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  • Part IIGeneral Safety Provisions

    CHAPTER 3
    GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

    SECTION301
    GENERAL

    301.1 Scope.

    The provisions of this chapter shall govern the occupancy and maintenance of all structures and premises for precautions against fire and the spread of fire and general requirements of fire safety.

    301.2 Permits.

    Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6 for the activities or uses regulated by Sections 306, 307, 308 and 315.

    SECTION302
    DEFINITIONS

    302.1 Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    BONFIRE.

    HI-BOY.

    HIGH-VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION LINE.

    OPEN BURNING.

    PORTABLE OUTDOOR FIREPLACE.

    POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK.

    RECREATIONAL FIRE.

    SKY LANTERN.

    SECTION303
    ASPHALT KETTLES

    303.1 Transporting.

    Asphalt (tar) kettles shall not be transported over any highway, road or street when the heat source for the kettle is operating.

    Exception: Asphalt (tar) kettles in the process of patching road surfaces.

    303.2 Location.

    Asphalt (tar) kettles shall not be located within 20 feet (6096 mm) of any combustible material, combustible building surface or any building opening and within a controlled area identified by the use of traffic cones, barriers or other approved means. Asphalt (tar) kettles and pots shall not be utilized inside or on the roof of a building or structure. Roofing kettles and operating asphalt (tar) kettles shall not block means of egress, gates, roadways or entrances.

    303.3 Location of fuel containers.

    Fuel containers shall be located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from the burner.

    Exception: Containers properly insulated from heat or flame are allowed to be within 2 feet (610 mm) of the burner.

    303.4 Attendant.

    An operating kettle shall be attended by not less than one employee knowledgeable of the operations and hazards. The employee shall be within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of the kettle and have the kettle within sight. Ladders or similar obstacles shall not form a part of the route between the attendant and the kettle.

    303.5 Fire extinguishers.

    There shall be a portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 and with a minimum 40-B:C rating within 25 feet (7620 mm) of each asphalt (tar) kettle during the period such kettle is being utilized. Additionally, there shall be one portable fire extinguisher with a minimum 3-A:40-B:C rating on the roof being covered.

    303.6 Lids.

    Asphalt (tar) kettles shall be equipped with tight-fitting lids.

    303.7 Hi-boys.

    Hi-boys shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. Hi-boys shall be limited to a capacity of 55 gallons (208 L). Fuel sources or heating elements shall not be allowed as part of a hi-boy.

    303.8 Roofing kettles.

    Roofing kettles shall be constructed of noncombustible materials.

    303.9 Fuel containers under air pressure.

    Fuel containers that operate under air pressure shall not exceed 20 gallons (76 L) in capacity and shall be approved.

    SECTION304
    COMBUSTIBLE WASTE MATERIAL

    304.1 Waste accumulation prohibited.

    Combustible waste material creating a fire hazard shall not be allowed to accumulate in buildings or structures or upon premises.

    304.1.1 Waste material.

    Accumulations of wastepaper, wood, hay, straw, weeds, litter or combustible or flammable waste or rubbish of any type shall not be permitted to remain on a roof or in any court, yard, vacant lot, alley, parking lot, open space, or beneath a grandstand, bleacher, pier, wharf, manufactured home, recreational vehicle or other similar structure.

    304.1.2 Vegetation.

    Weeds, grass, vines or other growth that is capable of being ignited and endangering property, shall be cut down and removed by the owner or occupant of the premises. Vegetation clearance requirements in urban-wildland interface areas shall be in accordance with the International Wildland-Urban Interface Code.

    304.1.3 Space underneath seats.

    Spaces underneath grandstand and bleacher seats shall be kept free from combustible and flammable materials. Except where enclosed in not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction in accordance with the International Building Code, spaces underneath grandstand and bleacher seats shall not be occupied or utilized for purposes other than means of egress.

    304.2 Storage.

    Storage of combustible rubbish shall not produce conditions that will create a nuisance or a hazard to the public health, safety or welfare.

    304.3 Containers.

    Combustible rubbish, and waste material kept within or near a structure shall be stored in accordance with Sections 304.3.1 through 304.3.4.

    304.3.1 Spontaneous ignition.

    Materials susceptible to spontaneous ignition, such as oily rags, shall be stored in a listed disposal container. Contents of such containers shall be removed and disposed of daily.

    304.3.2 Capacity exceeding 5.33 cubic feet.

    Containers with a capacity exceeding 5.33 cubic feet (40 gallons) (0.15 m3) shall be provided with lids. Containers and lids shall be constructed of noncombustible materials or of combustible materials with a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 300 kW/m2 where tested in accordance with ASTM E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m2 in the horizontal orientation.

    Exception: Wastebaskets complying with Section 808.

    304.3.3 Capacity exceeding 1.5 cubic yards.

    Dumpsters and containers with an individual capacity of 1.5 cubic yards [40.5 cubic feet (1.15 m3)] or more shall not be stored in buildings or placed within 5 feet (1524 mm) of combustible walls, openings or combustible roof eave lines.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Dumpsters or containers in areas protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3.

    2. 2.Storage in a structure shall not be prohibited where the structure is of Type I or IIA construction, located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from other buildings and used exclusively for dumpster or container storage.

    304.3.4 Capacity of 1 cubic yard or more.

    Dumpsters with an individual capacity of 1.0 cubic yard [200 gallons (0.76 m3)] or more shall not be stored in buildings or placed within 5 feet (1524 mm) of combustible walls, openings or combustible roof eave lines unless the dumpsters are constructed of noncombustible materials or of combustible materials with a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 300 kW/m2 where tested in accordance with ASTM E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m2 in the horizontal orientation.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Dumpsters in areas protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3.

    2. 2.Storage in a structure shall not be prohibited where the structure is of Type I or IIA construction, located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from other buildings and used exclusively for dumpster or container storage.

    SECTION305
    IGNITION SOURCES

    305.1 Clearance from ignition sources.

    Clearance between ignition sources, such as luminaires, heaters, flame-producing devices and combustible materials, shall be maintained in an approved manner.

    305.2 Hot ashes and spontaneous ignition sources.

    Hot ashes, cinders, smoldering coals or greasy or oily materials subject to spontaneous ignition shall not be deposited in a combustible receptacle, within 10 feet (3048 mm) of other combustible material including combustible walls and partitions or within 2 feet (610 mm) of openings to buildings.

    Exception: The minimum required separation distance to other combustible materials shall be 2 feet (610 mm) where the material is deposited in a covered, noncombustible receptacle placed on a noncombustible floor, ground surface or stand.

    305.3 Open-flame warning devices.

    Open-flame warning devices shall not be used along an excavation, road, or any place where the dislodgment of such device might permit the device to roll, fall or slide on to any area or land containing combustible material.

    305.4 Deliberate or negligent burning.

    It shall be unlawful to deliberately or through negligence set fire to or cause the burning of combustible material in such a manner as to endanger the safety of persons or property.

    305.5 Unwanted fire ignitions.

    Acts or processes that have caused repeated ignition of unwanted fires shall be modified to prevent future ignition.

    SECTION306
    MOTION PICTURE PROJECTION ROOMS AND FILM

    306.1 Motion picture projection rooms.

    Electric arc, xenon or other light source projection equipment that develops hazardous gases, dust or radiation and the projection of ribbon-type cellulose nitrate film, regardless of the light source used in projection, shall be operated within a motion picture projection room complying with Section 409 of the International Building Code.

    306.2 Cellulose nitrate film storage.

    Storage of cellulose nitrate film shall be in accordance with NFPA 40.

    SECTION307
    OPEN BURNING, RECREATIONAL FIRES AND
    PORTABLE OUTDOOR FIREPLACES

    307.1 General.

    A person shall not kindle or maintain or authorize to be kindled or maintained any open burning unless conducted and approved in accordance with Sections 307.1.1 through 307.5.

    307.1.1 Prohibited open burning.

    Open burning shall be prohibited when atmospheric conditions or local circumstances make such fires hazardous.

    Exception: Prescribed burning for the purpose of reducing the impact of wildland fire when authorized by the fire code official.

    307.2 Permit required.

    A permit shall be obtained from the fire code official in accordance with Section 105.6 prior to kindling a fire for recognized silvicultural or range or wildlife management practices, prevention or control of disease or pests, or a bonfire. Application for such approval shall only be presented by and permits issued to the owner of the land upon which the fire is to be kindled.

    307.2.1 Authorization.

    Where required by state or local law or regulations, open burning shall only be permitted with prior approval from the state or local air and water quality management authority, provided that all conditions specified in the authorization are followed.

    307.3 Extinguishment authority.

    Where open burning creates or adds to a hazardous situation, or a required permit for open burning has not been obtained, the fire code official is authorized to order the extinguishment of the open burning operation.

    307.4 Location.

    The location for open burning shall be not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from any structure, and provisions shall be made to prevent the fire from spreading to within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of any structure.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Fires in approved containers that are not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) from a structure.

    2. 2.The minimum required distance from a structure shall be 25 feet (7620 mm) where the pile size is 3 feet (914 mm) or less in diameter and 2 feet (610 mm) or less in height.

    307.4.1 Bonfires.

    A bonfire shall not be conducted within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of a structure or combustible material unless the fire is contained in a barbecue pit. Conditions that could cause a fire to spread within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of a structure shall be eliminated prior to ignition.

    307.4.2 Recreational fires.

    Recreational fires shall not be conducted within 25 feet (7620 mm) of a structure or combustible material. Conditions that could cause a fire to spread within 25 feet (7620 mm) of a structure shall be eliminated prior to ignition.

    307.4.3 Portable outdoor fireplaces.

    Portable outdoor fireplaces shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and shall not be operated within 15 feet (3048 mm) of a structure or combustible material.

    Exception: Portable outdoor fireplaces used at one- and two-family dwellings.

    307.5 Attendance.

    Open burning, bonfires, recreational fires and use of portable outdoor fireplaces shall be constantly attended until the fire is extinguished. A minimum of one portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 with a minimum 4-A rating or other approved on-site fire-extinguishing equipment, such as dirt, sand, water barrel, garden hose or water truck, shall be available for immediate utilization.

    SECTION308
    OPEN FLAMES

    308.1 General.

    Open flame, fire and burning on all premises shall be in accordance with Sections 308.1.1 through 308.4.1 and with other applicable sections of this code.

    308.1.1 Where prohibited.

    A person shall not take or utilize an open flame or light in a structure, vessel, boat or other place where highly flammable, combustible or explosive material is utilized or stored. Lighting appliances shall be well-secured in a glass globe and wire mesh cage or a similar approved device.

    308.1.2 Throwing or placing sources of ignition.

    A person shall not throw or place, or cause to be thrown or placed, a lighted match, cigar, cigarette, matches, or other flaming or glowing substance or object on any surface or article where it can cause an unwanted fire.

    308.1.3 Torches for removing paint.

    A person utilizing a torch or other flame-producing device for removing paint from a structure shall provide not less than one portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 and with a minimum 4-A rating, two portable fire extinguishers, each with a minimum 2-A rating, or a water hose connected to the water supply on the premises where such burning is done. The person doing the burning shall remain on the premises 1 hour after the torch or flame-producing device is utilized.

    308.1.4 Open-flame cooking devices.

    Charcoal burners and other open-flame cooking devices shall not be operated on combustible balconies or within 10 feet (3048 mm) of combustible construction.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.One- and two-family dwellings.

    2. 2.Where buildings, balconies and decks are protected by an automatic sprinkler system.

    3. 3.LP-gas cooking devices having LP-gas container with a water capacity not greater than 21/2 pounds [nominal 1 pound (0.454 kg) LP-gas capacity].

    308.1.5 Location near combustibles.

    Open flames such as from candles, lanterns, kerosene heaters and gas-fired heaters shall not be located on or near decorative material or similar combustible materials.

    308.1.6 Open-flame devices.

    Torches and other devices, machines or processes liable to start or cause fire shall not be operated or used in or upon wildfire risk areas, except by a permit in accordance with Section 105.6 secured from the fire code official.

    Exception: Use within inhabited premises or designated campsites that are not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) from grass-, grain-, brush- or forest-covered areas.

    308.1.6.1 Signals and markers.

    Flame-employing devices, such as lanterns or kerosene road flares, shall not be operated or used as a signal or marker in or upon wildfire risk areas.

    Exception: The proper use of fusees at the scenes of emergencies or as required by standard railroad operating procedures.

    308.1.6.2 Portable fueled open-flame devices.

    Portable open-flame devices fueled by flammable or combustible gases or liquids shall be enclosed or installed in such a manner as to prevent the flame from contacting combustible material.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.LP-gas-fueled devices used for sweating pipe joints or removing paint in accordance with Chapter 61.

    2. 2.Cutting and welding operations in accordance with Chapter 35.

    3. 3.Torches or flame-producing devices in accordance with Section 308.4.

    4. 4.Candles and open-flame decorative devices in accordance with Section 308.3.

    308.1.6.3 Sky lanterns.

    A person shall not release or cause to be released an untethered sky lantern.

    308.1.7 Religious ceremonies.

    When, in the opinion of the fire code official, adequate safeguards have been taken, participants in religious ceremonies are allowed to carry hand-held candles. Hand-held candles shall not be passed from one person to another while lighted.

    308.1.7.1 Aisles and exits.

    Candles shall be prohibited in areas where occupants stand, or in an aisle or exit.

    308.1.8 Flaming food and beverage preparation.

    The preparation of flaming foods or beverages in places of assembly and drinking or dining establishments shall be in accordance with Sections 308.1.8.1 through 308.1.8.5.

    308.1.8.1 Dispensing.

    Flammable or combustible liquids used in the preparation of flaming foods or beverages shall be dispensed from one of the following:

    1. 1.A 1-ounce (29.6 ml) container.

    2. 2.A container not exceeding 1-quart (946.5 ml) capacity with a controlled pouring device that will limit the flow to a 1-ounce (29.6 ml) serving.

    308.1.8.2 Containers not in use.

    Containers shall be secured to prevent spillage when not in use.

    308.1.8.3 Serving of flaming food.

    The serving of flaming foods or beverages shall be done in a safe manner and shall not create high flames. The pouring, ladling or spooning of liquids is restricted to a maximum height of 8 inches (203 mm) above the receiving receptacle.

    308.1.8.4 Location.

    Flaming foods or beverages shall be prepared only in the immediate vicinity of the table being serviced. They shall not be transported or carried while burning.

    308.1.8.5 Fire protection.

    The person preparing the flaming foods or beverages shall have a wet cloth towel immediately available for use in smothering the flames in the event of an emergency.

    308.2 Permits required.

    Permits shall be obtained from the fire code official in accordance with Section 105.6 prior to engaging in the following activities involving open flame, fire and burning:

    1. 1.Use of a torch or flame-producing device to remove paint from a structure.

    2. 2.Use of open flame, fire or burning in connection with Group A or E occupancies.

    3. 3.Use or operation of torches and other devices, machines or processes liable to start or cause fire in or upon wild-fire risk areas.

    308.3 Group A occupancies.

    Open-flame devices shall not be used in a Group A occupancy.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Open-flame devices are allowed to be used in the following situations, provided approved precautions are taken to prevent ignition of a combustible material or injury to occupants:

      1. 1.1.Where necessary for ceremonial or religious purposes in accordance with Section 308.1.7.

      2. 1.2.On stages and platforms as a necessary part of a performance in accordance with Section 308.3.2.

      3. 1.3.Where candles on tables are securely supported on substantial noncombustible bases and the candle flames are protected.

    2. 2.Heat-producing equipment complying with Chapter 6 and the International Mechanical Code.

    3. 3.Gas lights are allowed to be used provided adequate precautions satisfactory to the fire code official are taken to prevent ignition of combustible materials.

    308.3.1 Open-flame decorative devices.

    Open-flame decorative devices shall comply with all of the following restrictions:

    1. 1.Class I and Class II liquids and LP-gas shall not be used.

    2. 2.Liquid- or solid-fueled lighting devices containing more than 8 ounces (237 ml) of fuel must self-extinguish and not leak fuel at a rate of more than 0.25 teaspoon per minute (1.26 ml per minute) if tipped over.

    3. 3.The device or holder shall be constructed to prevent the spillage of liquid fuel or wax at the rate of more than 0.25 teaspoon per minute (1.26 ml per minute) when the device or holder is not in an upright position.

    4. 4.The device or holder shall be designed so that it will return to the upright position after being tilted to an angle of 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from vertical.

      Exception: Devices that self-extinguish if tipped over and do not spill fuel or wax at the rate of more than 0.25 teaspoon per minute (1.26 ml per minute) if tipped over.

    5. 5.The flame shall be enclosed except where openings on the side are not more than 0.375-inch (9.5 mm) diameter or where openings are on the top and the distance to the top is such that a piece of tissue paper placed on the top will not ignite in 10 seconds.

    6. 6.Chimneys shall be made of noncombustible materials and securely attached to the open-flame device.

      Exception: A chimney is not required to be attached to any open-flame device that will self-extinguish if the device is tipped over.

    7. 7.Fuel canisters shall be safely sealed for storage.

    8. 8.Storage and handling of combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 57.

    9. 9.Shades, where used, shall be made of noncombustible materials and securely attached to the open-flame device holder or chimney.

    10. 10.Candelabras with flame-lighted candles shall be securely fastened in place to prevent overturning, and shall be located away from occupants using the area and away from possible contact with drapes, curtains or other combustibles.

    308.3.2 Theatrical performances.

    Where approved, open-flame devices used in conjunction with theatrical performances are allowed to be used when adequate safety precautions have been taken in accordance with NFPA 160.

    308.4 Group R occupancies.

    Open flame, fire and burning in Group R occupancies shall comply with the requirements of Sections 308.1 through 308.1.6.3 and Section 308.4.1.

    308.4.1 Group R-2 dormitories.

    Candles, incense and similar open-flame-producing items shall not be allowed in sleeping units in Group R-2 dormitory occupancies.

    SECTION309
    POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS AND EQUIPMENT

    309.1 General.

    Powered industrial trucks and similar equipment including, but not limited to, floor scrubbers and floor buffers, shall be operated and maintained in accordance with Section 309.2 through 309.6.

    309.2 Battery chargers.

    Battery chargers shall be of an approved type. Combustible storage shall be kept not less than 3 feet (915 mm) from battery chargers. Battery charging shall not be conducted in areas accessible to the public.

    309.3 Ventilation.

    Ventilation shall be provided in an approved manner in battery-charging areas to prevent a dangerous accumulation of flammable gases.

    309.4 Fire extinguishers.

    Battery-charging areas shall be provided with a fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 having a minimum 4-A:20-B:C rating within 20 feet (6096 mm) of the battery charger.

    309.5 Refueling.

    Powered industrial trucks using liquid fuel, LP-gas or hydrogen shall be refueled outside of buildings or in areas specifically approved for that purpose. Fixed fuel-dispensing equipment and associated fueling operations shall be in accordance with Chapter 23. Other fuel-dispensing equipment and operations, including cylinder exchange for LP-gas-fueled vehicles, shall be in accordance with Chapter 57 for flammable and combustible liquids or Chapter 61 for LP-gas.

    309.6 Repairs.

    Repairs to fuel systems, electrical systems and repairs utilizing open flame or welding shall be done in approved locations outside of buildings or in areas specifically approved for that purpose.

    SECTION310
    SMOKING

    310.1 General.

    The smoking or carrying of a lighted pipe, cigar, cigarette or any other type of smoking paraphernalia or material is prohibited in the areas indicated in Sections 310.2 through 310.8.

    310.2 Prohibited areas.

    Smoking shall be prohibited where conditions are such as to make smoking a hazard, and in spaces where flammable or combustible materials are stored or handled.

    310.3 “No Smoking” signs.

    The fire code official is authorized to order the posting of “No Smoking” signs in a conspicuous location in each structure or location in which smoking is prohibited. The content, lettering, size, color and location of required “No Smoking” signs shall be approved.

    Exception: In Group I-2 occupancies where smoking is prohibited, “No Smoking” signs are not required in interior locations of the facility where signs are displayed at all major entrances into the facility.

    310.4 Removal of signs prohibited.

    A posted “No Smoking” sign shall not be obscured, removed, defaced, mutilated or destroyed.

    310.5 Compliance with “No Smoking” signs.

    Smoking shall not be permitted nor shall a person smoke, throw or deposit any lighted or smoldering substance in any place where “No Smoking” signs are posted.

    310.6 Ash trays.

    Where smoking is permitted, suitable non-combustible ash trays or match receivers shall be provided on each table and at other appropriate locations.

    310.7 Burning objects.

    Lighted matches, cigarettes, cigars or other burning object shall not be discarded in such a manner that could cause ignition of other combustible material.

    310.8 Hazardous environmental conditions.

    Where the fire code official determines that hazardous environmental conditions necessitate controlled use of smoking materials, the ignition or use of such materials in mountainous, brush-covered or forest-covered areas or other designated areas is prohibited except in approved designated smoking areas.

    SECTION311
    VACANT PREMISES

    311.1 General.

    Temporarily unoccupied buildings, structures, premises or portions thereof, including tenant spaces, shall be safeguarded and maintained in accordance with Sections 311.1.1 through 311.6.

    311.1.1 Abandoned premises.

    Buildings, structures and premises for which an owner cannot be identified or located by dispatch of a certificate of mailing to the last known or registered address, which persistently or repeatedly become unprotected or unsecured, which have been occupied by unauthorized persons or for illegal purposes, or which present a danger of structural collapse or fire spread to adjacent properties shall be considered abandoned, declared unsafe and abated by demolition or rehabilitation in accordance with the International Property Maintenance Code and the International Building Code.

    311.1.2 Tenant spaces.

    Storage and lease plans required by this code shall be revised and updated to reflect temporary or partial vacancies.

    311.2 Safeguarding vacant premises.

    Temporarily unoccupied buildings, structures, premises or portions thereof shall be secured and protected in accordance with Sections 311.2.1 through 311.2.3.

    311.2.1 Security.

    Exterior and interior openings accessible to other tenants or unauthorized persons shall be boarded, locked, blocked or otherwise protected to prevent entry by unauthorized individuals. The fire code official is authorized to placard, post signs, erect barrier tape or take similar measures as necessary to secure public safety.

    311.2.2 Fire protection.

    Fire alarm, sprinkler and stand-pipe systems shall be maintained in an operable condition at all times.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Where the premises have been cleared of all combustible materials and debris and, in the opinion of the fire code official, the type of construction, fire separation distance and security of the premises do not create a fire hazard.

    2. 2.Where approved by the fire chief, buildings that will not be heated and where fire protection systems will be exposed to freezing temperatures, fire alarm and sprinkler systems are permitted to be placed out of service and standpipes are permitted to be maintained as dry systems (without an automatic water supply), provided the building has no contents or storage, and windows, doors and other openings are secured to prohibit entry by unauthorized persons.

    311.2.3 Fire separation.

    Fire-resistance-rated partitions, fire barriers and fire walls separating vacant tenant spaces from the remainder of the building shall be maintained. Openings, joints and penetrations in fire-resistance-rated assemblies shall be protected in accordance with Chapter 7.

    311.3 Removal of combustibles.

    Persons owning, or in charge or control of, a vacant building or portion thereof, shall remove therefrom all accumulations of combustible materials, flammable or combustible waste or rubbish and shall securely lock or otherwise secure doors, windows and other openings to prevent entry by unauthorized persons. The premises shall be maintained clear of waste or hazardous materials.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Buildings or portions of buildings undergoing additions, alterations, repairs or change of occupancy in accordance with the International Building Code, where waste is controlled and removed as required by Section 304.

    2. 2.Seasonally occupied buildings.

    311.4 Removal of hazardous materials.

    Persons owning or having charge or control of a vacant building containing hazardous materials regulated by Chapter 50 shall comply with the facility closure requirements of Section 5001.6.

    311.5 Placards.

    Any vacant or abandoned buildings or structures determined to be unsafe pursuant to Section 110 of this code relating to structural or interior hazards shall be marked as required by Sections 311.5.1 through 311.5.5.

    311.5.1 Placard location.

    Placards shall be applied on the front of the structure and be visible from the street. Additional placards shall be applied to the side of each entrance to the structure and on penthouses.

    311.5.2 Placard size and color.

    Placards shall be 24 inches by 24 inches (610 mm by 610 mm) minimum in size with a red background, white reflective stripes and a white reflective border. The stripes and border shall have a 2-inch (51 mm) minimum stroke.

    311.5.3 Placard date.

    Placards shall bear the date of their application to the building and the date of the most recent inspection.

    311.5.4 Placard symbols.

    The design of the placards shall use the following symbols:

    1. 1. This symbol shall mean that the structure had normal structural conditions at the time of marking.

    2. 2. This symbol shall mean that structural or interior hazards exist and interior fire-fighting or rescue operations should be conducted with extreme caution.

    3. 3. This symbol shall mean that structural or interior hazards exist to a degree that consideration should be given to limit fire fighting to exterior operations only, with entry only occurring for known life hazards.

    4. 4.Vacant marker hazard identification symbols: The following symbols shall be used to designate known hazards on the vacant building marker. They shall be placed directly above the symbol.

      1. 4.1.R/O—Roof open

      2. 4.2.S/M—Stairs, steps and landing missing

      3. 4.3.F/E—Avoid fire escapes

      4. 4.4.H/F—Holes in floor

    311.5.5 Informational use.

    The use of these symbols shall be informational only and shall not in any way limit the discretion of the on-scene incident commander.

    311.6 Unoccupied tenant spaces in mall buildings.

    Unoccupied tenant spaces in covered and open mall buildings shall be:

    1. 1.Kept free from the storage of any materials.

    2. 2.Separated from the remainder of the building by partitions of not less than 0.5-inch-thick (12.7 mm) gypsum board or an approved equivalent to the underside of the ceiling of the adjoining tenant spaces.

    3. 3.Without doors or other access openings other than one door that shall be kept key locked in the closed position except during that time when opened for inspection.

    4. 4.Kept free from combustible waste and be broomswept clean.

    SECTION312
    VEHICLE IMPACT PROTECTION

    312.1 General.

    Vehicle impact protection required by this code shall be provided by posts that comply with Section 312.2 or by other approved physical barriers that comply with Section 312.3.

    312.2 Posts.

    Guard posts shall comply with all of the following requirements:

    1. 1.Constructed of steel not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in diameter and concrete filled.

    2. 2.Spaced not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) between posts on center.

    3. 3.Set not less than 3 feet (914 mm) deep in a concrete footing of not less than a 15-inch (381 mm) diameter.

    4. 4.Set with the top of the posts not less than 3 feet (914 mm) above ground.

    5. 5.Located not less than 3 feet (914 mm) from the protected object.

    312.3 Other barriers.

    Barriers, other than posts specified in Section 312.2, that are designed to resist, deflect or visually deter vehicular impact commensurate with an anticipated impact scenario shall be permitted where approved.

    SECTION313
    FUELED EQUIPMENT

    313.1 General.

    Fueled equipment including, but not limited to, motorcycles, mopeds, lawn-care equipment, portable generators and portable cooking equipment, shall not be stored, operated or repaired within a building.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Buildings or rooms constructed for such use in accordance with the International Building Code.

    2. 2.Where allowed by Section 314.

    3. 3.Storage of equipment utilized for maintenance purposes is allowed in approved locations where the aggregate fuel capacity of the stored equipment does not exceed 10 gallons (38 L) and the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    313.1.1 Removal.

    The fire code official is authorized to require removal of fueled equipment from locations where the presence of such equipment is determined by the fire code official to be hazardous.

    313.2 Group R occupancies.

    Vehicles powered by flammable liquids, Class II combustible liquids or compressed flammable gases shall not be stored within the living space of Group R buildings.

    SECTION314
    INDOOR DISPLAYS

    314.1 General.

    Indoor displays constructed within any occupancy shall comply with Sections 314.2 through 314.4.

    314.2 Fixtures and displays.

    Fixtures and displays of goods for sale to the public shall be arranged so as to maintain free, immediate and unobstructed access to exits as required by Chapter 10.

    314.3 Highly combustible goods.

    The display of highly combustible goods, including but not limited to fireworks, flammable or combustible liquids, liquefied flammable gases, oxidizing materials, pyroxylin plastics and agricultural goods, in main exit access aisles, corridors, covered and open malls, or within 5 feet (1524 mm) of entrances to exits and exterior exit doors is prohibited where a fire involving such goods would rapidly prevent or obstruct egress.

    314.4 Vehicles.

    Liquid- or gas-fueled vehicles, boats or other motorcraft shall not be located indoors except as follows:

    1. 1.Batteries are disconnected.

    2. 2.Fuel in fuel tanks does not exceed one-quarter tank or 5 gallons (19 L) (whichever is least).

    3. 3.Fuel tanks and fill openings are closed and sealed to prevent tampering.

    4. 4.Vehicles, boats or other motorcraft equipment are not fueled or defueled within the building.

    SECTION315
    GENERAL STORAGE

    315.1 General.

    Storage shall be in accordance with Sections 315.2 through 315.5.

    315.2 Permit required.

    A permit for miscellaneous combustible storage shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.

    315.3 Storage in buildings.

    Storage of materials in buildings shall be orderly and stacks shall be stable. Storage of combustible materials shall be separated from heaters or heating devices by distance or shielding so that ignition cannot occur.

    315.3.1 Ceiling clearance.

    Storage shall be maintained 2 feet (610 mm) or more below the ceiling in nonsprinklered areas of buildings or not less than 18 inches (457 mm) below sprinkler head deflectors in sprinklered areas of buildings.

    315.3.2 Means of egress.

    Combustible materials shall not be stored in exits or enclosures for stairways and ramps.

    315.3.3 Equipment rooms.

    Combustible material shall not be stored in boiler rooms, mechanical rooms, electrical equipment rooms or in fire command centers as specified in Section 508.1.5.

    315.3.4 Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces.

    Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces used for storage of combustible materials shall be protected on the storage side as required for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Openings shall be protected by assemblies that are self-closing and are of noncombustible construction or solid wood core not less than 13/4 inches (44.5 mm) in thickness. Storage shall not be placed on exposed joists.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Areas protected by approved automatic sprinkler systems.

    2. 2.Group R-3 and Group U occupancies.

    315.4 Outside storage.

    Outside storage of combustible materials shall not be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of a lot line.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.The separation distance is allowed to be reduced to 3 feet (914 mm) for storage not exceeding 6 feet (1829 mm) in height.

    2. 2.The separation distance is allowed to be reduced where the fire code official determines that no hazard to the adjoining property exists.

    315.4.1 Storage beneath overhead projections from buildings.

    Where buildings are protected by automatic sprinklers, the outdoor storage, display and handling of combustible materials under eaves, canopies or other projections or overhangs are prohibited except where automatic sprinklers are installed under such eaves, canopies or other projections or overhangs.

    315.4.2 Height.

    Storage in the open shall not exceed 20 feet (6096 mm) in height.

    315.5 Storage underneath high-voltage transmission lines.

    Storage located underneath high-voltage transmission lines shall be in accordance with Section 316.6.2.

    315.6 Storage in plenums.

    Storage shall not be permitted in plenums. Abandoned material in plenums shall be deemed to be storage and shall be removed. Where located in plenums, the accessible portion of abandoned cables that are not identified for future use with a tag shall be deemed storage and shall be removed.

    SECTION316
    HAZARDS TO FIRE FIGHTERS

    316.1 Trapdoors to be closed.

    Trapdoors and scuttle covers, other than those that are within a dwelling unit or automatically operated, shall be kept closed at all times except when in use.

    316.2 Shaftway markings.

    Vertical shafts shall be identified as required by this section.

    316.2.1 Exterior access to shaftways.

    Outside openings accessible to the fire department and that open directly on a hoistway or shaftway communicating between two or more floors in a building shall be plainly marked with the word SHAFTWAY in red letters not less than 6 inches (152 mm) high on a white background. Such warning signs shall be placed so as to be readily discernible from the outside of the building.

    316.2.2 Interior access to shaftways.

    Door or window openings to a hoistway or shaftway from the interior of the building shall be plainly marked with the word SHAFTWAY in red letters not less than 6 inches (152 mm) high on a white background. Such warning signs shall be placed so as to be readily discernible.

    Exception: Marking shall not be required on shaftway openings that are readily discernible as openings onto a shaftway by the construction or arrangement.

    316.3 Pitfalls.

    The intentional design or alteration of buildings to disable, injure, maim or kill intruders is prohibited. A person shall not install and use firearms, sharp or pointed objects, razor wire, explosives, flammable or combustible liquid containers, or dispensers containing highly toxic, toxic, irritant or other hazardous materials in a manner that could passively or actively disable, injure, maim or kill a fire fighter who forcibly enters a building for the purpose of controlling or extinguishing a fire, rescuing trapped occupants or rendering other emergency assistance.

    316.4 Obstructions on roofs.

    Wires, cables, ropes, antennas, or other suspended obstructions installed on the roof of a building having a roof slope of less than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) shall not create an obstruction that is less than 7 feet (2133 mm) high above the surface of the roof.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Such obstruction shall be permitted where the wire, cable, rope, antenna or suspended obstruction is encased in a white, 2-inch (51 mm) minimum diameter plastic pipe or an approved equivalent.

    2. 2.Such obstruction shall be permitted where there is a solid obstruction below such that accidentally walking into the wire, cable, rope, antenna or suspended obstruction is not possible.

    316.5 Security device.

    Any security device or system that emits any medium that could obscure a means of egress in any building, structure or premise shall be prohibited.

    316.6 Structures and outdoor storage underneath high-voltage transmission lines.

    Structures and outdoor storage underneath high-voltage transmission lines shall comply with Sections 316.6.1 and 316.6.2, respectively.

    316.6.1 Structures.

    Structures shall not be constructed within the utility easement beneath high-voltage transmission lines.

    Exception: Restrooms and unoccupied telecommunication structures of noncombustible construction less than 15 feet (4572 mm) in height.

    316.6.2 Outdoor storage.

    Outdoor storage within the utility easement underneath high-voltage transmission lines shall be limited to noncombustible material. Storage of hazardous materials including, but not limited to, flammable and combustible liquids is prohibited.

    Exception: Combustible storage, including vehicles and fuel storage for backup power equipment serving public utility equipment, is allowed, provided that a plan indicating the storage configuration is submitted and approved.

    SECTION317
    ROOFTOP GARDENS AND LANDSCAPED ROOFS

    317.1 General.

    Rooftop gardens and landscaped roofs shall be installed and maintained in accordance with Sections 317.2 through 317.5 and Sections 1505 and 1507.16 of the International Building Code.

    317.2 Rooftop garden or landscaped roof size.

    Rooftop garden or landscaped roof areas shall not exceed 15,625 square feet (1450 m2) in size for any single area with a maximum dimension of 125 feet (39 m) in length or width. A minimum 6-foot-wide (1.8 m) clearance consisting of a Class A-rated roof system complying with ASTM E 108 or UL 790 shall be provided between adjacent rooftop gardens or landscaped roof areas.

    317.3 Rooftop structure and equipment clearance.

    For all vegetated roofing systems abutting combustible vertical surfaces, a Class A-rated roof system complying with ASTM E 108 or UL 790 shall be achieved for a minimum 6-foot-wide (1829 mm) continuous border placed around rooftop structures and all rooftop equipment including, but not limited to, mechanical and machine rooms, penthouses, skylights, roof vents, solar panels, antenna supports and building service equipment.

    317.4 Vegetation.

    Vegetation shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 317.4.1 and 317.4.2.

    317.4.1 Irrigation.

    Supplemental irrigation shall be provided to maintain levels of hydration necessary to keep green roof plants alive and to keep dry foliage to a minimum.

    317.4.2 Dead foliage.

    Excess biomass, such as overgrown vegetation, leaves and other dead and decaying material, shall be removed at regular intervals not less than two times per year.

    317.4.3 Maintenance plan.

    The fire code official is authorized to require a maintenance plan for vegetation placed on roofs due to the size of a roof garden, materials used or where a fire hazard exists to the building or exposures due to the lack of maintenance.

    317.5 Maintenance equipment.

    Fueled equipment stored on roofs and used for the care and maintenance of vegetation on roofs shall be stored in accordance with Section 313.

    SECTION318
    LAUNDRY CARTS

    318.1 Laundry carts with a capacity of 1 cubic yard or more.

    Laundry carts with an individual capacity of 1 cubic yard [200 gallons (0.76 m3)] or more, used in laundries within Group B, E, F-1, I, M and R-1 occupancies, shall be constructed of noncombustible materials or materials having a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 300 kW/m2 at a flux of 50 kW/m2 where tested in a horizontal orientation in accordance with ASTM E 1354.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Laundry carts in areas protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    2. 2.Laundry carts in coin-operated laundries.

    CHAPTER4
    EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS

    SECTION401
    GENERAL

    401.1 Scope.

    Reporting of emergencies, coordination with emergency response forces, emergency plans and procedures for managing or responding to emergencies shall comply with the provisions of this section.

    Exception: Firms that have approved on-premises fire-fighting organizations and that are in compliance with approved procedures for fire reporting.

    401.2 Approval.

    Where required by this code, fire safety plans, emergency procedures and employee training programs shall be approved by the fire code official.

    401.3 Emergency responder notification.

    Notification of emergency responders shall be in accordance with Sections 401.3.1 through 401.3.3.

    401.3.1 Fire events.

    In the event an unwanted fire occurs on a property, the owner or occupant shall immediately report such condition to the fire department.

    401.3.2 Alarm activations.

    Upon activation of a fire alarm signal, employees or staff shall immediately notify the fire department.

    401.3.3 Delayed notification.

    A person shall not, by verbal or written directive, require any delay in the reporting of a fire to the fire department.

    401.4 Required plan implementation.

    In the event an unwanted fire is detected in a building or a fire alarm activates, the emergency plan shall be implemented.

    401.5 Making false report.

    A person shall not give, signal or transmit a false alarm.

    401.6 Emergency evacuation drills.

    The sounding of a fire alarm signal and the carrying out of an emergency evacuation drill in accordance with the provisions of Section 405 shall be allowed.

    401.7 Unplanned evacuation.

    Evacuations made necessary by the unplanned activation of a fire alarm system or by any other emergency shall not be substituted for a required evacuation drill.

    401.8 Interference with fire department operations.

    It shall be unlawful to interfere with, attempt to interfere with, conspire to interfere with, obstruct or restrict the mobility of or block the path of travel of a fire department emergency vehicle in any way, or to interfere with, attempt to interfere with, conspire to interfere with, obstruct or hamper any fire department operation.

    SECTION402
    DEFINITIONS

    402.1 Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRILL.

    LOCKDOWN.

    SECTION403
    EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS REQUIREMENTS

    403.1 General.

    In addition to the requirements of Section 401, occupancies, uses and outdoor locations shall comply with the emergency preparedness requirements set forth in Sections 403.2 through 403.12.3.3. Where a fire safety and evacuation plan is required by Sections 403.2 through 403.11.4, evacuation drills shall be in accordance with Section 405 and employee training shall be in accordance with Section 406.

    403.2 Group A occupancies.

    An approved fire safety and evacuation plan in accordance with Section 404 shall be prepared and maintained for Group A occupancies, other than those occupancies used exclusively for purposes of religious worship with an occupant load less than 2,000, and for buildings containing both a Group A occupancy and an atrium. Group A occupancies shall comply with Sections 403.2.1 through 403.2.4.

    403.2.1 Seating plan.

    In addition to the requirements of Section 404.2, the fire safety and evacuation plans for assembly occupancies shall include a detailed seating plan, occupant load and occupant load limit. Deviations from the approved plans shall be allowed provided the occupant load limit for the occupancy is not exceeded and the aisles and exit accessways remain unobstructed.

    403.2.2 Announcements.

    In theaters, motion picture theaters, auditoriums and similar assembly occupancies in Group A used for noncontinuous programs, an audible announcement shall be made not more than 10 minutes prior to the start of each program to notify the occupants of the location of the exits to be used in the event of a fire or other emergency.

    Exception: In motion picture theaters, the announcement is allowed to be projected upon the screen in a manner approved by the fire code official.

    403.2.3 Fire watch personnel.

    Fire watch personnel shall be provided where required by Section 403.12.1.

    403.2.4 Crowd managers.

    Crowd managers shall be provided where required by Section 403.12.3.

    403.3 Ambulatory care facilities.

    Ambulatory care facilities shall comply with the requirements of Sections 403.3.1 through 403.3.3 as well as 401 and 404 through 406.

    403.3.1 Fire evacuation plan.

    The fire safety and evacuation plan required by Section 404 shall include a description of special staff actions. This shall include procedures for stabilizing patients in a defend-in-place response, staged evacuation, or full evacuation in conjunction with the entire building if part of a multitenant facility.

    403.3.2 Fire safety plan.

    A copy of the plan shall be maintained at the facility at all times. The plan shall include all of the following in addition to the requirements of Section 404:

    1. 1.Locations of patients who are rendered incapable of self-preservation.

    2. 2.Maximum number of patients rendered incapable of self-preservation.

    3. 3.Area and extent of each ambulatory care facility.

    4. 4.Location of adjacent smoke compartments or refuge areas, where required.

    5. 5.Path of travel to adjacent smoke compartments.

    6. 6.Location of any special locking, delayed egress or access control arrangements.

    403.3.3 Staff training.

    Employees shall be periodically instructed and kept informed of their duties and responsibilities under the plan. Records of instruction shall be maintained. Such instruction shall be reviewed by the staff not less than every two months. A copy of the plan shall be readily available at all times within the facility.

    403.3.4 Emergency evacuation drills.

    Emergency evacuation drills shall comply with Section 405. Emergency evacuation drills shall be conducted not less than four times per year.

    Exceptions: The movement of patients to safe areas or to the exterior of the building is not required.

    403.4 Group B occupancies.

    An approved fire safety and evacuation plan in accordance with Section 404 shall be prepared and maintained for buildings containing a Group B occupancy where the Group B occupancy has an occupant load of 500 or more persons or more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge and for buildings having an ambulatory care facility.

    403.5 Group E occupancies.

    An approved fire safety and evacuation plan in accordance with Section 404 shall be prepared and maintained for Group E occupancies and for buildings containing both a Group E occupancy and an atrium. Group E occupancies shall comply with Sections 403.5.1 through 403.5.3.

    403.5.1 First emergency evacuation drill.

    The first emergency evacuation drill of each school year shall be conducted within 10 days of the beginning of classes.

    403.5.2 Time of day.

    Emergency evacuation drills shall be conducted at different hours of the day or evening, during the changing of classes, when the school is at assembly, during the recess or gymnastic periods, or during other times to avoid distinction between drills and actual fires.

    403.5.3 Assembly points.

    Outdoor assembly areas shall be designated and shall be located a safe distance from the building being evacuated so as to avoid interference with fire department operations. The assembly areas shall be arranged to keep each class separate to provide accountability of all individuals.

    403.6 Group F occupancies.

    An approved fire safety and evacuation plan in accordance with Section 404 shall be prepared and maintained for buildings containing a Group F occupancy where the Group F occupancy has an occupant load of 500 or more persons or more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.

    403.7 Group H occupancies.

    An approved fire safety and evacuation plan in accordance with Section 404 shall be prepared and maintained for Group H occupancies.

    403.7.1 Group H-5 occupancies.

    Group H-5 occupancies shall comply with Sections 403.7.1.1 through 403.7.1.4.

    403.7.1.1 Plans and diagrams.

    In addition to the requirements of Section 404 and Section 407.6, plans and diagrams shall be maintained in approved locations indicating the approximate plan for each area, the amount and type of HPM stored, handled and used, locations of shutoff valves for HPM supply piping, emergency telephone locations and locations of exits.

    403.7.1.2 Plan updating.

    The plans and diagrams required by Sections 404, 403.7.1.1 and 407.6 shall be maintained up to date and the fire code official and fire department shall be informed of major changes.

    403.7.1.3 Emergency response team.

    Responsible persons shall be designated as an on-site emergency response team and trained to be liaison personnel for the fire department. These persons shall aid the fire department in preplanning emergency responses, identifying locations where HPM is stored, handled and used, and be familiar with the chemical nature of such material. An adequate number of personnel for each work shift shall be designated.

    403.7.1.4 Emergency drills.

    Emergency drills of the on-site emergency response team shall be conducted on a regular basis but not less than once every three months. Records of drills conducted shall be maintained.

    403.8 Group I occupancies.

    An approved fire safety and evacuation plan in accordance with Section 404 shall be prepared and maintained for Group I occupancies. Group I occupancies shall comply with Sections 403.8.1 through 403.8.3.4.

    403.8.1 Group I-1 occupancies.

    Group I-1 occupancies shall comply with Sections 403.8.1.1 through 403.8.1.7.

    403.8.1.1 Fire safety and evacuation plan.

    The fire safety and evacuation plan required by Section 404 shall include special employee actions, including fire protection procedures necessary for residents, and shall be amended or revised upon admission of any resident with unusual needs.

    403.8.1.1.1 Fire evacuation plan.

    The fire evacuation plan required by Section 404 shall include a description of special staff actions. In addition to the requirements of Section 404, plans in Group I-1 Condition 2 occupancies shall include procedures for evacuation through a refuge area in an adjacent smoke compartment and then to an exterior assembly point.

    403.8.1.1.2 Fire safety plans.

    A copy of the fire safety plan shall be maintained at the facility at all times. Plans shall include the following in addition to the requirements of Section 404:

    1. 1.Location and number of resident sleeping rooms.

    2. 2.Location of special locking or egress control arrangements.

    403.8.1.2 Employee training.

    Employees shall be periodically instructed and kept informed of their duties and responsibilities under the plan. Such instruction shall be reviewed by employees at intervals not exceeding two months. A copy of the plan shall be readily available at all times within the facility.

    403.8.1.3 Resident training.

    Residents capable of assisting in their own evacuation shall be trained in the proper actions to take in the event of a fire. In Group I-1 Condition 2 occupancies, training shall include evacuation through an adjacent smoke compartment and then to an exterior assembly point. The training shall include actions to take if the primary escape route is blocked. Where the resident is given rehabilitation or habilitation training, methods of fire prevention and actions to take in the event of a fire shall be a part of the rehabilitation training program. Residents shall be trained to assist each other in case of fire to the extent their physical and mental abilities permit them to do so without additional personal risk.

    403.8.1.4 Drill frequency.

    In addition to the evacuation drills required in Section 405.2, employees shall participate in drills an additional two times a year on each shift. Twelve drills with all occupants shall be conducted in the first year of operation. Drills are not required to comply with the time requirements of Section 405.4.

    403.8.1.5 Drill times.

    Drill times are not required to comply with Section 405.4.

    403.8.1.6 Resident participation in drills.

    Emergency evacuation drills shall involve the actual evacuation of residents to a selected assembly point and shall provide residents with experience in exiting through all required exits. All required exits shall be used during emergency evacuation drills.

    403.8.1.7 Emergency evacuation drill deferral.

    In severe climates, the fire code official shall have the authority to modify the emergency evacuation drill frequency specified in Section 405.2.

    403.8.2 Group I-2 occupancies.

    Group I-2 occupancies shall comply with Sections 403.8.2.1 through 403.8.2.3 as well as 401 and 404 through 406.

    403.8.2.1 Fire evacuation plans.

    The fire safety and evacuation plans required by Section 404 shall include a description of special staff actions. Plans shall include all of the following in addition to the requirements of Section 404.

    1. 1.Procedures for evacuation for patients with needs for containment or restraint and post-evacuation containment, where present.

    2. 2.A written plan for maintenance of the means of egress.

    3. 3.Procedure for a defend-in-place strategy.

    4. 4.Procedures for a full-floor or building evacuation, where necessary.

    403.8.2.2 Fire safety plans.

    A copy of the plan shall be maintained at the facility at all times. Plans shall include all of the following in addition to the requirements of Section 404:

    1. 1.Location and number of patient sleeping rooms and operating rooms.

    2. 2.Location of adjacent smoke compartments or refuge areas.

    3. 3.Path of travel to adjacent smoke compartments.

    4. 4.Location of special locking, delayed egress or access control arrangements.

    5. 5.Location of elevators utilized for patient movement in accordance with the fire safety plan, where provided.

    403.8.2.3 Emergency evacuation drills.

    Emergency evacuation drills shall comply with Section 405.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.The movement of patients to safe areas or to the exterior of the building is not required.

    2. 2.Where emergency evacuation drills are conducted after visiting hours or where patients or residents are expected to be asleep, a coded announcement shall be an acceptable alternative to audible alarms.

    403.8.3 Group I-3 occupancies.

    Group I-3 occupancies shall comply with Sections 403.8.3.1 through 403.8.3.4.

    403.8.3.1 Employee training.

    Employees shall be instructed in the proper use of portable fire extinguishers and other manual fire suppression equipment. Training of new employees shall be provided promptly upon entrance to duty. Refresher training shall be provided not less than annually.

    403.8.3.2 Employee staffing.

    Group I-3 occupancies shall be provided with 24-hour staffing. An employee shall be within three floors or 300 feet (91 440 mm) horizontal distance of the access door of each resident housing area. In Group I-3 Conditions 3, 4 and 5, as defined in Chapter 2, the arrangement shall be such that the employee involved can start release of locks necessary for emergency evacuation or rescue and initiate other necessary emergency actions within 2 minutes of an alarm.

    Exception: An employee shall not be required to be within three floors or 300 feet (91 440 mm) horizontal distance of the access door of each resident housing area in areas in which all locks are unlocked remotely and automatically in accordance with Section 408.4 of the International Building Code.

    403.8.3.3 Notification.

    Provisions shall be made for residents in Group I-3 Conditions 3, 4 and 5, as defined in Chapter 2, to readily notify an employee of an emergency.

    403.8.3.4 Keys.

    Keys necessary for unlocking doors installed in a means of egress shall be individually identifiable by both touch and sight.

    403.9 Group M occupancies.

    An approved fire safety and evacuation plan in accordance with Section 404 shall be prepared and maintained for buildings containing a Group M occupancy where the Group M occupancy has an occupant load of 500 or more persons or more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge and for buildings containing both a Group M occupancy and an atrium.

    403.10 Group R occupancies.

    Group R occupancies shall comply with Sections 403.10.1 through 403.10.3.6.

    403.10.1 Group R-1 occupancies.

    An approved fire safety and evacuation plan in accordance with Section 404 shall be prepared and maintained for Group R-1 occupancies. Group R-1 occupancies shall comply with Sections 403.10.1.1 through 403.10.1.3.

    403.10.1.1 Evacuation diagrams.

    A diagram depicting two evacuation routes shall be posted on or immediately adjacent to every required egress door from each hotel or motel sleeping unit.

    403.10.1.2 Emergency duties.

    Upon discovery of a fire or suspected fire, hotel and motel employees shall perform the following duties:

    1. 1.Activate the fire alarm system, where provided.

    2. 2.Notify the public fire department.

    3. 3.Take other action as previously instructed.

    403.10.1.3 Fire safety and evacuation instructions.

    Information shall be provided in the fire safety and evacuation plan required by Section 404 to allow guests to decide whether to evacuate to the outside, evacuate to an area of refuge, remain in place, or any combination of the three.

    403.10.2 Group R-2 occupancies.

    Group R-2 occupancies shall comply with Sections 403.10.2.1 through 403.10.2.3.

    403.10.2.1 College and university buildings.

    An approved fire safety and evacuation plan in accordance with Section 404 shall be prepared and maintained for Group R-2 college and university buildings. Group R-2 college and university buildings shall comply with Sections 403.10.2.1.1 and 403.10.2.1.2.

    403.10.2.1.1 First emergency evacuation drill.

    The first emergency evacuation drill of each school year shall be conducted within 10 days of the beginning of classes.

    403.10.2.1.2 Time of day.

    Emergency evacuation drills shall be conducted at different hours of the day or evening, during the changing of classes, when school is at assembly, during recess or gymnastic periods or during other times to avoid distinction between drills and actual fires. One required drill shall be held during hours after sunset or before sunrise.

    403.10.2.2 Emergency guide.

    Fire emergency guides shall be provided for Group R-2 occupancies. Guide contents, maintenance and distribution shall comply with Sections 403.10.2.2.1 through 403.10.2.2.3.

    403.10.2.2.1 Guide contents.

    A fire emergency guide shall describe the location, function and use of fire protection equipment and appliances accessible to residents, including fire alarm systems, smoke alarms and portable fire extinguishers. Guides shall include an emergency evacuation plan for each dwelling unit.

    403.10.2.2.2 Emergency guide maintenance.

    Emergency guides shall be reviewed and approved by the fire code official.

    403.10.2.2.3 Emergency guide distribution.

    A copy of the emergency guide shall be given to each tenant prior to initial occupancy.

    403.10.2.3 Evacuation diagrams for dormitories.

    A diagram depicting two evacuation routes shall be posted on or immediately adjacent to every required egress door from each dormitory sleeping unit. Evacuation diagrams shall be reviewed and updated as needed to maintain accuracy.

    403.10.3 Group R-4 occupancies.

    An approved fire safety and evacuation plan in accordance with Section 404 shall be prepared and maintained for Group R-4 occupancies. Group R-4 occupancies shall comply with Sections 403.10.3.1 through 403.10.3.6.

    403.10.3.1 Fire safety and evacuation plan.

    The fire safety and evacuation plan required by Section 404 shall include special employee actions, including fire protection procedures necessary for residents, and shall be amended or revised upon admission of a resident with unusual needs.

    403.10.3.1.1 Fire safety plans.

    A copy of the plan shall be maintained at the facility at all times. Plans shall include the following in addition to the requirements of Section 404:

    1. 1.Location and number of resident sleeping rooms.

    2. 2.Location of special locking or egress control arrangements.

    403.10.3.2 Employee training.

    Employees shall be periodically instructed and kept informed of their duties and responsibilities under the plan. Records of instruction shall be maintained. Such instruction shall be reviewed by employees at intervals not exceeding two months. A copy of the plan shall be readily available at all times within the facility.

    403.10.3.3 Resident training.

    Residents capable of assisting in their own evacuation shall be trained in the proper actions to take in the event of a fire. The training shall include actions to take if the primary escape route is blocked. Where the resident is given rehabilitation or habilitation training, methods of fire prevention and actions to take in the event of a fire shall be a part of the rehabilitation training program. Residents shall be trained to assist each other in case of fire to the extent their physical and mental abilities permit them to do so without additional personal risk.

    403.10.3.4 Drill frequency.

    In addition to the evacuation drills required in Section 405.2, employees shall participate in drills an additional two times a year on each shift. Twelve drills with all occupants shall be conducted in the first year of operation.

    403.10.3.5 Drill times.

    Drill times are not required to comply with Section 405.4.

    403.10.3.6 Resident participation in drills.

    Emergency evacuation drills shall involve the actual evacuation of residents to a selected assembly point and shall provide residents with experience in exiting through all required exits. All required exits shall be used during emergency evacuation drills.

    Exception: Actual exiting from emergency escape and rescue windows shall not be required. Opening the emergency escape and rescue window and signaling for help shall be an acceptable alternative.

    403.11 Special uses.

    Special uses shall be in accordance with Sections 403.11.1 through 403.11.4.

    403.11.1 Covered and open mall buildings.

    Covered and open mall buildings shall comply with the requirements of Sections 403.11.1.1 through 403.11.1.6.

    403.11.1.1 Malls and mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet.

    An approved fire safety and evacuation plan in accordance with Section 404 shall be prepared and maintained for covered malls exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) in aggregate floor area and for open mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) in aggregate area within the perimeter line.

    403.11.1.2 Lease plan.

    In addition to the requirements of Section 404.2.2, a lease plan that includes the following information shall be prepared for each covered and open mall building:

    1. 1.Each occupancy, including identification of tenant.

    2. 2.Exits from each tenant space.

    3. 3.Fire protection features, including the following:

      1. 3.1.Fire department connections.

      2. 3.2.Fire command center.

      3. 3.3.Smoke management system controls.

      4. 3.4.Elevators, elevator machine rooms and controls.

      5. 3.5.Hose valve outlets.

      6. 3.6.Sprinkler and standpipe control valves.

      7. 3.7.Automatic fire-extinguishing system areas.

      8. 3.8.Automatic fire detector zones.

      9. 3.9.Fire barriers.

    403.11.1.3 Lease plan approval.

    The lease plan shall be submitted to the fire code official for approval, and shall be maintained on site for immediate reference by responding fire service personnel.

    403.11.1.4 Lease plan revisions.

    The lease plans shall be revised annually or as often as necessary to keep them current. Modifications or changes in tenants or occupancies shall not be made without prior approval of the fire code official and building official.

    403.11.1.5 Tenant identification.

    Tenant identification shall be provided for secondary exits from occupied tenant spaces that lead to an exit corridor or directly to the exterior of the building. Tenant identification shall be posted on the exterior side of the exit or exit access door and shall identify the business name and address using plainly legible letters and numbers that contrast with their background.

    Exception: Tenant identification is not required for anchor stores.

    403.11.1.6 Unoccupied tenant spaces.

    The fire safety and evacuation plan shall provide for compliance with the requirements for unoccupied tenant spaces in Section 311.

    403.11.2 High-rise buildings.

    An approved fire safety and evacuation plan in accordance with Section 404 shall be prepared and maintained for high-rise buildings.

    403.11.3 Underground buildings.

    An approved fire safety and evacuation plan in accordance with Section 404 shall be prepared and maintained for underground buildings.

    403.11.4 Buildings using occupant evacuation elevators.

    In buildings using occupant evacuation elevators in accordance with Section 3008 of the International Building Code, the fire safety and evacuation plan and the training required by Sections 404 and 406, respectively, shall incorporate specific procedures for the occupants using such elevators.

    403.12 Special requirements for public safety.

    Special requirements for public safety shall be in accordance with Sections 403.12.1 through 403.12.3.3.

    403.12.1 Fire watch personnel.

    Where, in the opinion of the fire code official, it is essential for public safety in a place of assembly or any other place where people congregate, because of the number of persons, or the nature of the performance, exhibition, display, contest or activity, the owner, agent or lessee shall provide one or more fire watch personnel, as required and approved. Fire watch personnel shall comply with Sections 403.12.1.1 and 403.12.1.2.

    403.12.1.1 Duty times.

    Fire watch personnel shall remain on duty while places requiring a fire watch are open to the public, or when an activity requiring a fire watch is being conducted.

    403.12.1.2 Duties.

    On-duty fire watch personnel shall have the following responsibilities:

    1. 1.Keep diligent watch for fires, obstructions to means of egress and other hazards.

    2. 2.Take prompt measures for remediation of hazards and extinguishment of fires that occur.

    3. 3.Take prompt measures to assist in the evacuation of the public from the structures.

    403.12.2 Public safety plan for gatherings.

    Where the fire code official determines that an indoor or outdoor gathering of persons has an adverse impact on public safety through diminished access to buildings, structures, fire hydrants and fire apparatus access roads or where such gatherings adversely affect public safety services of any kind, the fire code official shall have the authority to order the development of or prescribe a public safety plan that provides an approved level of public safety and addresses the following items:

    1. 1.Emergency vehicle ingress and egress.

    2. 2.Fire protection.

    3. 3.Emergency egress or escape routes.

    4. 4.Emergency medical services.

    5. 5.Public assembly areas.

    6. 6.The directing of both attendees and vehicles, including the parking of vehicles.

    7. 7.Vendor and food concession distribution.

    8. 8.The need for the presence of law enforcement.

    9. 9.The need for fire and emergency medical services personnel.

    403.12.3 Crowd managers for gatherings exceeding 1,000 people.

    Where facilities or events involve a gathering of more than 1,000 people, crowd managers shall be provided in accordance with Sections 403.12.3.1 through 403.12.3.3.

    403.12.3.1 Number of crowd managers.

    The minimum number of crowd managers shall be established at a ratio of one crowd manager for every 250 persons.

    Exception: Where approved by the fire code official, the number of crowd managers shall be permitted to be reduced where the facility is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system or based upon the nature of the event.

    403.12.3.2 Training.

    Training for crowd managers shall be approved.

    403.12.3.3 Duties.

    The duties of crowd managers shall include, but not be limited to:

    1. 1.Conduct an inspection of the area of responsibility and identify and address any egress barriers.

    2. 2.Conduct an inspection of the area of responsibility to identify and mitigate any fire hazards.

    3. 3.Verify compliance with all permit conditions, including those governing pyrotechnics and other special effects.

    4. 4.Direct and assist the event attendees in evacuation during an emergency.

    5. 5.Assist emergency response personnel where requested.

    6. 6.Other duties required by the fire code official.

    7. 7.Other duties as specified in the fire safety plan.

    SECTION404
    FIRE SAFETY,
    EVACUATION AND LOCKDOWN PLANS

    404.1 General.

    Where required by Section 403, fire safety, evacuation and lockdown plans shall comply with Sections 404.2 through 404.4.1.

    404.2 Contents.

    Fire safety and evacuation plan contents shall be in accordance with Sections 404.2.1 and 404.2.2.

    404.2.1 Fire evacuation plans.

    Fire evacuation plans shall include the following:

    1. 1.Emergency egress or escape routes and whether evacuation of the building is to be complete by selected floors or areas only or with a defend-in-place response.

    2. 2.Procedures for employees who must remain to operate critical equipment before evacuating.

    3. 3.Procedures for the use of elevators to evacuate the building where occupant evacuation elevators complying with Section 3008 of the International Building Code are provided.

    4. 4.Procedures for assisted rescue for persons unable to use the general means of egress unassisted.

    5. 5.Procedures for accounting for employees and occupants after evacuation has been completed.

    6. 6.Identification and assignment of personnel responsible for rescue or emergency medical aid.

    7. 7.The preferred and any alternative means of notifying occupants of a fire or emergency.

    8. 8.The preferred and any alternative means of reporting fires and other emergencies to the fire department or designated emergency response organization.

    9. 9.Identification and assignment of personnel who can be contacted for further information or explanation of duties under the plan.

    10. 10.A description of the emergency voice/alarm communication system alert tone and preprogrammed voice messages, where provided.

    404.2.2 Fire safety plans.

    Fire safety plans shall include the following:

    1. 1.The procedure for reporting a fire or other emergency.

    2. 2.The life safety strategy including the following:

      1. 2.1.Procedures for notifying occupants, including areas with a private mode alarm system.

      2. 2.2.Procedures for occupants under a defend-in-place response.

      3. 2.3.Procedures for evacuating occupants, including those who need evacuation assistance.

    3. 3.Site plans indicating the following:

      1. 3.1.The occupancy assembly point.

      2. 3.2.The locations of fire hydrants.

      3. 3.3.The normal routes of fire department vehicle access.

    4. 4.Floor plans identifying the locations of the following:

      1. 4.1.Exits.

      2. 4.2.Primary evacuation routes.

      3. 4.3.Secondary evacuation routes.

      4. 4.4.Accessible egress routes.

        1. 4.4.1.Areas of refuge.

        2. 4.4.2.Exterior areas for assisted rescue.

      5. 4.5.Refuge areas associated with smoke barriers and horizontal exits.

      6. 4.6.Manual fire alarm boxes.

      7. 4.7.Portable fire extinguishers.

      8. 4.8.Occupant-use hose stations.

      9. 4.9.Fire alarm annunciators and controls.

    5. 5.A list of major fire hazards associated with the normal use and occupancy of the premises, including maintenance and housekeeping procedures.

    6. 6.Identification and assignment of personnel responsible for maintenance of systems and equipment installed to prevent or control fires.

    7. 7.Identification and assignment of personnel responsible for maintenance, housekeeping and controlling fuel hazard sources.

    404.2.3 Lockdown plans.

    Where facilities develop a lockdown plan, it shall be in accordance with Sections 404.2.3.1 through 404.2.3.3.

    404.2.3.1 Lockdown plan contents.

    Lockdown plans shall be approved by the fire code official and shall include the following:

    1. 1.Initiation. The plan shall include instructions for reporting an emergency that requires a lockdown.

    2. 2.Accountability. The plan shall include accountability procedures for staff to report the presence or absence of occupants.

    3. 3.Recall. The plan shall include a prearranged signal for returning to normal activity.

    4. 4.Communication and coordination. The plan shall include an approved means of two-way communication between a central location and each secured area.

    404.2.3.2 Training frequency.

    The training frequency shall be included in the lockdown plan. The lockdown drills shall not substitute for any of the fire and evacuation drills required in Section 405.2.

    404.2.3.3 Lockdown notification.

    The method of notifying building occupants of a lockdown shall be included in the plan. The method of notification shall be separate and distinct from the fire alarm signal.

    404.3 Maintenance.

    Fire safety and evacuation plans shall be reviewed or updated annually or as necessitated by changes in staff assignments, occupancy or the physical arrangement of the building.

    404.4 Availability.

    Fire safety and evacuation plans shall be available in the workplace for reference and review by employees, and copies shall be furnished to the fire code official for review upon request.

    404.4.1 Distribution.

    The fire safety and evacuation plans shall be distributed to the tenants and building service employees by the owner or owner’s agent. Tenants shall distribute to their employees applicable parts of the fire safety plan affecting the employees’ actions in the event of a fire or other emergency.

    SECTION405
    EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRILLS

    405.1 General.

    Emergency evacuation drills complying with Sections 405.2 through 405.9 shall be conducted not less than annually where fire safety and evacuation plans are required by Section 403 or where required by the fire code official. Drills shall be designed in cooperation with the local authorities.

    405.2 Frequency.

    Required emergency evacuation drills shall be held at the intervals specified in Table 405.2 or more frequently where necessary to familiarize all occupants with the drill procedure.

    TABLE 405.2

    FIRE AND EVACUATION DRILL FREQUENCY AND PARTICIPATION

    GROUP OR OCCUPANCYFREQUENCYPARTICIPATION
    Group AQuarterlyEmployees
    Group BbAnnuallyAll occupants
    Group Bb, c(Ambulatory care facilities)AnnuallyEmployees
    Group Bb(Clinic, outpatient)AnnuallyEmployees
    Group EMonthlyaAll occupants
    Group FAnnuallyEmployees
    Group I-1Semiannuallyon each shiftaAll occupants
    Group I-2Quarterly on each shiftaEmployees
    Group I-3Quarterly on each shiftaEmployees
    Group I-4Monthly on each shiftaAll occupants
    Group R-1Quarterly on each shiftEmployees
    Group R-2dFour annuallyAll occupants
    Group R-4Semiannuallyon each shiftaAll occupants

    1. a.In severe climates, the fire code official shall have the authority to modify the emergency evacuation drill frequency.

    2. b.Emergency evacuation drills are required in Group B buildings having an occupant load of 500 or more persons or more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.

    3. c.Emergency evacuation drills are required in ambulatory care facilities in accordance with Section 403.3.

    4. d.Emergency evacuation drills in Group R-2 college and university buildings shall be in accordance with Section 403.10.2.1. Other Group R-2 occupancies shall be in accordance with Section 403.10.2.2.

    405.3 Leadership.

    Responsibility for the planning and conduct of drills shall be assigned to competent persons designated to exercise leadership.

    405.4 Time.

    Drills shall be held at unexpected times and under varying conditions to simulate the unusual conditions that occur in case of fire.

    405.5 Record keeping.

    Records shall be maintained of required emergency evacuation drills and include the following information:

    1. 1.Identity of the person conducting the drill.

    2. 2.Date and time of the drill.

    3. 3.Notification method used.

    4. 4.Employees on duty and participating.

    5. 5.Number of occupants evacuated.

    6. 6.Special conditions simulated.

    7. 7.Problems encountered.

    8. 8.Weather conditions when occupants were evacuated.

    9. 9.Time required to accomplish complete evacuation.

    405.6 Notification.

    Where required by the fire code official, prior notification of emergency evacuation drills shall be given to the fire code official.

    405.7 Initiation.

    Where a fire alarm system is provided, emergency evacuation drills shall be initiated by activating the fire alarm system.

    405.8 Accountability.

    As building occupants arrive at the assembly point, efforts shall be made to determine if all occupants have been successfully evacuated or have been accounted for.

    405.9 Recall and reentry.

    An electrically or mechanically operated signal used to recall occupants after an evacuation shall be separate and distinct from the signal used to initiate the evacuation. The recall signal initiation means shall be manually operated and under the control of the person in charge of the premises or the official in charge of the incident. Persons shall not reenter the premises until authorized to do so by the official in charge.

    SECTION406
    EMPLOYEE TRAINING AND
    RESPONSE PROCEDURES

    406.1 General.

    Where fire safety and evacuation plans are required by Section 403, employees shall be trained in fire emergency procedures based on plans prepared in accordance with Section 404.

    406.2 Frequency.

    Employees shall receive training in the contents of fire safety and evacuation plans and their duties as part of new employee orientation and not less than annually thereafter. Records of training shall be maintained.

    406.3 Employee training program.

    Employees shall be trained in fire prevention, evacuation and fire safety in accordance with Sections 406.3.1 through 406.3.4.

    406.3.1 Fire prevention training.

    Employees shall be apprised of the fire hazards of the materials and processes to which they are exposed. Each employee shall be instructed in the proper procedures for preventing fires in the conduct of their assigned duties.

    406.3.2 Evacuation training.

    Employees shall be familiarized with the fire alarm and evacuation signals, their assigned duties in the event of an alarm or emergency, evacuation routes, areas of refuge, exterior assembly areas and procedures for evacuation.

    406.3.3 Fire safety training.

    Employees assigned fire-fighting duties shall be trained to know the locations and proper use of portable fire extinguishers or other manual fire-fighting equipment and the protective clothing or equipment required for its safe and proper use.

    406.4 Emergency lockdown training.

    Where a facility has a lockdown plan, employees shall be trained on their assigned duties and procedures in the event of an emergency lockdown.

    SECTION407
    HAZARD COMMUNICATION

    407.1 General.

    The provisions of Sections 407.2 through 407.7 shall be applicable where hazardous materials subject to permits under Section 5001.5 are located on the premises or where required by the fire code official.

    407.2 Material Safety Data Sheets.

    Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for all hazardous materials shall be either readily available on the premises as a paper copy, or where approved, shall be permitted to be readily retrievable by electronic access.

    407.3 Identification.

    Individual containers of hazardous materials, cartons or packages shall be marked or labeled in accordance with applicable federal regulations. Buildings, rooms and spaces containing hazardous materials shall be identified by hazard warning signs in accordance with Section 5003.5.

    407.4 Training.

    Persons responsible for the operation of areas in which hazardous materials are stored, dispensed, handled or used shall be familiar with the chemical nature of the materials and the appropriate mitigating actions necessary in the event of a fire, leak or spill. Responsible persons shall be designated and trained to be liaison personnel for the fire department. These persons shall aid the fire department in preplanning emergency responses and identification of where hazardous materials are located, and shall have access to Material Safety Data Sheets and be knowledgeable in the site emergency response procedures.

    407.5 Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement.

    Where required by the fire code official, each application for a permit shall include a Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement (HMIS) in accordance with Section 5001.5.2.

    407.6 Hazardous Materials Management Plan.

    Where required by the fire code official, each application for a permit shall include a Hazardous Materials Management Plan (HMMP) in accordance with Section 5001.5.1. The fire code official is authorized to accept a similar plan required by other regulations.

    407.7 Facility closure plans.

    The permit holder or applicant shall submit to the fire code official a facility closure plan in accordance with Section 5001.6.3 to terminate storage, dispensing, handling or use of hazardous materials.