    4A St. Charles
    4A St. Clair
    4A St. Francois
    4A St. Louis
    4A St. Louis (city)
    4A Ste. Genevieve
    4A Stoddard
    4A Stone
    5A Sullivan
    4A Taney
    4A Texas
    4A Vernon
    4A Warren
    4A Washington
    4A Wayne
    4A Webster
    5A Worth
    4A Wright
    MONTANA
    6B (all)
    NEBRASKA
    5A (all)
    NEVADA
    5B Carson City (city)
    5B Churchill
    3B Clark
    5B Douglas
    5B Elko
    5B Esmeralda
    5B Eureka
    5B Humboldt
    5B Lander
    5B Lincoln
    5B Lyon
    5B Mineral
    5B Nye
    5B Pershing
    5B Storey
    5B Washoe
    5B White Pine
    NEW HAMPSHIRE
    6A Belknap
    6A Carroll
    5A Cheshire
    6A Coos
    6A Grafton
    5A Hillsborough
    6A Merrimack
    5A Rockingham
    5A Strafford
    6A Sullivan
    NEW JERSEY
    4A Atlantic
    5A Bergen
    4A Burlington
    4A Camden
    4A Cape May
    4A Cumberland
    4A Essex
    4A Gloucester
    4A Hudson
    5A Hunterdon
    5A Mercer
    4A Middlesex
    4A Monmouth
    5A Morris
    4A Ocean
    5A Passaic
    4A Salem
    5A Somerset
    5A Sussex
    4A Union
    5A Warren
    NEW MEXICO
    4B Bernalillo
    5B Catron
    3B Chaves
    4B Cibola
    5B Colfax
    4B Curry
    4B DeBaca
    3B Doña Ana
    3B Eddy
    4B Grant
    4B Guadalupe
    5B Harding
    3B Hidalgo
    3B Lea
    4B Lincoln
    5B Los Alamos
    3B Luna
    5B McKinley
    5B Mora
    3B Otero
    4B Quay
    5B Rio Arriba
    4B Roosevelt
    5B Sandoval
    5B San Juan
    5B San Miguel
    5B Santa Fe
    4B Sierra
    4B Socorro
    5B Taos
    5B Torrance
    4B Union
    4B Valencia
    NEW YORK
    5A Albany
    6A Allegany
    4A Bronx
    6A Broome
    6A Cattaraugus
    5A Cayuga
    5A Chautauqua
    5A Chemung
    6A Chenango
    6A Clinton
    5A Columbia
    5A Cortland
    6A Delaware
    5A Dutchess
    5A Erie
    6A Essex
    6A Franklin
    6A Fulton
    5A Genesee
    5A Greene
    6A Hamilton
    6A Herkimer
    6A Jefferson
    4A Kings
    6A Lewis
    5A Livingston
    6A Madison
    5A Monroe
    6A Montgomery
    4A Nassau
    4A New York
    5A Niagara
    6A Oneida
    5A Onondaga
    5A Ontario
    5A Orange
    5A Orleans
    5A Oswego
    6A Otsego
    5A Putnam
    4A Queens
    5A Rensselaer
    4A Richmond
    5A Rockland
    5A Saratoga
    5A Schenectady
    6A Schoharie
    6A Schuyler
    5A Seneca
    6A Steuben
    6A St. Lawrence
    4A Suffolk
    6A Sullivan
    5A Tioga
    6A Tompkins
    6A Ulster
    6A Warren
    5A Washington
    5A Wayne
    4A Westchester
    6A Wyoming
    5A Yates
    NORTH CAROLINA
    4A Alamance
    4A Alexander
    5A Alleghany
    3A Anson
    5A Ashe
    5A Avery
    3A Beaufort
    4A Bertie
    3A Bladen
    3A Brunswick*
    4A Buncombe
    4A Burke
    3A Cabarrus
    4A Caldwell
    3A Camden
    3A Carteret*
    4A Caswell
    4A Catawba
    4A Chatham
    4A Cherokee
    3A Chowan
    4A Clay
    4A Cleveland
    3A Columbus*
    3A Craven
    3A Cumberland
    3A Currituck
    3A Dare
    3A Davidson
    4A Davie
    3A Duplin
    4A Durham
    3A Edgecombe
    4A Forsyth
    4A Franklin
    3A Gaston
    4A Gates
    4A Graham
    4A Granville
    3A Greene
    4A Guilford
    4A Halifax
    4A Harnett
    4A Haywood
    4A Henderson
    4A Hertford
    3A Hoke
    3A Hyde
    4A Iredell
    4A Jackson
    3A Johnston
    3A Jones
    4A Lee
    3A Lenoir
    4A Lincoln
    4A Macon
    4A Madison
    3A Martin
    4A McDowell
    3A Mecklenburg
    5A Mitchell
    3A Montgomery
    3A Moore
    4A Nash
    3A New Hanover*
    4A Northampton
    3A Onslow*
    4A Orange
    3A Pamlico
    3A Pasquotank
    3A Pender*
    3A Perquimans
    4A Person
    3A Pitt
    4A Polk
    3A Randolph
    3A Richmond
    3A Robeson
    4A Rockingham
    3A Rowan
    4A Rutherford
    3A Sampson
    3A Scotland
    3A Stanly
    4A Stokes
    4A Surry
    4A Swain
    4A Transylvania
    3A Tyrrell
    3A Union
    4A Vance
    4A Wake
    4A Warren
    3A Washington
    5A Watauga
    3A Wayne
    4A Wilkes
    3A Wilson
    4A Yadkin
    5A Yancey
    NORTH DAKOTA
    6A Adams
    7 Barnes
    7 Benson
    6A Billings
    7 Bottineau
    6A Bowman
    7 Burke
    6A Burleigh
    7 Cass
    7 Cavalier
    6A Dickey
    7 Divide
    6A Dunn
    7 Eddy
    6A Emmons
    7 Foster
    6A Golden Valley
    7 Grand Forks
    6A Grant
    7 Griggs
    6A Hettinger
    7 Kidder
    6A LaMoure
    6A Logan
    7 McHenry
    6A McIntosh
    6A McKenzie
    7 McLean
    6A Mercer
    6A Morton
    7 Mountrail
    7 Nelson
    6A Oliver
    7 Pembina
    7 Pierce
    7 Ramsey
    6A Ransom
    7 Renville
    6A Richland
    7 Rolette
    6A Sargent
    7 Sheridan
    6A Sioux
    6A Slope
    6A Stark
    7 Steele
    7 Stutsman
    7 Towner
    7 Traill
    7 Walsh
    7 Ward
    7 Wells
    7 Williams
    OHIO
    4A Adams
    5A Allen
    5A Ashland
    5A Ashtabula
    5A Athens
    5A Auglaize
    5A Belmont
    4A Brown
    5A Butler
    5A Carroll
    5A Champaign
    5A Clark
    4A Clermont
    5A Clinton
    5A Columbiana
    5A Coshocton
    5A Crawford
    5A Cuyahoga
    5A Darke
    5A Defiance
    5A Delaware
    5A Erie
    5A Fairfield
    5A Fayette
    5A Franklin
    5A Fulton
    4A Gallia
    5A Geauga
    5A Greene
    5A Guernsey
    4A Hamilton
    5A Hancock
    5A Hardin
    5A Harrison
    5A Henry
    5A Highland
    5A Hocking
    5A Holmes
    5A Huron
    5A Jackson
    5A Jefferson
    5A Knox
    5A Lake
    4A Lawrence
    5A Licking
    5A Logan
    5A Lorain
    5A Lucas
    5A Madison
    5A Mahoning
    5A Marion
    5A Medina
    5A Meigs
    5A Mercer
    5A Miami
    5A Monroe
    5A Montgomery
    5A Morgan
    5A Morrow
    5A Muskingum
    5A Noble
    5A Ottawa
    5A Paulding
    5A Perry
    5A Pickaway
    4A Pike
    5A Portage
    5A Preble
    5A Putnam
    5A Richland
    5A Ross
    5A Sandusky
    4A Scioto
    5A Seneca
    5A Shelby
    5A Stark
    5A Summit
    5A Trumbull
    5A Tuscarawas
    5A Union
    5A Van Wert
    5A Vinton
    5A Warren
    4A Washington
    5A Wayne
    5A Williams
    5A Wood
    5A Wyandot
    OKLAHOMA
    3A Adair
    3A Alfalfa
    3A Atoka
    4B Beaver
    3A Beckham
    3A Blaine
    3A Bryan
    3A Caddo
    3A Canadian
    3A Carter
    3A Cherokee
    3A Choctaw
    4B Cimarron
    3A Cleveland
    3A Coal
    3A Comanche
    3A Cotton
    3A Craig
    3A Creek
    3A Custer
    3A Delaware
    3A Dewey
    3A Ellis
    3A Garfield
    3A Garvin
    3A Grady
    3A Grant
    3A Greer
    3A Harmon
    3A Harper
    3A Haskell
    3A Hughes
    3A Jackson
    3A Jefferson
    3A Johnston
    3A Kay
    3A Kingfisher
    3A Kiowa
    3A Latimer
    3A Le Flore
    3A Lincoln
    3A Logan
    3A Love
    3A Major
    3A Marshall
    3A Mayes
    3A McClain
    3A McCurtain
    3A McIntosh
    3A Murray
    3A Muskogee
    3A Noble
    3A Nowata
    3A Okfuskee
    3A Oklahoma
    3A Okmulgee
    3A Osage
    3A Ottawa
    3A Pawnee
    3A Payne
    3A Pittsburg
    3A Pontotoc
    3A Pottawatomie
    3A Pushmataha
    3A Roger Mills
    3A Rogers
    3A Seminole
    3A Sequoyah
    3A Stephens
    4B Texas
    3A Tillman
    3A Tulsa
    3A Wagoner
    3A Washington
    3A Washita
    3A Woods
    3A Woodward
    OREGON
    5B Baker
    4C Benton
    4C Clackamas
    4C Clatsop
    4C Columbia
    4C Coos
    5B Crook
    4C Curry
    5B Deschutes
    4C Douglas
    5B Gilliam
    5B Grant
    5B Harney
    5B Hood River
    4C Jackson
    5B Jefferson
    4C Josephine
    5B Klamath
    5B Lake
    4C Lane
    4C Lincoln
    4C Linn
    5B Malheur
    4C Marion
    5B Morrow
    4C Multnomah
    4C Polk
    5B Sherman
    4C Tillamook
    5B Umatilla
    5B Union
    5B Wallowa
    5B Wasco
    4C Washington
    5B Wheeler
    4C Yamhill
    PENNSYLVANIA
    5A Adams
    5A Allegheny
    5A Armstrong
    5A Beaver
    5A Bedford
    5A Berks
    5A Blair
    5A Bradford
    4A Bucks
    5A Butler
    5A Cambria
    6A Cameron
    5A Carbon
    5A Centre
    4A Chester
    5A Clarion
    6A Clearfield
    5A Clinton
    5A Columbia
    5A Crawford
    5A Cumberland
    5A Dauphin
    4A Delaware
    6A Elk
    5A Erie
    5A Fayette
    5A Forest
    5A Franklin
    5A Fulton
    5A Greene
    5A Huntingdon
    5A Indiana
    5A Jefferson
    5A Juniata
    5A Lackawanna
    5A Lancaster
    5A Lawrence
    5A Lebanon
    5A Lehigh
    5A Luzerne
    5A Lycoming
    6A McKean
    5A Mercer
    5A Mifflin
    5A Monroe
    4A Montgomery
    5A Montour
    5A Northampton
    5A Northumberland
    5A Perry
    4A Philadelphia
    5A Pike
    6A Potter
    5A Schuylkill
    5A Snyder
    5A Somerset
    5A Sullivan
    6A Susquehanna
    6A Tioga
    5A Union
    5A Venango
    5A Warren
    5A Washington
    6A Wayne
    5A Westmoreland
    5A Wyoming
    4A York
    RHODE ISLAND
    5A (all)
    SOUTH CAROLINA
    3A Abbeville
    3A Aiken
    3A Allendale*
    3A Anderson
    3A Bamberg*
    3A Barnwell*
    3A Beaufort*
    3A Berkeley*
    3A Calhoun
    3A Charleston*
    3A Cherokee
    3A Chester
    3A Chesterfield
    3A Clarendon
    3A Colleton*
    3A Darlington
    3A Dillon
    3A Dorchester*
    3A Edgefield
    3A Fairfield
    3A Florence
    3A Georgetown*
    3A Greenville
    3A Greenwood
    3A Hampton*
    3A Horry*
    3A Jasper*
    3A Kershaw
    3A Lancaster
    3A Laurens
    3A Lee
    3A Lexington
    3A Marion
    3A Marlboro
    3A McCormick
    3A Newberry
    3A Oconee
    3A Orangeburg
    3A Pickens
    3A Richland
    3A Saluda
    3A Spartanburg
    3A Sumter
    3A Union
    3A Williamsburg
    3A York
    SOUTH DAKOTA
    6A Aurora
    6A Beadle
    5A Bennett
    5A Bon Homme
    6A Brookings
    6A Brown
    6A Brule
    6A Buffalo
    6A Butte
    6A Campbell
    5A Charles Mix
    6A Clark
    5A Clay
    6A Codington
    6A Corson
    6A Custer
    6A Davison
    6A Day
    6A Deuel
    6A Dewey
    5A Douglas
    6A Edmunds
    6A Fall River
    6A Faulk
    6A Grant
    5A Gregory
    6A Haakon
    6A Hamlin
    6A Hand
    6A Hanson
    6A Harding
    6A Hughes
    5A Hutchinson
    6A Hyde
    5A Jackson
    6A Jerauld
    6A Jones
    6A Kingsbury
    6A Lake
    6A Lawrence
    6A Lincoln
    6A Lyman
    6A Marshall
    6A McCook
    6A McPherson
    6A Meade
    5A Mellette
    6A Miner
    6A Minnehaha
    6A Moody
    6A Pennington
    6A Perkins
    6A Potter
    6A Roberts
    6A Sanborn
    6A Shannon
    6A Spink
    6A Stanley
    6A Sully
    5A Todd
    5A Tripp
    6A Turner
    5A Union
    6A Walworth
    5A Yankton
    6A Ziebach
    TENNESSEE
    4A Anderson
    4A Bedford
    4A Benton
    4A Bledsoe
    4A Blount
    4A Bradley
    4A Campbell
    4A Cannon
    4A Carroll
    4A Carter
    4A Cheatham
    3A Chester
    4A Claiborne
    4A Clay
    4A Cocke
    4A Coffee
    3A Crockett
    4A Cumberland
    4A Davidson
    4A Decatur
    4A DeKalb
    4A Dickson
    3A Dyer
    3A Fayette
    4A Fentress
    4A Franklin
    4A Gibson
    4A Giles
    4A Grainger
    4A Greene
    4A Grundy
    4A Hamblen
    4A Hamilton
    4A Hancock
    3A Hardeman
    3A Hardin
    4A Hawkins
    3A Haywood
    3A Henderson
    4A Henry
    4A Hickman
    4A Houston
    4A Humphreys
    4A Jackson
    4A Jefferson
    4A Johnson
    4A Knox
    3A Lake
    3A Lauderdale
    4A Lawrence
    4A Lewis
    4A Lincoln
    4A Loudon
    4A Macon
    3A Madison
    4A Marion
    4A Marshall
    4A Maury
    4A McMinn
    3A McNairy
    4A Meigs
    4A Monroe
    4A Montgomery
    4A Moore
    4A Morgan
    4A Obion
    4A Overton
    4A Perry
    4A Pickett
    4A Polk
    4A Putnam
    4A Rhea
    4A Roane
    4A Robertson
    4A Rutherford
    4A Scott
    4A Sequatchie
    4A Sevier
    3A Shelby
    4A Smith
    4A Stewart
    4A Sullivan
    4A Sumner
    3A Tipton
    4A Trousdale
    4A Unicoi
    4A Union
    4A Van Buren
    4A Warren
    4A Washington
    4A Wayne
    4A Weakley
    4A White
    4A Williamson
    4A Wilson
    TEXAS
    2A Anderson*
    3B Andrews
    2A Angelina*
    2A Aransas*
    3A Archer
    4B Armstrong
    2A Atascosa*
    2A Austin*
    4B Bailey
    2B Bandera
    2A Bastrop*
    3B Baylor
    2A Bee*
    2A Bell*
    2A Bexar*
    3A Blanco*
    3B Borden
    2A Bosque*
    3A Bowie*
    2A Brazoria*
    2A Brazos*
    3B Brewster
    4B Briscoe
    2A Brooks*
    3A Brown*
    2A Burleson*
    3A Burnet*
    2A Caldwell*
    2A Calhoun*
    3B Callahan
    2A Cameron*
    3A Camp*
    4B Carson
    3A Cass*
    4B Castro
    2A Chambers*
    2A Cherokee*
    3B Childress
    3A Clay
    4B Cochran
    3B Coke
    3B Coleman
    3A Collin*
    3B Collingsworth
    2A Colorado*
    2A Comal*
    3A Comanche*
    3B Concho
    3A Cooke
    2A Coryell*
    3B Cottle
    3B Crane
    3B Crockett
    3B Crosby
    3B Culberson
    4B Dallam
    3A Dallas*
    3B Dawson
    4B Deaf Smith
    3A Delta
    3A Denton*
    2A DeWitt*
    3B Dickens
    2B Dimmit
    4B Donley
    2A Duval*
    3A Eastland
    3B Ector
    2B Edwards
    3A Ellis*
    3B El Paso
    3A Erath*
    2A Falls*
    3A Fannin
    2A Fayette*
    3B Fisher
    4B Floyd
    3B Foard
    2A Fort Bend*
    3A Franklin*
    2A Freestone*
    2B Frio
    3B Gaines
    2A Galveston*
    3B Garza
    3A Gillespie*
    3B Glasscock
    2A Goliad*
    2A Gonzales*
    4B Gray
    3A Grayson
    3A Gregg*
    2A Grimes*
    2A Guadalupe*
    4B Hale
    3B Hall
    3A Hamilton*
    4B Hansford
    3B Hardeman
    2A Hardin*
    2A Harris*
    3A Harrison*
    4B Hartley
    3B Haskell
    2A Hays*
    3B Hemphill
    3A Henderson*
    2A Hidalgo*
    2A Hill*
    4B Hockley
    3A Hood*
    3A Hopkins*
    2A Houston*
    3B Howard
    3B Hudspeth
    3A Hunt*
    4B Hutchinson
    3B Irion
    3A Jack
    2A Jackson*
    2A Jasper*
    3B Jeff Davis
    2A Jefferson*
    2A Jim Hogg*
    2A Jim Wells*
    3A Johnson*
    3B Jones
    2A Karnes*
    3A Kaufman*
    3A Kendall*
    2A Kenedy*
    3B Kent
    3B Kerr
    3B Kimble
    3B King
    2B Kinney
    2A Kleberg*
    3B Knox
    3A Lamar*
    4B Lamb
    3A Lampasas*
    2B La Salle
    2A Lavaca*
    2A Lee*
    2A Leon*
    2A Liberty*
    2A Limestone*
    4B Lipscomb
    2A Live Oak*
    3A Llano*
    3B Loving
    3B Lubbock
    3B Lynn
    2A Madison*
    3A Marion*
    3B Martin
    3B Mason
    2A Matagorda*
    2B Maverick
    3B McCulloch
    2A McLennan*
    2A McMullen*
    2B Medina
    3B Menard
    3B Midland
    2A Milam*
    3A Mills*
    3B Mitchell
    3A Montague
    2A Montgomery*
    4B Moore
    3A Morris*
    3B Motley
    3A Nacogdoches*
    3A Navarro*
    2A Newton*
    3B Nolan
    2A Nueces*
    4B Ochiltree
    4B Oldham
    2A Orange*
    3A Palo Pinto*
    3A Panola*
    3A Parker*
    4B Parmer
    3B Pecos
    2A Polk*
    4B Potter
    3B Presidio
    3A Rains*
    4B Randall
    3B Reagan
    2B Real
    3A Red River*
    3B Reeves
    2A Refugio*
    4B Roberts
    2A Robertson*
    3A Rockwall*
    3B Runnels
    3A Rusk*
    3A Sabine*
    3A San Augustine*
    2A San Jacinto*
    2A San Patricio*
    3A San Saba*
    3B Schleicher
    3B Scurry
    3B Shackelford
    3A Shelby*
    4B Sherman
    3A Smith*
    3A Somervell*
    2A Starr*
    3A Stephens
    3B Sterling
    3B Stonewall
    3B Sutton
    4B Swisher
    3A Tarrant*
    3B Taylor
    3B Terrell
    3B Terry
    3B Throckmorton
    3A Titus*
    3B Tom Green
    2A Travis*
    2A Trinity*
    2A Tyler*
    3A Upshur*
    3B Upton
    2B Uvalde
    2B Val Verde
    3A Van Zandt*
    2A Victoria*
    2A Walker*
    2A Waller*
    3B Ward
    2A Washington*
    2B Webb
    2A Wharton*
    3B Wheeler
    3A Wichita
    3B Wilbarger
    2A Willacy*
    2A Williamson*
    2A Wilson*
    3B Winkler
    3A Wise
    3A Wood*
    4B Yoakum
    3A Young
    2B Zapata
    2B Zavala
    UTAH
    5B Beaver
    6B Box Elder
    6B Cache
    6B Carbon
    6B Daggett
    5B Davis
    6B Duchesne
    5B Emery
    5B Garfield
    5B Grand
    5B Iron
    5B Juab
    5B Kane
    5B Millard
    6B Morgan
    5B Piute
    6B Rich
    5B Salt Lake
    5B San Juan
    5B Sanpete
    5B Sevier
    6B Summit
    5B Tooele
    6B Uintah
    5B Utah
    6B Wasatch
    3B Washington
    5B Wayne
    5B Weber
    VERMONT
    6A (all)
    VIRGINIA
    4A (all)
    WASHINGTON
    5B Adams
    5B Asotin
    5B Benton
    5B Chelan
    4C Clallam
    4C Clark
    5B Columbia
    4C Cowlitz
    5B Douglas
    6B Ferry
    5B Franklin
    5B Garfield
    5B Grant
    4C Grays Harbor
    4C Island
    4C Jefferson
    4C King
    4C Kitsap
    5B Kittitas
    5B Klickitat
    4C Lewis
    5B Lincoln
    4C Mason
    6B Okanogan
    4C Pacific
    6B Pend Oreille
    4C Pierce
    4C San Juan
    4C Skagit
    5B Skamania
    4C Snohomish
    5B Spokane
    6B Stevens
    4C Thurston
    4C Wahkiakum
    5B Walla Walla
    4C Whatcom
    5B Whitman
    5B Yakima
    WEST VIRGINIA
    5A Barbour
    4A Berkeley
    4A Boone
    4A Braxton
    5A Brooke
    4A Cabell
    4A Calhoun
    4A Clay
    5A Doddridge
    5A Fayette
    4A Gilmer
    5A Grant
    5A Greenbrier
    5A Hampshire
    5A Hancock
    5A Hardy
    5A Harrison
    4A Jackson
    4A Jefferson
    4A Kanawha
    5A Lewis
    4A Lincoln
    4A Logan
    5A Marion
    5A Marshall
    4A Mason
    4A McDowell
    4A Mercer
    5A Mineral
    4A Mingo
    5A Monongalia
    4A Monroe
    4A Morgan
    5A Nicholas
    5A Ohio
    5A Pendleton
    4A Pleasants
    5A Pocahontas
    5A Preston
    4A Putnam
    5A Raleigh
    5A Randolph
    4A Ritchie
    4A Roane
    5A Summers
    5A Taylor
    5A Tucker
    4A Tyler
    5A Upshur
    4A Wayne
    5A Webster
    5A Wetzel
    4A Wirt
    4A Wood
    4A Wyoming
    WISCONSIN
    6A Adams
    7 Ashland
    6A Barron
    7 Bayfield
    6A Brown
    6A Buffalo
    7 Burnett
    6A Calumet
    6A Chippewa
    6A Clark
    6A Columbia
    6A Crawford
    6A Dane
    6A Dodge
    6A Door
    7 Douglas
    6A Dunn
    6A Eau Claire
    7 Florence
    6A Fond du Lac
    7 Forest
    6A Grant
    6A Green
    6A Green Lake
    6A Iowa
    7 Iron
    6A Jackson
    6A Jefferson
    6A Juneau
    6A Kenosha
    6A Kewaunee
    6A La Crosse
    6A Lafayette
    7 Langlade
    7 Lincoln
    6A Manitowoc
    6A Marathon
    6A Marinette
    6A Marquette
    6A Menominee
    6A Milwaukee
    6A Monroe
    6A Oconto
    7 Oneida
    6A Outagamie
    6A Ozaukee
    6A Pepin
    6A Pierce
    6A Polk
    6A Portage
    7 Price
    6A Racine
    6A Richland
    6A Rock
    6A Rusk
    6A Sauk
    7 Sawyer
    6A Shawano
    6A Sheboygan
    6A St. Croix
    7 Taylor
    6A Trempealeau
    6A Vernon
    7 Vilas
    6A Walworth
    7 Washburn
    6A Washington
    6A Waukesha
    6A Waupaca
    6A Waushara
    6A Winnebago
    6A Wood
    WYOMING
    6B Albany
    6B Big Horn
    6B Campbell
    6B Carbon
    6B Converse
    6B Crook
    6B Fremont
    5B Goshen
    6B Hot Springs
    6B Johnson
    6B Laramie
    7 Lincoln
    6B Natrona
    6B Niobrara
    6B Park
    5B Platte
    6B Sheridan
    7 Sublette
    6B Sweetwater
    7 Teton
    6B Uinta
    6B Washakie
    6B Weston
    US TERRITORIES
    AMERICAN SAMOA
    1A (all)*
    GUAM
    1A (all)*
    NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS
    1A (all)*
    PUERTO RICO
    1A (all)*
    VIRGIN ISLANDS
    1A (all)*

    C301.2Warm humid counties.

    Warm humid counties are identified in Table C301.1 by an asterisk.

    C301.3International climate zones.

    The climate zone for any location outside the United States shall be determined by applying Table C301.3(1) and then Table C301.3(2).

    TABLE C301.3(1)

    INTERNATIONAL CLIMATE ZONE DEFINITIONS

    MAJOR CLIMATE TYPE DEFINITIONS
    Marine (C) Definition—Locations meeting all four criteria:
    1. 1.Mean temperature of coldest month between -3°C (27°F) and 18°C (65°F).

    2. 2.Warmest month mean < 22°C (72°F).

    3. 3.At least four months with mean temperatures over 10°C (50°F).

    4. 4.Dry season in summer. The month with the heaviest precipitation in the cold season has at least three times as much precipitation as the month with the least precipitation in the rest of the year. The cold season is October through March in the Northern Hemisphere and April through September in the Southern Hemisphere.

    Dry (B) Definition—Locations meeting the following criteria:

    Not marine and Pin < 0.44 × (TF - 19.5) [Pcm < 2.0 × (TC + 7) in SI units]

    where:
    Pin=Annual precipitation in inches (cm)
    T=Annual mean temperature in °F (°C)
    Moist (A) Definition—Locations that are not marine and not dry.
    Warm-humid Definition—Moist (A) locations where either of the following wet-bulb temperature conditions shall occur during the warmest six consecutive months of the year:
    1. 1.67°F (19.4°C) or higher for 3,000 or more hours; or

    2. 2.73°F (22.8°C) or higher for 1,500 or more hours.

    For SI: °C = [(°F)-32]/1.8, 1 inch = 2.54 cm.

    TABLE C301.3(2)

    INTERNATIONAL CLIMATE ZONE DEFINITIONS

    ZONENUMBERTHERMAL CRITERIA
    IP UnitsSI Units
    19000 < CDD50°F5000 < CDD10°C
    26300 < CDD50°F ≤ 90003500 < CDD10°C ≤ 5000
    3A and 3B4500 < CDD50°F ≤ 6300 AND HDD65°F ≤ 54002500 < CDD10°C ≤ 3500 AND HDD18°C ≤ 3000
    4 A and 4BCDD50°F ≤ 4500 AND HDD65°F ≤ 5400CDD10°C ≤ 2500 AND HDD18°C ≤ 3000
    3CHDD65°F ≤ 3600HDD18°C ≤ 2000
    4C3600 < HDD65°F ≤ 54002000 < HDD18°C ≤ 3000
    55400 < HDD65°F ≤ 72003000 < HDD18°C ≤ 4000
    67200 < HDD65°F ≤ 90004000 < HDD18°C ≤ 5000
    79000 < HDD65°F ≤ 126005000 < HDD18°C ≤ 7000
    812600 < HDD65°F7000 < HDD18°C

    For SI: °C = [(°F)-32]/1.8.

    C301.4Tropical climate zone.

    The tropical climate zone shall be defined as:

    1. 1.Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, U.S. Virgin Islands, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands; and

    2. 2.Islands in the area between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.

    SECTIONC302
    DESIGN CONDITIONS

    C302.1Interior design conditions.

    The interior design temperatures used for heating and cooling load calculations shall be a maximum of 72°F (22°C) for heating and minimum of 75°F (24°C) for cooling.

    SECTIONC303
    MATERIALS, SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT

    C303.1Identification.

    Materials, systems and equipment shall be identified in a manner that will allow a determination of compliance with the applicable provisions of this code.

    C303.1.1Building thermal envelope insulation.

    An R-value identification mark shall be applied by the manufacturer to each piece of building thermal envelope insulation 12 inches (305 mm) or greater in width. Alternately, the insulation installers shall provide a certification listing the type, manufacturer and R-value of insulation installed in each element of the building thermal envelope. For blown or sprayed insulation (fiberglass and cellulose), the initial installed thickness, settled thickness, settled R-value, installed density, coverage area and number of bags installed shall be listed on the certification. For sprayed polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation, the installed thickness of the areas covered and R-value of installed thickness shall be listed on the certification. For insulated siding, the R-value shall be labeled on the product’s package and shall be listed on the certification. The insulation installer shall sign, date and post the certification in a conspicuous location on the job site.

    C303.1.1.1Blown or sprayed roof/ceiling insulation.

    The thickness of blown-in or sprayed roof/ceiling insulation (fiberglass or cellulose) shall be written in inches (mm) on markers that are installed at least one for every 300 square feet (28 m2) throughout the attic space. The markers shall be affixed to the trusses or joists and marked with the minimum initial installed thickness with numbers not less than 1 inch (25 mm) in height. Each marker shall face the attic access opening. Spray polyurethane foam thickness and installed R-value shall be listed on certification provided by the insulation installer.

    C303.1.2Insulation mark installation.

    Insulating materials shall be installed such that the manufacturer’s R-value mark is readily observable upon inspection.

    C303.1.3Fenestration product rating.

    U-factors of fenestration products (windows, doors and skylights) shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 100.

    Exception: Where required, garage door U-factors shall be determined in accordance with either NFRC 100 or ANSI/DASMA 105.

    U-factors shall be determined by an accredited, independent laboratory, and labeled and certified by the manufacturer.

    Products lacking such a labeled U-factor shall be assigned a default U-factor from Table C303.1.3(1) or C303.1.3(2). The solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) and visible transmittance (VT) of glazed fenestration products (windows, glazed doors and skylights) shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 200 by an accredited, independent laboratory, and labeled and certified by the manufacturer. Products lacking such a labeled SHGC or VT shall be assigned a default SHGC or VT from Table C303.1.3(3).

    TABLE C303.1.3(1)

    DEFAULT GLAZED FENESTRATION U-FACTORS

    FRAME TYPESINGLEPANEDOUBLEPANESKYLIGHT
    SingleDouble
    Metal1.200.802.001.30
    Metal with Thermal Break1.100.651.901.10
    Nonmetal or Metal Clad0.950.551.751.05
    Glazed Block0.60

    TABLE C303.1.3(2)

    DEFAULT DOOR U-FACTORS

    DOOR TYPEU-FACTOR
    Uninsulated Metal1.20
    Insulated Metal0.60
    Wood0.50
    Insulated, nonmetal edge, max 45% glazing, any glazing double pane0.35

    TABLE C303.1.3(3)

    DEFAULT GLAZED FENESTRATION SHGC AND VT

    SINGLE GLAZEDDOUBLE GLAZEDGLAZEDBLOCK
    ClearTintedClearTinted
    SHGC0.80.70.70.60.6
    VT0.60.30.60.30.6

    C303.1.4Insulation product rating.

    The thermal resistance (R-value) of insulation shall be determined in accordance with the U.S. Federal Trade Commission R-value rule (CFR Title 16, Part 460) in units of h · ft2 · °F/Btu at a mean temperature of 75°F (24°C).

    C303.1.4.1Insulated siding.

    The thermal resistance (R-value) of insulated siding shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C1363. Installation for testing shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    C303.2Installation.

    Materials, systems and equipment shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and the International Building Code.

    C303.2.1Protection of exposed foundation insulation.

    Insulation applied to the exterior of basement walls, crawl-space walls and the perimeter of slab-on-grade floors shall have a rigid, opaque and weather-resistant protective covering to prevent the degradation of the insulation’s thermal performance. The protective covering shall cover the exposed exterior insulation and extend not less than 6 inches (153 mm) below grade.

    C303.3Maintenance information.

    Maintenance instructions shall be furnished for equipment and systems that require preventive maintenance. Required regular maintenance actions shall be clearly stated and incorporated on a readily accessible label. The label shall include the title or publication number for the operation and maintenance manual for that particular model and type of product.

    CHAPTER4 [CE]
    COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    SECTIONC401
    GENERAL

    C401.1Scope.

    The provisions in this chapter are applicable to commercial buildings and their building sites.

    C401.2Application.

    Commercial buildings shall comply with one of the following:

    1. 1.The requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1.

    2. 2.The requirements of Sections C402 through C405. In addition, commercial buildings shall comply with Section C406 and tenant spaces shall comply with Section C406.1.1.

    3. 3.The requirements of Sections C402.5, C403.2, C404, C405.2, C405.3, C405.5, C405.6 and C407. The building energy cost shall be equal to or less than 85 percent of the standard reference design building.

    C401.2.1Application to replacement fenestration products.

    Where some or all of an existing fenestration unit is replaced with a new fenestration product, including sash and glazing, the replacement fenestration unit shall meet the applicable requirements for U-factor and SHGC in Table C402.4.

    Exception: An area-weighted average of the U-factor of replacement fenestration products being installed in the building for each fenestration product category listed in Table C402.4 shall be permitted to satisfy the U-factor requirements for each fenestration product category listed in Table C402.4. Individual fenestration products from different product categories listed in Table C402.3 shall not be combined in calculating the area-weighted average U-factor.

    SECTIONC402
    BUILDING ENVELOPE REQUIREMENTS

    C402.1General (Prescriptive).

    Building thermal envelope assemblies for buildings that are intended to comply with the code on a prescriptive basis, in accordance with the compliance path described in Item 2 of Section C401.2, shall comply with the following:

    1. 1.The opaque portions of the building thermal envelope shall comply with the specific insulation requirements of Section C402.2 and the thermal requirements of either the R-value-based method of Section C402.1.3; the U-, C-and F-factor-based method of Section C402.1.4; or the component performance alternative of Section C402.1.5.

    2. 2.Roof solar reflectance and thermal emittance shall comply with Section C402.3.

    3. 3.Fenestration in building envelope assemblies shall comply with Section C402.4.

    4. 4.Air leakage of building envelope assemblies shall comply with Section C402.5.

    Alternatively, where buildings have a vertical fenestration area or skylight area exceeding that allowed in Section C402.4, the building and building thermal envelope shall comply with Section C401.2, Item 1 or Section C401.2, Item 3.

    Walk-in coolers, walk-in freezers, refrigerated warehouse coolers and refrigerated warehouse freezers shall comply with Section C403.2.15 or C403.2.16.

    C402.1.1Low-energy buildings.

    The following low-energy buildings, or portions thereof separated from the remainder of the building by building thermal envelope assemblies complying with this section, shall be exempt from the building thermal envelope provisions of Section C402.

    1. 1.Those with a peak design rate of energy usage less than 3.4 Btu/h · ft2 (10.7 W/m2) or 1.0 watt per square foot (10.7 W/m2) of floor area for space conditioning purposes.

    2. 2.Those that do not contain conditioned space.

    3. 3.Greenhouses.

    C402.1.2Equipment buildings.

    Buildings that comply with the following shall be exempt from the building thermal envelope provisions of this code:

    1. 1.Are separate buildings with floor area not more than 500 square feet (50 m2).

    2. 2.Are intended to house electronic equipment with installed equipment power totaling not less than 7 watts per square foot (75 W/m2) and not intended for human occupancy.

    3. 3.Have a heating system capacity not greater than (17,000 Btu/hr) (5 kW) and a heating thermostat set point that is restricted to not more than 50°F (10°C).

    4. 4.Have an average wall and roof U-factor less than 0.200 in Climate Zones 1 through 5 and less than 0.120 in Climate Zones 6 through 8.

    5. 5.Comply with the roof solar reflectance and thermal emittance provisions for Climate Zone 1.

    C402.1.3Insulation component R-value-based method.

    Building thermal envelope opaque assemblies shall meet the requirements of Sections C402.2 and C402.4 based on the climate zone specified in Chapter 3. For opaque portions of the building thermal envelope intended to comply on an insulation component R-value basis, the R-values for insulation in framing cavities, where required, and for continuous insulation, where required, shall be not less than that specified in Table C402.1.3, based on the climate zone specified in Chapter 3. Commercial buildings or portions of commercial buildings enclosing Group R occupancies shall use the R-values from the “Group R” column of Table C402.1.3. Commercial buildings or portions of commercial buildings enclosing occupancies other than Group R shall use the R-values from the “All other” column of Table C402.1.3. The thermal resistance or R-value of the insulating material installed continuously within or on the below-grade exterior walls of the building envelope required in accordance with Table C402.1.3 shall extend to a depth of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) below the outside finished ground level, or to the level of the lowest floor of the conditioned space enclosed by the below grade wall, whichever is less. Opaque swinging doors shall comply with Table C402.1.4 and opaque nonswinging doors shall comply with Table C402.1.3.

    TABLE C402.1.3

    OPAQUE THERMAL ENVELOPE INSULATION COMPONENT MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS, R-VALUE METHODa

    CLIMATE ZONE1234 EXCEPT MARINE5 AND MARINE 4678
    All otherGroup RAll otherGroup RAll otherGroup RAll otherGroup RAll otherGroup RAll otherGroup RAll otherGroup RAll otherGroup R
    Roofs
    Insulation entirely above roof deckR-20ciR-25ciR-25ciR-25ciR-25ciR-25ciR-30ciR-30ciR-30ciR-30ciR-30ciR-30ciR-35ciR-35ciR-35ciR-35ci
    Metal buildingsbR-19 + R-11 LSR-19 + R-11 LSR-19 + R-11 LSR-19 + R-11 LSR-19 + R-11 LSR-19 + R-11 LSR-19 + R-11 LSR-19 + R-11 LSR-19 + R-11 LSR-19 + R-11 LSR-25 + R-11 LSR-25 + R-11 LSR-30 + R-11 LSR-30 + R-11 LSR-30 + R-11 LSR-30 + R-11 LS
    Attic and otherR-38R-38R-38R-38R-38R-38R-38R-38R-38R-49R-49R-49R-49R-49R-49R-49
    Walls, above grade
    MassR-5.7cicR-5.7cicR-5.7cicR-7.6ciR-7.6ciR-9.5ciR-9.5ciR-11.4ciR-11.4ciR-13.3ciR-13.3ciR-15.2ciR-15.2ciR-15.2ciR-25ciR-25ci
    Metal buildingR-13+ R-6.5ciR-13 + R-6.5ciR13 + R-6.5ciR-13 + R-13ciR-13 + R-6.5ciR-13 + R-13ciR-13 + R-13ciR-13 + R-13ciR-13 + R-13ciR-13 + R-13ciR-13 + R-13ciR-13 + R-13ciR-13 + R-13ciR-13 + R-19.5ciR-13 + R-13ciR-13 + R-19.5ci
    Metal framedR-13 + R-5ciR-13 + R-5ciR-13 + R-5ciR-13 + R-7.5ciR-13 + R-7.5ciR-13 + R-7.5ciR-13 + R-7.5ciR-13 + R-7.5ciR-13 + R-7.5ciR-13 + R-7.5ciR-13 + R-7.5ciR-13 + R-7.5ciR-13 + R-7.5ciR-13 + R-15.6ciR-13 + R-7.5ciR-13 + R17.5ci
    Wood framed and otherR-13 + R-3.8ci or R-20R-13 + R-3.8ci or R-20R-13 + R-3.8ci or R-20R-13 + R-3.8ci or R-20R-13 + R-3.8ci or R-20R-13 + R-3.8ci or R-20R-13 + R-3.8ci or R-20R-13 + R-3.8ci or R-20R-13 + R-3.8ci or R-20R-13 + R-7.5ci or R-20 + R-3.8ciR-13 + R-7.5ci or R-20 + R-3.8ciR-13 + R-7.5ci or R-20 + R-3.8ciR-13 + R-7.5ci or R-20 + R-3.8ciR-13 + R-7.5ci or R-20 + R-3.8ciR13 + R-15.6ci or R-20 + R-10ciR13 + R-15.6ci or R-20 + R-10ci
    Walls, below grade
    Below-grade walldNRNRNRNRNRNRR-7.5ciR-7.5ciR-7.5ciR-7.5ciR-7.5ciR-7.5ciR-10ciR-10ciR-10ciR-12.5ci
    Floors
    MasseNRNRR-6.3ciR-8.3ciR-10ciR-10ciR-10ciR-10.4ciR-10ciR-12.5ciR-12.5ciR-12.5ciR-15ciR-16.7ciR-15ciR-16.7ci
    Joist/framingNRNRR-30R-30R-30R-30R-30R-30R-30R-30R-30R-30fR-30fR-30fR-30fR-30f
    Slab-on-grade floors
    Unheated slabsNRNRNRNRNRNRR-10 for 24″ belowR-10 for 24″ belowR-10 for 24″ belowR-10 for 24″ belowR-10 for 24″ belowR-15 for 24″ belowR-15 for 24″ belowR-15 for 24″ belowR-15 for 24″ belowR-20 for 24″ below
    Heated slabsR-7.5 for 12″ belowR-7.5 for 12″ belowR-7.5 for 12″ belowR-7.5 for 12″ belowR-10 for 24″ belowR-10 for 24″ belowR-15 for 24″ belowR-15 for 24″ belowR-15 for 36″ belowR-15 for 36″ belowR-15 for 36″ belowR-20 for 48″ belowR-20 for 24″ belowR-20 for 48″ belowR-20 for 48″ belowR-20 for 48″ below
    Opaque doors
    NonswingingR-4.75R-4.75R-4.75R-4.75R-4.75R-4.75R-4.75R-4.75R-4.75R-4.75R-4.75R-4.75R-4.75R-4.75R-4.75R-4.75

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 4.88 kg/m2, 1 pound per cubic foot = 16 kg/m3.

    ci = Continuous insulation, NR = No requirement, LS = Liner system.

    1. a.Assembly descriptions can be found in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Appendix A.

    2. b.Where using R-value compliance method, a thermal spacer block shall be provided, otherwise use the U-factor compliance method in Table C402.1.4.

    3. c.R-5.7ci is allowed to be substituted with concrete block walls complying with ASTM C 90, ungrouted or partially grouted at 32 inches or less on center vertically and 48 inches or less on center horizontally, with ungrouted cores filled with materials having a maximum thermal conductivity of 0.44 Btu-in/h-f2 °F.

    4. d.Where heated slabs are below grade, below-grade walls shall comply with the exterior insulation requirements for heated slabs.

    5. e.“Mass floors” shall include floors weighing not less than:

      1. 1.35 pounds per square foot of floor surface area; or

      2. 2.25 pounds per square foot of floor surface area where the material weight is not more than 120 pounds per cubic foot.

    6. f.Steel floor joist systems shall be insulated to R-38.

    C402.1.4Assembly U-factor, C-factor or F-factor-based method.

    Building thermal envelope opaque assemblies intended to comply on an assembly U-, C- or F-factor basis shall have a U-, C- or F-factor not greater than that specified in Table C402.1.4. Commercial buildings or portions of commercial buildings enclosing Group R occupancies shall use the U-, C- or F-factor from the “Group R” column of Table C402.1.4. Commercial buildings or portions of commercial buildings enclosing occupancies other than Group R shall use the U-, C- or F-factor from the “All other” column of Table C402.1.4. The C-factor for the below-grade exterior walls of the building envelope, as required in accordance with Table C402.1.4, shall extend to a depth of 10 feet (3048 mm) below the outside finished ground level, or to the level of the lowest floor, whichever is less. Opaque swinging doors shall comply with Table C402.1.4 and opaque non-swinging doors shall comply with Table C402.1.3.

    TABLE C402.1.4

    OPAQUE THERMAL ENVELOPE ASSEMBLY MAXIMUM REQUIREMENTS, U-FACTOR METHODa, b

    CLIMATE ZONE1234 EXCEPT MARINE5 AND MARINE 4678
    All otherGroup RAll otherGroup RAll otherGroup RAll otherGroup RAll otherGroup RAll otherGroup RAll otherGroup RAll otherGroup R
    Roofs
    Insulation entirely above roof deckU-0.048U-0.039U-0.039U-0.039U-0.039U-0.039U-0.032U-0.032U-0.032U-0.032U-0.032U-0.032U-0.028U-0.028U-0.028U-0.028
    Metal buildingsU-0.044U-0.035U-0.035U-0.035U-0.035U-0.035U-0.035U-0.035U-0.035U-0.035U-0.031U-0.031U-0.029U-0.029U-0.029U-0.029
    Attic and otherU-0.027U-0.027U-0.027U-0.027U-0.027U-0.027U-0.027U-0.027U-0.027U-0.021U-0.021U-0.021U-0.021U-0.021U-0.021U-0.021
    Walls, above grade
    MassU-0.151U-0.151U-0.151U-0.123U-0.123U-0.104U-0.104U-0.090U-0.090U-0.080U-0.080U-0.071U-0.071U-0.061U-0.061U-0.061
    Metal buildingU-0.079U-0.079U-0.079U-0.079U-0.079U-0.052U-0.052U-0.052U-0.052U-0.052U-0.052U-0.052U-0.052U-0.039U-0.052U-0.039
    Metal framedU-0.077U-0.077U-0.077U-0.064U-0.064U-0.064U-0.064U-0.064U-0.064U-0.064U-0.064U-0.057U-0.064U-0.052U-0.045U-0.045
    Wood framed and othercU-0.064U-0.064U-0.064U-0.064U-0.064U-0.064U-0.064U-0.064U-0.064U-0.064U-0.051U-0.051U-0.051U-0.051U-0.036U-0.036
    Walls, below grade
    Below-grade wallcC-1.140eC-1.140eC-1.140eC-1.140eC-1.140eC-1.140eC-0.119C-0.119C-0.119C-0.119C-0.119C-0.119C-0.092C-0.092C-0.092C-0.092
    Floors
    MassdU-0.322eU-0.322eU-0.107U-0.087U-0.076U-0.076U-0.076U-0.074U-0.074U-0.064U-0.064U-0.057U-0.055U-0.051U-0.055U-0.051
    Joist/framingU-0.066eU-0.066eU-0.033U-0.033U-0.033U-0.033U-0.033U-0.033U-0.033U-0.033U-0.033U-0.033U-0.033U-0.033U-0.033U-0.033
    Slab-on-grade floors
    Unheated slabsF-0.73eF-0.73eF-0.73eF-0.73eF-0.73eF-0.73eF-0.54F-0.54F-0.54F-0.54F-0.54F-0.52F-0.40F-0.40F-0.40F-0.40
    Heated slabsfF-0.70F-0.70F-0.70F-0.70F-0.70F-0.70F-0.65F-0.65F-0.65F-0.65F-0.58F-0.58F-0.55F-0.55F-0.55F-0.55
    Opaque doors
    SwingingU-0.61U-0.61U-0.61U-0.61U-0.61U-0.61U-0.61U-0.61U-0.37U-0.37U-0.37U-0.37U-0.37U-0.37U-0.37U-0.37

    For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 4.88 kg/m2, 1 pound per cubic foot = 16 kg/m3.

    ci = Continuous insulation, NR = No requirement, LS = Liner system.

    1. a.Use of Opaque assembly U-factors, C-factors, and F-factors from ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1 Appendix A shall be permitted, provided the construction, excluding the cladding system on walls, complies with the appropriate construction details from ANSI/ASHRAE/ISNEA 90.1 Appendix A.

    2. b.Opaque assembly U-factors based on designs tested in accordance with ASTM C1363 shall be permitted. The R-value of continuous insulation shall be permitted to be added to or subtracted from the original tested design.

    3. c.Where heated slabs are below grade, below-grade walls shall comply with the F-factor requirements for heated slabs.

    4. d.“Mass floors” shall include floors weighing not less than:

      1. 1.35 pounds per square foot of floor surface area; or

      2. 2.25 pounds per square foot of floor surface area where the material weight is not more than 120 pounds per cubic foot.

    5. e.These C-, F- and U-factors are based on assemblies that are not required to contain insulation.

    6. f.Evidence of compliance with the F -factors indicated in the table for heated slabs shall be demonstrated by the application of the unheated slab F-factors and R-values derived from ASHRAE 90.1 Appendix A.

    C402.1.4.1Thermal resistance of cold-formed steel walls.

    U-factors of walls with cold-formed steel studs shall be permitted to be determined in accordance with Equation 4-1:

    Eq0001.jpg(Equation 4-1)

    where:

    Rs =The cumulative R-value of the wall components along the path of heat transfer, excluding the cavity insulation and steel studs.
    ER =The effective R-value of the cavity insulation with steel studs.

    TABLE C402.1.4.1

    EFFECTIVE R-VALUES FOR STEEL STUD WALL ASSEMBLIES

    NOMINAL STUD DEPTH (inches)SPACING OF FRAMING (inches)CAVITYR-VALUE (insulation)CORRECTION FACTOR (Fc)EFFECTIVER-VALUE (ER) (Cavity R-Value × Fc)
    31/216130.465.98
    150.436.45
    31/224130.557.15
    150.527.80
    616190.377.03
    210.357.35
    624190.458.55
    210.439.03
    816250.317.75
    24250.389.50

    C402.1.5Component performance alternative.

    Building envelope values and fenestration areas determined in accordance with Equation 4-2 shall be permitted in lieu of compliance with the U-, F- and C-factors in Tables C402.1.3 and C402.1.4 and the maximum allowable fenestration areas in Section C402.4.1.

    Eq0002.jpg(Equation 4-2)

    where:

    A=Sum of the (UA Dif) values for each distinct assembly type of the building thermal envelope, other than slabs on grade and below-grade walls.
    UA Dif=UA Proposed - UA Table.
    UA Proposed=Proposed U-value · Area.
    UA Table=(U-factor from Table C402.1.3 or Table C402.1.4) · Area.
    B=Sum of the (FL Dif) values for each distinct slab-on-grade perimeter condition of the building thermal envelope.
    FL Dif=FL Proposed - FL Table.
    FL Proposed =Proposed F-value · Perimeter length.
    FL Table=(F-factor specified in Table C402.1.4) · Perimeter length.
    C=Sum of the (CA Dif) values for each distinct below-grade wall assembly type of the building thermal envelope.
    CA Dif=CA Proposed - CA Table.
    CA Proposed=Proposed C-value · Area.
    CA Table=(Maximum allowable C-factor specified in Table C402.1.4) · Area.

    Where the proposed vertical glazing area is less than or equal to the maximum vertical glazing area allowed by Section C402.4.1, the value of D (Excess Vertical Glazing Value) shall be zero. Otherwise:

    D=(DA · UV) - (DA · U Wall), but not less than zero.
    DA=(Proposed Vertical Glazing Area) - (Vertical Glazing Area allowed by Section C402.4.1).
    UA Wall=Sum of the (UA Proposed) values for each opaque assembly of the exterior wall.
    U Wall=Area-weighted average U-value of all above-grade wall assemblies.
    UAV=Sum of the (UA Proposed) values for each vertical glazing assembly.
    UV=UAV/total vertical glazing area.

    Where the proposed skylight area is less than or equal to the skylight area allowed by Section C402.4.1, the value of E (Excess Skylight Value) shall be zero. Otherwise:

    E=(EA · US) - (EA · U Roof), but not less than zero.
    EA=(Proposed Skylight Area) - (Allowable Skylight Area as specified in Section C402.4.1).
    U Roof=Area-weighted average U-value of all roof assemblies.
    UAS=Sum of the (UA Proposed) values for each skylight assembly.
    US=UAS/total skylight area.

    C402.2Specific building thermal envelope insulation requirements (Prescriptive).

    Insulation in building thermal envelope opaque assemblies shall comply with Sections C402.2.1 through C402.2.6 and Table C402.1.3.

    C402.2.1Multiple layers of continuous insulation board.

    Where two or more layers of continuous insulation board are used in a construction assembly, the continuous insulation boards shall be installed in accordance with Section C303.2. Where the continuous insulation board manufacturer’s instructions do not address installation of two or more layers, the edge joints between each layer of continuous insulation boards shall be staggered.

    C402.2.2Roof assembly.

    The minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of the insulating material installed either between the roof framing or continuously on the roof assembly shall be as specified in Table C402.1.3, based on construction materials used in the roof assembly. Skylight curbs shall be insulated to the level of roofs with insulation entirely above deck or R-5, whichever is less.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Continuously insulated roof assemblies where the thickness of insulation varies 1 inch (25 mm) or less and where the area-weighted U-factor is equivalent to the same assembly with the R-value specified in Table C402.1.3.

    2. 2.Where tapered insulation is used with insulation entirely above deck, the R-value where the insulation thickness varies 1 inch (25 mm) or less from the minimum thickness of tapered insulation shall comply with the R-value specified in Table C402.1.3.

    3. 3.Unit skylight curbs included as a component of a skylight listed and labeled in accordance with NFRC 100 shall not be required to be insulated.

    Insulation installed on a suspended ceiling with removable ceiling tiles shall not be considered part of the minimum thermal resistance of the roof insulation.

    C402.2.3Thermal resistance of above-grade walls.

    The minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of materials installed in the wall cavity between framing members and continuously on the walls shall be as specified in Table C402.1.3, based on framing type and construction materials used in the wall assembly. The R-value of integral insulation installed in concrete masonry units shall not be used in determining compliance with Table C402.1.3.

    “Mass walls” shall include walls:

    1. 1.Weighing not less than 35 psf (170 kg/m2) of wall surface area.

    2. 2.Weighing not less than 25 psf (120 kg/m2) of wall surface area where the material weight is not more than 120 pcf (1900 kg/m3).

    3. 3.Having a heat capacity exceeding 7 Btu/ft2 · °F (144 kJ/m2 · K).

    4. 4.Having a heat capacity exceeding 5 Btu/ft2 · °F (103 kJ/m2 · K), where the material weight is not more than 120 pcf (1900 kg/m3).

    C402.2.4Floors.

    The thermal properties (component R-values or assembly U-, C- or F-factors) of floor assemblies over outdoor air or unconditioned space shall be as specified in Table C402.1.3 or C402.1.4 based on the construction materials used in the floor assembly. Floor framing cavity insulation or structural slab insulation shall be installed to maintain permanent contact with the underside of the subfloor decking or structural slabs.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.The floor framing cavity insulation or structural slab insulation shall be permitted to be in contact with the top side of sheathing or continuous insulation installed on the bottom side of floor assemblies where combined with insulation that meets or exceeds the minimum R-value in Table C402.1.3 for “Metal framed” or “Wood framed and other” values for “Walls, Above Grade” and extends from the bottom to the top of all perimeter floor framing or floor assembly members.

    2. 2.Insulation applied to the underside of concrete floor slabs shall be permitted an airspace of not more than 1 inch (25 mm) where it turns up and is in contact with the underside of the floor under walls associated with the building thermal envelope.

    C402.2.5Slabs-on-grade perimeter insulation.

    Where the slab on grade is in contact with the ground, the minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of the insulation around the perimeter of unheated or heated slab-on-grade floors designed in accordance with the R-value method of Section C402.1.3 shall be as specified in Table C402.1.3. The insulation shall be placed on the outside of the foundation or on the inside of the foundation wall. The insulation shall extend downward from the top of the slab for a minimum distance as shown in the table or to the top of the footing, whichever is less, or downward to at least the bottom of the slab and then horizontally to the interior or exterior for the total distance shown in the table. Insulation extending away from the building shall be protected by pavement or by not less than of 10 inches (254 mm) of soil.

    Exception: Where the slab-on-grade floor is greater than 24 inches (61 mm) below the finished exterior grade, perimeter insulation is not required.

    C402.2.6Insulation of radiant heating systems.

    Radiant heating system panels, and their associated components that are installed in interior or exterior assemblies shall be insulated with a minimum of R-3.5 (0.62 m2/K · W) on all surfaces not facing the space being heated. Radiant heating system panels that are installed in the building thermal envelope shall be separated from the exterior of the building or unconditioned or exempt spaces by not less than the R-value of insulation installed in the opaque assembly in which they are installed or the assembly shall comply with Section C402.1.4.

    Exception: Heated slabs on grade insulated in accordance with Section C402.2.5.

    C402.3Roof solar reflectance and thermal emittance.

    Low-sloped roofs directly above cooled conditioned spaces in Climate Zones 1, 2 and 3 shall comply with one or more of the options in Table C402.3.

    Exceptions: The following roofs and portions of roofs are exempt from the requirements of Table C402.3:

    1. 1.Portions of the roof that include or are covered by the following:

      1. 1.1.Photovoltaic systems or components.

      2. 1.2.Solar air or water-heating systems or components.

      3. 1.3.Roof gardens or landscaped roofs.

      4. 1.4.Above-roof decks or walkways.

      5. 1.5.Skylights.

      6. 1.6.HVAC systems and components, and other opaque objects mounted above the roof.

    2. 2.Portions of the roof shaded during the peak sun angle on the summer solstice by permanent features of the building or by permanent features of adjacent buildings.

    3. 3.Portions of roofs that are ballasted with a minimum stone ballast of 17 pounds per square foot [74 kg/m2] or 23 psf [117 kg/m2] pavers.

    4. 4.Roofs where not less than 75 percent of the roof area complies with one or more of the exceptions to this section.

    TABLE C402.3

    MINIMUM ROOF REFLECTANCE AND EMITTANCE OPTIONSa

    Three-year aged solar reflectanceb of 0.55 and 3-year aged thermal emittancec of 0.75
    Three-year-aged solar reflectance indexd of 64
    1. a.The use of area-weighted averages to comply with these requirements shall be permitted. Materials lacking 3-year-aged tested values for either solar reflectance or thermal emittance shall be assigned both a 3-year-aged solar reflectance in accordance with Section C402.3.1 and a 3-year-aged thermal emittance of 0.90.

    2. b.Aged solar reflectance tested in accordance with ASTM C 1549, ASTM E 903 or ASTM E 1918 or CRRC-1 Standard.

    3. c.Aged thermal emittance tested in accordance with ASTM C 1371 or ASTM E 408 or CRRC-1 Standard.

    4. d.Solar reflectance index (SRI) shall be determined in accordance with ASTM E 1980 using a convection coefficient of 2.1 Btu/h · ft2 · °F (12W/m2 · K). Calculation of aged SRI shall be based on aged tested values of solar reflectance and thermal emittance.

    C402.3.1Aged roof solar reflectance.

    Where an aged solar reflectance required by Section C402.3 is not available, it shall be determined in accordance with Equation 4-3.

    Eq0003.jpg(Equation 4-3)

    where:

    Raged =The aged solar reflectance.
    Rinitial =The initial solar reflectance determined in accordance with CRRC-1 Standard.

    C402.4Fenestration (Prescriptive).

    Fenestration shall comply with Sections C402.4 through C402.4.4 and Table C402.4. Daylight responsive controls shall comply with this section and Section C405.2.3.1.

    TABLE C402.4

    BUILDING ENVELOPE FENESTRATION MAXIMUM U-FACTOR AND SHGC REQUIREMENTS

    CLIMATE ZONE1234 EXCEPT MARINE5 AND MARINE 4678
    Vertical fenestration
    U-factor
    Fixed fenestration0.500.500.460.380.380.360.290.29
    Operable fenestration0.650.650.600.450.450.430.370.37
    Entrance doors1.100.830.770.770.770.770.770.77
    SHGC
    OrientationaSEWNSEWNSEWNSEWNSEWNSEWNSEWNSEWN
    PF < 0.20.250.330.250.330.250.330.400.530.400.530.400.530.45NR0.45N
    0.2 ≤ PF < 0.50.300.370.300.370.300.370.480.580.480.580.480.58NRNRNRNR
    PF ≥ 0.50.400.400.400.400.400.400.640.640.640.640.640.64NRNRNRNR
    Skylights
    U-factor0.750.650.550.500.500.500.500.50
    SHGC0.350.350.350.400.400.40NRNR
    NR = No requirement, PF = Projection factor.
    1. a.“N” indicates vertical fenestration oriented within 45 degrees of true north. “SEW” indicates orientations other than “N.” For buildings in the southern hemisphere, reverse south and north. Buildings located at less than 23.5 degrees latitude shall use SEW for all orientations.

    C402.4.1Maximum area.

    The vertical fenestration area (not including opaque doors and opaque spandrel panels) shall not be greater than 30 percent of the gross above-grade wall area. The skylight area shall not be greater than 3 percent of the gross roof area.

    C402.4.1.1Increased vertical fenestration area with daylight responsive controls.

    In Climate Zones 1 through 6, not more than 40 percent of the gross above-grade wall area shall be permitted to be vertical fenestration, provided all of the following requirements are met:

    1. 1.In buildings not greater than two stories above grade, not less than 50 percent of the net floor area is within a daylight zone.

    2. 2.In buildings three or more stories above grade, not less than 25 percent of the net floor area is within a daylight zone.

    3. 3.Daylight responsive controls complying with Section C405.2.3.1 are installed in daylight zones.

    4. 4.Visible transmittance (VT) of vertical fenestration is not less than 1.1 times solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC).

    Exception: Fenestration that is outside the scope of NFRC 200 is not required to comply with Item 4.

    C402.4.1.2Increased skylight area with daylight responsive controls.

    The skylight area shall be permitted to be not more than 5 percent of the roof area provided daylight responsive controls complying with Section C405.2.3.1 are installed in daylight zones under skylights.

    C402.4.2Minimum skylight fenestration area.

    In an enclosed space greater than 2,500 square feet (232 m2) in floor area, directly under a roof with not less than 75 percent of the ceiling area with a ceiling height greater than 15 feet (4572 mm), and used as an office, lobby, atrium, concourse, corridor, storage space, gymnasium/exercise center, convention center, automotive service area, space where manufacturing occurs, nonrefrigerated warehouse, retail store, distribution/sorting area, transportation depot or workshop, the total daylight zone under skylights shall be not less than half the floor area and shall provide one of the following:

    1. 1.A minimum skylight area to daylight zone under skylights of not less than 3 percent where all skylights have a VT of at least 0.40 as determined in accordance with Section C303.1.3.

    2. 2.A minimum skylight effective aperture of at least 1 percent, determined in accordance with Equation 4-4.

    Eq0004.jpg(Equation 4-4)

    where:

    Skylight area=Total fenestration area of skylights.
    Skylight VT=Area weighted average visible transmittance of skylights.
    WF=Area weighted average well factor, where well factor is 0.9 if light well depth is less than 2 feet (610 mm), or 0.7 if light well depth is 2 feet (610 mm) or greater.
    Light well depth=Measure vertically from the underside of the lowest point of the skylight glazing to the ceiling plane under the skylight.

    Exception: Skylights above daylight zones of enclosed spaces are not required in:

    1. 1.Buildings in Climate Zones 6 through 8.

    2. 2.Spaces where the designed general lighting power densities are less than 0.5 W/ft2 (5.4 W/m2).

    3. 3.Areas where it is documented that existing structures or natural objects block direct beam sunlight on at least half of the roof over the enclosed area for more than 1,500 daytime hours per year between 8 a.m. and 4 p.m.

    4. 4.Spaces where the daylight zone under rooftop monitors is greater than 50 percent of the enclosed space floor area.

    5. 5.Spaces where the total area minus the area of daylight zones adjacent to vertical fenestration is less than 2,500 square feet (232 m2), and where the lighting is controlled according to Section C405.2.3.

    C402.4.2.1Lighting controls in daylight zones under skylights.

    Daylight responsive controls complying with Section C405.2.3.1 shall be provided to control all electric lights within daylight zones under skylights.

    C402.4.2.2Haze factor.

    Skylights in office, storage, automotive service, manufacturing, nonrefrigerated warehouse, retail store and distribution/sorting area spaces shall have a glazing material or diffuser with a haze factor greater than 90 percent when tested in accordance with ASTM D 1003.

    Exception: Skylights designed and installed to exclude direct sunlight entering the occupied space by the use of fixed or automated baffles or the geometry of skylight and light well.

    C402.4.3Maximum U-factor and SHGC.

    The maximum U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) for fenestration shall be as specified in Table C402.4.

    The window projection factor shall be determined in accordance with Equation 4-5.

    Eq0005.jpg(Equation 4-5)

    where:

    PF =Projection factor (decimal).
    A =Distance measured horizontally from the furthest continuous extremity of any overhang, eave or permanently attached shading device to the vertical surface of the glazing.
    B =Distance measured vertically from the bottom of the glazing to the underside of the overhang, eave or permanently attached shading device.

    Where different windows or glass doors have different PF values, they shall each be evaluated separately.

    C402.4.3.1Increased skylight SHGC.

    In Climate Zones 1 through 6, skylights shall be permitted a maximum SHGC of 0.60 where located above daylight zones provided with daylight responsive controls.

    C402.4.3.2Increased skylight U-factor.

    Where skylights are installed above daylight zones provided with daylight responsive controls, a maximum U-factor of 0.9 shall be permitted in Climate Zones 1 through 3 and a maximum U-factor of 0.75 shall be permitted in Climate Zones 4 through 8.

    C402.4.3.3Dynamic glazing.

    Where dynamic glazing is intended to satisfy the SHGC and VT requirements of Table C402.4, the ratio of the higher to lower labeled SHGC shall be greater than or equal to 2.4, and the dynamic glazing shall be automatically controlled to modulate the amount of solar gain into the space in multiple steps. Dynamic glazing shall be considered separately from other fenestration, and area-weighted averaging with other fenestration that is not dynamic glazing shall not be permitted.

    Exception: Dynamic glazing is not required to comply with this section where both the lower and higher labeled SHGC already comply with the requirements of Table C402.4.

    C402.4.3.4Area-weighted U-factor.

    An area-weighted average shall be permitted to satisfy the U-factor requirements for each fenestration product category listed in Table C402.4. Individual fenestration products from different fenestration product categories listed in Table C402.4 shall not be combined in calculating area-weighted average U-factor.

    C402.4.4Doors.

    Opaque doors shall comply with the applicable requirements for doors as specified in Tables C402.1.3 and C402.1.4 and be considered part of the gross area of above-grade walls that are part of the building thermal envelope. Other doors shall comply with the provisions of Section C402.4.3 for vertical fenestration.

    C402.5Air leakage—thermal envelope (Mandatory).

    The thermal envelope of buildings shall comply with Sections C402.5.1 through C402.5.8, or the building thermal envelope shall be tested in accordance with ASTM E 779 at a pressure differential of 0.3 inch water gauge (75 Pa) or an equivalent method approved by the code official and deemed to comply with the provisions of this section when the tested air leakage rate of the building thermal envelope is not greater than 0.40 cfm/ft2 (0.2 L/s · m2). Where compliance is based on such testing, the building shall also comply with Sections C402.5.5, C402.5.6 and C402.5.7.

    C402.5.1Air barriers.

    A continuous air barrier shall be provided throughout the building thermal envelope. The air barriers shall be permitted to be located on the inside or outside of the building envelope, located within the assemblies composing the envelope, or any combination thereof. The air barrier shall comply with Sections C402.5.1.1 and C402.5.1.2.

    Exception: Air barriers are not required in buildings located in Climate Zone 2B.

    C402.5.1.1Air barrier construction.

    The continuous air barrier shall be constructed to comply with the following:

    1. 1.The air barrier shall be continuous for all assemblies that are the thermal envelope of the building and across the joints and assemblies.

    2. 2.Air barrier joints and seams shall be sealed, including sealing transitions in places and changes in materials. The joints and seals shall be securely installed in or on the joint for its entire length so as not to dislodge, loosen or otherwise impair its ability to resist positive and negative pressure from wind, stack effect and mechanical ventilation.

    3. 3.Penetrations of the air barrier shall be caulked, gasketed or otherwise sealed in a manner compatible with the construction materials and location. Joints and seals associated with penetrations shall be sealed in the same manner or taped or covered with moisture vapor-permeable wrapping material. Sealing materials shall be appropriate to the construction materials being sealed and shall be securely installed around the penetration so as not to dislodge, loosen or otherwise impair the penetrations’ ability to resist positive and negative pressure from wind, stack effect and mechanical ventilation. Sealing of concealed fire sprinklers, where required, shall be in a manner that is recommended by the manufacturer. Caulking or other adhesive sealants shall not be used to fill voids between fire sprinkler cover plates and walls or ceilings.

    4. 4.Recessed lighting fixtures shall comply with Section C402.5.8. Where similar objects are installed that penetrate the air barrier, provisions shall be made to maintain the integrity of the air barrier.

    C402.5.1.2Air barrier compliance options.

    A continuous air barrier for the opaque building envelope shall comply with Section C402.5.1.2.1 or C402.5.1.2.2.

    C402.5.1.2.1Materials.

    Materials with an air permeability not greater than 0.004 cfm/ft2 (0.02 L/s · m2) under a pressure differential of 0.3 inch water gauge (75 Pa) when tested in accordance with ASTM E 2178 shall comply with this section. Materials in Items 1 through 16 shall be deemed to comply with this section, provided joints are sealed and materials are installed as air barriers in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    1. 1.Plywood with a thickness of not less than 3/8 inch (10 mm).

    2. 2.Oriented strand board having a thickness of not less than 3/8 inch (10 mm).

    3. 3.Extruded polystyrene insulation board having a thickness of not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).

    4. 4.Foil-back polyisocyanurate insulation board having a thickness of not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).

    5. 5.Closed-cell spray foam a minimum density of 1.5 pcf (2.4 kg/m3) having a thickness of not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm).

    6. 6.Open-cell spray foam with a density between 0.4 and 1.5 pcf (0.6 and 2.4 kg/m3) and having a thickness of not less than 4.5 inches (113 mm).

    7. 7.Exterior or interior gypsum board having a thickness of not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).

    8. 8.Cement board having a thickness of not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).

    9. 9.Built-up roofing membrane.

    10. 10.Modified bituminous roof membrane.

    11. 11.Fully adhered single-ply roof membrane.

    12. 12.A Portland cement/sand parge, or gypsum plaster having a thickness of not less than 5/8 inch (15.9 mm).

    13. 13.Cast-in-place and precast concrete.

    14. 14.Fully grouted concrete block masonry.

    15. 15.Sheet steel or aluminum.

    16. 16.Solid or hollow masonry constructed of clay or shale masonry units.

    C402.5.1.2.2Assemblies.

    Assemblies of materials and components with an average air leakage not greater than 0.04 cfm/ft2 (0.2 L/s · m2) under a pressure differential of 0.3 inch of water gauge (w.g.)(75 Pa) when tested in accordance with ASTM E 2357, ASTM E 1677 or ASTM E 283 shall comply with this section. Assemblies listed in Items 1 through 3 shall be deemed to comply, provided joints are sealed and the requirements of Section C402.5.1.1 are met.

    1. 1.Concrete masonry walls coated with either one application of block filler or two applications of a paint or sealer coating.

    2. 2.Masonry walls constructed of clay or shale masonry units with a nominal width of 4 inches (102 mm) or more.

    3. 3.A Portland cement/sand parge, stucco or plaster not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in thickness.


    C402.5.2Air leakage of fenestration.

    The air leakage of fenestration assemblies shall meet the provisions of Table C402.5.2. Testing shall be in accordance with the applicable reference test standard in Table C402.5.2 by an accredited, independent testing laboratory and labeled by the manufacturer.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Field-fabricated fenestration assemblies that are sealed in accordance with Section C402.5.1.

    2. 2.Fenestration in buildings that comply with the testing alternative of Section C402.5 are not required to meet the air leakage requirements in Table C402.5.2.

    TABLE C402.5.2

    MAXIMUM AIR LEAKAGE RATE FOR FENESTRATION ASSEMBLIES

    FENESTRATION ASSEMBLYMAXIMUM RATE (CFM/FT2)TEST PROCEDURE
    Windows0.20 aAAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440 or NFRC 400
    Sliding doors0.20 a
    Swinging doors0.20 a
    Skylights – with condensation weepage openings0.30
    Skylights – all other0.20 a
    Curtain walls0.06NFRC 400 orASTM E 283 at 1.57 psf (75 Pa)
    Storefront glazing0.06
    Commercial glazed swinging entrance doors1.00
    Revolving doors1.00
    Garage doors0.40ANSI/DASMA 105,NFRC 400, orASTM E 283 at 1.57 psf(75 Pa)
    Rolling doors1.00
    High-speed doors1.30

    For SI: 1 cubic foot per minute = 0.47 L/s, 1 square foot = 0.093 m2.

    1. a.The maximum rate for windows, sliding and swinging doors, and skylights is permitted to be 0.3 cfm per square foot of fenestration or door area when tested in accordance with AAMA/WDMA/CSA101/I.S.2/A440 at 6.24 psf (300 Pa).

    C402.5.3Rooms containing fuel-burning appliances.

    In Climate Zones 3 through 8, where open combustion air ducts provide combustion air to open combustion space conditioning fuel-burning appliances, the appliances and combustion air openings shall be located outside of the building thermal envelope or enclosed in a room isolated from inside the thermal envelope. Such rooms shall be sealed and insulated in accordance with the envelope requirements of Table C402.1.3 or C402.1.4, where the walls, floors and ceilings shall meet the minimum of the below-grade wall R-value requirement. The door into the room shall be fully gasketed, and any water lines and ducts in the room insulated in accordance with Section C403. The combustion air duct shall be insulated, where it passes through conditioned space, to a minimum of R-8.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Direct vent appliances with both intake and exhaust pipes installed continuous to the outside.

    2. 2.Fireplaces and stoves complying with Sections 901 through 905 of the International Mechanical Code, and Section 2111.13 of the International Building Code.

    C402.5.4Doors and access openings to shafts, chutes, stairways and elevator lobbies.

    Doors and access openings from conditioned space to shafts, chutes stairways and elevator lobbies not within the scope of the fenestration assemblies covered by Section C402.5.2 shall be gasketed, weatherstripped or sealed.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Door openings required to comply with Section 716 or 716.5 of the International Building Code.

    2. 2.Doors and door openings required to comply with UL 1784 by the International Building Code.

    C402.5.5Air intakes, exhaust openings, stairways and shafts.

    Stairway enclosures, elevator shaft vents and other outdoor air intakes and exhaust openings integral to the building envelope shall be provided with dampers in accordance with Section C403.2.4.3.

    C402.5.6Loading dock weatherseals.

    Cargo doors and loading dock doors shall be equipped with weatherseals to restrict infiltration when vehicles are parked in the doorway.

    C402.5.7Vestibules.

    Building entrances shall be protected with an enclosed vestibule, with all doors opening into and out of the vestibule equipped with self-closing devices. Vestibules shall be designed so that in passing through the vestibule it is not necessary for the interior and exterior doors to open at the same time. The installation of one or more revolving doors in the building entrance shall not eliminate the requirement that a vestibule be provided on any doors adjacent to revolving doors.

    Exceptions: Vestibules are not required for the following:

    1. 1.Buildings in Climate Zones 1 and 2.

    2. 2.Doors not intended to be used by the public, such as doors to mechanical or electrical equipment rooms, or intended solely for employee use.

    3. 3.Doors opening directly from a sleeping unit or dwelling unit.

    4. 4.Doors that open directly from a space less than 3,000 square feet (298 m2) in area.

    5. 5.Revolving doors.

    6. 6.Doors used primarily to facilitate vehicular movement or material handling and adjacent personnel doors.

    7. 7.Doors that have an air curtain with a velocity of not less than 6.56 feet per second (2 m/s) at the floor that have been tested in accordance with ANSI/AMCA 220 and installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Manual or automatic controls shall be provided that will operate the air curtain with the opening and closing of the door. Air curtains and their controls shall comply with Section C408.2.3.

    C402.5.8Recessed lighting.

    Recessed luminaires installed in the building thermal envelope shall be all of the following:

    1. 1.IC-rated.

    2. 2.Labeled as having an air leakage rate of not more 2.0 cfm (0.944 L/s) when tested in accordance with ASTM E 283 at a 1.57 psf (75 Pa) pressure differential.

    3. 3.Sealed with a gasket or caulk between the housing and interior wall or ceiling covering.

    SECTIONC403
    BUILDING MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

    C403.1General.

    Mechanical systems and equipment serving the building heating, cooling or ventilating needs shall comply with Section C403.2 and shall comply with Sections C403.3 and C403.4 based on the equipment and systems provided.

    Walk-in coolers, walk-in freezers, refrigerated warehouse coolers and refrigerated warehouse freezers shall comply with Section C403.2.15 or C403.2.16.

    C403.2Provisions applicable to all mechanical systems (Mandatory).

    Mechanical systems and equipment serving the building heating, cooling or ventilating needs shall comply with Sections C403.2.1 through C403.2.16.

    C403.2.1Calculation of heating and cooling loads.

    Design loads associated with heating, ventilating and air conditioning of the building shall be determined in accordance with ANSI/ASHRAE/ACCA Standard 183 or by an approved equivalent computational procedure using the design parameters specified in Chapter 3. Heating and cooling loads shall be adjusted to account for load reductions that are achieved where energy recovery systems are utilized in the HVAC system in accordance with the ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Equipment Handbook by an approved equivalent computational procedure.

    C403.2.2Equipment sizing.

    The output capacity of heating and cooling equipment shall be not greater than the loads calculated in accordance with Section C403.2.1. A single piece of equipment providing both heating and cooling shall satisfy this provision for one function with the capacity for the other function as small as possible, within available equipment options.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Required standby equipment and systems provided with controls and devices that allow such systems or equipment to operate automatically only when the primary equipment is not operating.

    2. 2.Multiple units of the same equipment type with combined capacities exceeding the design load and provided with controls that have the capability to sequence the operation of each unit based on load.

    C403.2.3HVAC equipment performance requirements.

    Equipment shall meet the minimum efficiency requirements of Tables C403.2.3(1), C403.2.3(2), C403.2.3(3), C403.2.3(4), C403.2.3(5), C403.2.3(6), C403.2.3(7), C403.2.3(8) and C403.2.3(9) when tested and rated in accordance with the applicable test procedure. Plate-type liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers shall meet the minimum requirements of Table C403.2.3(10). The efficiency shall be verified through certification under an approved certification program or, where a certification program does not exist, the equipment efficiency ratings shall be supported by data furnished by the manufacturer. Where multiple rating conditions or performance requirements are provided, the equipment shall satisfy all stated requirements. Where components, such as indoor or outdoor coils, from different manufacturers are used, calculations and supporting data shall be furnished by the designer that demonstrates that the combined efficiency of the specified components meets the requirements herein.

    TABLE C403.2.3(1)

    MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: ELECTRICALLY OPERATED UNITARY AIR CONDITIONERS AND CONDENSING UNITS

    EQUIPMENT TYPESIZE CATEGORYHEATINGSECTION TYPESUBCATEGORY ORRATING CONDITIONMINIMUM EFFICIENCYTEST PROCEDUREa
    Before 1/1/2016As of 1/1/2016
    Air conditioners, air cooled< 65,000 Btu/hbAllSplit System13.0 SEER13.0 SEERAHRI 210/240
    Single Package13.0 SEER14.0 SEERc
    Through-the-wall (air cooled)≤ 30,000 Btu/hbAllSplit system12.0 SEER12.0 SEER
    Single Package12.0 SEER12.0 SEER
    Small-duct high-velocity (air cooled)< 65,000 Btu/hbAllSplit System11.0 SEER11.0 SEER
    Air conditioners, air cooled≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/hElectric Resistance (or None)Split System and Single Package11.2 EER11.4 IEER11.2 EER12.8 IEERAHRI 340/360
    All otherSplit System and Single Package11.0 EER11.2 IEER11.0 EER12.6 IEER
    ≥ 135,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/hElectric Resistance (or None)Split System and Single Package11.0 EER11.2 IEER11.0 EER12.4 IEER
    All otherSplit System and Single Package10.8 EER11.0 IEER10.8 EER12.2 IEER
    ≥ 240,000 Btu/h and < 760,000 Btu/hElectric Resistance (or None)Split System and Single Package10.0 EER10.1 IEER10.0 EER11.6 IEER
    All otherSplit System and Single Package9.8 EER9.9 IEER9.8 EER11.4 IEER
    ≥ 760,000 Btu/hElectric Resistance (or None)Split System and Single Package9.7 EER9.8 IEER9.7 EER11.2 IEER
    All otherSplit System and Single Package9.5 EER9.6 IEER9.5 EER11.0 IEER
    Air conditioners, water cooled< 65,000 Btu/hbAllSplit System and Single Package12.1 EER12.3 IEER12.1 EER12.3 IEERAHRI 210/240
    ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/hElectric Resistance (or None)Split System and Single Package12.1 EER12.3 IEER12.1 EER13.9 IEERAHRI 340/360
    All otherSplit System and Single Package11.9 EER12.1 IEER11.9 EER13.7 IEER
    ≥ 135,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/hElectric Resistance (or None)Split System and Single Package12.5 EER12.5 IEER12.5 EER13.9 IEER
    All otherSplit System and Single Package12.3 EER12.5 IEER12.3 EER13.7 IEER
    ≥ 240,000 Btu/h and < 760,000 Btu/hElectric Resistance (or None)Split System and Single Package12.4 EER12.6 IEER12.4 EER13.6 IEER
    All otherSplit System and Single Package12.2 EER12.4 IEER12.2 EER13.4 IEER
    ≥ 760,000 Btu/hElectric Resistance (or None)Split System and Single Package12.2 EER12.4 IEER12.2 EER13.5 IEER
    All otherSplit System and Single Package12.0 EER12.2 IEER12.0 EER13.3 IEER
    Air conditioners, evaporatively cooled< 65,000 Btu/hbAllSplit System and Single Package12.1 EER12.3 IEER12.1 EER12.3 IEERAHRI 210/240
    ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/hElectric Resistance (or None)Split System and Single Package12.1 EER12.3 IEER12.1 EER12.3 IEERAHRI 340/360
    All otherSplit System and Single Package11.9 EER12.1 IEER11.9 EER12.1 IEER
    ≥ 135,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/hElectric Resistance (or None)Split System and Single Package12.0 EER12.2 IEER12.0 EER12.2 IEER
    All otherSplit System and Single Package11.8 EER12.0 IEER11.8 EER12.0 IEER
    ≥ 240,000 Btu/h and < 760,000 Btu/hElectric Resistance (or None)Split System and Single Package11.9 EER12.1 IEER11.9 EER12.1 IEER
    All otherSplit System and Single Package11.7 EER11.9 IEER11.7 EER11.9 IEER
    ≥ 760,000 Btu/hElectric Resistance (or None)Split System and Single Package11.7 EER11.9 IEER11.7 EER11.9 IEER
    All otherSplit System and Single Package11.5 EER11.7 IEER11.5 EER11.7 IEER
    Condensing units, air cooled≥ 135,000 Btu/h10.5 EER11.8 IEER10.5 EER11.8 IEERAHRI 365
    Condensing units, water cooled≥ 135,000 Btu/h13.5 EER14.0 IEER13.5 EER14.0 IEER
    Condensing units, evaporatively cooled≥ 135,000 Btu/h13.5 EER14.0 IEER13.5 EER14.0 IEER

    For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.

    1. a.Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the reference year version of the test procedure.

    2. b.Single-phase, air-cooled air conditioners less than 65,000 Btu/h are regulated by NAECA. SEER values are those set by NAECA.

    3. c.Minimum efficiency as of January 1, 2015.

    TABLE C403.2.3(2)

    MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: ELECTRICALLY OPERATED UNITARY AND APPLIED HEAT PUMPS

    EQUIPMENT TYPESIZE CATEGORYHEATINGSECTION TYPESUBCATEGORY ORRATING CONDITIONMINIMUMEFFICIENCYTEST PROCEDUREa
    Before 1/1/2016As of 1/1/2016
    Air cooled (cooling mode)< 65,000 Btu/hbAllSplit System13.0 SEERc14.0 SEERcAHRI 210/240
    Single Package13.0 SEERc14.0 SEERc
    Through-the-wall, air cooled≤ 30,000 Btu/hbAllSplit System12.0 SEER12.0 SEER
    Single Package12.0 SEER12.0 SEER
    Single-duct high-velocity air cooled< 65,000 Btu/hbAllSplit System11.0 SEER11.0 SEER
    Air cooled (cooling mode)≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/hElectric Resistance (or None)Split System and Single Package11.0 EER 11.2 IEER11.0 EER 12.0 IEERAHRI 340/360
    All otherSplit System and Single Package10.8 EER 11.0 IEER10.8 EER 11.8 IEER
    ≥ 135,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/hElectric Resistance (or None)Split System and Single Package10.6 EER 10.7 IEER10.6 EER 11.6 IEER
    All otherSplit System and Single Package10.4 EER 10.5 IEER10.4 EER 11.4 IEER
    ≥ 240,000 Btu/hElectric Resistance (or None)Split System and Single Package9.5 EER 9.6 IEER9.5 EER 10.6 IEER
    All otherSplit System and Single Package9.3 EER 9.4 IEER9.3 EER 9.4 IEER
    Water to Air: Water Loop (cooling mode)< 17,000 Btu/hAll86°F entering water12.2 EER12.2 EERISO 13256-1
    ≥ 17,000 Btu/h and < 65,000 Btu/hAll86°F entering water13.0 EER13.0 EER
    ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/hAll86°F entering water13.0 EER13.0 EER
    Water to Air: Ground Water (cooling mode)< 135,000 Btu/hAll59°F entering water18.0 EER18.0 EERISO 13256-1
    Brine to Air: Ground Loop (cooling mode)< 135,000 Btu/hAll77°F entering water14.1 EER14.1 EERISO 13256-1
    Water to Water: Water Loop (cooling mode)< 135,000 Btu/hAll86°F entering water10.6 EER10.6 EERISO 13256-2
    Water to Water: Ground Water (cooling mode)< 135,000 Btu/hAll59°F entering water16.3 EER16.3 EER
    Brine to Water: Ground Loop (cooling mode)< 135,000 Btu/hAll77°F entering fluid12.1 EER12.1 EER
    Air cooled (heating mode)< 65,000 Btu/hbSplit System7.7 HSPFc8.2 HSPFcAHRI 210/240
    Single Package7.7 HSPFc8.0 HSPFc
    Through-the-wall, (air cooled, heating mode)≤ 30,000 Btu/hb (cooling capacity)Split System7.4 HSPF7.4 HSPF
    Single Package7.4 HSPF7.4 HSPF
    Small-duct high velocity (air cooled, heating mode)< 65,000 Btu/hbSplit System6.8 HSPF6.8 HSPF
    Air cooled (heating mode)≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity)47°F db/43°F wb outdoor air3.3 COP3.3 COPAHRI 340/360
    17°Fdb/15°F wb outdoor air2.25 COP2.25 COP
    ≥ 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity)47°F db/43°F wb outdoor air3.2 COP3.2 COP
    17°Fdb/15°F wb outdoor air2.05 COP2.05 COP
    Water to Air: Water Loop (heating mode)< 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity)68°F entering water4.3 COP4.3 COPISO 13256-1
    Water to Air: Ground Water (heating mode)< 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity)50°F entering water3.7 COP3.7 COP
    Brine to Air: Ground Loop (heating mode)< 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity)32°F entering fluid3.2 COP3.2 COP
    Water to Water: Water Loop (heating mode)< 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity)68°F entering water3.7 COP3.7 COPISO 13256-2
    Water to Water: Ground Water (heating mode)< 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity)50°F entering water3.1 COP3.1 COP
    Brine to Water: Ground Loop (heating mode)< 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity)32°F entering fluid2.5 COP2.5 COP

    For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W, °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8.

    1. a.Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the reference year version of the test procedure.

    2. b.Single-phase, air-cooled air conditioners less than 65,000 Btu/h are regulated by NAECA. SEER values are those set by NAECA.

    3. c.Minimum efficiency as of January 1, 2015.

    TABLE C403.2.3(3)

    MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: ELECTRICALLY OPERATED PACKAGED TERMINAL AIR CONDITIONERS, PACKAGED TERMINAL HEAT PUMPS, SINGLE-PACKAGE VERTICAL AIR CONDITIONERS, SINGLE VERTICAL HEAT PUMPS, ROOM AIR CONDITIONERS AND ROOM AIR-CONDITIONER HEAT PUMPS

    EQUIPMENT TYPESIZE CATEGORY (INPUT)SUBCATEGORY OR RATING CONDITIONMINIMUM EFFICIENCYTEST PROCEDUREa
    PTAC (cooling mode) new constructionAll Capacities95°F db outdoor air14.0 — (0.300 × Cap/1000) EERcAHRI 310/380
    PTAC (cooling mode) replacementsbAll Capacities95°F db outdoor air10.9 - (0.213 × Cap/1000) EER
    PTHP (cooling mode) new constructionAll Capacities95°F db outdoor air14.0 - (0.300 × Cap/1000) EER
    PTHP (cooling mode) replacementsbAll Capacities95°F db outdoor air10.8 - (0.213 × Cap/1000) EER
    PTHP (heating mode) new constructionAll Capacities3.2 - (0.026 × Cap/1000) COP
    PTHP (heating mode) replacementsbAll Capacities2.9 - (0.026 × Cap/1000) COP
    SPVAC (cooling mode)< 65,000 Btu/h95°F db/ 75°F wb outdoor air9.0 EERAHRI 390
    ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/h95°F db/ 75°F wb outdoor air8.9 EER
    ≥ 135,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h95°F db/ 75°F wb outdoor air8.6 EER
    SPVHP (cooling mode)< 65,000 Btu/h95°F db/ 75°F wb outdoor air9.0 EER
    ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/h95°F db/ 75°F wb outdoor air8.9 EER
    ≥ 135,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h95°F db/ 75°F wb outdoor air8.6 EER
    SPVHP (heating mode)< 65,000 Btu/h47°F db/ 43°F wb outdoor air3.0 COPAHRI 390
    ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/h47°F db/ 43°F wb outdoor air3.0 COP
    ≥ 135,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h47°F db/ 75°F wb outdoor air2.9 COP
    Room air conditioners, with louvered sides< 6,000 Btu/h9.7 SEERANSI/AHAM RAC-1
    ≥ 6,000 Btu/h and < 8,000 Btu/h9.7 EER
    ≥ 8,000 Btu/h and < 14,000 Btu/h9.8 EER
    ≥ 14,000 Btu/h and < 20,000 Btu/h9.7 SEER
    ≥ 20,000 Btu/h8.5 EER
    Room air conditioners, without louvered sides< 8,000 Btu/h9.0 EER
    ≥ 8,000 Btu/h and < 20,000 Btu/h8.5 EER
    ≥ 20,000 Btu/h8.5 EER
    Room air-conditioner heat pumps with louvered sides< 20,000 Btu/h9.0 EER
    ≥ 20,000 Btu/h8.5 EER
    Room air-conditioner heat pumps without louvered sides< 14,000 Btu/h8.5 EER
    ≥ 14,000 Btu/h8.0 EER
    Room air conditioner casement onlyAll capacities8.7 EERANSI/AHAM RAC-1
    Room air conditioner casement-sliderAll capacities9.5 EER

    For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W, °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8, wb = wet bulb, db = dry bulb.

    “Cap” = The rated cooling capacity of the project in Btu/h. Where the unit’s capacity is less than 7000 Btu/h, use 7000 Btu/h in the calculation. Where the unit’s capacity is greater than 15,000 Btu/h, use 15,000 Btu/h in the calculations.

    1. a.Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure.

    2. b.Replacement unit shall be factory labeled as follows: “MANUFACTURED FOR REPLACEMENT APPLICATIONS ONLY: NOT TO BE INSTALLED IN NEW CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS.” Replacement efficiencies apply only to units with existing sleeves less than 16 inches (406 mm) in height and less than 42 inches (1067 mm) in width.

    3. c.Before January 1, 2015 the minimum efficiency shall be 13.8 - (0.300 x Cap/1000) EER.

    TABLE 403.2.3(4)

    WARM-AIR FURNACES AND COMBINATION WARM-AIR FURNACES/AIR-CONDITIONING UNITS, WARM-AIR DUCT FURNACES AND UNIT HEATERS, MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS

    EQUIPMENT TYPESIZE CATEGORY(INPUT)SUBCATEGORY OR RATING CONDITIONMINIMUM EFFICIENCYd, eTEST PROCEDUREa
    Warm-air furnaces, gas fired< 225,000 Btu/h78% AFUE or 80%EtcDOE 10 CFR Part 430 orANSI Z21.47
    ≥ 225,000 Btu/hMaximum capacityc80%EtfANSI Z21.47
    Warm-air furnaces, oil fired< 225,000 Btu/h78% AFUE or 80%EtcDOE 10 CFR Part 430 orUL 727
    ≥ 225,000 Btu/hMaximum capacityb81%EtgUL 727
    Warm-air duct furnaces, gas firedAll capacitiesMaximum capacityb80%EcANSI Z83.8
    Warm-air unit heaters, gas firedAll capacitiesMaximum capacityb80%EcANSI Z83.8
    Warm-air unit heaters, oil firedAll capacitiesMaximum capacityb80%EcUL 731

    For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.

    1. a.Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure.

    2. b.Minimum and maximum ratings as provided for and allowed by the unit’s controls.

    3. c.Combination units not covered by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (NAECA) (3-phase power or cooling capacity greater than or equal to 65,000 Btu/h [19 kW]) shall comply with either rating.

    4. d.Et = Thermal efficiency. See test procedure for detailed discussion.

    5. e.Ec = Combustion efficiency (100% less flue losses). See test procedure for detailed discussion.

    6. f.Ec = Combustion efficiency. Units shall also include an IID, have jackets not exceeding 0.75 percent of the input rating, and have either power venting or a flue damper. A vent damper is an acceptable alternative to a flue damper for those furnaces where combustion air is drawn from the conditioned space.

    7. g.Et = Thermal efficiency. Units shall also include an IID, have jacket losses not exceeding 0.75 percent of the input rating, and have either power venting or a flue damper. A vent damper is an acceptable alternative to a flue damper for those furnaces where combustion air is drawn from the conditioned space.

    TABLE C403.2.3(5)

    MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: GAS- AND OIL-FIRED BOILERS

    EQUIPMENT TYPEaSUBCATEGORY OR RATING CONDITIONSIZE CATEGORY (INPUT)MINIMUM EFFICIENCYd, eTEST PROCEDURE
    Boilers, hot waterGas-fired< 300,000 Btu/h80% AFUE10 CFR Part 430
    ≥ 300,000 Btu/h and ≤ 2,500,000 Btu/hb80% Et10 CFR Part 431
    > 2,500,000 Btu/ha82% Ec
    Oil-firedc< 300,000 Btu/h80% AFUE10 CFR Part 430
    ≥ 300,000 Btu/h and ≤ 2,500,000 Btu/hb82% Et10 CFR Part 431
    > 2,500,000 Btu/ha84% Ec
    Boilers, steamGas-fired< 300,000 Btu/h75% AFUE10 CFR Part 430
    Gas-fired- all, except natural draft≥ 300,000 Btu/h and ≤ 2,500,000 Btu/hb79% Et10 CFR Part 431
    > 2,500,000 Btu/ha79% Et
    Gas-fired-natural draft≥ 300,000 Btu/h and ≤ 2,500,000 Btu/hb77% Et
    > 2,500,000 Btu/ha77% Et
    Oil-firedc< 300,000 Btu/h80% AFUE10 CFR Part 430
    ≥ 300,000 Btu/h and ≤ 2,500,000 Btu/hb81% Et10 CFR Part 431
    > 2,500,000 Btu/ha81% Et

    For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.

    1. a.These requirements apply to boilers with rated input of 8,000,000 Btu/h or less that are not packaged boilers and to all packaged boilers. Minimum efficiency requirements for boilers cover all capacities of packaged boilers.

    2. b.Maximum capacity – minimum and maximum ratings as provided for and allowed by the unit’s controls.

    3. c.Includes oil-fired (residual).

    4. d.Ec = Combustion efficiency (100 percent less flue losses).

    5. e.Et = Thermal efficiency. See referenced standard for detailed information.

    TABLE C403.2.3(6)

    MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: CONDENSING UNITS, ELECTRICALLY OPERATED

    EQUIPMENT TYPESIZE CATEGORYMINIMUM EFFICIENCYbTEST PROCEDUREa
    Condensing units, air cooled≥ 135,000 Btu/h10.1 EER11.2 IPLVAHRI 365
    Condensing units, water or evaporatively cooled≥ 135,000 Btu/h13.1 EER13.1 IPLV

    For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.

    1. a.Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure.

    2. b.IPLVs are only applicable to equipment with capacity modulation.

    TABLE C403.2.3(7)

    WATER CHILLING PACKAGES — EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTSa, b, d

    EQUIPMENT TYPESIZE CATEGORYUNITSBEFORE 1/1/2015AS OF 1/1/2015TEST PROCEDUREc
    Path APath BPath APath B
    Air-cooled chillers< 150 TonsEER (Btu/W)≥ 9.562 FLNAc≥ 10.100 FL≥ 9.700 FLAHRI 550/590
    ≥ 12.500 IPLV≥ 13.700 IPLV≥ 15,800 IPLV
    ≥ 150 Tons≥ 9.562 FLNAc≥ 10.100 FL≥ 9.700 FL
    ≥ 12.500 IPLV≥ 14.000 IPLV≥ 16.100 IPLV
    Air cooled without condenser, electrically operatedAll capacitiesEER(Btu/W)Air-cooled chillers without condenser shall be rated with matching condensers and complying with air-cooled chiller efficiency requirements.
    Water cooled, electrically operated positive displacement< 75 TonskW/ton≤ 0.780 FL≤ 0.800 FL≤ 0.750 FL≤ 0.780 FL
    ≤ 0.630 IPLV≤ 0.600 IPLV≤ 0.600 IPLV≤ 0.500 IPLV
    ≥ 75 tons and < 150 tons≤ 0.775 FL≤ 0.790 FL≤ 0.720 FL≤ 0.750 FL
    ≤ 0.615 IPLV≤ 0.586 IPLV≤ 0.560 IPLV≤ 0.490 IPLV
    ≥ 150 tons and < 300 tons≥ 0.680 FL≥ 0.718 FL≥ 0.660 FL≥ 0.680 FL
    ≥ 0.580 IPLV≥ 0.540 IPLV≥ 0.540 IPLV≥ 0.440 IPLV
    ≥ 300 tons and < 600 tons≤ 0.620 FL≤ 0.639 FL≤ 0.610 FL≤ 0.625 FL
    ≤ 0.540 IPLV≤ 0.490 IPLV≤ 0.520 IPLV≤ 0.410 IPLV
    ≥ 600 tons≤ 0.620 FL≤ 0.639 FL≤ 0.560 FL≤ 0.585 FL
    ≤ 0.540 IPLV≤ 0.490 IPLV≤ 0.500 IPLV≤ 0.380 IPLV
    Water cooled, electrically operated centrifugal< 150 TonskW/ton≤ 0.634 FL≤ 0.639 FL≤ 0.610 FL≤ 0.695 FL
    ≤ 0.596 IPLV≤ 0.450 IPLV≤ 0.550 IPLV≤ 0.440 IPLV
    ≥ 150 tons and < 300 tons≤ 0.634 FL≤ 0.639 FL≤ 0.610 FL≤ 0.635 FL
    ≤ 0.596 IPLV≤ 0.450 IPLV≤ 0.550 IPLV≤ 0.400 IPLV
    ≥ 300 tons and < 400 tons≤ 0.576 FL≤ 0.600 FL≤ 0.560 FL≤ 0.595 FL
    ≤ 0.549 IPLV≤ 0.400 IPLV≤ 0.520 IPLV≤ 0.390 IPLV
    ≥ 400 tons and < 600 tons≤ 0.576 FL≤ 0.600 FL≤ 0.560 FL≤ 0.585 FL
    ≤ 0.549 IPLV≤ 0.400 IPLV≤ 0.500 IPLV≤ 0.380 IPLV
    ≥ 600 Tons≤ 0.570 FL≤ 0.590 FL≤ 0.560 FL≤ 0.585 FL
    ≤ 0.539 IPLV≤ 0.400 IPLV≤ 0.500 IPLV≤ 0.380 IPLV
    Air cooled, absorption, single effectAll capacitiesCOP≥ 0.600 FLNAc≥ 0.600 FLNAcAHRI 560
    Water cooled absorption, single effectAll capacitiesCOP≥ 0.700 FLNAc≥ 0.700 FLNAc
    Absorption, double effect, indirect firedAll capacitiesCOP≥ 1.000 FLNAc≥ 1.000 FLNAc
    ≥ 1.050 IPLV≥ 1.050 IPLV
    Absorption double effect direct firedAll capacitiesCOP≥ 1.000 FLNAc≥ 1.000 FLNAc
    ≥ 1.000 IPLV≥ 1.050 IPLV
    1. a.The requirements for centrifugal chiller shall be adjusted for nonstandard rating conditions in accordance with Section C403.2.3.1 and are only applicable for the range of conditions listed in Section C403.2.3.1. The requirements for air-cooled, water-cooled positive displacement and absorption chillers are at standard rating conditions defined in the reference test procedure.

    2. b.Both the full-load and IPLV requirements shall be met or exceeded to comply with this standard. Where there is a Path B, compliance can be with either Path A or Path B for any application.

    3. c.NA means the requirements are not applicable for Path B and only Path A can be used for compliance.

    4. d.FL represents the full-load performance requirements and IPLV the part-load performance requirements.

    TABLE C403.2.3(8)

    MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: HEAT REJECTION EQUIPMENT

    EQUIPMENT TYPEaTOTAL SYSTEM HEAT REJECTION CAPACITY AT RATED CONDITIONSSUBCATEGORY OR RATING CONDITIONiPERFORMANCE REQUIREDb, c, d, g, hTEST PROCEDUREe, f
    Propeller or axial fan open-circuit cooling towersAll95°F entering water85°F leaving water75°F entering wb≥ 40.2 gpm/hpCTI ATC-105 andCTI STD-201
    Centrifugal fan open-circuit cooling towersAll95°F entering water85°F leaving water75°F entering wb≥ 20.0 gpm/hpCTI ATC-105 andCTI STD-201
    Propeller or axial fan closed-circuit cooling towersAll102°F entering water90°F leaving water75°F entering wb≥ 14.0 gpm/hpCTI ATC-105S andCTI STD-201
    Centrifugal fan closed-circuit cooling towersAll102°F entering water90°F leaving water75°F entering wb≥7.0 gpm/hpCTI ATC-105S andCTI STD-201
    Propeller or axial fan evaporative condensersAllAmmonia Test Fluid140°F entering gas temperature96.3°F condensing temperature75°F entering wb≥ 134,000 Btu/h·hpCTI ATC-106
    Centrifugal fan evaporative condensersAllAmmonia Test Fluid140°F entering gas temperature96.3°F condensing temperature75°F entering wb>110,000 Btu/h·hpCTI ATC-106
    Propeller or axial fan evaporative condensersAllR-507A Test Fluid165°F entering gas temperature105°F condensing temperature75°F entering wb≥ 157,000 Btu/h·hpCTI ATC-106
    Centrifugal fan evaporative condensersAllR-507A Test Fluid165°F entering gas temperature105°F condensing temperature75°F entering wb≥ 135,000 Btu/h·hpCTI ATC-106
    Air-cooled condensersAll125°F Condensing Temperature190°F Entering Gas Temperature15°F subcooling 95°F entering db≥ 176,000 Btu/h·hpAHRI 460

    For SI: °C = [(°F)-32]/1.8, L/s · kW = (gpm/hp)/(11.83), COP = (Btu/h · hp)/(2550.7),

    db = dry bulb temperature, °F, wb = wet bulb temperature, °F.

    1. a.The efficiencies and test procedures for both open- and closed-circuit cooling towers are not applicable to hybrid cooling towers that contain a combination of wet and dry heat exchange sections.

    2. b.For purposes of this table, open circuit cooling tower performance is defined as the water flow rating of the tower at the thermal rating condition listed in Table 403.2.3(8) divided by the fan nameplate-rated motor power.

    3. c.For purposes of this table, closed-circuit cooling tower performance is defined as the water flow rating of the tower at the thermal rating condition listed in Table 403.2.3(8) divided by the sum of the fan nameplate-rated motor power and the spray pump nameplate-rated motor power.

    4. d.For purposes of this table, air-cooled condenser performance is defined as the heat rejected from the refrigerant divided by the fan nameplate-rated motor power.

    5. e.Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure. The certification requirements do not apply to field-erected cooling towers.

    6. f.Where a certification program exists for a covered product and it includes provisions for verification and challenge of equipment efficiency ratings, then the product shall be listed in the certification program; or, where a certification program exists for a covered product, and it includes provisions for verification and challenge of equipment efficiency ratings, but the product is not listed in the existing certification program, the ratings shall be verified by an independent laboratory test report.

    7. g.Cooling towers shall comply with the minimum efficiency listed in the table for that specific type of tower with the capacity effect of any project-specific accessories and/or options included in the capacity of the cooling tower

    8. h.For purposes of this table, evaporative condenser performance is defined as the heat rejected at the specified rating condition in the table divided by the sum of the fan motor nameplate power and the integral spray pump nameplate power

    9. i.Requirements for evaporative condensers are listed with ammonia (R-717) and R-507A as test fluids in the table. Evaporative condensers intended for use with halocarbon refrigerants other than R-507A shall meet the minimum efficiency requirements listed in this table with R-507A as the test fluid.

    TABLE C403.2.3(9)

    MINIMUM EFFICIENCY AIR CONDITIONERS AND CONDENSING UNITS SERVING COMPUTER ROOMS

    EQUIPMENT TYPENET SENSIBLE COOLING CAPACITYaMINIMUM SCOP-127b EFFICIENCY DOWNFLOW UNITS/UPFLOW UNITSTEST PROCEDURE
    Air conditioners, air cooled< 65,000 Btu/h2.20 / 2.09ANSI/ASHRAE 127
    ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h2.10 / 1.99
    ≥ 240,000 Btu/h1.90 / 1.79
    Air conditioners, water cooled< 65,000 Btu/h2.60 / 2.49
    ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h2.50 / 2.39
    ≥ 240,000 Btu/h2.40 / 2.29
    Air conditioners, water cooled with fluid economizer< 65,000 Btu/h2.55 / 2.44
    ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h2.45 / 2.34
    ≥ 240,000 Btu/h2.35 / 2.24
    Air conditioners, glycol cooled (rated at 40% propylene glycol)< 65,000 Btu/h2.50 / 2.39
    ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h2.15 / 2.04
    ≥ 240,000 Btu/h2.10 / 1.99
    Air conditioners, glycol cooled (rated at 40% propylene glycol) with fluid economizer< 65,000 Btu/h2.45 / 2.34
    ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h2.10 / 1.99
    ≥ 240,000 Btu/h2.05 / 1.94

    For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W.

    1. a.Net sensible cooling capacity: the total gross cooling capacity less the latent cooling less the energy to the air movement system. (Total Gross – latent – Fan Power).

    2. b.Sensible coefficient of performance (SCOP-127): a ratio calculated by dividing the net sensible cooling capacity in watts by the total power input in watts (excluding reheaters and humidifiers) at conditions defined in ASHRAE Standard 127. The net sensible cooling capacity is the gross sensible capacity minus the energy dissipated into the cooled space by the fan system.

    TABLE C403.2.3(10)

    HEAT TRANSFER EQUIPMENT

    EQUIPMENT TYPESUBCATEGORYMINIMUM EFFICIENCYTEST PROCEDUREa
    Liquid-to-liquid heat exchangersPlate typeNRAHRI 400

    NR = No Requirement.

    1. a.Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure.

    C403.2.3.1Water-cooled centrifugal chilling packages.

    Equipment not designed for operation at AHRI Standard 550/590 test conditions of 44°F (7°C) leaving chilled-water temperature and 2.4 gpm/ton evaporator fluid flow and 85°F (29°C) entering condenser water temperature with 3 gpm/ton (0.054 I/s • kW) condenser water flow shall have maximum full-load kW/ton (FL) and part-load ratings requirements adjusted using Equations 4-6 and 4-7.

    Eq0006.jpg(Equation 4-6)

    Eq0006.jpg(Equation 4-7)

    where:

    Kadj=A × B
    FL=Full-load kW/ton value as specified in Table C403.2.3(7).
    FLadj=Maximum full-load kW/ton rating, adjusted for nonstandard conditions.
    IPLV=Value as specified in Table C403.2.3(7).
    PLVadj=Maximum NPLV rating, adjusted for nonstandard conditions.
    A=0.00000014592 · (LIFT)4 – 0.0000346496 · (LIFT)3 + 0.00314196 · (LIFT)2 – 0.147199 · (LIFT) + 3.9302
    B=0.0015 · Lvg Evap + 0.934
    LIFT=LvgCondLvg Evap
    LvgCond=Full-load condenser leaving fluid temperature (°F).
    LvgEvap=Full-load evaporator leaving temperature (°F).

    The FLadj and PLVadj values are only applicable for centrifugal chillers meeting all of the following full-load design ranges:

    1. 1.Minimum evaporator leaving temperature: 36°F.

    2. 2.Maximum condenser leaving temperature: 115°F.

    3. 3.20°F ≤ LIFT ≤ 80°F.

    C403.2.3.2Positive displacement (air- and water-cooled) chilling packages.

    Equipment with a leaving fluid temperature higher than 32°F (0°C) and water-cooled positive displacement chilling packages with a condenser leaving fluid temperature below 115°F (46°C) shall meet the requirements of Table C403.2.3(7) when tested or certified with water at standard rating conditions, in accordance with the referenced test procedure.

    C403.2.4HVAC system controls.

    Each heating and cooling system shall be provided with thermostatic controls as specified in Section C403.2.4.1, C403.2.4.1.3, C403.2.4.2, C403.2.4.3, C403.3.1, C403.4, C403.4.1 or C403.4.4.

    C403.2.4.1Thermostatic controls.

    The supply of heating and cooling energy to each zone shall be controlled by individual thermostatic controls capable of responding to temperature within the zone. Where humidification or dehumidification or both is provided, at least one humidity control device shall be provided for each humidity control system.

    Exception: Independent perimeter systems that are designed to offset only building envelope heat losses, gains or both serving one or more perimeter zones also served by an interior system provided:

    1. 1.The perimeter system includes at least one thermostatic control zone for each building exposure having exterior walls facing only one orientation (within +/-45 degrees) (0.8 rad) for more than 50 contiguous feet (15 240 mm); and

    2. 2.The perimeter system heating and cooling supply is controlled by thermostats located within the zones served by the system.

    C403.2.4.1.1Heat pump supplementary heat.

    Heat pumps having supplementary electric resistance heat shall have controls that, except during defrost, prevent supplementary heat operation where the heat pump can provide the heating load.

    C403.2.4.1.2Deadband.

    Where used to control both heating and cooling, zone thermostatic controls shall be capable of providing a temperature range or deadband of at least 5°F (2.8°C) within which the supply of heating and cooling energy to the zone is capable of being shut off or reduced to a minimum.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Thermostats requiring manual changeover between heating and cooling modes.

    2. 2.Occupancies or applications requiring precision in indoor temperature control as approved by the code official.

    C403.2.4.1.3Set point overlap restriction.

    Where a zone has a separate heating and a separate cooling thermostatic control located within the zone, a limit switch, mechanical stop or direct digital control system with software programming shall be provided with the capability to prevent the heating set point from exceeding the cooling set point and to maintain a deadband in accordance with Section C403.2.4.1.2.

    C403.2.4.2Off-hour controls.

    Each zone shall be provided with thermostatic setback controls that are controlled by either an automatic time clock or programmable control system.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Zones that will be operated continuously.

    2. 2.Zones with a full HVAC load demand not exceeding 6,800 Btu/h (2 kW) and having a readily accessible manual shutoff switch.

    C403.2.4.2.1Thermostatic setback capabilities.

    Thermostatic setback controls shall have the capability to set back or temporarily operate the system to maintain zone temperatures down to 55°F (13°C) or up to 85°F (29°C).

    C403.2.4.2.2Automatic setback and shutdown capabilities.

    Automatic time clock or programmable controls shall be capable of starting and stopping the system for seven different daily schedules per week and retaining their programming and time setting during a loss of power for at least 10 hours. Additionally, the controls shall have a manual override that allows temporary operation of the system for up to 2 hours; a manually operated timer capable of being adjusted to operate the system for up to 2 hours; or an occupancy sensor.

    C403.2.4.2.3Automatic start capabilities.

    Automatic start controls shall be provided for each HVAC system. The controls shall be capable of automatically adjusting the daily start time of the HVAC system in order to bring each space to the desired occupied temperature immediately prior to scheduled occupancy.

    C403.2.4.3Shutoff dampers.

    Outdoor air intake and exhaust openings and stairway and shaft vents shall be provided with Class I motorized dampers. The dampers shall have an air leakage rate not greater than 4 cfm/ft2 (20.3 L/s · m2) of damper surface area at 1.0 inch water gauge (249 Pa) and shall be labeled by an approved agency when tested in accordance with AMCA 500D for such purpose.

    Outdoor air intake and exhaust dampers shall be installed with automatic controls configured to close when the systems or spaces served are not in use or during unoccupied period warm-up and setback operation, unless the systems served require outdoor or exhaust air in accordance with the International Mechanical Code or the dampers are opened to provide intentional economizer cooling.

    Stairway and shaft vent dampers shall be installed with automatic controls configured to open upon the activation of any fire alarm initiating device of the building’s fire alarm system or the interruption of power to the damper.

    Exception: Gravity (nonmotorized) dampers shall be permitted to be used as follows:

    1. 1.In buildings less than three stories in height above grade plane.

    2. 2.In buildings of any height located in Climate Zones 1, 2 or 3.

    3. 3.Where the design exhaust capacity is not greater than 300 cfm (142 L/s).

    Gravity (nonmotorized) dampers shall have an air leakage rate not greater than 20 cfm/ft2 (101.6 L/s · m2) where not less than 24 inches (610 mm) in either dimension and 40 cfm/ft2 (203.2 L/s · m2) where less than 24 inches (610 mm) in either dimension. The rate of air leakage shall be determined at 1.0 inch water gauge (249 Pa) when tested in accordance with AMCA 500D for such purpose. The dampers shall be labeled by an approved agency.

    C403.2.4.4Zone isolation.

    HVAC systems serving zones that are over 25,000 square feet (2323 m2) in floor area or that span more than one floor and are designed to operate or be occupied nonsimultaneously shall be divided into isolation areas. Each isolation area shall be equipped with isolation devices and controls configured to automatically shut off the supply of conditioned air and outdoor air to and exhaust air from the isolation area. Each isolation area shall be controlled independently by a device meeting the requirements of Section C403.2.4.2.2. Central systems and plants shall be provided with controls and devices that will allow system and equipment operation for any length of time while serving only the smallest isolation area served by the system or plant.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Exhaust air and outdoor air connections to isolation areas where the fan system to which they connect is not greater than 5,000 cfm (2360 L/s).

    2. 2.Exhaust airflow from a single isolation area of less than 10 percent of the design airflow of the exhaust system to which it connects.

    3. 3.Isolation areas intended to operate continuously or intended to be inoperative only when all other isolation areas in a zone are inoperative.

    C403.2.4.5Snow- and ice-melt system controls.

    Snow- and ice-melting systems shall include automatic controls capable of shutting off the system when the pavement temperature is above 50°F (10°C) and no precipitation is falling and an automatic or manual control that will allow shutoff when the outdoor temperature is above 40°F (4°C).

    C403.2.4.6Freeze protection system controls.

    Freeze protection systems, such as heat tracing of outdoor piping and heat exchangers, including self-regulating heat tracing, shall include automatic controls configured to shut off the systems when outdoor air temperatures are above 40°F (4°C) or when the conditions of the protected fluid will prevent freezing.

    C403.2.4.7Economizer fault detection and diagnostics (FDD).

    Air-cooled unitary direct-expansion units listed in Tables C403.2.3(1) through C403.2.3(3) and variable refrigerant flow (VRF) units that are equipped with an economizer in accordance with Section C403.3 shall include a fault detection and diagnostics (FDD) system complying with the following:

    1. 1.The following temperature sensors shall be permanently installed to monitor system operation:

      1. 1.1.Outside air.

      2. 1.2.Supply air.

      3. 1.3.Return air.

    2. 2.Temperature sensors shall have an accuracy of ±2°F (1.1°C) over the range of 40°F to 80°F (4°C to 26.7°C).

    3. 3.Refrigerant pressure sensors, where used, shall have an accuracy of ±3 percent of full scale.

    4. 4.The unit controller shall be capable of providing system status by indicating the following:

      1. 4.1.Free cooling available.

      2. 4.2.Economizer enabled.

      3. 4.3.Compressor enabled.

      4. 4.4.Heating enabled.

      5. 4.5.Mixed air low limit cycle active.

      6. 4.6.The current value of each sensor.

    5. 5.The unit controller shall be capable of manually initiating each operating mode so that the operation of compressors, economizers, fans and the heating system can be independently tested and verified.

    6. 6.The unit shall be capable of reporting faults to a fault management application accessible by dayto-day operating or service personnel, or annunciated locally on zone thermostats.

    7. 7.The FDD system shall be capable of detecting the following faults:

      1. 7.1.Air temperature sensor failure/fault.

      2. 7.2.Not economizing when the unit should be economizing.

      3. 7.3.Economizing when the unit should not be economizing.

      4. 7.4.Damper not modulating.

      5. 7.5.Excess outdoor air.

    C403.2.5Hot water boiler outdoor temperature setback control.

    Hot water boilers that supply heat to the building through one- or two-pipe heating systems shall have an outdoor setback control that lowers the boiler water temperature based on the outdoor temperature.

    C403.2.6Ventilation.

    Ventilation, either natural or mechanical, shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 4 of the International Mechanical Code. Where mechanical ventilation is provided, the system shall provide the capability to reduce the outdoor air supply to the minimum required by Chapter 4 of the International Mechanical Code.

    C403.2.6.1Demand controlled ventilation.

    Demand control ventilation (DCV) shall be provided for spaces larger than 500 square feet (46.5 m2) and with an average occupant load of 25 people per 1,000 square feet (93 m2) of floor area (as established in Table 403.3.1.1 of the International Mechanical Code) and served by systems with one or more of the following:

    1. 1.An air-side economizer.

    2. 2.Automatic modulating control of the outdoor air damper.

    3. 3.A design outdoor airflow greater than 3,000 cfm (1416 L/s).

    Exception: Demand control ventilation is not required for systems and spaces as follows:

    1. 1.Systems with energy recovery complying with Section C403.2.7.

    2. 2.Multiple-zone systems without direct digital control of individual zones communicating with a central control panel.

    3. 3.Systems with a design outdoor airflow less than 1,200 cfm (566 L/s).

    4. 4.Spaces where the supply airflow rate minus any makeup or outgoing transfer air requirement is less than 1,200 cfm (566 L/s).

    5. 5.Ventilation provided for process loads only.

    C403.2.6.2Enclosed parking garage ventilation controls.

    Enclosed parking garages used for storing or handling automobiles operating under their own power shall employ contamination-sensing devices and automatic controls configured to stage fans or modulate fan average airflow rates to 50 percent or less of design capacity, or intermittently operate fans less than 20 percent of the occupied time or as required to maintain acceptable contaminant levels in accordance with International Mechanical Code provisions. Failure of contamination sensing devices shall cause the exhaust fans to operate continuously at design airflow.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Garages with a total exhaust capacity less than 22,500 cfm (10 620 L/s) with ventilation systems that do not utilize heating or mechanical cooling.

    2. 2.Garages that have a garage area to ventilation system motor nameplate power ratio that exceeds 1125 cfm/hp (710 L/s/kW) and do not utilize heating or mechanical cooling.

    C403.2.7Energy recovery ventilation systems.

    Where the supply airflow rate of a fan system exceeds the values specified in Tables C403.2.7(1) and C403.2.7(2), the system shall include an energy recovery system. The energy recovery system shall have the capability to provide a change in the enthalpy of the outdoor air supply of not less than 50 percent of the difference between the outdoor air and return air enthalpies, at design conditions. Where an air economizer is required, the energy recovery system shall include a bypass or controls which permit operation of the economizer as required by Section C403.3.

    Exception: An energy recovery ventilation system shall not be required in any of the following conditions:

    1. 1.Where energy recovery systems are prohibited by the International Mechanical Code.

    2. 2.Laboratory fume hood systems that include at least one of the following features:

      1. 2.1.Variable-air-volume hood exhaust and room supply systems capable of reducing exhaust and makeup air volume to 50 percent or less of design values.

      2. 2.2.Direct makeup (auxiliary) air supply equal to at least 75 percent of the exhaust rate, heated not warmer than 2°F (1.1°C) above room setpoint, cooled to not cooler than 3°F (1.7°C) below room setpoint, no humidification added, and no simultaneous heating and cooling used for dehumidification control.

    3. 3.Systems serving spaces that are heated to less than 60°F (15.5°C) and are not cooled.

    4. 4.Where more than 60 percent of the outdoor heating energy is provided from site-recovered or site solar energy.

    5. 5.Heating energy recovery in Climate Zones 1 and 2.

    6. 6.Cooling energy recovery in Climate Zones 3C, 4C, 5B, 5C, 6B, 7 and 8.

    7. 7.Systems requiring dehumidification that employ energy recovery in series with the cooling coil.

    8. 8.Where the largest source of air exhausted at a single location at the building exterior is less than 75 percent of the design outdoor air flow rate.

    9. 9.Systems expected to operate less than 20 hours per week at the outdoor air percentage covered by Table C403.2.7(1).

    10. 10.Systems exhausting toxic, flammable, paint or corrosive fumes or dust.

    11. 11.Commercial kitchen hoods used for collecting and removing grease vapors and smoke.

    TABLE C403.2.7(1)

    ENERGY RECOVERY REQUIREMENT (Ventilation systems operating less than 8,000 hours per year)

    CLIMATE ZONEPERCENT (%) OUTDOOR AIR AT FULL DESIGN AIRFLOW RATE
    ≥ 10% and < 20%≥ 20% and < 30%≥ 30% and < 40%≥ 40% and < 50%≥ 50% and < 60%≥ 60% and < 70%≥ 70% and < 80%≥ 80%
    DESIGN SUPPLY FAN AIRFLOW RATE (cfm)
    3B, 3C, 4B, 4C, 5BNRNRNRNRNRNRNRNR
    1B, 2B, 5CNRNRNRNR≥ 26,000≥ 12,000≥ 5,000≥ 4,000
    6B≥ 28,000≥ 26,5000≥ 11,000≥ 5,500≥ 4,500≥ 3,500≥ 2,500≥ 1,500
    1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A≥ 26,000≥ 16,000≥ 5,500≥ 4,500≥ 3,500≥ 2,000≥ 1,000>0
    7,8≥ 4,500≥ 4,000≥ 2,500≥ 1,000>0>0>0>0

    For SI: 1 cfm = 0.4719 L/s.

    NR = Not Required.

    TABLE C403.2.7(2)

    ENERGY RECOVERY REQUIREMENT (Ventilation systems operating not less than 8,000 hours per year)

    CLIMATE ZONEPERCENT (%) OUTDOOR AIR AT FULL DESIGN AIRFLOW RATE
    ≥ 10% and < 20%≥ 20% and < 30%≥ 30% and < 40%≥ 40% and < 50%≥ 50% and < 60%≥ 60% and < 70%≥ 70% and < 80%≥ 80%
    Design Supply Fan Airflow Rate (cfm)
    3CNRNRNRNRNRNRNRNR
    1B, 2B, 3B, 4C, 5CNR≥ 19,500≥ 9,000≥ 5,000≥ 4,000≥ 3,000≥ 1,500> 0
    1A, 2A, 3A, 4B, 5B≥ 2,500≥ 2,000≥ 1,000≥ 500> 0> 0> 0> 0
    4A, 5A, 6A, 6B, 7, 8> 0> 0> 0> 0> 0> 0> 0> 0

    For SI: 1 cfm = 0.4719 L/s.

    NR = Not required

    C403.2.8Kitchen exhaust systems.

    Replacement air introduced directly into the exhaust hood cavity shall not be greater than 10 percent of the hood exhaust airflow rate. Conditioned supply air delivered to any space shall not exceed the greater of the following:

    1. 1.The ventilation rate required to meet the space heating or cooling load.

    2. 2.The hood exhaust flow minus the available transfer air from adjacent space where available transfer air is considered that portion of outdoor ventilation air not required to satisfy other exhaust needs, such as restrooms, and not required to maintain pressurization of adjacent spaces.

    Where total kitchen hood exhaust airflow rate is greater than 5,000 cfm (2360 L/s), each hood shall be a factory-built commercial exhaust hood listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory in compliance with UL 710. Each hood shall have a maximum exhaust rate as specified in Table C403.2.8 and shall comply with one of the following:

    1. 1.Not less than 50 percent of all replacement air shall be transfer air that would otherwise be exhausted.

    2. 2.Demand ventilation systems on not less than 75 percent of the exhaust air that are capable of not less than a 50-percent reduction in exhaust and replacement air system airflow rates, including controls necessary to modulate airflow in response to appliance operation and to maintain full capture and containment of smoke, effluent and combustion products during cooking and idle.

    3. 3.Listed energy recovery devices with a sensible heat recovery effectiveness of not less than 40 percent on not less than 50 percent of the total exhaust airflow.

    Where a single hood, or hood section, is installed over appliances with different duty ratings, the maximum allowable flow rate for the hood or hood section shall be based on the requirements for the highest appliance duty rating under the hood or hood section.

    Exception: Where not less than 75 percent of all the replacement air is transfer air that would otherwise be exhausted

    TABLE C403.2.8

    MAXIMUM NET EXHAUST FLOW RATE, CFM PER LINEAR FOOT OF HOOD LENGTH

    TYPE OF HOODLIGHT-DUTY EQUIPMENTMEDIUM-DUTY EQUIPMENTHEAVY-DUTY EQUIPMENTEXTRA-HEAVY-DUTY EQUIPMENT
    Wall-mounted canopy140210280385
    Single island280350420490
    Double island (per side)175210280385
    Eyebrow175175NANA
    Backshelf/Pass-over210210280NA

    For SI: 1 cfm = 0.4719 L/s; 1 foot = 305 mm.

    NA = Not Allowed.

    C403.2.9Duct and plenum insulation and sealing.

    Supply and return air ducts and plenums shall be insulated with a minimum of R-6 insulation where located in unconditioned spaces and where located outside the building with a minimum of R-8 insulation in Climate Zones 1 through 4 and a minimum of R-12 insulation in Climate Zones 5 through 8. Where located within a building envelope assembly, the duct or plenum shall be separated from the building exterior or unconditioned or exempt spaces by a minimum of R-8 insulation in Climate Zones 1 through 4 and a minimum of R-12 insulation in Climate Zones 5 through 8.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Where located within equipment.

    2. 2.Where the design temperature difference between the interior and exterior of the duct or plenum is not greater than 15°F (8°C).

    Ducts, air handlers and filter boxes shall be sealed. Joints and seams shall comply with Section 603.9 of the International Mechanical Code.

    C403.2.9.1Duct construction.

    Ductwork shall be constructed and erected in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

    C403.2.9.1.1Low-pressure duct systems.

    Longitudinal and transverse joints, seams and connections of supply and return ducts operating at a static pressure less than or equal to 2 inches water gauge (w.g.) (498 Pa) shall be securely fastened and sealed with welds, gaskets, mastics (adhesives), mastic-plus-embedded-fabric systems or tapes installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Pressure classifications specific to the duct system shall be clearly indicated on the construction documents in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

    Exception: Locking-type longitudinal joints and seams, other than the snap-lock and button-lock types, need not be sealed as specified in this section.

    C403.2.9.1.2Medium-pressure duct systems.

    Ducts and plenums designed to operate at a static pressure greater than 2 inches water gauge (w.g.) (498 Pa) but less than 3 inches w.g. (747 Pa) shall be insulated and sealed in accordance with Section C403.2.9. Pressure classifications specific to the duct system shall be clearly indicated on the construction documents in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

    C403.2.9.1.3High-pressure duct systems.

    Ducts and plenums designed to operate at static pressures greater than 3 inches water gauge (747 Pa) shall be insulated and sealed in accordance with Section C403.2.9. In addition, ducts and plenums shall be leak tested in accordance with the SMACNA HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test Manual and shown to have a rate of air leakage (CL) less than or equal to 4.0 as determined in accordance with Equation 4-8.

    Eq0008.jpg(Equation 4-8)

    where:

    F=The measured leakage rate in cfm per 100 square feet of duct surface.
    SL =The static pressure of the test.

    Documentation shall be furnished by the designer demonstrating that representative sections totaling at least 25 percent of the duct area have been tested and that all tested sections comply with the requirements of this section.

    C403.2.10Piping insulation.

    Piping serving as part of a heating or cooling system shall be thermally insulated in accordance with Table C403.2.10.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Factory-installed piping within HVAC equipment tested and rated in accordance with a test procedure referenced by this code.

    2. 2.Factory-installed piping within room fan-coils and unit ventilators tested and rated according to AHRI 440 (except that the sampling and variation provisions of Section 6.5 shall not apply) and AHRI 840, respectively.

    3. 3.Piping that conveys fluids that have a design operating temperature range between 60°F (15°C) and 105°F (41°C).

    4. 4.Piping that conveys fluids that have not been heated or cooled through the use of fossil fuels or electric power.

    5. 5.Strainers, control valves, and balancing valves associated with piping 1 inch (25 mm) or less in diameter.

    6. 6.Direct buried piping that conveys fluids at or below 60°F (15°C).

    TABLE C403.2.10

    MINIMUM PIPE INSULATION THICKNESS (in inches)a, c

    FLUID OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGE AND USAGE (°F)INSULATION CONDUCTIVITYNOMINAL PIPE OR TUBE SIZE (inches)
    Conductivity Btu · in./(h · ft2· °F)bMean Rating Temperature, °F< 11 to < 1 1/21 1/2 to < 44 to < 8≥ 8
    > 3500.32 – 0.342504.55.05.05.05.0
    251 – 3500.29 – 0.322003.04.04.54.54.5
    201 – 2500.27 – 0.301502.52.52.53.03.0
    141 – 2000.25 – 0.291251.51.52.02.02.0
    105 – 1400.21 – 0.281001.01.01.51.51.5
    40 – 600.21 – 0.27750.50.51.01.01.0
    < 400.20 – 0.26500.51.01.01.01.5

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8.

    1. a.For piping smaller than 11/2 inches and located in partitions within conditioned spaces, reduction of these thicknesses by 1 inch shall be permitted (before thickness adjustment required in footnote b) but not to a thickness less than 1 inch.

    2. b.For insulation outside the stated conductivity range, the minimum thickness (T) shall be determined as follows:

    3. Eq0009.jpg

      where:

      T=minimum insulation thickness,
      r=actual outside radius of pipe,
      t=insulation thickness listed in the table for applicable fluid temperature and pipe size,
      K=conductivity of alternate material at mean rating temperature indicated for the applicable fluid temperature (Btu · in/h · ft2 · °F) and
      k=the upper value of the conductivity range listed in the table for the applicable fluid temperature.
    4. c.For direct-buried heating and hot water system piping, reduction of these thicknesses by 11/2 inches (38 mm) shall be permitted (before thickness adjustment required in footnote b but not to thicknesses less than 1 inch (25 mm).

    C403.2.10.1Protection of piping insulation.

    Piping insulation exposed to the weather shall be protected from damage, including that due to sunlight, moisture, equipment maintenance and wind, and shall provide shielding from solar radiation that can cause degradation of the material. Adhesive tape shall not be permitted.

    C403.2.11Mechanical systems commissioning and completion requirements.

    Mechanical systems shall be commissioned and completed in accordance with Section C408.2.

    C403.2.12Air system design and control.

    Each HVAC system having a total fan system motor nameplate horsepower (hp) exceeding 5 hp (3.7 kW) shall comply with the provisions of Sections C403.2.12.1 through C403.2.12.3.

    C403.2.12.1Allowable fan motor horsepower.

    Each HVAC system at fan system design conditions shall not exceed the allowable fan system motor nameplate hp (Option 1) or fan system bhp (Option 2) as shown in Table C403.2.12.1(1). This includes supply fans, exhaust fans, return/relief fans, and fan-powered terminal units associated with systems providing heating or cooling capability.

    Single-zone variable air volume systems shall comply with the constant volume fan power limitation.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Hospital, vivarium and laboratory systems that utilize flow control devices on exhaust or return to maintain space pressure relationships necessary for occupant health and safety or environmental control shall be permitted to use variable volume fan power limitation.

    2. 2.Individual exhaust fans with motor nameplate horsepower of 1 hp (0.746 kW) or less are exempt from the allowable fan horsepower requirement.

    TABLE C403.2.12.1(1)

    FAN POWER LIMITATION

    LIMITCONSTANT VOLUMEVARIABLE VOLUME
    Option 1: Fan system motor nameplate hpAllowable nameplate motor hphp ≤ CFMs · 0.0011hp ≤ CFMs · 0.0015
    Option 2: Fan system bhpAllowable fan system bhpbhp ≤ CFMS · 0.00094 + Abhp ≤CFMS · 0.0013 + A

    For SI: 1 bhp = 735.5 W, 1 hp = 745.5 W, 1 cfm = 0.4719 L/s.

    where:

    CFMS=The maximum design supply airflow rate to conditioned spaces served by the system in cubic feet per minute.
    hp=The maximum combined motor nameplate horsepower.
    Bhp=The maximum combined fan brake horsepower.
    A=Sum of [PD × CFMD/4131]

    where:

    PD=Each applicable pressure drop adjustment from Table C403.2.12.1(2) in. w.c.
    CFMD=The design airflow through each applicable device from Table C403.2.12.1(2) in cubic feet per minute.

    TABLE C403.2.12.1(2)

    FAN POWER LIMITATION PRESSURE DROP ADJUSTMENT

    DEVICEADJUSTMENT
    Credits
    Fully ducted return and/or exhaust air systems0.5 inch w.c. (2.15 in w.c. for laboratory and vivarium systems)
    Return and/or exhaust airflow control devices0.5 inch w.c.
    Exhaust filters, scrubbers or other exhaust treatmentThe pressure drop of device calculated at fan system design condition
    Particulate filtration credit: MERV 9 thru 120.5 inch w.c.
    Particulate filtration credit: MERV 13 thru 150.9 inch. w.c.
    Particulate filtration credit: MERV 16 and greater andelectronically enhanced filtersPressure drop calculated at 2x clean filter pressure drop at fan system design condition.
    Carbon and other gas-phase air cleanersClean filter pressure drop at fan system design condition.
    Biosafety cabinetPressure drop of device at fan system design condition.
    Energy recovery device, other than coil runaround loop(2.2 × energy recovery effectiveness) – 0.5 inch w.c. for each airstream.
    Coil runaround loop0.6 inch w.c. for each airstream.
    Evaporative humidifier/cooler in series with another cooling coilPressure drop of device at fan system design conditions.
    Sound attenuation section (fans serving spaces with designbackground noise goals below NC35)0.15 inch w.c.
    Exhaust system serving fume hoods0.35 inch w.c.
    Laboratory and vivarium exhaust systems in high-rise buildings0.25 inch w.c./100 feet of vertical duct exceeding 75 feet.
    Deductions
    Systems without central cooling device- 0.6 in. w.c.
    Systems without central heating device- 0.3 in. w.c.
    Systems with central electric resistance heat- 0.2 in. w.c.

    For SI: 1 inch w.c. = 249 Pa, 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    w.c. = water column, NC = Noise criterion.

    C403.2.12.2Motor nameplate horsepower.

    For each fan, the fan brake horsepower shall be indicated on the construction documents and the selected motor shall be not larger than the first available motor size greater than the following:

    1. 1.For fans less than 6 bhp (4413 W), 1.5 times the fan brake horsepower.

    2. 2.For fans 6 bhp (4413 W) and larger, 1.3 times the fan brake horsepower.

    3. 3.Systems complying with Section C403.2.12.1fan system motor nameplate hp (Option 1).

    C403.2.12.3Fan efficiency.

    Fans shall have a fan efficiency grade (FEG) of not less than 67 when determined in accordance with AMCA 205 by an approved, independent testing laboratory and labeled by the manufacturer. The total efficiency of the fan at the design point of operation shall be within 15 percentage points of the maximum total efficiency of the fan.

    Exception: The following fans are not required to have a fan efficiency grade:

    1. 1.Fans of 5 hp (3.7 kW) or less as follows:

      1. 1.1.Single fan with a motor nameplate horsepower of 5 hp (3.7 kW) or less, unless Exception 1.2 applies.

      2. 1.2.Multiple fans in series or parallel that have a combined motor nameplate horsepower of 5 hp (3.7 kW) or less and are operated as the functional equivalent of a single fan.

    2. 2.Fans that are part of equipment covered under Section C403.2.3.

    3. 3.Fans included in an equipment package certified by an approved agency for air or energy performance.

    4. 4.Powered wall/roof ventilators.

    5. 5.Fans outside the scope of AMCA 205.

    6. 6.Fans that are intended to operate only during emergency conditions.

    C403.2.13Heating outside a building.

    Systems installed to provide heat outside a building shall be radiant systems.

    Such heating systems shall be controlled by an occupancy sensing device or a timer switch, so that the system is automatically deenergized when no occupants are present.

    C403.2.14Refrigeration equipment performance.

    Refrigeration equipment shall have an energy use in kWh/day not greater than the values of Tables C403.2.14(1) and C403.2.14(2) when tested and rated in accordance with AHRI Standard 1200. The energy use shall be verified through certification under an approved certification program or, where a certification program does not exist, the energy use shall be supported by data furnished by the equipment manufacturer.

    TABLE C403.2.14(1)

    MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATION

    EQUIPMENT TYPEAPPLICATIONENERGY USE LIMITS (kWh per day)aTEST PROCEDURE
    Refrigerator with solid doorsHolding Temperature0.10 · V + 2.04AHRI 1200
    Refrigerator with transparent doors0.12 · V + 3.34
    Freezers with solid doors0.40 · V + 1.38
    Freezers with transparent doors0.75 · V + 4.10
    Refrigerators/freezers with solid doorsthe greater of 0.12 · V + 3.34 or 0.70
    Commercial refrigeratorsPulldown0.126 · V + 3.51
    1. a.V = volume of the chiller or frozen compartment as defined in AHAM-HRF-1.

    TABLE C403.2.14(2)

    MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATORS AND FREEZERS

    EQUIPMENT TYPEENERGY USE LIMITS (kWh/day)a, bTEST PROCEDURE
    Equipment ClasscFamily CodeOperating ModeRating Temperature
    VOP.RC.MVertical openRemote condensingMedium0.82 · TDA + 4.07AHRI 1200
    SVO.RC.MSemivertical openRemote condensingMedium0.83 · TDA + 3.18
    HZO.RC.MHorizontal openRemote condensingMedium0.35 · TDA + 2.88
    VOP.RC.LVertical openRemote condensingLow2.27 · TDA + 6.85
    HZO.RC.LHorizontal openRemote condensingLow0.57 · TDA + 6.88
    VCT.RC.MVertical transparent doorRemote condensingMedium0.22 TDA + 1.95
    VCT.RC.LVerticaltransparent doorRemote condensingLow0.56 · TDA + 2.61
    SOC.RC.MService over counterRemote condensingMedium0.51 · TDA + 0.11
    VOP.SC.MVertical openSelf-containedMedium1.74 · TDA + 4.71
    SVO.SC.MSemivertical openSelf-containedMedium1.73 · TDA + 4.59
    HZO.SC.MHorizontal openSelf-containedMedium0.77 · TDA + 5.55
    HZO.SC.LHorizontal openSelf-containedLow1.92 · TDA + 7.08
    VCT.SC.IVerticaltransparent doorSelf-containedIce cream0.67 · TDA + 3.29
    VCS.SC.IVertical solid doorSelf-containedIce cream0.38 · V + 0.88
    HCT.SC.IHorizontaltransparent doorSelf-containedIce cream0.56 · TDA + 0.43
    SVO.RC.LSemivertical openRemote condensingLow2.27 · TDA + 6.85
    VOP.RC.IVertical openRemote condensingIce cream2.89 · TDA + 8.7
    SVO.RC.ISemivertical openRemote condensingIce cream2.89 · TDA + 8.7
    HZO.RC.IHorizontal openRemote condensingIce cream0.72 · TDA + 8.74
    VCT.RC.IVertical transparent doorRemote condensingIce cream0.66 · TDA + 3.05
    HCT.RC.MHorizontal transparent doorRemote condensingMedium0.16 · TDA + 0.13
    HCT.RC.LHorizontaltransparent doorRemote condensingLow0.34 · TDA + 0.26
    HCT.RC.IHorizontaltransparent doorRemote condensingIce cream