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  • Part IIIBuilding and Equipment Design Features

    CHAPTER5
    FIRE SERVICE FEATURES

    SECTION501
    GENERAL

    501.1 Scope.

    Fire service features for buildings, structures and premises shall comply with this chapter.

    501.2 Permits.

    A permit shall be required as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7.

    501.3 Construction documents.

    Construction documents for proposed fire apparatus access, location of fire lanes, security gates across fire apparatus access roads and construction documents and hydraulic calculations for fire hydrant systems shall be submitted to the fire department for review and approval prior to construction.

    501.4 Timing of installation.

    Where fire apparatus access roads or a water supply for fire protection are required to be installed, such protection shall be installed and made serviceable prior to and during the time of construction except when approved alternative methods of protection are provided. Temporary street signs shall be installed at each street intersection where construction of new roadways allows passage by vehicles in accordance with Section 505.2.

    SECTION502
    DEFINITIONS

    502.1 Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    AGENCY.

    FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD.

    FIRE COMMAND CENTER.

    FIRE DEPARTMENT MASTER KEY.

    FIRE LANE.

    KEY BOX.

    TRAFFIC CALMING DEVICES.

    SECTION503
    FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROADS

    503.1 Where required.

    Fire apparatus access roads shall be provided and maintained in accordance with Sections 503.1.1 through 503.1.3.

    503.1.1 Buildings and facilities.

    Approved fire apparatus access roads shall be provided for every facility, building or portion of a building hereafter constructed or moved into or within the jurisdiction. The fire apparatus access road shall comply with the requirements of this section and shall extend to within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of all portions of the facility and all portions of the exterior walls of the first story of the building as measured by an approved route around the exterior of the building or facility.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.The fire code official is authorized to increase the dimension of 150 feet (45 720 mm) where any of the following conditions occur:

      1. 1.1.The building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3.

      2. 1.2.Fire apparatus access roads cannot be installed because of location on property, topography, waterways, nonnegotiable grades or other similar conditions, and an approved alternative means of fire protection is provided.

      3. 1.3.There are not more than two Group R-3 or Group U occupancies.

    2. 2.Where approved by the fire code official, fire apparatus access roads shall be permitted to be exempted or modified for solar photovoltaic power generation facilities.

    503.1.2 Additional access.

    The fire code official is authorized to require more than one fire apparatus access road based on the potential for impairment of a single road by vehicle congestion, condition of terrain, climatic conditions or other factors that could limit access.

    503.1.3 High-piled storage.

    Fire department vehicle access to buildings used for high-piled combustible storage shall comply with the applicable provisions of Chapter 32.

    503.2 Specifications.

    Fire apparatus access roads shall be installed and arranged in accordance with Sections 503.2.1 through 503.2.8.

    503.2.1 Dimensions.

    Fire apparatus access roads shall have an unobstructed width of not less than 20 feet (6096 mm), exclusive of shoulders, except for approved security gates in accordance with Section 503.6, and an unobstructed vertical clearance of not less than 13 feet 6 inches (4115 mm).

    503.2.2 Authority.

    The fire code official shall have the authority to require or permit modifications to the required access widths where they are inadequate for fire or rescue operations or where necessary to meet the public safety objectives of the jurisdiction.

    503.2.3 Surface.

    Fire apparatus access roads shall be designed and maintained to support the imposed loads of fire apparatus and shall be surfaced so as to provide all-weather driving capabilities.

    503.2.4 Turning radius.

    The required turning radius of a fire apparatus access road shall be determined by the fire code official.

    503.2.5 Dead ends.

    Dead-end fire apparatus access roads in excess of 150 feet (45 720 mm) in length shall be provided with an approved area for turning around fire apparatus.

    503.2.6 Bridges and elevated surfaces.

    Where a bridge or an elevated surface is part of a fire apparatus access road, the bridge shall be constructed and maintained in accordance with AASHTO HB-17. Bridges and elevated surfaces shall be designed for a live load sufficient to carry the imposed loads of fire apparatus. Vehicle load limits shall be posted at both entrances to bridges where required by the fire code official. Where elevated surfaces designed for emergency vehicle use are adjacent to surfaces that are not designed for such use, approved barriers, approved signs or both shall be installed and maintained where required by the fire code official.

    503.2.7 Grade.

    The grade of the fire apparatus access road shall be within the limits established by the fire code official based on the fire department’s apparatus.

    503.2.8 Angles of approach and departure.

    The angles of approach and departure for fire apparatus access roads shall be within the limits established by the fire code official based on the fire department’s apparatus.

    503.3 Marking.

    Where required by the fire code official, approved signs or other approved notices or markings that include the words NO PARKING—FIRE LANE shall be provided for fire apparatus access roads to identify such roads or prohibit the obstruction thereof. The means by which fire lanes are designated shall be maintained in a clean and legible condition at all times and be replaced or repaired when necessary to provide adequate visibility.

    503.4 Obstruction of fire apparatus access roads.

    Fire apparatus access roads shall not be obstructed in any manner, including the parking of vehicles. The minimum widths and clearances established in Sections 503.2.1 and 503.2.2 shall be maintained at all times.

    503.4.1.Traffic calming devices.

    Traffic calming devices shall be prohibited unless approved by the fire code official.

    503.5 Required gates or barricades.

    The fire code official is authorized to require the installation and maintenance of gates or other approved barricades across fire apparatus access roads, trails or other accessways, not including public streets, alleys or highways. Electric gate operators, where provided, shall be listed in accordance with UL 325. Gates intended for automatic operation shall be designed, constructed and installed to comply with the requirements of ASTM F 2200.

    503.5.1 Secured gates and barricades.

    Where required, gates and barricades shall be secured in an approved manner. Roads, trails and other accessways that have been closed and obstructed in the manner prescribed by Section 503.5 shall not be trespassed on or used unless authorized by the owner and the fire code official.

    Exception: The restriction on use shall not apply to public officers acting within the scope of duty.

    503.6 Security gates.

    The installation of security gates across a fire apparatus access road shall be approved by the fire chief. Where security gates are installed, they shall have an approved means of emergency operation. The security gates and the emergency operation shall be maintained operational at all times. Electric gate operators, where provided, shall be listed in accordance with UL 325. Gates intended for automatic operation shall be designed, constructed and installed to comply with the requirements of ASTM F 2200.

    SECTION504
    ACCESS TO BUILDING OPENINGS AND ROOFS

    504.1 Required access.

    Exterior doors and openings required by this code or the International Building Code shall be maintained readily accessible for emergency access by the fire department. An approved access walkway leading from fire apparatus access roads to exterior openings shall be provided when required by the fire code official.

    504.2 Maintenance of exterior doors and openings.

    Exterior doors and their function shall not be eliminated without prior approval. Exterior doors that have been rendered nonfunctional and that retain a functional door exterior appearance shall have a sign affixed to the exterior side of the door with the words THIS DOOR BLOCKED. The sign shall consist of letters having a principal stroke of not less than 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) wide and not less than 6 inches (152 mm) high on a contrasting background. Required fire department access doors shall not be obstructed or eliminated. Exit and exit access doors shall comply with Chapter 10. Access doors for high-piled combustible storage shall comply with Section 3206.6.1.

    504.3 Stairway access to roof.

    New buildings four or more stories above grade plane, except those with a roof slope greater than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3-percent slope), shall be provided with a stairway to the roof. Stairway access to the roof shall be in accordance with Section 1011.12. Such stairway shall be marked at street and floor levels with a sign indicating that the stairway continues to the roof. Where roofs are used for roof gardens or for other purposes, stairways shall be provided as required for such occupancy classification.

    SECTION505
    PREMISES IDENTIFICATION

    505.1 Address identification.

    New and existing buildings shall be provided with approved address identification. The address identification shall be legible and placed in a position that is visible from the street or road fronting the property. Address identification characters shall contrast with their background. Address numbers shall be Arabic numbers or alphabetical letters. Numbers shall not be spelled out. Each character shall be not less than 4 inches (102 mm) high with a minimum stroke width of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm). Where required by the fire code official, address identification shall be provided in additional approved locations to facilitate emergency response. Where access is by means of a private road and the building cannot be viewed from the public way, a monument, pole or other sign or means shall be used to identify the structure. Address identification shall be maintained.

    505.2 Street or road signs.

    Streets and roads shall be identified with approved signs. Temporary signs shall be installed at each street intersection when construction of new roadways allows passage by vehicles. Signs shall be of an approved size, weather resistant and be maintained until replaced by permanent signs.

    SECTION506
    KEY BOXES

    506.1 Where required.

    Where access to or within a structure or an area is restricted because of secured openings or where immediate access is necessary for life-saving or fire-fighting purposes, the fire code official is authorized to require a key box to be installed in an approved location. The key box shall be of an approved type listed in accordance with UL 1037, and shall contain keys to gain necessary access as required by the fire code official.

    506.1.1 Locks.

    An approved lock shall be installed on gates or similar barriers where required by the fire code official.

    506.1.2 Key boxes for nonstandardized fire service elevator keys.

    Key boxes provided for nonstandardized fire service elevator keys shall comply with Section 506.1 and all of the following:

    1. 1.The key box shall be compatible with an existing rapid entry key box system in use in the jurisdiction and approved by the fire code official.

    2. 2.The front cover shall be permanently labeled with the words “Fire Department Use Only—Elevator Keys.”

    3. 3.The key box shall be mounted at each elevator bank at the lobby nearest to the lowest level of fire department access.

    4. 4.The key box shall be mounted 5 feet 6 inches (1676 mm) above the finished floor to the right side of the elevator bank.

    5. 5.Contents of the key box are limited to fire service elevator keys. Additional elevator access tools, keys and information pertinent to emergency planning or elevator access shall be permitted where authorized by the fire code official.

    6. 6.In buildings with two or more elevator banks, a single key box shall be permitted to be used where such elevator banks are separated by not more than 30 feet (9144 mm). Additional key boxes shall be provided for each individual elevator or elevator bank separated by more than 30 feet (9144 mm).

    Exception: A single key box shall be permitted to be located adjacent to a fire command center or the nonstandard fire service elevator key shall be permitted to be secured in a key box used for other purposes and located in accordance with Section 506.1.

    506.2 Key box maintenance.

    The operator of the building shall immediately notify the fire code official and provide the new key where a lock is changed or rekeyed. The key to such lock shall be secured in the key box.

    SECTION507
    FIRE PROTECTION WATER SUPPLIES

    507.1 Required water supply.

    An approved water supply capable of supplying the required fire flow for fire protection shall be provided to premises upon which facilities, buildings or portions of buildings are hereafter constructed or moved into or within the jurisdiction.

    507.2 Type of water supply.

    A water supply shall consist of reservoirs, pressure tanks, elevated tanks, water mains or other fixed systems capable of providing the required fire flow.

    507.2.1 Private fire service mains.

    Private fire service mains and appurtenances shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 24.

    507.2.2 Water tanks.

    Water tanks for private fire protection shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 22.

    507.3 Fire flow.

    Fire flow requirements for buildings or portions of buildings and facilities shall be determined by an approved method.

    507.4 Water supply test.

    The fire code official shall be notified prior to the water supply test. Water supply tests shall be witnessed by the fire code official or approved documentation of the test shall be provided to the fire code official prior to final approval of the water supply system.

    507.5 Fire hydrant systems.

    Fire hydrant systems shall comply with Sections 507.5.1 through 507.5.6.

    507.5.1 Where required.

    Where a portion of the facility or building hereafter constructed or moved into or within the jurisdiction is more than 400 feet (122 m) from a hydrant on a fire apparatus access road, as measured by an approved route around the exterior of the facility or building, on-site fire hydrants and mains shall be provided where required by the fire code official.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.For Group R-3 and Group U occupancies, the distance requirement shall be 600 feet (183 m).

    2. 2.For buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the distance requirement shall be 600 feet (183 m).

    507.5.1.1 Hydrant for standpipe systems.

    Buildings equipped with a standpipe system installed in accordance with Section 905 shall have a fire hydrant within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of the fire department connections.

    Exception: The distance shall be permitted to exceed 100 feet (30 480 mm) where approved by the fire code official.

    507.5.2 Inspection, testing and maintenance.

    Fire hydrant systems shall be subject to periodic tests as required by the fire code official. Fire hydrant systems shall be maintained in an operative condition at all times and shall be repaired where defective. Additions, repairs, alterations and servicing shall comply with approved standards. Records of tests and required maintenance shall be maintained.

    507.5.3 Private fire service mains and water tanks.

    Private fire service mains and water tanks shall be periodically inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with NFPA 25 at the following intervals:

    1. 1.Private fire hydrants of all types: Inspection annually and after each operation; flow test and maintenance annually.

    2. 2.Fire service main piping: Inspection of exposed, annually; flow test every 5 years.

    3. 3.Fire service main piping strainers: Inspection and maintenance after each use.

    Records of inspections, testing and maintenance shall be maintained.

    507.5.4 Obstruction.

    Unobstructed access to fire hydrants shall be maintained at all times. The fire department shall not be deterred or hindered from gaining immediate access to fire protection equipment or fire hydrants.

    507.5.5 Clear space around hydrants.

    A 3-foot (914 mm) clear space shall be maintained around the circumference of fire hydrants, except as otherwise required or approved.

    507.5.6 Physical protection.

    Where fire hydrants are subject to impact by a motor vehicle, guard posts or other approved means shall comply with Section 312.

    SECTION508
    FIRE COMMAND CENTER

    508.1 General.

    Where required by other sections of this code and in all buildings classified as high-rise buildings by the International Building Code, a fire command center for fire department operations shall be provided and shall comply with Sections 508.1.1 through 508.1.6.

    508.1.1 Location and access.

    The location and accessibility of the fire command center shall be approved by the fire chief.

    508.1.2 Separation.

    The fire command center shall be separated from the remainder of the building by not less than a 1-hour fire barrier constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or horizontal assembly constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the International Building Code, or both.

    508.1.3 Size.

    The fire command center shall be not less than 200 square feet (19 m2) in area with a minimum dimension of 10 feet (3048 mm).

    508.1.4 Layout approval.

    A layout of the fire command center and all features required by this section to be contained therein shall be submitted for approval prior to installation.

    508.1.5 Storage.

    Storage unrelated to operation of the fire command center shall be prohibited.

    508.1.6 Required features.

    The fire command center shall comply with NFPA 72 and shall contain the following features:

    1. 1.The emergency voice/alarm communication system control unit.

    2. 2.The fire department communications system.

    3. 3.Fire detection and alarm system annunciator.

    4. 4.Annunciator unit visually indicating the location of the elevators and whether they are operational.

    5. 5.Status indicators and controls for air distribution systems.

    6. 6.The fire fighter’s control panel required by Section 909.16 for smoke control systems installed in the building.

    7. 7.Controls for unlocking interior exit stairway doors simultaneously.

    8. 8.Sprinkler valve and water-flow detector display panels.

    9. 9.Emergency and standby power status indicators.

    10. 10.A telephone for fire department use with controlled access to the public telephone system.

    11. 11.Fire pump status indicators.

    12. 12.Schematic building plans indicating the typical floor plan and detailing the building core, means of egress, fire protection systems, fire-fighter airreplenishment systems, fire-fighting equipment and fire department access, and the location of fire walls, fire barriers, fire partitions, smoke barriers and smoke partitions.

    13. 13.An approved Building Information Card that includes, but is not limited to, all of the following information:

      1. 13.1.General building information that includes: property name, address, the number of floors in the building above and below grade, use and occupancy classification (for mixed uses, identify the different types of occupancies on each floor) and the estimated building population during the day, night and weekend;

      2. 13.2.Building emergency contact information that includes: a list of the building’s emergency contacts including but not limited to building manager, building engineer and their respective work phone number, cell phone number and e-mail address;

      3. 13.3.Building construction information that includes: the type of building construction including but not limited to floors, walls, columns and roof assembly;

      4. 13.4.Exit access stairway and exit stairway information that includes: number of exit access stairways and exit stairways in building; each exit access stairway and exit stairway designation and floors served; location where each exit access stairway and exit stairway discharges, interior exit stairways that are pressurized; exit stairways provided with emergency lighting; each exit stairway that allows reentry; exit stairways providing roof access; elevator information that includes: number of elevator banks, elevator bank designation, elevator car numbers and respective floors that they serve; location of elevator machine rooms, control rooms and control spaces; location of sky lobby; and location of freight elevator banks;

      5. 13.5.Building services and system information that includes: location of mechanical rooms, location of building management system, location and capacity of all fuel oil tanks, location of emergency generator and location of natural gas service;

      6. 13.6.Fire protection system information that includes: location of standpipes, location of fire pump room, location of fire department connections, floors protected by automatic sprinklers and location of different types of automatic sprinkler systems installed including but not limited to dry, wet and pre-action;

      7. 13.7.Hazardous material information that includes: location and quantity of hazardous material.

    14. 14.Work table.

    15. 15.Generator supervision devices, manual start and transfer features.

    16. 16.Public address system, where specifically required by other sections of this code.

    17. 17.Elevator fire recall switch in accordance with ASME A17.1/CSA B44.

    18. 18.Elevator emergency or standby power selector switch(es), where emergency or standby power is provided.

    SECTION509
    FIRE PROTECTION AND UTILITY
    EQUIPMENT IDENTIFICATION AND ACCESS

    509.1 Identification.

    Fire protection equipment shall be identified in an approved manner. Rooms containing controls for air-conditioning systems, sprinkler risers and valves, or other fire detection, suppression or control elements shall be identified for the use of the fire department. Approved signs required to identify fire protection equipment and equipment location shall be constructed of durable materials, permanently installed and readily visible.

    509.1.1 Utility identification.

    Where required by the fire code official, gas shutoff valves, electric meters, service switches and other utility equipment shall be clearly and legibly marked to identify the unit or space that it serves. Identification shall be made in an approved manner, readily visible and shall be maintained.

    509.2 Equipment access.

    Approved access shall be provided and maintained for all fire protection equipment to permit immediate safe operation and maintenance of such equipment. Storage, trash and other materials or objects shall not be placed or kept in such a manner that would prevent such equipment from being readily accessible.

    SECTION510
    EMERGENCY RESPONDER RADIO COVERAGE

    510.1 Emergency responder radio coverage in new buildings.

    All new buildings shall have approved radio coverage for emergency responders within the building based upon the existing coverage levels of the public safety communication systems of the jurisdiction at the exterior of the building. This section shall not require improvement of the existing public safety communication systems.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Where approved by the building official and the fire code official, a wired communication system in accordance with Section 907.2.13.2 shall be permitted to be installed or maintained instead of an approved radio coverage system.

    2. 2.Where it is determined by the fire code official that the radio coverage system is not needed.

    3. 3.In facilities where emergency responder radio coverage is required and such systems, components or equipment required could have a negative impact on the normal operations of that facility, the fire code official shall have the authority to accept an automatically activated emergency responder radio coverage system.

    510.2 Emergency responder radio coverage in existing buildings.

    Existing buildings shall be provided with approved radio coverage for emergency responders as required in Chapter 11.

    510.3 Permit required.

    A construction permit for the installation of or modification to emergency responder radio coverage systems and related equipment is required as specified in Section 105.7.5. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered a modification and does not require a permit.

    510.4 Technical requirements.

    Systems, components and equipment required to provide the emergency responder radio coverage system shall comply with Sections 510.4.1 through 510.4.2.5.

    510.4.1 Radio signal strength.

    The building shall be considered to have acceptable emergency responder radio coverage when signal strength measurements in 95 percent of all areas on each floor of the building meet the signal strength requirements in Sections 510.4.1.1 and 510.4.1.2.

    510.4.1.1 Minimum signal strength into the building.

    A minimum signal strength of -95 dBm shall be receivable within the building.

    510.4.1.2 Minimum signal strength out of the building.

    A minimum signal strength of -95 dBm shall be received by the agency’s radio system when transmitted from within the building.

    510.4.2 System design.

    The emergency responder radio coverage system shall be designed in accordance with Sections 510.4.2.1 through 510.4.2.5.

    510.4.2.1 Amplification systems allowed.

    Buildings and structures that cannot support the required level of radio coverage shall be equipped with a radiating cable system, a distributed antenna system with Federal Communications Commission (FCC)-certified signal boosters, or other system approved by the fire code official in order to achieve the required adequate radio coverage.

    510.4.2.2 Technical criteria.

    The fire code official shall maintain a document providing the specific technical information and requirements for the emergency responder radio coverage system. This document shall contain, but not be limited to, the various frequencies required, the location of radio sites, effective radiated power of radio sites, and other supporting technical information.

    510.4.2.3 Standby power.

    Emergency responder radio coverage systems shall be provided with standby power in accordance with Section 604. The standby power supply shall be capable of operating the emergency responder radio coverage system for a duration of not less than 24 hours.

    510.4.2.4 Signal booster requirements.

    If used, signal boosters shall meet the following requirements:

    1. 1.All signal booster components shall be contained in a National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association (NEMA) 4-type waterproof cabinet.

    2. 2.Battery systems used for the emergency power source shall be contained in a NEMA 4-type waterproof cabinet.

    3. 3.The signal booster system and battery system shall be electrically supervised and monitored by a supervisory service, or when approved by the fire code official, shall sound an audible signal at a constantly attended location

    4. 4.Equipment shall have FCC certification prior to installation.

    510.4.2.5 Additional frequencies and change of frequencies.

    The emergency responder radio coverage system shall be capable of modification or expansion in the event frequency changes are required by the FCC or additional frequencies are made available by the FCC.

    510.5 Installation requirements.

    The installation of the public safety radio coverage system shall be in accordance with Sections 510.5.1 through 510.5.4.

    510.5.1 Approval prior to installation.

    Amplification systems capable of operating on frequencies licensed to any public safety agency by the FCC shall not be installed without prior coordination and approval of the fire code official.

    510.5.2 Minimum qualifications of personnel.

    The minimum qualifications of the system designer and lead installation personnel shall include both of the following:

    1. 1.A valid FCC-issued general radio operators license.

    2. 2.Certification of in-building system training issued by a nationally recognized organization, school or a certificate issued by the manufacturer of the equipment being installed.

    These qualifications shall not be required where demonstration of adequate skills and experience satisfactory to the fire code official is provided.

    510.5.3 Acceptance test procedure.

    Where an emergency responder radio coverage system is required, and upon completion of installation, the building owner shall have the radio system tested to verify that two-way coverage on each floor of the building is not less than 90 percent. The test procedure shall be conducted as follows:

    1. 1.Each floor of the building shall be divided into a grid of 20 approximately equal test areas.

    2. 2.The test shall be conducted using a calibrated portable radio of the latest brand and model used by the agency talking through the agency’s radio communications system.

    3. 3.Failure of not more than two nonadjacent test areas shall not result in failure of the test.

    4. 4.In the event that three of the test areas fail the test, in order to be more statistically accurate, the floor shall be permitted to be divided into 40 equal test areas. Failure of not more than four nonadjacent test areas shall not result in failure of the test. If the system fails the 40-area test, the system shall be altered to meet the 90-percent coverage requirement.

    5. 5.A test location approximately in the center of each test area shall be selected for the test, with the radio enabled to verify two-way communications to and from the outside of the building through the public agency’s radio communications system. Once the test location has been selected, that location shall represent the entire test area. Failure in the selected test location shall be considered failure of that test area. Additional test locations shall not be permitted.

    6. 6.The gain values of all amplifiers shall be measured and the test measurement results shall be kept on file with the building owner so that the measurements can be verified during annual tests. In the event that the measurement results become lost, the building owner shall be required to rerun the acceptance test to reestablish the gain values.

    7. 7.As part of the installation a spectrum analyzer or other suitable test equipment shall be utilized to ensure spurious oscillations are not being generated by the subject signal booster. This test shall be conducted at the time of installation and subsequent annual inspections.

    510.5.4 FCC compliance.

    The emergency responder radio coverage system installation and components shall also comply with all applicable federal regulations including, but not limited to, FCC 47 CFR Part 90.219.

    510.6 Maintenance.

    The emergency responder radio coverage system shall be maintained operational at all times in accordance with Sections 510.6.1 through 510.6.3.

    510.6.1 Testing and proof of compliance.

    The emergency responder radio coverage system shall be inspected and tested annually or where structural changes occur including additions or remodels that could materially change the original field performance tests. Testing shall consist of the following:

    1. 1.In-building coverage test as described in Section 510.5.3.

    2. 2.Signal boosters shall be tested to verify that the gain is the same as it was upon initial installation and acceptance.

    3. 3.Backup batteries and power supplies shall be tested under load of a period of 1 hour to verify that they will properly operate during an actual power outage. If within the 1-hour test period the battery exhibits symptoms of failure, the test shall be extended for additional 1-hour periods until the integrity of the battery can be determined.

    4. 4.Other active components shall be checked to verify operation within the manufacturer’s specifications.

    5. 5.At the conclusion of the testing, a report, which shall verify compliance with Section 510.5.3, shall be submitted to the fire code official.

    510.6.2 Additional frequencies.

    The building owner shall modify or expand the emergency responder radio coverage system at his or her expense in the event frequency changes are required by the FCC or additional frequencies are made available by the FCC. Prior approval of a public safety radio coverage system on previous frequencies does not exempt this section.

    510.6.3 Field testing.

    Agency personnel shall have the right to enter onto the property at any reasonable time to conduct field testing to verify the required level of radio coverage.

    CHAPTER6
    BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS

    SECTION601
    GENERAL

    601.1 Scope.

    The provisions of this chapter shall apply to the installation, operation and maintenance of fuel-fired appliances and heating systems, emergency and standby power systems, electrical systems and equipment, mechanical refrigeration systems, elevator recall, stationary storage battery systems and commercial kitchen equipment.

    601.2 Permits.

    Permits shall be obtained for refrigeration systems, battery systems and solar photovoltaic power systems as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7.

    SECTION602
    DEFINITIONS

    602.1 Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY LEAD-ACID.

    BATTERY TYPES.

    COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES.

    CRITICAL CIRCUIT.

    EMERGENCY POWER SYSTEM.

    HOOD.

    Type I.

    Type II.

    REFRIGERANT.

    REFRIGERATION SYSTEM.

    STANDBY POWER SYSTEM.

    SECTION603
    FUEL-FIRED APPLIANCES

    603.1 Installation.

    The installation of nonportable fuel gas appliances and systems shall comply with the International Fuel Gas Code. The installation of all other fuel-fired appliances, other than internal combustion engines, oil lamps and portable devices such as blow torches, melting pots and weed burners, shall comply with this section and the International Mechanical Code.

    603.1.1 Manufacturer’s instructions.

    The installation shall be made in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and applicable federal, state and local rules and regulations. Where it becomes necessary to change, modify or alter a manufacturer’s instructions in any way, written approval shall first be obtained from the manufacturer.

    603.1.2 Approval.

    The design, construction and installation of fuel-fired appliances shall be in accordance with the International Fuel Gas Code and the International Mechanical Code.

    603.1.3 Electrical wiring and equipment.

    Electrical wiring and equipment used in connection with oil-burning equipment shall be installed and maintained in accordance with Section 605 and NFPA 70.

    603.1.4 Fuel oil.

    The grade of fuel oil used in a burner shall be that for which the burner is approved and as stipulated by the burner manufacturer. Oil containing gasoline shall not be used. Waste crankcase oil shall be an acceptable fuel in Group F, M and S occupancies where utilized in equipment listed for use with waste oil and where such equipment is installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and the terms of its listing.

    603.1.5 Access.

    The installation shall be readily accessible for cleaning hot surfaces; removing burners; replacing motors, controls, air filters, chimney connectors, draft regulators and other working parts; and for adjusting, cleaning and lubricating parts.

    603.1.6 Testing, diagrams and instructions.

    After installation of the oil-burning equipment, operation and combustion performance tests shall be conducted to determine that the burner is in proper operating condition and that all accessory equipment, controls, and safety devices function properly.

    603.1.6.1 Diagrams.

    Contractors installing industrial oil-burning systems shall furnish not less than two copies of diagrams showing the main oil lines and controlling valves, one copy of which shall be posted at the oil-burning equipment and another at an approved location that will be accessible in case of emergency.

    603.1.6.2 Instructions.

    After completing the installation, the installer shall instruct the owner or operator in the proper operation of the equipment. The installer shall furnish the owner or operator with the name and telephone number of persons to contact for technical information or assistance and routine or emergency services.

    603.1.7 Clearances.

    Working clearances between oil-fired appliances and electrical panelboards and equipment shall be in accordance with NFPA 70. Clearances between oil-fired equipment and oil supply tanks shall be in accordance with NFPA 31.

    603.2 Chimneys.

    Masonry chimneys shall be constructed in accordance with the International Building Code. Factory-built chimneys shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. Metal chimneys shall be constructed and installed in accordance with NFPA 211.

    603.3 Fuel oil storage systems.

    Fuel oil storage systems shall be installed in accordance with this code. Fuel-oil piping systems shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

    603.3.1 Fuel oil storage in outside, above-ground tanks.

    Where connected to a fuel-oil piping system, the maximum amount of fuel oil storage allowed outside above ground without additional protection shall be 660 gallons (2498 L). The storage of fuel oil above ground in quantities exceeding 660 gallons (2498 L) shall comply with NFPA 31.

    603.3.2 Fuel oil storage inside buildings.

    Fuel oil storage inside buildings shall comply with Sections 603.3.2.1 through 603.3.2.5 or Chapter 57.

    603.3.2.1 Quantity limits.

    One or more fuel oil storage tanks containing Class II or III combustible liquid shall be permitted in a building. The aggregate capacity of all such tanks shall not exceed 660 gallons (2498 L).

    Exception: The aggregate capacity limit shall be permitted to be increased to 3,000 gallons (11 356 L) of Class II or III liquid for storage in protected above-ground tanks complying with Section 5704.2.9.7, where all of the following conditions are met:

    1. 1.The entire 3,000-gallon (11 356 L) quantity shall be stored in protected above-ground tanks.

    2. 2.The 3,000-gallon (11 356 L) capacity shall be permitted to be stored in a single tank or multiple smaller tanks.

    3. 3.The tanks shall be located in a room protected by an automatic sprinkler system complying with Section 903.3.1.1.

    603.3.2.2 Restricted use and connection.

    Tanks installed in accordance with Section 603.3.2 shall be used only to supply fuel oil to fuel-burning or generator equipment installed in accordance with Section 603.3.2.4. Connections between tanks and equipment supplied by such tanks shall be made using closed piping systems.

    603.3.2.3 Applicability of maximum allowable quantity and control area requirements.

    The quantity of combustible liquid stored in tanks complying with Section 603.3.2 shall not be counted towards the maximum allowable quantity set forth in Table 5003.1.1(1), and such tanks shall not be required to be located in a control area.

    603.3.2.4 Installation.

    Tanks and piping systems shall be installed and separated from other uses in accordance with Section 915 and Chapter 13, both of the International Mechanical Code, as applicable.

    Exception: Protected above-ground tanks complying with Section 5704.2.9.7 shall not be required to be separated from surrounding areas.

    603.3.2.5 Tanks in basements.

    Tanks in basements shall be located not more than two stories below grade plane.

    603.3.3 Underground storage of fuel oil.

    The storage of fuel oil in underground storage tanks shall comply with NFPA 31.

    603.4 Portable unvented heaters.

    Portable unvented fuel-fired heating equipment shall be prohibited in occupancies in Groups A, E, I, R-1, R-2, R-3 and R-4.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Listed and approved unvented fuel-fired heaters, including portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances, in one- and two-family dwellings.

    2. 2.Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be allowed in accordance with Section 603.4.2.

    603.4.1 Prohibited locations.

    Unvented fuel-fired heating equipment shall not be located in, or obtain combustion air from, any of the following rooms or spaces: sleeping rooms, bathrooms, toilet rooms or storage closets.

    603.4.2 Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances.

    Portable gas-fired heating appliances located outdoors shall be in accordance with Sections 603.4.2.1 through 603.4.2.3.4.

    603.4.2.1 Location.

    Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be located in accordance with Sections 603.4.2.1.1 through 603.4.2.1.4.

    603.4.2.1.1 Prohibited locations.

    The storage or use of portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances is prohibited in any of the following locations:

    1. 1.Inside of any occupancy where connected to the fuel gas container.

    2. 2.Inside of tents, canopies and membrane structures.

    3. 3.On exterior balconies.

      Exception: As allowed in Section 6.20 of NFPA 58.

    603.4.2.1.2 Clearance to buildings.

    Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be located not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) from buildings.

    603.4.2.1.3 Clearance to combustible materials.

    Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not be located beneath, or closer than 5 feet (1524 mm) to combustible decorations and combustible overhangs, awnings, sunshades or similar combustible attachments to buildings.

    603.4.2.1.4 Proximity to exits.

    Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not be located within 5 feet (1524 mm) of exits or exit discharges.

    603.4.2.2 Installation and operation.

    Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be installed and operated in accordance with Sections 603.4.2.2.1 through 603.4.2.2.4.

    603.4.2.2.1 Listing and approval.

    Only listed and approved portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances utilizing a fuel gas container that is integral to the appliance shall be used.

    603.4.2.2.2 Installation and maintenance.

    Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    603.4.2.2.3 Tip-over switch.

    Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be equipped with a tilt or tip-over switch that automatically shuts off the flow of gas if the appliance is tilted more than 15 degrees (0.26 rad) from the vertical.

    603.4.2.2.4 Guard against contact.

    The heating element or combustion chamber of portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be permanently guarded so as to prevent accidental contact by persons or material.

    603.4.2.3 Gas containers.

    Fuel gas containers for portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall comply with Sections 603.4.2.3.1 through 603.4.2.3.4.

    603.4.2.3.1 Approved containers.

    Only approved DOTn or ASME gas containers shall be used.

    603.4.2.3.2 Container replacement.

    Replacement of fuel gas containers in portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not be conducted while the public is present.

    603.4.2.3.3 Container capacity.

    The maximum individual capacity of gas containers used in connection with portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not exceed 20 pounds (9 kg).

    603.4.2.3.4 Indoor storage prohibited.

    Gas containers shall not be stored inside of buildings except in accordance with Section 6109.9.

    603.5 Heating appliances.

    Heating appliances shall be listed and shall comply with Sections 603.5.1 and 603.5.2.

    603.5.1 Guard against contact.

    The heating element or combustion chamber shall be permanently guarded so as to prevent accidental contact by persons or material.

    603.5.2 Heating appliance installation and maintenance.

    Heating appliances shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, the International Building Code, the International Mechanical Code, the International Fuel Gas Code and NFPA 70.

    603.6 Chimneys and appliances.

    Chimneys, incinerators, smokestacks or similar devices for conveying smoke or hot gases to the outer air and the stoves, furnaces, fireboxes or boilers to which such devices are connected, shall be maintained so as not to create a fire hazard.

    603.6.1 Masonry chimneys.

    Masonry chimneys that, upon inspection, are found to be without a flue liner and that have open mortar joints which will permit smoke or gases to be discharged into the building, or which are cracked as to be dangerous, shall be repaired or relined with a listed chimney liner system installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions or a flue lining system installed in accordance with the requirements of the International Building Code and appropriate for the intended class of chimney service.

    603.6.2 Metal chimneys.

    Metal chimneys which are corroded or improperly supported shall be repaired or replaced.

    603.6.3 Decorative shrouds.

    Decorative shrouds installed at the termination of factory-built chimneys shall be removed except where such shrouds are listed and labeled for use with the specific factory-built chimney system and are installed in accordance with the chimney manufacturer’s instructions.

    603.6.4 Factory-built chimneys.

    Existing factory-built chimneys that are damaged, corroded or improperly supported shall be repaired or replaced.

    603.6.5 Connectors.

    Existing chimney and vent connectors that are damaged, corroded or improperly supported shall be repaired or replaced.

    603.7 Discontinuing operation of unsafe heating appliances.

    The fire code official is authorized to order that measures be taken to prevent the operation of any existing stove, oven, furnace, incinerator, boiler or any other heat-producing device or appliance found to be defective or in violation of code requirements for existing appliances after giving notice to this effect to any person, owner, firm or agent or operator in charge of the same. The fire code official is authorized to take measures to prevent the operation of any device or appliance without notice when inspection shows the existence of an immediate fire hazard or when imperiling human life. The defective device shall remain withdrawn from service until all necessary repairs or alterations have been made.

    603.7.1 Unauthorized operation.

    It shall be a violation of this code for any person, user, firm or agent to continue the utilization of any device or appliance (the operation of which has been discontinued or ordered discontinued in accordance with Section 603.7) unless written authority to resume operation is given by the fire code official. Removing or breaking the means by which operation of the device is prevented shall be a violation of this code.

    603.8 Incinerators.

    Commercial, industrial and residential-type incinerators and chimneys shall be constructed in accordance with the International Building Code, the International Fuel Gas Code and the International Mechanical Code.

    603.8.1 Residential incinerators.

    Residential incinerators shall be of an approved type.

    603.8.2 Spark arrestor.

    Incinerators shall be equipped with an effective means for arresting sparks.

    603.8.3 Restrictions.

    Where the fire code official determines that burning in incinerators located within 500 feet (152 m) of mountainous, brush or grass-covered areas will create an undue fire hazard because of atmospheric conditions, such burning shall be prohibited.

    603.8.4 Time of burning.

    Burning shall take place only during approved hours.

    603.8.5 Discontinuance.

    The fire code official is authorized to require incinerator use to be discontinued immediately if the fire code official determines that smoke emissions are offensive to occupants of surrounding property or if the use of incinerators is determined by the fire code official to constitute a hazardous condition.

    603.8.6 Flue-fed incinerators in Group I-2.

    In Group I-2 occupancies, the continued use of existing flue-fed incinerators is prohibited.

    603.8.7 Incinerator inspections in Group I-2.

    Incinerators in Group I-2 occupancies shall be inspected not less than annually in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Inspection records shall be maintained on the premises and made available to the fire code official upon request

    603.9 Gas meters.

    Above-ground gas meters, regulators and piping subject to damage shall be protected by a barrier complying with Section 312 or otherwise protected in an approved manner.

    SECTION604
    EMERGENCY AND STANDBY POWER SYSTEMS

    604.1 General.

    Emergency power systems and standby power systems required by this code or the International Building Code shall comply with Sections 604.1.1 through 604.1.8.

    604.1.1 Stationary generators.

    Stationary emergency and standby power generators required by this code shall be listed in accordance with UL 2200.

    604.1.2 Installation.

    Emergency power systems and standby power systems shall be installed in accordance with the International Building Code, NFPA 70, NFPA 110 and NFPA 111.

    604.1.3 Load transfer.

    Emergency power systems shall automatically provide secondary power within 10 seconds after primary power is lost, unless specified otherwise in this code. Standby power systems shall automatically provide secondary power within 60 seconds after primary power is lost unless specified otherwise in this code.

    604.1.4 Load duration.

    Emergency power systems and standby power systems shall be designed to provide the required power for a minimum duration of 2 hours without being refueled or recharged, unless specified otherwise in this code.

    604.1.5 Uninterruptable power source.

    An uninterrupted source of power shall be provided for equipment where required by the manufacturer’s instructions, the listing, this code or applicable referenced standards.

    604.1.6 Interchangeability.

    Emergency power systems shall be an acceptable alternative for installations that require standby power systems.

    604.1.7 Group I-2 occupancies.

    In Group I-2 occupancies, where an essential electrical system is located in flood hazard areas established in Section 1612.3 of the International Building Code and where new or replacement essential electrical system generators are installed, the system shall be located and installed in accordance with ASCE 24.

    604.1.8 Maintenance.

    Existing installations shall be maintained in accordance with the original approval and Section 604.4.

    604.2 Where required.

    Emergency and standby power systems shall be provided where required by Sections 604.2.1 through 604.2.16.

    604.2.1 Elevators and platform lifts.

    Standby power shall be provided for elevators and platform lifts as required in Sections 607.2, 1009.4, and 1009.5.

    604.2.2 Emergency alarm systems.

    Emergency power shall be provided for emergency alarm systems as required by Section 414 of the International Building Code.

    604.2.3 Emergency responder radio coverage systems.

    Standby power shall be provided for emergency responder radio coverage systems as required in Section 510.4.2.3. The standby power supply shall be capable of operating the emergency responder radio coverage system for a duration of not less than 24 hours.

    604.2.4 Emergency voice/alarm communication systems.

    Emergency power shall be provided for emergency voice/alarm communication systems as required in Section 907.5.2.2.5. The system shall be capable of powering the required load for a duration of not less than 24 hours, as required in NFPA 72.

    604.2.5 Exit signs.

    Emergency power shall be provided for exit signs as required in Section 1013.6.3. The system shall be capable of powering the required load for a duration of not less than 90 minutes.

    604.2.6 Group I-2 occupancies.

    Essential electrical systems for Group I-2 occupancies shall be in accordance with Section 407.10 of the International Building Code.

    604.2.7 Group I-3 occupancies.

    Power-operated sliding doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors in Group I-3 occupancies shall be operable by a manual release mechanism at the door. Emergency power shall be provided for the doors and locks in accordance with Section 604.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Emergency power is not required in facilities where provisions for remote locking and unlocking of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not required as set forth in the International Building Code.

    2. 2.Emergency power is not required where remote mechanical operating releases are provided.

    604.2.8 Hazardous materials.

    Emergency and standby power shall be provided in occupancies with hazardous materials as required in the following sections:

    1. 1.Sections 5004.7 and 5005.1.5 for hazardous materials.

    2. 2.Sections 6004.2.2.8 and 6004.3.4.2 for highly toxic and toxic gases.

    3. 3.Section 6204.1.11 for organic peroxides.

    604.2.9 High-rise buildings.

    Standby power and emergency power shall be provided for high-rise buildings as required in Section 403 of the International Building Code, and shall be in accordance with Section 604.

    604.2.10 Horizontal sliding doors.

    Standby power shall be provided for horizontal sliding doors as required in Section 1010.1.4.3. The standby power supply shall have a capacity to operate not fewer than 50 closing cycles of the door.

    604.2.11 Hydrogen fuel gas rooms.

    Standby power shall be provided for hydrogen fuel gas rooms as required by Section 5808.7.

    604.2.12 Means of egress illumination.

    Emergency power shall be provided for means of egress illumination in accordance with Sections 1008.3 and 1104.5.1.

    604.2.13 Membrane structures.

    Standby power shall be provided for auxiliary inflation systems in permanent membrane structures in accordance with Section 2702 of the International Building Code. Auxiliary inflation systems shall be provided in temporary air-supported and air-inflated membrane structures in accordance with Section 3103.10.4.

    604.2.14 Semiconductor fabrication facilities.

    Emergency power shall be provided for semiconductor fabrication facilities as required in Section 2703.15.

    604.2.15 Smoke control systems.

    Standby power shall be provided for smoke control systems as required in Section 909.11.

    604.2.16 Underground buildings.

    Emergency and standby power shall be provided in underground buildings as required in Section 405 of the International Building Code and shall be in accordance with Section 604.

    604.3 Critical circuits.

    Cables used for survivability of required critical circuits shall be listed in accordance with UL 2196. Electrical circuit protective systems shall be installed in accordance with their listing requirements.

    604.4 Maintenance.

    Emergency and standby power systems shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 110 and NFPA 111 such that the system is capable of supplying service within the time specified for the type and duration required.

    604.4.1 Schedule.

    Inspection, testing and maintenance of emergency and standby power systems shall be in accordance with an approved schedule established upon completion and approval of the system installation.

    604.4.2 Records.

    Records of the inspection, testing and maintenance of emergency and standby power systems shall include the date of service, name of the servicing technician, a summary of conditions noted and a detailed description of any conditions requiring correction and what corrective action was taken. Such records shall be maintained.

    604.4.3 Switch maintenance.

    Emergency and standby power system transfer switches shall be included in the inspection, testing and maintenance schedule required by Section 604.4.1. Transfer switches shall be maintained free from accumulated dust and dirt. Inspection shall include examination of the transfer switch contacts for evidence of deterioration. When evidence of contact deterioration is detected, the contacts shall be replaced in accordance with the transfer switch manufacturer’s instructions.

    604.5 Operational inspection and testing.

    Emergency power systems, including all appurtenant components, shall be inspected and tested under load in accordance with NFPA 110 and NFPA 111.

    Exception: Where the emergency power system is used for standby power or peak load shaving, such use shall be recorded and shall be allowed to be substituted for scheduled testing of the generator set, provided that appropriate records are maintained.

    604.5.1 Transfer switch test.

    The test of the transfer switch shall consist of electrically operating the transfer switch from the normal position to the alternate position and then return to the normal position.

    604.6 Emergency lighting equipment.

    Emergency lighting shall be inspected and tested in accordance with Sections 604.6.1 through 604.6.2.1.

    604.6.1 Activation test.

    An activation test of the emergency lighting equipment shall be completed monthly. The activation test shall ensure the emergency lighting activates automatically upon normal electrical disconnect and stays sufficiently illuminated for not less than 30 seconds.

    604.6.1.1 Activation test record.

    Records of tests shall be maintained. The record shall include the location of the emergency lighting tested, whether the unit passed or failed, the date of the test and the person completing the test.

    604.6.2 Power test.

    For battery-powered emergency lighting, a power test of the emergency lighting equipment shall be completed annually. The power test shall operate the emergency lighting for not less than 90 minutes and shall remain sufficiently illuminated for the duration of the test.

    604.6.2.1 Power test record.

    Records of tests shall be maintained. The record shall include the location of the emergency lighting tested, whether the unit passed or failed, the date of the test and the person completing the test.

    604.7 Supervision of maintenance and testing.

    Routine maintenance, inspection and operational testing shall be overseen by a properly instructed individual.

    SECTION605
    ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT, WIRING AND HAZARDS

    605.1 Abatement of electrical hazards.

    Identified electrical hazards shall be abated. Identified hazardous electrical conditions in permanent wiring shall be brought to the attention of the responsible code official. Electrical wiring, devices, appliances and other equipment that is modified or damaged and constitutes an electrical shock or fire hazard shall not be used.

    605.2 Illumination.

    Illumination shall be provided for service equipment areas, motor control centers and electrical panelboards.

    605.3 Working space and clearance.

    A working space of not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in width, 36 inches (914 mm) in depth and 78 inches (1981 mm) in height shall be provided in front of electrical service equipment. Where the electrical service equipment is wider than 30 inches (762 mm), the working space shall be not less than the width of the equipment. Storage of materials shall not be located within the designated working space.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Where other dimensions are required or allowed by NFPA 70.

    2. 2.Access openings into attics or under-floor areas which provide a minimum clear opening of 22 inches (559 mm) by 30 inches (762 mm).

    605.3.1 Labeling.

    Doors into electrical control panel rooms shall be marked with a plainly visible and legible sign stating ELECTRICAL ROOM or similar approved wording. The disconnecting means for each service, feeder or branch circuit originating on a switchboard or panelboard shall be legibly and durably marked to indicate its purpose unless such purpose is clearly evident.

    605.4 Multiplug adapters.

    Multiplug adapters, such as cube adapters, unfused plug strips or any other device not complying with NFPA 70 shall be prohibited.

    605.4.1 Power tap design.

    Relocatable power taps shall be of the polarized or grounded type, equipped with overcurrent protection, and shall be listed in accordance with UL 1363.

    605.4.2 Power supply.

    Relocatable power taps shall be directly connected to a permanently installed receptacle.

    605.4.3 Installation.

    Relocatable power tap cords shall not extend through walls, ceilings, floors, under doors or floor coverings, or be subject to environmental or physical damage.

    605.5 Extension cords.

    Extension cords and flexible cords shall not be a substitute for permanent wiring. Extension cords and flexible cords shall not be affixed to structures, extended through walls, ceilings or floors, or under doors or floor coverings, nor shall such cords be subject to environmental damage or physical impact. Extension cords shall be used only with portable appliances.

    605.5.1 Power supply.

    Extension cords shall be plugged directly into an approved receptacle, power tap or multiplug adapter and, except for approved multiplug extension cords, shall serve only one portable appliance.

    605.5.2 Ampacity.

    The ampacity of the extension cords shall be not less than the rated capacity of the portable appliance supplied by the cord.

    605.5.3 Maintenance.

    Extension cords shall be maintained in good condition without splices, deterioration or damage.

    605.5.4 Grounding.

    Extension cords shall be grounded where serving grounded portable appliances.

    605.6 Unapproved conditions.

    Open junction boxes and open-wiring splices shall be prohibited. Approved covers shall be provided for all switch and electrical outlet boxes.

    605.7 Appliances.

    Electrical appliances and fixtures shall be tested and listed in published reports of inspected electrical equipment by an approved agency and installed and maintained in accordance with all instructions included as part of such listing.

    605.8 Electrical motors.

    Electrical motors shall be maintained free from excessive accumulations of oil, dirt, waste and debris.

    605.9 Temporary wiring.

    Temporary wiring for electrical power and lighting installations is allowed for a period not to exceed 90 days. Temporary wiring methods shall meet the applicable provisions of NFPA 70.

    Exception: Temporary wiring for electrical power and lighting installations is allowed during periods of construction, remodeling, repair or demolition of buildings, structures, equipment or similar activities.

    605.9.1 Attachment to structures.

    Temporary wiring attached to a structure shall be attached in an approved manner.

    605.10 Portable, electric space heaters.

    Where not prohibited by other sections of this code, portable, electric space heaters shall be permitted to be used in all occupancies other than Group I-2 and in accordance with Sections 605.10.1 through 605.10.4.

    Exception: The use of portable, electric space heaters in which the heating element cannot exceed a temperature of 212°F (100°C) shall be permitted in nonsleeping staff and employee areas in Group I-2 occupancies.

    605.10.1 Listed and labeled.

    Only listed and labeled portable, electric space heaters shall be used.

    605.10.2 Power supply.

    Portable, electric space heaters shall be plugged directly into an approved receptacle.

    605.10.3 Extension cords.

    Portable, electric space heaters shall not be plugged into extension cords.

    605.10.4 Prohibited areas.

    Portable, electric space heaters shall not be operated within 3 feet (914 mm) of any combustible materials. Portable, electric space heaters shall be operated only in locations for which they are listed.

    605.11 Solar photovoltaic power systems.

    Solar photovoltaic power systems shall be installed in accordance with Sections 605.11.1 through 605.11.2, the International Building Code or International Residential Code, and NFPA 70.

    605.11.1 Access and pathways.

    Roof access, pathways, and spacing requirements shall be provided in accordance with Sections 605.11.1.1 through 605.11.1.3.3.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Detached, nonhabitable Group U structures including, but not limited to, parking shade structures, carports, solar trellises and similar structures.

    2. 2.Roof access, pathways and spacing requirements need not be provided where the fire chief has determined that rooftop operations will not be employed.

    605.11.1.1 Roof access points.

    Roof access points shall be located in areas that do not require the placement of ground ladders over openings such as windows or doors, and located at strong points of building construction in locations where the access point does not conflict with overhead obstructions such as tree limbs, wires or signs.

    605.11.1.2 Solar photovoltaic systems for Group R-3 buildings.

    Solar photovoltaic systems for Group R-3 buildings shall comply with Sections 605.11.1.2.1 through 605.11.1.2.5.

    Exception: These requirements shall not apply to structures designed and constructed in accordance with the International Residential Code.

    605.11.1.2.1 Size of solar photovoltaic array.

    Each photovoltaic array shall be limited to 150 feet (45 720 mm) by 150 feet (45 720 mm). Multiple arrays shall be separated by a 3-foot-wide (914 mm) clear access pathway.

    605.11.1.2.2 Hip roof layouts.

    Panels and modules installed on Group R-3 buildings with hip roof layouts shall be located in a manner that provides a 3-foot-wide (914 mm) clear access pathway from the eave to the ridge on each roof slope where panels and modules are located. The access pathway shall be at a location on the building capable of supporting the fire fighters accessing the roof.

    Exception: These requirements shall not apply to roofs with slopes of two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (2:12) or less.

    605.11.1.2.3 Single-ridge roofs.

    Panels and modules installed on Group R-3 buildings with a single ridge shall be located in a manner that provides two, 3-foot-wide (914 mm) access pathways from the eave to the ridge on each roof slope where panels and modules are located.

    Exception: This requirement shall not apply to roofs with slopes of two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (2:12) or less.

    605.11.1.2.4 Roofs with hips and valleys.

    Panels and modules installed on Group R-3 buildings with roof hips and valleys shall not be located closer than 18 inches (457 mm) to a hip or a valley where panels/modules are to be placed on both sides of a hip or valley. Where panels are to be located on only one side of a hip or valley that is of equal length, the panels shall be permitted to be placed directly adjacent to the hip or valley.

    Exception: These requirements shall not apply to roofs with slopes of two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (2:12) or less.

    605.11.1.2.5 Allowance for smoke ventilation operations.

    Panels and modules installed on Group R-3 buildings shall be located not less than 3 feet (914 mm) from the ridge in order to allow for fire department smoke ventilation operations.

    Exception: Panels and modules shall be permitted to be located up to the roof ridge where an alternative ventilation method approved by the fire chief has been provided or where the fire chief has determined vertical ventilation techniques will not be employed.

    605.11.1.3 Other than Group R-3 buildings.

    Access to systems for buildings, other than those containing Group R-3 occupancies, shall be provided in accordance with Sections 605.11.1.3.1 through 605.11.1.3.3.

    Exception: Where it is determined by the fire code official that the roof configuration is similar to that of a Group R-3 occupancy, the residential access and ventilation requirements in Sections 605.11.1.2.1 through 605.11.1.2.5 shall be permitted to be used.

    605.11.1.3.1 Access.

    There shall be a minimum 6-foot-wide (1829 mm) clear perimeter around the edges of the roof.

    Exception: Where either axis of the building is 250 feet (76 200 mm) or less, the clear perimeter around the edges of the roof shall be permitted to be reduced to a minimum 4 foot wide (1290 mm).

    605.11.1.3.2 Pathways.

    The solar installation shall be designed to provide designated pathways. The pathways shall meet the following requirements:

    1. 1.The pathway shall be over areas capable of supporting fire fighters accessing the roof.

    2. 2.The centerline axis pathways shall be provided in both axes of the roof. Centerline axis pathways shall run where the roof structure is capable of supporting fire fighters accessing the roof.

    3. 3.Pathways shall be a straight line not less than 4 feet (1290 mm) clear to roof standpipes or ventilation hatches.

    4. 4.Pathways shall provide not less than 4 feet (1290 mm) clear around roof access hatch with not less than one singular pathway not less than 4 feet (1290 mm) clear to a parapet or roof edge.

    605.11.1.3.3 Smoke ventilation.

    The solar installation shall be designed to meet the following requirements:

    1. 1.Arrays shall be not greater than 150 feet (45 720 mm) by 150 feet (45 720 mm) in distance in either axis in order to create opportunities for fire department smoke ventilation operations.

    2. 2.Smoke ventilation options between array sections shall be one of the following:

      1. 2.1.A pathway 8 feet (2438 mm) or greater in width.

      2. 2.2.A 4-foot (1290 mm) or greater in width pathway and bordering roof skylights or gravity-operated dropout smoke and heat vents on not less than one side.

      3. 2.3.A 4-foot (1290 mm) or greater in width pathway and bordering all sides of nongravity-operated dropout smoke and heat vents.

      4. 2.4.A 4-foot (1290 mm) or greater in width pathway and bordering 4-foot by 8-foot (1290 mm by 2438 mm) “venting cutouts” every 20 feet (6096 mm) on alternating sides of the pathway.

    605.11.2 Ground-mounted photovoltaic arrays.

    Ground-mounted photovoltaic arrays shall comply with Section 605.11 and this section. Setback requirements shall not apply to ground-mounted, free-standing photovoltaic arrays. A clear, brush-free area of 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be required for ground-mounted photovoltaic arrays.

    605.12 Abandoned wiring in plenums.

    Accessible portions of abandoned cables in air-handling plenums shall be removed. Cables that are unused and have not been tagged for future use shall be considered abandoned.

    SECTION606
    MECHANICAL REFRIGERATION

    [M]606.1 Scope.

    Refrigeration systems shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

    [M]606.2 Refrigerants.

    The use and purity of new, recovered and reclaimed refrigerants shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

    [M]606.3 Refrigerant classification.

    Refrigerants shall be classified in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

    [M]606.4 Change in refrigerant type.

    A change in the type of refrigerant in a refrigeration system shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

    606.5 Access.

    Refrigeration systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group A1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant shall be accessible to the fire department at all times as required by the fire code official.

    606.6 Testing of equipment.

    Refrigeration equipment and systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group A1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant shall be subject to periodic testing in accordance with Section 606.6.1. Records of tests shall be maintained. Tests of emergency devices or systems required by this chapter shall be conducted by persons trained and qualified in refrigeration systems.

    606.6.1 Periodic testing.

    The following emergency devices or systems shall be periodically tested in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and as required by the fire code official.

    1. 1.Treatment and flaring systems.

    2. 2.Valves and appurtenances necessary to the operation of emergency refrigeration control boxes.

    3. 3.Fans and associated equipment intended to operate emergency ventilation systems.

    4. 4.Detection and alarm systems.

    606.7 Emergency signs.

    Refrigeration units or systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group A1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant shall be provided with approved emergency signs, charts and labels in accordance with NFPA 704. Hazard signs shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code for the classification of refrigerants listed therein.

    606.8 Refrigerant detector.

    Machinery rooms shall contain a refrigerant detector with an audible and visual alarm. The detector, or a sampling tube that draws air to the detector, shall be located in an area where refrigerant from a leak will concentrate. The alarm shall be actuated at a value not greater than the corresponding TLV-TWA values shown in the International Mechanical Code for the refrigerant classification. Detectors and alarms shall be placed in approved locations. The detector shall transmit a signal to an approved location.

    606.9 Remote controls.

    Where flammable refrigerants are used and compliance with Section 1106 of the International Mechanical Code is required, remote control of the mechanical equipment and appliances located in the machinery room as required by Sections 606.9.1 and 606.9.2 shall be provided at an approved location immediately outside the machinery room and adjacent to its principal entrance.

    606.9.1 Refrigeration system emergency shutoff.

    A clearly identified switch of the break-glass type or with an approved tamper-resistant cover shall provide off-only control of refrigerant compressors, refrigerant pumps and normally closed automatic refrigerant valves located in the machinery room. Additionally, this equipment shall be automatically shut off when the refrigerant vapor concentration in the machinery room exceeds the vapor detector’s upper detection limit or 25 percent of the LEL, whichever is lower.

    606.9.2 Ventilation system.

    A clearly identified switch of the break-glass type or with an approved tamper-resistant cover shall provide on-only control of the machinery room ventilation fans.

    606.10 Emergency pressure control system.

    Permanently installed refrigeration systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flammable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerant or ammonia shall be provided with an emergency pressure control system in accordance with Sections 606.10.1 and 606.10.2.

    606.10.1 Automatic crossover valves.

    Each high- and intermediate-pressure zone in a refrigeration system shall be provided with a single automatic valve providing a crossover connection to a lower pressure zone. Automatic crossover valves shall comply with Sections 606.10.1.1 through 606.10.1.3.

    606.10.1.1 Overpressure limit set point.

    Automatic crossover valves shall be arranged to automatically relieve excess system pressure to a lower pressure zone if the pressure in a high- or intermediate-pressure zone rises to within 90 percent of the set point for emergency pressure relief devices.

    606.10.1.2 Manual operation.

    Where required by the fire code official, automatic crossover valves shall be capable of manual operation.

    606.10.1.3 System design pressure.

    Refrigeration system zones that are connected to a higher pressure zone by an automatic crossover valve shall be designed to safely contain the maximum pressure that can be achieved by interconnection of the two zones.

    606.10.2 Automatic emergency stop.

    An automatic emergency stop feature shall be provided in accordance with Sections 606.10.2.1 and 606.10.2.2.

    606.10.2.1 Operation of an automatic crossover valve.

    Operation of an automatic crossover valve shall cause all compressors on the affected system to immediately stop. Dedicated pressure-sensing devices located immediately adjacent to crossover valves shall be permitted as a means for determining operation of a valve. To ensure that the automatic crossover valve system provides a redundant means of stopping compressors in an overpressure condition, high-pressure cutout sensors associated with compressors shall not be used as a basis for determining operation of a crossover valve.

    606.10.2.2 Overpressure in low-pressure zone.

    The lowest pressure zone in a refrigeration system shall be provided with a dedicated means of determining a rise in system pressure to within 90 percent of the set point for emergency pressure relief devices. Activation of the overpressure sensing device shall cause all compressors on the affected system to immediately stop.

    606.11 Storage, use and handling.

    Flammable and combustible materials shall not be stored in machinery rooms for refrigeration systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group A1 or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant. Storage, use or handling of extra refrigerant or refrigerant oils shall be as required by Chapters 50, 53, 55 and 57.

    Exception: This provision shall not apply to spare parts, tools and incidental materials necessary for the safe and proper operation and maintenance of the system.

    606.12 Discharge and termination of pressure relief and purge systems.

    Pressure relief devices, fusible plugs and purge systems discharging to the atmosphere from refrigeration systems containing flammable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerants or ammonia shall comply with Sections 606.12.3 through 606.12.5.

    606.12.1 Standards.

    Refrigeration systems and the buildings in which such systems are installed shall be in accordance with ASHRAE 15.

    606.12.1.1 Ammonia refrigeration.

    Refrigeration systems using ammonia refrigerant and the buildings in which such systems are installed shall comply with IIAR-2 for system design and installation and IIAR-7 for operating procedures.

    606.12.2 Fusible plugs and rupture members.

    Discharge piping and devices connected to the discharge side of a fusible plug or rupture member shall have provisions to prevent plugging the pipe in the event the fusible plug or rupture member functions.

    606.12.3 Flammable refrigerants.

    Systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flammable refrigerants having a density equal to or greater than the density of air shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere only through an approved treatment system in accordance with Section 606.12.6 or a flaring system in accordance with Section 606.12.7. Systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flammable refrigerants having a density less than the density of air shall be permitted to discharge vapor to the atmosphere provided that the point of discharge is located outside of the structure at not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) above the adjoining grade level and not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from any window, ventilation opening or exit.

    606.12.4 Toxic and highly toxic refrigerants.

    Systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of toxic or highly toxic refrigerants shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere only through an approved treatment system in accordance with Section 606.12.6 or a flaring system in accordance with Section 606.12.7.

    606.12.5 Ammonia refrigerant.

    Systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of ammonia refrigerant shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere in accordance with one of the following methods:

    1. 1.Directly to atmosphere where the fire code official determines, on review of an engineering analysis prepared in accordance with Section 104.7.2, that a fire, health or environmental hazard would not result from atmospheric discharge of ammonia.

    2. 2.Through an approved treatment system in accordance with Section 606.12.6.

    3. 3.Through a flaring system in accordance with Section 606.12.7.

    4. 4.Through an approved ammonia diffusion system in accordance with Section 606.12.8.

    5. 5.By other approved means.

    Exception: Ammonia/water absorption systems containing less than 22 pounds (10 kg) of ammonia and for which the ammonia circuit is located entirely outdoors.

    606.12.6 Treatment systems.

    Treatment systems shall be designed to reduce the allowable discharge concentration of the refrigerant gas to not more than 50 percent of the IDLH at the point of exhaust. Treatment systems shall be in accordance with Chapter 60.

    606.12.7 Flaring systems.

    Flaring systems for incineration of flammable refrigerants shall be designed to incinerate the entire discharge. The products of refrigerant incineration shall not pose health or environmental hazards. Incineration shall be automatic upon initiation of discharge, shall be designed to prevent blowback and shall not expose structures or materials to threat of fire. Standby fuel, such as LP-gas, and standby power shall have the capacity to operate for one and one-half the required time for complete incineration of refrigerant in the system. Standby electrical power, where required to complete the incineration process, shall be in accordance with Section 604.

    606.12.8 Ammonia diffusion systems.

    Ammonia diffusion systems shall include a tank containing 1 gallon of water for each pound of ammonia (8.3 L of water for each 1 kg of ammonia) that will be released in 1 hour from the largest relief device connected to the discharge pipe. The water shall be prevented from freezing. The discharge pipe from the pressure relief device shall distribute ammonia in the bottom of the tank, but not lower than 33 feet (10 058 mm) below the maximum liquid level. The tank shall contain the volume of water and ammonia without overflowing.

    606.13 Discharge location for refrigeration machinery room ventilation.

    Exhaust from mechanical ventilation systems serving refrigeration machinery rooms containing flammable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerants, other than ammonia, capable of exceeding 25 percent of the LFL or 50 percent of the IDLH shall be equipped with approved treatment systems to reduce the discharge concentrations to those values or lower.

    606.14 Notification of refrigerant discharges.

    The fire code official shall be notified immediately when a discharge becomes reportable under state, federal or local regulations in accordance with Section 5003.3.1.

    606.15 Records.

    A record of refrigerant quantities brought into and removed from the premises shall be maintained.

    606.16 Electrical equipment.

    Where refrigerants of Groups A2, A3, B2 and B3, as defined in the International Mechanical Code, are used, refrigeration machinery rooms shall conform to the Class I, Division 2 hazardous location classification requirements of NFPA 70.

    Exception: Ammonia machinery rooms that are provided with ventilation in accordance with Section 1106.3 of the International Mechanical Code.

    SECTION607
    ELEVATOR OPERATION,
    MAINTENANCE AND FIRE SERVICE KEYS

    607.1 Emergency operation.

    Existing elevators with a travel distance of 25 feet (7620 mm) or more shall comply with the requirements in Chapter 11. New elevators shall be provided with Phase I emergency recall operation and Phase II emergency in-car operation in accordance with ASME A17.1/CSA B44.

    607.2 Standby power.

    In buildings and structures where standby power is required or furnished to operate an elevator, standby power shall be provided in accordance with Section 604. Operation of the system shall be in accordance with Sections 607.2.1 through 607.2.4.

    607.2.1 Manual transfer.

    Standby power shall be manually transferable to all elevators in each bank.

    607.2.2 One elevator.

    Where only one elevator is installed, the elevator shall automatically transfer to standby power within 60 seconds after failure of normal power.

    607.2.3 Two or more elevators.

    Where two or more elevators are controlled by a common operating system, all elevators shall automatically transfer to standby power within 60 seconds after failure of normal power where the standby power source is of sufficient capacity to operate all elevators at the same time. Where the standby power source is not of sufficient capacity to operate all elevators at the same time, all elevators shall transfer to standby power in sequence, return to the designated landing and disconnect from the standby power source. After all elevators have been returned to the designated level, not less than one elevator shall remain operable from the standby power source.

    607.2.4 Machine room ventilation.

    Where standby power is connected to elevators, the machine room ventilation or air conditioning shall be connected to the standby power source.

    [BE]607.3 Emergency signs.

    An approved pictorial sign of a standardized design shall be posted adjacent to each elevator call station on all floors instructing occupants to use the exit stairways and not to use the elevators in case of fire. The sign shall read: IN FIRE EMERGENCY, DO NOT USE ELEVATOR. USE EXIT STAIRS.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.The emergency sign shall not be required for elevators that are part of an accessible means of egress complying with Section 1009.4.

    2. 2.The emergency sign shall not be required for elevators that are used for occupant self-evacuation in accordance with Section 3008 of the International Building Code.

    607.4 Fire service access elevator lobbies.

    Where fire service access elevators are required by Section 3007 of the International Building Code, fire service access elevator lobbies shall be maintained free of storage and furniture.

    607.5 Occupant evacuation elevator lobbies.

    Where occupant evacuation elevators are provided in accordance with Section 3008 of the International Building Code, occupant evacuation elevator lobbies shall be maintained free of storage and furniture.

    607.6 Water protection of hoistway enclosures.

    Methods to prevent water from infiltrating into a hoistway enclosure required by Section 3007.3 and Section 3008.3 of the International Building Code shall be maintained.

    607.7 Elevator key location.

    Keys for the elevator car doors and fire-fighter service keys shall be kept in an approved location for immediate use by the fire department.

    607.8 Standardized fire service elevator keys.

    Buildings with elevators equipped with Phase I emergency recall, Phase II emergency in-car operation, or a fire service access elevator shall be equipped to operate with a standardized fire service elevator key approved by the fire code official.

    Exception: The owner shall be permitted to place the building’s nonstandardized fire service elevator keys in a key box installed in accordance with Section 506.1.2.

    607.8.1 Requirements for standardized fire service elevator keys.

    Standardized fire service elevator keys shall comply with all of the following:

    1. 1.All fire service elevator keys within the jurisdiction shall be uniform and specific for the jurisdiction. Keys shall be cut to a uniform key code.

    2. 2.Fire service elevator keys shall be of a patent-protected design to prevent unauthorized duplication.

    3. 3.Fire service elevator keys shall be factory restricted by the manufacturer to prevent the unauthorized distribution of key blanks. Uncut key blanks shall not be permitted to leave the factory.

    4. 4.Fire service elevator keys subject to these rules shall be engraved with the words “DO NOT DUPLICATE.”

    607.8.2 Access to standardized fire service keys.

    Access to standardized fire service elevator keys shall be restricted to the following:

    1. 1.Elevator owners or their authorized agents.

    2. 2.Elevator contractors.

    3. 3.Elevator inspectors of the jurisdiction.

    4. 4.Fire code officials of the jurisdiction.

    5. 5.The fire department and other emergency response agencies designated by the fire code official.

    607.8.3 Duplication or distribution of keys.

    A person shall not duplicate a standardized fire service elevator key or issue, give, or sell a duplicated key unless in accordance with this code.

    607.8.4 Responsibility to provide keys.

    The building owner shall provide up to three standardized fire service elevator keys where required by the fire code official, upon installation of a standardized fire service key switch or switches in the building.

    SECTION608
    STATIONARY STORAGE BATTERY SYSTEMS

    608.1 Scope.

    Stationary storage battery systems having an electrolyte capacity of more than 50 gallons (189 L) for flooded lead-acid, nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) and valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA), or more than 1,000 pounds (454 kg) for lithium-ion and lithium metal polymer, used for facility standby power, emergency power or uninterruptible power supplies shall comply with this section and Table 608.1.

    TABLE 608.1

    BATTERY REQUIREMENTS

    REQUIREMENTNONRECOMBINANT BATTERIESRECOMBINANT BATTERIESOTHER BATTERIES
    Vented (Flooded) LeadAcid BatteriesVented (Flooded)Nickel-Cadmium(Ni-Cd) BatteriesValve Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) CellsLithium-Ion CellsLithium Metal Cells
    Safety capsVenting caps(608.2.1)Venting caps(608.2.1)Self-resealing flame-arresting caps(608.2.2)No capsNo caps
    Thermal runaway managementNot requiredNot requiredRequired(608.3)Not requiredRequired(608.3)
    Spill controlRequired(608.5)Required(608.5)Not requiredNot requiredNot required
    NeutralizationRequired(608.5.1)Required(608.5.1)Required(608.5.2)Not requiredNot required
    VentilationRequired(608.6.1; 608.6.2)Required(608.6.1; 608.6.2)Required(608.6.1; 608.6.2)Not requiredNot required
    SignageRequired(608.7)Required(608.7)Required(608.7)Required(608.7)Required(608.7)
    Seismic protectionRequired(608.8)Required(608.8)Required(608.8)Required(608.8)Required(608.8)
    Smoke detectionRequired(608.9)Required(608.9)Required(608.9)Required(608.9)Required(608.9)

    608.2 Safety caps.

    Safety caps for stationary storage battery systems shall comply with Sections 608.2.1 and 608.2.2.

    608.2.1 Nonrecombinant batteries.

    Vented lead-acid, nickel-cadmium or other types of nonrecombinant batteries shall be provided with safety venting caps.

    608.2.2 Recombinant batteries.

    VRLA batteries shall be equipped with self-resealing flame-arresting safety vents.

    608.3 Thermal runaway.

    VRLA and lithium metal polymer battery systems shall be provided with a listed device or other approved method to preclude, detect and control thermal runaway.

    608.4 Room design and construction.

    Enclosure of stationary battery systems shall comply with the International Building Code. Battery systems shall be allowed to be in the same room with the equipment they support.

    608.4.1 Separate rooms.

    Where stationary batteries are installed in a separate equipment room accessible only to authorized personnel, they shall be permitted to be installed on an open rack for ease of maintenance.

    608.4.2 Occupied work centers.

    Where a system of VRLA, lithium-ion, or other type of sealed, nonventing batteries is situated in an occupied work center, it shall be allowed to be housed in a noncombustible cabinet or other enclosure to prevent access by unauthorized personnel.

    608.4.3 Cabinets.

    Where stationary batteries are contained in cabinets in occupied work centers, the cabinet enclosures shall be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the equipment that they support.

    608.5 Spill control and neutralization.

    An approved method and materials for the control and neutralization of a spill of electrolyte shall be provided in areas containing leadacid, nickel-cadmium or other types of batteries with free-flowing liquid electrolyte. For purposes of this paragraph, a “spill” is defined as any unintentional release of electrolyte.

    Exception: VRLA, lithium-ion, lithium metal polymer or other types of sealed batteries with immobilized electrolyte shall not require spill control.

    608.5.1 Nonrecombinant battery neutralization.

    For battery systems containing lead acid, nickel cadmium or other types of batteries with free-flowing electrolyte, the method and materials shall be capable of neutralizing a spill of the total capacity from the largest cell or block to a pH between 5.0 and 9.0.

    608.5.2 Recombinant battery neutralization.

    For VRLA or other types of batteries with immobilized electrolyte, the method and material shall be capable of neutralizing a spill of 3.0 percent of the capacity of the largest cell or block in the room to a pH between 5.0 and 9.0.

    Exception: Lithium-ion and lithium metal polymer batteries shall not require neutralization.

    608.6 Ventilation.

    Ventilation of stationary storage battery systems shall comply with Sections 608.6.1 and 608.6.2.

    608.6.1 Room ventilation.

    Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and the following:

    1. 1.For flooded lead-acid, flooded Ni-Cd and VRLA batteries, the ventilation system shall be designed to limit the maximum concentration of hydrogen to 1.0 percent of the total volume of the room; or

    2. 2.Continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot (1 ft3/min/ft2) [0.0051 m3/s · m2] of floor area of the room.

      Exception: Lithium-ion and lithium metal polymer batteries shall not require additional ventilation beyond that which would normally be required for human occupancy of the space in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

    608.6.2 Cabinet ventilation.

    Where VRLA batteries are installed inside a cabinet, the cabinet shall be approved for use in occupied spaces and shall be mechanically or naturally vented by one of the following methods:

    1. 1.The cabinet ventilation shall limit the maximum concentration of hydrogen to 1 percent of the total volume of the cabinet during the worst-case event of simultaneous “boost” charging of all the batteries in the cabinet.

    2. 2.Where calculations are not available to substantiate the ventilation rate, continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot [1 ft3/min/ft2 or 0.0051 m3/(s · m2)] of floor area covered by the cabinet. The room in which the cabinet is installed shall be ventilated as required in Section 608.6.1.

    608.6.3 Supervision.

    Mechanical ventilation systems where required by Sections 608.6.1 and 608.6.2 shall be supervised by an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or shall initiate an audible and visual signal at a constantly attended on-site location.

    608.7 Signage.

    Signs shall comply with Sections 608.7.1 and 608.7.2.

    608.7.1 Equipment room and building signage.

    Doors into electrical equipment rooms or buildings containing stationary battery systems shall be provided with approved signs. The signs shall state that:

    1. 1.The room contains energized battery systems.

    2. 2.The room contains energized electrical circuits.

    3. 3.The battery electrolyte solutions, where present, are corrosive liquids.

    608.7.2 Cabinet signage.

    Cabinets shall have exterior labels that identify the manufacturer and model number of the system and electrical rating (voltage and current) of the contained battery system. There shall be signs within the cabinet that indicate the relevant electrical, chemical and fire hazards.

    608.8 Seismic protection.

    The battery systems shall be seismically braced in accordance with the International Building Code.

    608.9 Smoke detection.

    An approved automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2 in rooms containing stationary battery systems.

    SECTION609
    COMMERCIAL KITCHEN HOODS

    [M]609.1 General.

    Commercial kitchen exhaust hoods shall comply with the requirements of the International Mechanical Code.

    [M]609.2 Where required.

    A Type I hood shall be installed at or above all commercial cooking appliances and domestic cooking appliances used for commercial purposes that produce grease vapors.

    Exception: A Type I hood shall not be required for an electric cooking appliance where an approved testing agency provides documentation that the appliance effluent contains 5 mg/m3 or less of grease when tested at an exhaust flow rate of 500 cfm (0.236 m3/s) in accordance with UL 710B.

    609.3 Operations and maintenance.

    Commercial cooking systems shall be operated and maintained in accordance with Sections 609.3.1 through 609.3.4.

    609.3.1 Ventilation system.

    The ventilation system in connection with hoods shall be operated at the required rate of air movement, and classified grease filters shall be in place when equipment under a kitchen grease hood is used.

    609.3.2 Grease extractors.

    Where grease extractors are installed, they shall be operated when the commercial-type cooking equipment is used.

    609.3.3 Cleaning.

    Hoods, grease-removal devices, fans, ducts and other appurtenances shall be cleaned at intervals as required by Sections 609.3.3.1 through 609.3.3.3.

    609.3.3.1 Inspection.

    Hoods, grease-removal devices, fans, ducts and other appurtenances shall be inspected at intervals specified in Table 609.3.3.1 or as approved by the fire code official. Inspections shall be completed by qualified individuals.

    TABLE 609.3.3.1

    COMMERCIAL COOKING SYSTEM INSPECTION FREQUENCY

    TYPE OF COOKING OPERATIONSFREQUENCY OFINSPECTION
    High-volume cooking operations such as 24-hour cooking, charbroiling or wok cooking3 months
    Low-volume cooking operations such asplaces of religious worship, seasonal businessesand senior centers12 months
    Cooking operations utilizing solid fuel-burningcooking appliances1 month
    All other cooking operations6 months

    609.3.3.2 Grease accumulation.

    If during the inspection it is found that hoods, grease-removal devices, fans, ducts or other appurtenances have an accumulation of grease, such components shall be cleaned in accordance with ANSI/IKECA C 10.

    609.3.3.3 Records.

    Records for inspections shall state the individual and company performing the inspection, a description of the inspection and when the inspection took place. Records for cleanings shall state the individual and company performing the cleaning and when the cleaning took place. Such records shall be completed after each inspection or cleaning and maintained.

    609.3.3.3.1 Tags.

    When a commercial kitchen hood or duct system is inspected, a tag containing the service provider name, address, telephone number and date of service shall be provided in a conspicuous location. Prior tags shall be covered or removed.

    609.3.4 Extinguishing system service.

    Automatic fire-extinguishing systems protecting commercial cooking systems shall be serviced as required in Section 904.12.6.

    609.4 Appliance connection to building piping.

    Gas-fired commercial cooking appliances installed on casters and appliances that are moved for cleaning and sanitation purposes shall be connected to the piping system with an appliance connector listed as complying with ANSI Z21.69. The commercial cooking appliance connector installation shall be configured in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions. Movement of appliances with casters shall be limited by a restraining device installed in accordance with the connector and appliance manufacturer’s instructions.

    SECTION610
    COMMERCIAL KITCHEN
    COOKING OIL STORAGE

    610.1 General.

    Storage of cooking oil (grease) in commercial cooking operations utilizing above-ground tanks with a capacity greater than 60 gal (227 L) installed within a building shall comply with Sections 610.2 through 610.7 and NFPA 30. For purposes of this section, cooking oil shall be classified as a Class IIIB liquid unless otherwise determined by testing.

    610.2 Metallic storage tanks.

    Metallic cooking oil storage tanks shall be listed in accordance with UL 142 or UL 80, and shall be installed in accordance with the tank manufacturer’s instructions.

    610.3 Nonmetallic storage tanks.

    Nonmetallic cooking oil storage tanks shall be installed in accordance with the tank manufacturer’s instructions and shall also comply with all of the following:

    1. 1.Tanks shall be listed for use with cooking oil, including maximum temperature to which the tank will be exposed during use.

    2. 2.Tank capacity shall not exceed 200 gallons (757 L) per tank.

    610.4 Cooking oil storage system components.

    Cooking oil storage system components shall include but are not limited to piping, connections, fittings, valves, tubing, hose, pumps, vents and other related components used for the transfer of cooking oil, and are permitted to be of either metallic or non-metallic construction.

    610.4.1 Design standards.

    The design, fabrication and assembly of system components shall be suitable for the working pressures, temperatures and structural stresses to be encountered by the components.

    610.4.2 Components in contact with heated oil.

    System components that come in contact with heated cooking oil shall be rated for the maximum operating temperatures expected in the system.

    610.5 Tank venting.

    Normal and emergency venting shall be provided for cooking oil storage tanks.

    610.5.1 Normal vents.

    Normal vents shall be located above the maximum normal liquid line, and shall have a minimum effective area not smaller than the largest filling or withdrawal connection. Normal vents shall be permitted to vent inside the building.

    610.5.2 Emergency vents.

    Emergency relief vents shall be located above the maximum normal liquid line, and shall be in the form of a device or devices that will relieve excessive internal pressure caused by an exposure fire. For nonmetallic tanks, the emergency relief vent shall be allowed to be in the form of construction. Emergency vents shall be permitted to vent inside the building.

    610.6 Heating of cooking oil.

    Electrical equipment used for heating cooking oil in cooking oil storage systems shall be listed to UL 499 and shall comply with NFPA 70. Use of electrical immersion heaters shall be prohibited in nonmetallic tanks.

    610.7 Electrical equipment.

    Electrical equipment used for the operation of cooking oil storage systems shall comply with NFPA 70.

    SECTION611
    HYPERBARIC FACILITIES

    611.1 General.

    Hyperbaric facilities shall be inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with NFPA 99.

    611.2 Records.

    Records shall be maintained of all testing and repair conducted on the hyperbaric chamber and associated devices and equipment. Records shall be available to the fire code official.

    CHAPTER7
    FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES

    SECTION701
    GENERAL

    701.1 Scope.

    The provisions of this chapter shall govern maintenance of the materials, systems and assemblies used for structural fire resistance and fire-resistance-rated construction separation of adjacent spaces to safeguard against the spread of fire and smoke within a building and the spread of fire to or from buildings. New buildings shall comply with the International Building Code.

    701.2 Unsafe conditions.

    Where any components in this chapter are not maintained and do not function as intended or do not have the fire resistance required by the code under which the building was constructed, remodeled or altered, such component(s) or portion thereof shall be deemed an unsafe condition, in accordance with Section 110.1.1. Components or portions thereof determined to be unsafe shall be repaired or replaced to conform to that code under which the building was constructed, remodeled, altered or this chapter, as deemed appropriate by the fire code official.

    Where the extent of the conditions of components is such that any building, structure or portion thereof presents an imminent danger to the occupants of the building, structure or portion thereof, the fire code official shall act in accordance with Section 110.2.

    SECTION702
    DEFINITIONS

    702.1 Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    DRAFTSTOP.

    FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM.

    FIREBLOCKING.

    SECTION703
    FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION

    703.1 Maintenance.

    The required fire-resistance rating of fire-resistance-rated construction, including, but not limited to, walls, firestops, shaft enclosures, partitions, smoke barriers, floors, fire-resistive coatings and sprayed fire-resistant materials applied to structural members and fire-resistant joint systems, shall be maintained. Such elements shall be visually inspected by the owner annually and properly repaired, restored or replaced where damaged, altered, breached or penetrated. Records of inspections and repairs shall be maintained. Where concealed, such elements shall not be required to be visually inspected by the owner unless the concealed space is accessible by the removal or movement of a panel, access door, ceiling tile or similar movable entry to the space. Openings made therein for the passage of pipes, electrical conduit, wires, ducts, air transfer openings and holes made for any reason shall be protected with approved methods capable of resisting the passage of smoke and fire. Openings through fire-resistance-rated assemblies shall be protected by self- or automatic-closing doors of approved construction meeting the fire protection requirements for the assembly.

    703.1.1 Fireblocking and draftstopping.

    Required fire-blocking and draftstopping in combustible concealed spaces shall be maintained to provide continuity and integrity of the construction.

    703.1.2 Smoke barriers and smoke partitions.

    Required smoke barriers and smoke partitions shall be maintained to prevent the passage of smoke. Openings protected with approved smoke barrier doors or smoke dampers shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 105.

    703.1.3 Fire walls, fire barriers and fire partitions.

    Required fire walls, fire barriers and fire partitions shall be maintained to prevent the passage of fire. Openings protected with approved doors or fire dampers shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 80.

    703.2 Opening protectives.

    Opening protectives shall be maintained in an operative condition in accordance with NFPA 80. Where allowed by the fire code official, the application of field-applied labels associated with the maintenance of opening protectives shall follow the requirements of the approved third-party certification organization accredited for listing the opening protective. Fire doors and smoke barrier doors shall not be blocked or obstructed, or otherwise made inoperable. Fusible links shall be replaced promptly whenever fused or damaged. Fire door assemblies shall not be modified.

    703.2.1 Signs.

    Where required by the fire code official, a sign shall be permanently displayed on or near each fire door in letters not less than 1 inch (25 mm) high to read as follows:

    1. 1.For doors designed to be kept normally open: FIRE DOOR—DO NOT BLOCK.

    2. 2.For doors designed to be kept normally closed: FIRE DOOR—KEEP CLOSED.

    703.2.2 Hold-open devices and closers.

    Hold-open devices and automatic door closers, where provided, shall be maintained. During the period that such device is out of service for repairs, the door it operates shall remain in the closed position.

    703.2.3 Door operation.

    Swinging fire doors shall close from the full-open position and latch automatically. The door closer shall exert enough force to close and latch the door from any partially open position.

    703.3 Ceilings.

    The hanging and displaying of salable goods and other decorative materials from acoustical ceiling systems that are part of a fire-resistance-rated horizontal assembly, shall be prohibited.

    703.4 Testing.

    Horizontal and vertical sliding and rolling fire doors shall be inspected and tested annually to confirm proper operation and full closure. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.

    SECTION704
    FLOOR OPENINGS AND SHAFTS

    704.1 Enclosure.

    Interior vertical shafts including, but not limited to, stairways, elevator hoistways, service and utility shafts, that connect two or more stories of a building shall be enclosed or protected as required in Chapter 11. New floor openings in existing buildings shall comply with the International Building Code.

    704.2 Opening protectives.

    Where openings are required to be protected, opening protectives shall be maintained self-closing or automatic-closing by smoke detection. Existing fusible-link-type automatic door-closing devices are permitted if the fusible link rating does not exceed 135°F (57°C).

    CHAPTER8
    INTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS

    SECTION801
    GENERAL

    801.1 Scope.

    The provisions of this chapter shall govern interior finish, interior trim, furniture, furnishings, decorative materials and decorative vegetation in buildings. Existing buildings shall comply with Sections 803 through 808. New buildings shall comply with Sections 804 through 808, and Section 803 of the International Building Code.

    SECTION802
    DEFINITIONS

    802.1 Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    FLAME SPREAD.

    FLAME SPREAD INDEX.

    INTERIOR FLOOR-WALL BASE.

    SITE-FABRICATED STRETCH SYSTEM.

    SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX.

    SECTION803
    INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH
    AND TRIM IN EXISTING BUILDINGS

    803.1 General.

    The provisions of this section shall limit the allowable fire performance and smoke development of interior wall and ceiling finishes and interior wall and ceiling trim in existing buildings based on location and occupancy classification. Interior wall and ceiling finishes shall be classified in accordance with Section 803 of the International Building Code. Such materials shall be grouped in accordance with ASTM E 84, as indicated in Section 803.1.1, or in accordance with NFPA 286, as indicated in Section 803.1.2.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Materials having a thickness less than 0.036 inch (0.9 mm) applied directly to the surface of walls and ceilings.

    2. 2.Exposed portions of structural members complying with the requirements of buildings of Type IV construction in accordance with the International Building Code shall not be subject to interior finish requirements.

    803.1.1 Classification in accordance with ASTM E 84.

    Interior finish materials shall be grouped in the following classes in accordance with their flame spread and smoke-developed index where tested in accordance with ASTM E 84.

    • Class A: flame spread index 0–25; smoke-developed index 0–450.

    • Class B: flame spread index 26–75; smoke-developed index 0–450.

    • Class C: flame spread index 76–200; smoke-developed index 0–450.

    803.1.2 Classification in accordance with NFPA 286.

    Interior wall or ceiling finishes shall be allowed to be tested in accordance with NFPA 286. Finishes tested in accordance with NFPA 286 shall comply with Section 803.1.2.1. Interior wall and ceiling finish materials tested in accordance with NFPA 286 and meeting the acceptance criteria of Section 803.1.2.1 shall be allowed to be used where a Class A classification in accordance with ASTM E 84 is required.

    803.1.2.1 Acceptance criteria for NFPA 286.

    The interior finish shall comply with the following:

    1. 1.During the 40 kW exposure, flames shall not spread to the ceiling.

    2. 2.The flame shall not spread to the outer extremity of the sample on any wall or ceiling.

    3. 3.Flashover, as defined in NFPA 286, shall not occur.

    4. 4.The peak heat release rate throughout the test shall not exceed 800 kW.

    5. 5.The total smoke released throughout the test shall not exceed 1,000 m2.

    803.2 Stability.

    Interior finish materials regulated by this chapter shall be applied or otherwise fastened in such a manner that such materials will not readily become detached where subjected to room temperatures of 200°F (93°C) for not less than 30 minutes.

    803.3 Interior finish requirements based on occupancy.

    Interior wall and ceiling finish shall have a flame spread index not greater than that specified in Table 803.3 for the group and location designated.

    TABLE 803.3

    INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH REQUIREMENTS BY OCCUPANCYk

    GROUPSPRINKLEREDlNONSPRINKLERED
    Interior exit stairways and ramps and exit passagewaysa, bCorridors and enclosure for exit access stairways and rampsRooms and enclosed spacescInterior exit stairways and ramps and exit passagewaysa, bCorridors and enclosure for exit access stairways and rampsRooms and enclosed spacesc
    A-1 & A-2BBCAAdBe
    A-3f, A-4, A-5BBCAAdC
    B, E, M, R-1, R-4BCCABC
    FCCCBCC
    HBBCgAAB
    I-1BCCABB
    I-2BBBh, iAAB
    I-3AAjCAAB
    I-4BBBh, iAAB
    R-2CCCBBC
    R-3CCCCCC
    SCCCBBC
    UNo RestrictionsNo Restrictions

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.

    1. a.Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed for wainscoting or paneling of not more than 1,000 square feet of applied surface area in the grade lobby where applied directly to a noncombustible base or over furring strips applied to a noncombustible base and fireblocked as required by Section 803.11 of the International Building Code.

    2. b.In exit enclosures of buildings less than three stories in height of other than Group I-3, Class B interior finish for nonsprinklered buildings and Class C for sprinklered buildings shall be permitted.

    3. c.Requirements for rooms and enclosed spaces shall be based upon spaces enclosed by partitions. Where a fire-resistance rating is required for structural elements, the enclosing partitions shall extend from the floor to the ceiling. Partitions that do not comply with this shall be considered as enclosing spaces and the rooms or spaces on both sides shall be considered as one. In determining the applicable requirements for rooms and enclosed spaces, the specific occupancy thereof shall be the governing factor regardless of the group classification of the building or structure.

    4. d.Lobby areas in Group A-1, A-2 and A-3 occupancies shall not be less than Class B materials.

    5. e.Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed in Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 300 persons or less.

    6. f. In places of religious worship, wood used for ornamental purposes, trusses, paneling or chancel furnishing shall be allowed.

    7. g.Class B material is required where the building exceeds two stories.

    8. h.Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed in administrative spaces.

    9. i.Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed in rooms with a capacity of four persons or less.

    10. j.Class B materials shall be allowed as wainscoting extending not more than 48 inches above the finished floor in corridors.

    11. k.Finish materials as provided for in other sections of this code.

    12. l.Applies when the vertical exits, exit passageways, corridors or rooms and spaces are protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

    803.4 Fire-retardant coatings.

    The required flame spread or smoke-developed index of surfaces in existing buildings shall be allowed to be achieved by application of approved fire-retardant coatings, paints or solutions to surfaces having a flame spread index exceeding that allowed. Such applications shall comply with NFPA 703 and the required fire-retardant properties shall be maintained or renewed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    803.5 Textiles.

    Where used as interior wall or ceiling finish materials, textiles, including materials having woven or non-woven, napped, tufted, looped or similar surface, shall comply with the requirements of this section.

    803.5.1 Textile wall or ceiling coverings.

    Textile wall or ceiling coverings shall comply with one of the following:

    1. 1.The wall or ceiling covering shall have a Class A flame spread index in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723, and be protected by automatic sprinklers installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

    2. 2.The wall covering shall meet the criteria of Section 803.5.1.1 when tested in the manner intended for use in accordance with NFPA 265 using the product-mounting system, including adhesive, of actual use.

    3. 3.The wall or ceiling covering shall meet the criteria of Section 803.1.2.1 when tested in accordance with NFPA 286 using the product-mounting system, including adhesive, of actual use.

    803.5.1.1 Method B test protocol.

    During the Method B protocol, the textile wall covering or expanded vinyl wall covering shall comply with the following:

    1. 1.During the 40-kW exposure, flames shall not spread to the ceiling.

    2. 2.The flame shall not spread to the outer extremities of the samples on the 8-foot by 12-foot (203 by 305 mm) walls.

    3. 3.Flashover, as defined in NFPA 265, shall not occur.

    4. 4.For newly introduced wall and ceiling coverings, the total smoke released throughout the test shall not exceed 1,000 m2.

    803.5.2 Newly introduced textile wall and ceiling coverings.

    Newly introduced textile wall and ceiling coverings shall comply with one of the following:

    1. 1.The wall or ceiling covering shall have a Class A flame spread index in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723, and be protected by automatic sprinklers installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. Test specimen preparation and mounting shall be in accordance with ASTM E 2404.

    2. 2.The wall covering shall meet the criteria of Section 803.5.1.1 when tested in the manner intended for use in accordance with NFPA 265 using the product-mounting system (including adhesive) of actual use.

    3. 3.The wall or ceiling covering shall meet the criteria of Section 803.1.2.1 when tested in accordance with NFPA 286 using the product-mounting system (including adhesive) of actual use.

    803.6 Expanded vinyl wall or ceiling coverings.

    Expanded vinyl wall or ceiling coverings shall comply with one of the following:

    1. 1.The wall or ceiling covering shall have a Class A flame spread index in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723, and be protected by automatic sprinklers installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. Test specimen preparation and mounting shall be in accordance with ASTM E 2404.

    2. 2.The wall covering shall meet the criteria of Section 803.5.1.1 when tested in the manner intended for use in accordance with NFPA 265 using the product-mounting system (including adhesive) of actual use.

    3. 3.The wall or ceiling covering shall meet the criteria of Section 803.1.2.1 when tested in accordance with NFPA 286 using the product-mounting system (including adhesive) of actual use.

    803.7 Facings or wood veneers intended to be applied on site over a wood substrate.

    Facings or veneers intended to be applied on site over a wood substrate shall comply with one of the following:

    1. 1.The facing or veneer shall have a Class A, B or C flame spread index and smoke-developed index, based on the requirements of Table 803.3, in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. Test specimen preparation and mounting shall be in accordance with ASTM E 2404.

    2. 2.The facing or veneer shall meet the criteria of Section 803.1.2.1 when tested in accordance with NFPA 286 using the product-mounting system, including adhesive, described in Section 5.8.9 of NFPA 286.

    803.8 Foam plastic materials.

    Foam plastic materials shall not be used as interior wall and ceiling finish unless specifically allowed by Section 803.8.1 or 803.8.2. Foam plastic materials shall not be used as interior trim unless specifically allowed by Section 803.8.3.

    803.8.1 Combustibility characteristics.

    Foam plastic materials shall be allowed on the basis of fire tests that substantiate their combustibility characteristics for the use intended under actual fire conditions, as indicated in Section 2603.9 of the International Building Code. This section shall apply both to exposed foam plastics and to foam plastics used in conjunction with a textile or vinyl facing or cover.

    803.8.2 Thermal barrier.

    Foam plastic material shall be allowed if it is separated from the interior of the building by a thermal barrier in accordance with Section 2603.4 of the International Building Code.

    803.8.3 Trim.

    Foam plastic shall be allowed for trim in accordance with Section 804.2.

    [BF]803.9 High-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP).

    Where high-density polyethylene or polypropylene is used as an interior finish it shall comply with Section 803.1.2.

    [BF]803.10 Site-fabricated stretch systems.

    Where used as newly installed interior wall or interior ceiling finish materials, site-fabricated stretch systems containing all three components described in the definition in Chapter 2 shall be tested in the manner intended for use, and shall comply with the requirements of Section 803.1.1 or 803.1.2. If the materials are tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723, specimen preparation and mounting shall be in accordance with ASTM E 2573.

    SECTION804
    INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING TRIM
    AND INTERIOR FLOOR FINISH IN
    NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS

    804.1 Interior trim.

    Material, other than foam plastic, used as interior trim in new and existing buildings shall have minimum Class C flame spread and smoke-developed indices, when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723, as described in Section 803.1.1. Combustible trim, excluding handrails and guardrails, shall not exceed 10 percent of the specific wall or ceiling areas to which it is attached.

    804.1.1 Alternative testing.

    When the interior trim material has been tested as an interior finish in accordance with NFPA 286 and complies with the acceptance criteria in Section 803.1.2.1, it shall not be required to be tested for flame spread index and smoke-developed index in accordance with ASTM E 84.

    804.2 Foam plastic.

    Foam plastic used as interior trim shall comply with Sections 804.2.1 through 804.2.4.

    804.2.1 Density.

    The minimum density of the interior trim shall be 20 pounds per cubic foot (320 kg/m3).

    804.2.2 Thickness.

    The maximum thickness of the interior trim shall be 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) and the maximum width shall be 8 inches (203 mm).

    804.2.3 Area limitation.

    The interior trim shall not constitute more than 10 percent of the specific wall or ceiling area to which it is attached.

    804.2.4 Flame spread.

    The flame spread index shall not exceed 75 where tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. The smoke-developed index shall not be limited.

    Exception: When the interior trim material has been tested as an interior finish in accordance with NFPA 286 and complies with the acceptance criteria in Section 803.1.2.1, it shall not be required to be tested for flame spread index in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723.

    804.3 New interior floor finish.

    New interior floor finish and floor covering materials in new and existing buildings shall comply with Sections 804.3.1 through 804.3.3.2.

    Exception: Floor finishes and coverings of a traditional type, such as wood, vinyl, linoleum or terrazzo, and resilient floor covering materials that are not composed of fibers.

    804.3.1 Classification.

    Interior floor finish and floor covering materials required by Section 804.3.3.2 to be of Class I or II materials shall be classified in accordance with NFPA 253. The classification referred to herein corresponds to the classifications determined by NFPA 253 as follows: Class I, 0.45 watts/cm2 or greater; Class II, 0.22 watts/cm2 or greater.

    804.3.2 Testing and identification.

    Interior floor finish and floor covering materials shall be tested by an approved agency in accordance with NFPA 253 and identified by a hang tag or other suitable method so as to identify the manufacturer or supplier and style, and shall indicate the interior floor finish or floor covering classification in accordance with Section 804.3.1. Carpet-type floor coverings shall be tested as proposed for use, including underlayment. Test reports confirming the information provided in the manufacturer’s product identification shall be furnished to the fire code official upon request.

    804.3.3 Interior floor finish requirements.

    New interior floor coverings materials shall comply with Sections 804.3.3.1 and 804.3.3.2, and interior floor finish materials shall comply with Section 804.3.1.

    804.3.3.1 Pill test.

    In all occupancies, new floor covering materials shall comply with the requirements of the DOC FF-1 “pill test” (CPSC 16 CFR Part 1630) or of ASTM D 2859.

    804.3.3.2 Minimum critical radiant flux.

    In all occupancies, new interior floor finish and floor covering materials in enclosures for stairways and ramps, exit passageways, corridors and rooms or spaces not separated from corridors by full-height partitions extending from the floor to the underside of the ceiling shall withstand a minimum critical radiant flux. The minimum critical radiant flux shall be not less than Class I in Groups I-1, I-2 and I-3 and not less than Class II in Groups A, B, E, H, I-4, M, R-1, R-2 and S.

    Exception: Where a building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, Class II materials shall be permitted in any area where Class I materials are required and materials complying with DOC FF-1 “pill test” (CPSC 16 CFR Part 1630) or with ASTM D 2859 shall be permitted in any area where Class II materials are required.

    804.4 Interior floor-wall base.

    Interior floor-wall base that is 6 inches (152 mm) or less in height shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 253 and shall be not less than Class II. Where a Class I floor finish is required, the floor-wall base shall be Class I. The classification referred to herein corresponds to the classifications determined by NFPA 253 as follows: Class I, 0.45 watt/cm2 or greater; Class II, 0.22 watts/cm2 or greater.

    Exception: Interior trim materials that comply with Section 804.1.

    SECTION805
    UPHOLSTERED FURNITURE AND
    MATTRESSES IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS

    805.1 Group I-1, Condition 2.

    The requirements in Sections 805.1.1 through 805.1.2 shall apply to facilities in Group I-1, Condition 2.

    805.1.1 Upholstered furniture.

    Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements of Sections 805.1.1.1 through 805.1.1.3.

    805.1.1.1 Ignition by cigarettes.

    Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance with one of the following:

    1. 1.Mocked-up composites of the upholstered furniture shall have a char length not exceeding 1.5 inches (38 mm) when tested in accordance with NFPA 261.

    2. 2.The components of the upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements for Class I when tested in accordance with NFPA 260.

    805.1.1.2 Heat release rate.

    Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall have limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537 or California Technical Bulletin 133, as follows:

    1. 1.The peak rate of heat release for the single upholstered furniture item shall not exceed 80 kW.

      Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    2. 2.The total energy released by the single upholstered furniture item during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not exceed 25 megajoules (MJ).

      Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    805.1.1.3 Identification.

    Upholstered furniture shall bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the requirements of Sections 805.1.1.1 and 805.1.1.2.

    805.1.2 Mattresses.

    Newly introduced mattresses shall meet the requirements of Sections 805.1.2.1 through 805.1.2.3.

    805.1.2.1 Ignition by cigarettes.

    Newly introduced mattresses shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance with DOC 16 CFR Part 1632 and shall have a char length not exceeding 2 inches (51 mm).

    805.1.2.2 Heat release rate.

    Newly introduced mattresses shall have limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or California Technical Bulletin 129, as follows:

    1. 1.The peak rate of heat release for the single mattress shall not exceed 100 kW.

      Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    2. 2.The total energy released by the single mattress during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not exceed 25 MJ.

      Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    805.1.2.3 Identification.

    Mattresses shall bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the requirements of Sections 805.2.2.1 and 805.2.2.2.

    805.2 Group I-2, nursing homes and hospitals.

    The requirements in Sections 805.2.1 through 805.2.2 shall apply to nursing homes and hospitals classified in Group I-2.

    805.2.1 Upholstered furniture.

    Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements of Sections 805.2.1.1 through 805.2.1.3.

    805.2.1.1 Ignition by cigarettes.

    Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance with one of the following: (a) mocked-up composites of the upholstered furniture shall have a char length not exceeding 1.5 inches (38 mm) when tested in accordance with NFPA 261 or (b) the components of the upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements for Class I when tested in accordance with NFPA 260.

    Exception: Upholstered furniture belonging to the patients in sleeping rooms of nursing homes (Group I-2), provided that a smoke detector is installed in such rooms. Battery-powered, single-station smoke alarms shall be allowed.

    805.2.1.2 Heat release rate.

    Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall have limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537 or California Technical Bulletin 133, as follows:

    1. 1.The peak rate of heat release for the single upholstered furniture item shall not exceed 80 kW.

      Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    2. 2.The total energy released by the single upholstered furniture item during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not exceed 25 MJ.

      Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    805.2.1.3 Identification.

    Upholstered furniture shall bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the requirements of Sections 805.2.1.1 and 805.2.1.2.

    805.2.2 Mattresses.

    Newly introduced mattresses shall meet the requirements of Sections 805.2.2.1 through 805.2.2.3.

    805.2.2.1 Ignition by cigarettes.

    Newly introduced mattresses shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance with DOC 16 CFR Part 1632 and shall have a char length not exceeding 2 inches (51 mm).

    805.2.2.2 Heat release rate.

    Newly introduced mattresses shall have limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or California Technical Bulletin 129, as follows:

    1. 1.The peak rate of heat release for the single mattress shall not exceed 100 kW.

      Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    2. 2.The total energy released by the single mattress during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not exceed 25 MJ.

      Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    805.2.2.3 Identification.

    Mattresses shall bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the requirements of Sections 805.2.2.1 and 805.2.2.2.

    805.3 Group I-3, detention and correction facilities.

    The requirements in Sections 805.3.1 through 805.3.2 shall apply to detention and correction facilities classified in Group I-3.

    805.3.1 Upholstered furniture.

    Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements of Sections 805.3.1.1 through 805.3.1.3

    805.3.1.1 Ignition by cigarettes.

    Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance with one of the following:

    1. 1.Mocked-up composites of the upholstered furniture shall have a char length not exceeding 1.5 inches (38 mm) when tested in accordance with NFPA 261.

    2. 2.The components of the upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements for Class I when tested in accordance with NFPA 260.

    805.3.1.2 Heat release rate.

    Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall have limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537, as follows:

    1. 1.The peak rate of heat release for the single upholstered furniture item shall not exceed 80 kW.

    2. 2.The total energy released by the single upholstered furniture item during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not exceed 25 MJ.

    805.3.1.3 Identification.

    Upholstered furniture shall bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the requirements of Sections 805.3.1.1 and 805.3.1.2.

    805.3.2 Mattresses.

    Newly introduced mattresses shall meet the requirements of Sections 805.3.2.1 through 805.3.2.3.

    805.3.2.1 Ignition by cigarettes.

    Newly introduced mattresses shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance with DOC 16 CFR Part 1632 and shall have a char length not exceeding 2 inches (51 mm).

    805.3.2.2 Fire performance tests.

    Newly introduced mattresses shall be tested in accordance with Section 805.3.2.2.1 or 805.3.2.2.2.

    805.3.2.2.1 Heat release rate.

    Newly introduced mattresses shall have limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or California Technical Bulletin 129, as follows:

    1. 1.The peak rate of heat release for the single mattress shall not exceed 100 kW.

    2. 2.The total energy released by the single mattress during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not exceed 25 MJ.

    805.3.2.2.2 Mass loss test.

    Newly introduced mattresses shall have a mass loss not exceeding 15 percent of the initial mass of the mattress where tested in accordance with the test in Annex A3 of ASTM F 1085.

    805.3.2.3 Identification.

    Mattresses shall bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the requirements of Sections 805.3.2.1 and 805.3.2.2.

    805.4 Group R-2 college and university dormitories.

    The requirements of Sections 805.4.1 through 805.4.2.3 shall apply to college and university dormitories classified in Group R-2, including decks, porches and balconies.

    805.4.1 Upholstered furniture.

    Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements of Sections 805.4.1.1 through 805.4.1.3

    805.4.1.1 Ignition by cigarettes.

    Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance with one of the following:

    1. 1.Mocked-up composites of the upholstered furniture shall have a char length not exceeding 11/2 inches (38 mm) when tested in accordance with NFPA 261.

    2. 2.The components of the upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements for Class I when tested in accordance with NFPA 260.

    805.4.1.2 Heat release rate.

    Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall have limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537 or California Technical Bulletin 133, as follows:

    1. 1.The peak rate of heat release for the single upholstered furniture item shall not exceed 80 kW.

      Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    2. 2.The total energy released by the single upholstered furniture item during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not exceed 25 MJ.

      Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    805.4.1.3 Identification.

    Upholstered furniture shall bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the requirements of Sections 805.4.1.1 and 805.4.1.2.

    805.4.2 Mattresses.

    Newly introduced mattresses shall meet the requirements of Sections 805.4.2.1 through 805.4.2.3.

    805.4.2.1 Ignition by cigarettes.

    Newly introduced mattresses shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance with DOC 16 CFR Part 1632 and shall have a char length not exceeding 2 inches (51 mm).

    805.4.2.2 Heat release rate.

    Newly introduced mattresses shall have limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or California Technical Bulletin 129, as follows:

    1. 1.The peak rate of heat release for the single mattress shall not exceed 100 kW.

      Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    2. 2.The total energy released by the single mattress during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not exceed 25 MJ.

      Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    805.4.2.3 Identification.

    Mattresses shall bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the requirements of Sections 805.4.2.1 and 805.4.2.2.

    SECTION806
    DECORATIVE VEGETATION
    IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS

    806.1 Natural cut trees.

    Natural cut trees, where allowed by this section, shall have the trunk bottoms cut off not less than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) above the original cut and shall be placed in a support device complying with Section 806.1.2.

    806.1.1 Restricted occupancies.

    Natural cut trees shall be prohibited within ambulatory care facilities and Group A, E, I-1, I-2, I-3, I-4, M, R-1, R-2 and R-4 occupancies.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Trees located in areas protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 shall not be prohibited in Groups A, E, M, R-1 and R-2.

    2. 2.Trees shall be allowed within dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies.

    806.1.2 Support devices.

    The support device that holds the tree in an upright position shall be of a type that is stable and that meets all of the following criteria:

    1. 1.The device shall hold the tree securely and be of adequate size to avoid tipping over of the tree.

    2. 2.The device shall be capable of containing a minimum two-day supply of water.

    3. 3.The water level, when full, shall cover the tree stem not less than 2 inches (51 mm). The water level shall be maintained above the fresh cut and checked not less than once daily.

    806.1.3 Dryness.

    The tree shall be removed from the building whenever the needles or leaves fall off readily when a tree branch is shaken or if the needles are brittle and break when bent between the thumb and index finger. The tree shall be checked daily for dryness.

    806.2 Artificial vegetation.

    Artificial decorative vegetation shall meet the flame propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701. Meeting the flame propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701 shall be documented and certified by the manufacturer in an approved manner. Alternatively, the artificial decorative vegetation item shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 289, using the 20 kW ignition source, and shall have a maximum heat release rate of 100 kW.

    806.3 Obstruction of means of egress.

    The required width of any portion of a means of egress shall not be obstructed by decorative vegetation. Natural cut trees shall not be located within an exit, corridor, or a lobby or vestibule.

    806.4 Open flame.

    Candles and open flames shall not be used on or near decorative vegetation. Natural cut trees shall be kept a distance from heat vents and any open flame or heat-producing devices at least equal to the height of the tree.

    806.5 Electrical fixtures and wiring.

    The use of unlisted electrical wiring and lighting on natural cut trees and artificial decorative vegetation shall be prohibited. The use of electrical wiring and lighting on artificial trees constructed entirely of metal shall be prohibited.

    SECTION807
    DECORATIVE MATERIALS OTHER
    THAN DECORATIVE VEGETATION IN NEW
    AND EXISTING BUILDINGS

    807.1 General.

    Combustible decorative materials, other than decorative vegetation, shall comply with Sections 807.2 through 807.5.6.


    807.2 Limitations.

    The following requirements shall apply to all occupancies:

    1. 1.Furnishings or decorative materials of an explosive or highly flammable character shall not be used.

    2. 2.Fire-retardant coatings in existing buildings shall be maintained so as to retain the effectiveness of the treatment under service conditions encountered in actual use.

    3. 3.Furnishings or other objects shall not be placed to obstruct exits, access thereto, egress therefrom or visibility thereof.

    4. 4.The permissible amount of noncombustible decorative materials shall not be limited.

    807.3 Combustible decorative materials.

    In other than Group I-3, curtains, draperies, fabric hangings and other similar combustible decorative materials suspended from walls or ceilings shall comply with Section 807.4 and shall not exceed 10 percent of the specific wall or ceiling area to which they are attached.

    Fixed or movable walls and partitions, paneling, wall pads and crash pads applied structurally or for decoration, acoustical correction, surface insulation or other purposes shall be considered interior finish, shall comply with Section 803 and shall not be considered decorative materials or furnishings.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.In auditoriums in Group A, the permissible amount of curtains, draperies, fabric hangings and other similar combustible decorative material suspended from walls or ceilings shall not exceed 75 percent of the aggregate wall area where the building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, and where the material is installed in accordance with Section 803.13 of the International Building Code.

    2. 2.In Group R-2 dormitories, within sleeping units and dwelling units, the permissible amount of curtains, draperies, fabric hangings and other similar decorative materials suspended from walls or ceilings shall not exceed 50 percent of the aggregate wall areas where the building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.

    3. 3.In Group B and M occupancies, the amount of combustible fabric partitions suspended from the ceiling and not supported by the floor shall comply with Section 807.4 and shall not be limited.

    807.4 Acceptance criteria and reports.

    Where required to exhibit improved fire performance, curtains, draperies, fabric hangings and other similar combustible decorative materials suspended from walls or ceilings shall be tested by an approved agency and meet the flame propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701 or exhibit a maximum rate of heat release of 100 kW when tested in accordance with NFPA 289, using the 20 kW ignition source. Reports of test results shall be prepared in accordance with the test method used and furnished to the fire code official upon request.

    807.5 Occupancy-based requirements.

    In occupancies specified, combustible decorative materials not complying with Section 807.3 shall comply with Sections 807.5.1 through 807.5.6.

    807.5.1 Group A.

    In Group A occupancies, the requirements in Sections 807.5.1.1 through 807.5.1.4 shall apply.

    807.5.1.1 Foam plastics.

    Exposed foam plastic materials and unprotected materials containing foam plastic used for decorative purposes or stage scenery or exhibit booths shall have a maximum heat release rate of 100 kW when tested in accordance with UL 1975, or when tested in accordance with NFPA 289 using the 20 kW ignition source.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Individual foam plastic items or items containing foam plastic where the foam plastic does not exceed 1 pound (0.45 kg) in weight.

    2. 2.Cellular or foam plastic shall be allowed for trim in accordance with Section 804.2.

    807.5.1.2 Motion picture screens.

    The screens upon which motion pictures are projected in new and existing buildings of Group A shall either meet the flame propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701 or shall comply with the requirements for a Class B interior finish in accordance with Section 803 of the International Building Code.

    807.5.1.3 Wood use in places of religious worship.

    In places of religious worship, wood used for ornamental purposes, trusses, paneling or chancel furnishing shall not be limited.

    807.5.1.4 Pyroxylin plastic.

    Imitation leather or other material consisting of or coated with a pyroxylin or similarly hazardous base shall not be used.

    807.5.2 Group E.

    Group E occupancies shall comply with Sections 807.5.2.1 through 807.5.2.3.

    807.5.2.1 Storage in corridors and lobbies.

    Clothing and personal effects shall not be stored in corridors and lobbies.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Corridors protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    2. 2.Corridors protected by an approved fire alarm system installed in accordance with Section 907.

    3. 3.Storage in metal lockers, provided the minimum required egress width is maintained.

    807.5.2.2 Artwork in corridors.

    Artwork and teaching materials shall be limited on the walls of corridors to not more than 20 percent of the wall area.

    807.5.2.3 Artwork in classrooms.

    Artwork and teaching materials shall be limited on walls of classrooms to not more than 50 percent of the specific wall area to which they are attached.

    807.5.3 Groups I-1 and I-2.

    In Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies, combustible decorative materials shall comply with Sections 807.5.3.1 through 807.5.3.4.

    807.5.3.1 Group I-1 and I-2 Condition 1 within units.

    In Group I-1 and Group I-2 Condition 1 occupancies, equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, within sleeping units and dwelling units, combustible decorative materials placed on walls shall be limited to not more than 50 percent of the wall area to which they are attached.

    807.5.3.2 In Group I-1 and I-2 Condition 1 for areas other than within units.

    In Group I-1 and Group I-2 Condition 1 occupancies, equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, combustible decorative materials placed on walls in areas other than within dwelling and sleeping units shall be limited to not more than 30 percent of the wall area to which they are attached.

    807.5.3.3 In Group I-2 Condition 2.

    In Group I-2 Condition 2 occupancies, equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, combustible decorative materials placed on walls shall be limited to not more than 30 percent of the wall area to which they are attached.

    807.5.3.4 Other areas in Groups I-1 and I-2.

    In Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies, in areas not equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, combustible decorative materials shall be of such limited quantities that a hazard of fire development or spread is not present.

    807.5.4 Group I-3.

    In Group I-3, combustible decorative materials are prohibited.

    807.5.5 Group I-4.

    Group I-4 occupancies shall comply with the requirements in Sections 807.5.5.1 through 807.5.5.3.

    807.5.5.1 Storage in corridors and lobbies.

    Clothing and personal effects shall not be stored in corridors and lobbies.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Corridors protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    2. 2.Corridors protected by an approved fire alarm system installed in accordance with Section 907.

    3. 3.Storage in metal lockers, provided the minimum required egress width is maintained.

    807.5.5.2 Artwork in corridors.

    Artwork and teaching materials shall be limited on walls of corridors to not more than 20 percent of the wall area.

    807.5.5.3 Artwork in classrooms.

    Artwork and teaching materials shall be limited on walls of classrooms to not more than 50 percent of the specific wall area to which they are attached.

    807.5.6 Dormitories in Group R-2.

    In Group R-2 dormitories, within sleeping units and dwelling units, the combustible decorative materials shall be of limited quantities such that a hazard of fire development or spread is not present.

    SECTION808
    FURNISHINGS OTHER THAN UPHOLSTERED
    FURNITURE AND MATTRESSES OR DECORATIVE
    MATERIALS IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS

    808.1 Wastebaskets and linen containers in Group I-1, I-2 and I-3 occupancies.

    Wastebaskets, linen containers and other waste containers, including their lids, located in Group I-1, I-2 and I-3 occupancies shall be constructed of noncombustible materials or of materials that meet a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 300 kW/m2 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m2 in the horizontal orientation. Metal wastebaskets and other metal waste containers with a capacity of 20 gallons (75.7 L) or more shall be listed in accordance with UL 1315 and shall be provided with a noncombustible lid. Portable containers exceeding 32 gallons (121 L) shall be stored in an area classified as a waste and linen collection room and constructed in accordance with Table 509 of the International Building Code.

    808.2 Waste containers with a capacity of 20 gallons or more in Group R-2 college and university dormitories.

    Waste containers, including their lids, located in Group R-2 college and university dormitories, and with a capacity of 20 gallons (75.7 L) or more, shall be constructed of noncombustible materials or of materials that meet a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 300 kW/m2 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m2 in the horizontal orientation. Metal wastebaskets and other metal waste containers with a capacity of 20 gallons (75.7 L) or more shall be listed in accordance with UL 1315 and shall be provided with a noncombustible lid. Portable containers exceeding 32 gallons (121 L) shall be stored in an area classified as a waste and linen collection room constructed in accordance with Table 509 of the International Building Code.

    808.3 Signs.

    Foam plastic signs that are not affixed to interior building surfaces shall have a maximum heat release rate of 150 kW when tested in accordance with UL 1975, or when tested in accordance with NFPA 289 using the 20-kW ignition source.

    Exception: Where the aggregate area of foam plastic signs is less than 10 percent of the floor area or wall area of the room or space in which the signs are located, whichever is less, subject to the approval of the fire code official.

    808.4 Combustible lockers.

    Where lockers constructed of combustible materials are used, the lockers shall be considered interior finish and shall comply with Section 803.

    Exception: Lockers constructed entirely of wood and non-combustible materials shall be permitted to be used wherever interior finish materials are required to meet a Class C classification in accordance with Section 803.1.1.

    CHAPTER9
    FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS

    SECTION901
    GENERAL

    901.1 Scope.

    The provisions of this chapter shall specify where fire protection systems are required and shall apply to the design, installation, inspection, operation, testing and maintenance of all fire protection systems.

    901.2 Construction documents.

    The fire code official shall have the authority to require construction documents and calculations for all fire protection systems and to require permits be issued for the installation, rehabilitation or modification of any fire protection system. Construction documents for fire protection systems shall be submitted for review and approval prior to system installation.

    901.2.1 Statement of compliance.

    Before requesting final approval of the installation, where required by the fire code official, the installing contractor shall furnish a written statement to the fire code official that the subject fire protection system has been installed in accordance with approved plans and has been tested in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications and the appropriate installation standard. Any deviations from the design standards shall be noted and copies of the approvals for such deviations shall be attached to the written statement.

    901.3 Permits.

    Permits shall be required as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7.

    901.4 Installation.

    Fire protection systems shall be maintained in accordance with the original installation standards for that system. Required systems shall be extended, altered or augmented as necessary to maintain and continue protection where the building is altered, remodeled or added to. Alterations to fire protection systems shall be done in accordance with applicable standards.

    901.4.1 Required fire protection systems.

    Fire protection systems required by this code or the International Building Code shall be installed, repaired, operated, tested and maintained in accordance with this code. A fire protection system for which a design option, exception or reduction to the provisions of this code or the International Building Code has been granted shall be considered to be a required system.

    901.4.2 Nonrequired fire protection systems.

    A fire protection system or portion thereof not required by this code or the International Building Code shall be allowed to be furnished for partial or complete protection provided such installed system meets the applicable requirements of this code and the International Building Code.

    901.4.3 Fire areas.

    Where buildings, or portions thereof, are divided into fire areas so as not to exceed the limits established for requiring a fire protection system in accordance with this chapter, such fire areas shall be separated by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the International Building Code, or both, having a fire-resistance rating of not less than that determined in accordance with Section 707.3.10 of the International Building Code.

    901.4.4 Additional fire protection systems.

    In occupancies of a hazardous nature, where special hazards exist in addition to the normal hazards of the occupancy, or where the fire code official determines that access for fire apparatus is unduly difficult, the fire code official shall have the authority to require additional safeguards. Such safeguards include, but shall not be limited to, the following: automatic fire detection systems, fire alarm systems, automatic fire-extinguishing systems, standpipe systems, or portable or fixed extinguishers. Fire protection equipment required under this section shall be installed in accordance with this code and the applicable referenced standards.

    901.4.5 Appearance of equipment.

    Any device that has the physical appearance of life safety or fire protection equipment but that does not perform that life safety or fire protection function shall be prohibited.

    901.4.6 Pump and riser room size.

    Where provided, fire pump rooms and automatic sprinkler system riser rooms shall be designed with adequate space for all equipment necessary for the installation, as defined by the manufacturer, with sufficient working space around the stationary equipment. Clearances around equipment to elements of permanent construction, including other installed equipment and appliances, shall be sufficient to allow inspection, service, repair or replacement without removing such elements of permanent construction or disabling the function of a required fire-resistance-rated assembly. Fire pump and automatic sprinkler system riser rooms shall be provided with a door(s) and an unobstructed passageway large enough to allow removal of the largest piece of equipment.

    901.5 Installation acceptance testing.

    Fire detection and alarm systems, fire-extinguishing systems, fire hydrant systems, fire standpipe systems, fire pump systems, private fire service mains and all other fire protection systems and appurtenances thereto shall be subject to acceptance tests as contained in the installation standards and as approved by the fire code official. The fire code official shall be notified before any required acceptance testing.

    901.5.1 Occupancy.

    It shall be unlawful to occupy any portion of a building or structure until the required fire detection, alarm and suppression systems have been tested and approved.

    901.6 Inspection, testing and maintenance.

    Fire detection, alarm, and extinguishing systems, mechanical smoke exhaust systems, and smoke and heat vents shall be maintained in an operative condition at all times, and shall be replaced or repaired where defective. Nonrequired fire protection systems and equipment shall be inspected, tested and maintained or removed.

    901.6.1 Standards.

    Fire protection systems shall be inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the referenced standards listed in Table 901.6.1.

    TABLE 901.6.1

    FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM MAINTENANCE STANDARDS

    SYSTEMSTANDARD
    Portable fire extinguishersNFPA 10
    Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing systemNFPA 12
    Halon 1301 fire-extinguishing systemsNFPA 12A
    Dry-chemical extinguishing systemsNFPA 17
    Wet-chemical extinguishing systemsNFPA 17A
    Water-based fire protection systemsNFPA 25
    Fire alarm systemsNFPA 72
    Smoke and heat ventsNFPA 204
    Water-mist systemsNFPA 750
    Clean-agent extinguishing systemsNFPA 2001

    901.6.2 Records.

    Records of all system inspections, tests and maintenance required by the referenced standards shall be maintained.

    901.6.2.1 Records information.

    Initial records shall include the name of the installation contractor, type of components installed, manufacturer of the components, location and number of components installed per floor. Records shall also include the manufacturers’ operation and maintenance instruction manuals. Such records shall be maintained for the life of the installation.

    901.7 Systems out of service.

    Where a required fire protection system is out of service, the fire department and the fire code official shall be notified immediately and, where required by the fire code official, the building shall be either evacuated or an approved fire watch shall be provided for all occupants left unprotected by the shutdown until the fire protection system has been returned to service.

    Where utilized, fire watches shall be provided with not less than one approved means for notification of the fire department and their only duty shall be to perform constant patrols of the protected premises and keep watch for fires.

    901.7.1 Impairment coordinator.

    The building owner shall assign an impairment coordinator to comply with the requirements of this section. In the absence of a specific designee, the owner shall be considered the impairment coordinator.

    901.7.2 Tag required.

    A tag shall be used to indicate that a system, or portion thereof, has been removed from service.

    901.7.3 Placement of tag.

    The tag shall be posted at each fire department connection, system control valve, fire alarm control unit, fire alarm annunciator and fire command center, indicating which system, or part thereof, has been removed from service. The fire code official shall specify where the tag is to be placed.

    901.7.4 Preplanned impairment programs.

    Preplanned impairments shall be authorized by the impairment coordinator. Before authorization is given, a designated individual shall be responsible for verifying that all of the following procedures have been implemented:

    1. 1.The extent and expected duration of the impairment have been determined.

    2. 2.The areas or buildings involved have been inspected and the increased risks determined.

    3. 3.Recommendations have been submitted to management or the building owner/manager.

    4. 4.The fire department has been notified.

    5. 5.The insurance carrier, the alarm company, the building owner/manager and other authorities having jurisdiction have been notified.

    6. 6.The supervisors in the areas to be affected have been notified.

    7. 7.A tag impairment system has been implemented.

    8. 8.Necessary tools and materials have been assembled on the impairment site.

    901.7.5 Emergency impairments.

    Where unplanned impairments occur, appropriate emergency action shall be taken to minimize potential injury and damage. The impairment coordinator shall implement the steps outlined in Section 901.7.4.

    901.7.6 Restoring systems to service.

    When impaired equipment is restored to normal working order, the impairment coordinator shall verify that all of the following procedures have been implemented:

    1. 1.Necessary inspections and tests have been conducted to verify that affected systems are operational.

    2. 2.Supervisors have been advised that protection is restored.

    3. 3.The fire department has been advised that protection is restored.

    4. 4.The building owner/manager, insurance carrier, alarm company and other involved parties have been advised that protection is restored.

    5. 5.The impairment tag has been removed.

    901.8 Removal of or tampering with equipment.

    It shall be unlawful for any person to remove, tamper with or otherwise disturb any fire hydrant, fire detection and alarm system, fire suppression system or other fire appliance required by this code except for the purpose of extinguishing fire, training purposes, recharging or making necessary repairs or where approved by the fire code official.

    901.8.1 Removal of or tampering with appurtenances.

    Locks, gates, doors, barricades, chains, enclosures, signs, tags or seals that have been installed by or at the direction of the fire code official shall not be removed, unlocked, destroyed, tampered with or otherwise vandalized in any manner.

    901.8.2 Removal of existing occupant-use hose lines.

    The fire code official is authorized to permit the removal of existing occupant-use hose lines where all of the following conditions exist:

    1. 1.Installation is not required by this code or the International Building Code.

    2. 2.The hose line would not be utilized by trained personnel or the fire department.

    3. 3.The remaining outlets are compatible with local fire department fittings.

    901.9 Termination of monitoring service.

    For fire alarm systems required to be monitored by this code, notice shall be made to the fire code official whenever alarm monitoring services are terminated. Notice shall be made in writing, to the fire code official by the monitoring service provider being terminated.

    901.10 Recall of fire protection components.

    Any fire protection system component regulated by this code that is the subject of a voluntary or mandatory recall under federal law shall be replaced with approved, listed components in compliance with the referenced standards of this code. The fire code official shall be notified in writing by the building owner when the recalled component parts have been replaced.

    SECTION902
    DEFINITIONS

    902.1 Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.

    ALARM SIGNAL.

    ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE.

    ANNUNCIATOR.

    AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.

    AUTOMATIC.

    AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.

    AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM.

    AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM.

    AUTOMATIC WATER MIST SYSTEM.

    AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL.

    CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.

    CLEAN AGENT.

    COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE.

    CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION.

    DELUGE SYSTEM.

    DETECTOR, HEAT.

    DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT.

    ELEVATOR GROUP.

    EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM.

    EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS.

    FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL.

    FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT.

    FIRE ALARM SIGNAL.

    FIRE ALARM SYSTEM.

    FIRE AREA.

    FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC.

    FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM.

    FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS.

    FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO).

    FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.

    HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM.

    IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR.

    INITIATING DEVICE.

    MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX.

    MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE.

    MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM.

    NOTIFICATION ZONE.

    NUISANCE ALARM.

    PRIVATE GARAGE.

    RECORD DRAWINGS.

    SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM.

    SLEEPING UNIT.

    SMOKE ALARM.

    SMOKE DETECTOR.

    STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF.

    Class I system.

    Class II system.

    Class III system.

    STANDPIPE, TYPES OF.

    Automatic dry.

    Automatic wet. Manual dry.

    Manual wet.

    Semiautomatic dry.

    SUPERVISING STATION.

    SUPERVISORY SERVICE.

    SUPERVISORY SIGNAL.

    SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE.

    TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF.

    TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT.

    TROUBLE SIGNAL.

    VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE.

    WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT.

    WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM.

    ZONE.

    ZONE, NOTIFICATION.

    SECTION903
    AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS

    903.1 General.

    Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section.

    903.1.1 Alternative protection.

    Alternative automatic fire-extinguishing systems complying with Section 904 shall be permitted instead of automatic sprinkler protection where recognized by the applicable standard and approved by the fire code official.

    903.2 Where required.

    Approved automatic sprinkler systems in new buildings and structures shall be provided in the locations described in Sections 903.2.1 through 903.2.12.

    Exception: Spaces or areas in telecommunications buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or not less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the International Building Code, or both.

    903.2.1 Group A.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings and portions thereof used as Group A occupancies as provided in this section. For Group A-1, A-2, A-3 and A-4 occupancies, the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout the story where the fire area containing the Group A-1, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancy is located, and throughout all stories from the Group A occupancy to, and including, the levels of exit discharge serving the Group A occupancy. For Group A-5 occupancies, the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in the spaces indicated in Section 903.2.1.5.

    903.2.1.1 Group A-1.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for fire areas containing Group A-1 occupancies and intervening floors of the building where one of the following conditions exists:

    1. 1.The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

    2. 2.The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more.

    3. 3.The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.

    4. 4.The fire area contains a multitheater complex.

    903.2.1.2 Group A-2.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for fire areas containing Group A-2 occupancies and intervening floors of the building where one of the following conditions exists:

    1. 1.The fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).

    2. 2.The fire area has an occupant load of 100 or more.

    3. 3.The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.

    903.2.1.3 Group A-3.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for fire areas containing Group A-3 occupancies and intervening floors of the building where one of the following conditions exists:

    1. 1.The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

    2. 2.The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more.

    3. 3.The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.

    903.2.1.4 Group A-4.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for fire areas containing Group A-4 occupancies and intervening floors of the building where one of the following conditions exists:

    1. 1.The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

    2. 2.The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more.

    3. 3.The fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies.

    903.2.1.5 Group A-5.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-5 occupancies in the following areas: concession stands, retail areas, press boxes and other accessory use areas in excess of 1,000 square feet (93 m2).

    903.2.1.6 Assembly occupancies on roofs.

    Where an occupied roof has an assembly occupancy with an occupant load exceeding 100 for Group A-2 and 300 for other Group A occupancies, all floors between the occupied roof and the level of exit discharge shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

    Exception: Open parking garages of Type I or Type II construction.

    903.2.1.7 Multiple fire areas.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided where multiple fire areas of Group A-1, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancies share exit or exit access components and the combined occupant load of these fire areas is 300 or more.

    903.2.2 Ambulatory care facilities.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire floor containing an ambulatory care facility where either of the following conditions exist at any time:

    1. 1.Four or more care recipients are incapable of self-preservation, whether rendered incapable by staff or staff has accepted responsibility for care recipients already incapable.

    2. 2.One or more care recipients that are incapable of self-preservation are located at other than the level of exit discharge serving such a facility.

    In buildings where ambulatory care is provided on levels other than the level of exit discharge, an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire floor where such care is provided as well as all floors below, and all floors between the level of ambulatory care and the nearest level of exit discharge, including the level of exit discharge.

    903.2.3 Group E.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group E occupancies as follows:

    1. 1.Throughout all Group E fire areas greater than 12,000 square feet (1115 m2) in area.

    2. 2.Throughout every portion of educational buildings below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that portion of the building.

      Exception: An automatic sprinkler system is not required in any area below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that area where every classroom throughout the building has not fewer than one exterior exit door at ground level.

    903.2.4 Group F-1.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group F-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:

    1. 1.A Group F-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

    2. 2.A Group F-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.

    3. 3.The combined area of all Group F-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).

    4. 4.A Group F-1 occupancy used for the manufacture of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 2,500 square feet (232 m2).

    903.2.4.1 Woodworking operations.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all Group F-1 occupancy fire areas that contain woodworking operations in excess of 2,500 square feet in area (232 m2) that generate finely divided combustible waste or use finely divided combustible materials.

    903.2.5 Group H.

    Automatic sprinkler systems shall be provided in high-hazard occupancies as required in Sections 903.2.5.1 through 903.2.5.3.

    903.2.5.1 General.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in Group H occupancies.

    903.2.5.2 Group H-5 occupancies.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings containing Group H-5 occupancies. The design of the sprinkler system shall be not less than that required under the International Building Code for the occupancy hazard classifications in accordance with Table 903.2.5.2.

    Where the design area of the sprinkler system consists of a corridor protected by one row of sprinklers, the maximum number of sprinklers required to be calculated is 13.

    TABLE 903.2.5.2

    GROUP H-5 SPRINKLER DESIGN CRITERIA

    LOCATIONOCCUPANCY HAZARD CLASSIFICATION
    Fabrication areasOrdinary Hazard Group 2
    Service corridorsOrdinary Hazard Group 2
    Storage rooms without dispensingOrdinary Hazard Group 2
    Storage rooms with dispensingExtra Hazard Group 2
    CorridorsOrdinary Hazard Group 2

    903.2.5.3 Pyroxylin plastics.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in buildings, or portions thereof, where cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plastics are manufactured, stored or handled in quantities exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg).

    903.2.6 Group I.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings with a Group I fire area.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 shall be permitted in Group I-1 Condition 1 facilities.

    2. 2.An automatic sprinkler system is not required where Group I-4 day care facilities are at the level of exit discharge and where every room where care is provided has not fewer than one exterior exit door.

    3. 3.In buildings where Group I-4 day care is provided on levels other than the level of exit discharge, an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall be installed on the entire floor where care is provided, all floors between the level of care and the level of exit discharge and all floors below the level of exit discharge other than areas classified as an open parking garage.

    903.2.7 Group M.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings containing a Group M occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:

    1. 1.A Group M fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

    2. 2.A Group M fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.

    3. 3.The combined area of all Group M fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).

    4. 4.A Group M occupancy used for the display and sale of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).

    903.2.7.1 High-piled storage.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided as required in Chapter 32 in all buildings of Group M where storage of merchandise is in high-piled or rack storage arrays.

    903.2.8 Group R.

    An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3 shall be provided throughout all buildings with a Group R fire area.

    903.2.8.1 Group R-3.

    An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in Group R-3 occupancies.

    [F]903.2.8.2 Group R-4 Condition 1.

    An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in Group R-4 Condition 1 occupancies.

    [F]903.2.8.3 Group R-4 Condition 2.

    An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 shall be permitted in Group R-4 Condition 2 occupancies. Attics shall be protected in accordance with Section 903.2.8.3.1 or 903.2.8.3.2.

    [F]903.2.8.3.1 Attics used for living purposes, storage or fuel-fired equipment.

    Attics used for living purposes, storage or fuel-fired equipment shall be protected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2.

    [F]903.2.8.3.2 Attics not used for living purposes, storage or fuel-fired equipment.

    Attics not used for living purposes, storage or fuel-fired equipment shall be protected in accordance with one of the following:

    1. 1.Attics protected throughout by a heat detector system arranged to activate the building fire alarm system in accordance with Section 907.2.10.

    2. 2.Attics constructed of noncombustible materials.

    3. 3.Attics constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood framing complying with Section 2303.2 of the International Building Code.

    4. 4.The automatic sprinkler system shall be extended to provide protection throughout the attic space.

    [F]903.2.8.4 Care facilities.

    An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in care facilities with five or fewer individuals in a single-family dwelling.

    903.2.9 Group S-1.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group S-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:

    1. 1.A Group S-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

    2. 2.A Group S-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.

    3. 3.The combined area of all Group S-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).

    4. 4.A Group S-1 fire area used for the storage of commercial motor vehicles where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).

    5. 5.A Group S-1 occupancy used for the storage of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 2,500 square feet (232 m2).

    903.2.9.1 Repair garages.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings used as repair garages in accordance with Section 406.8 of the International Building Code, as shown:

    1. 1.Buildings having two or more stories above grade plane, including basements, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 10,000 square feet (929 m2).

    2. 2.Buildings not more than one story above grade plane, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

    3. 3.Buildings with repair garages servicing vehicles parked in basements.

    4. 4.A Group S-1 fire area used for the repair of commercial motor vehicles where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).

    903.2.9.2 Bulk storage of tires.

    Buildings and structures where the area for the storage of tires exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m3) shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    903.2.10 Group S-2 enclosed parking garages.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings classified as enclosed parking garages in accordance with Section 406.6 of the International Building Code where either of the following conditions exists:

    1. 1.Where the fire area of the enclosed parking garage exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).

    2. 2.Where the enclosed parking garage is located beneath other groups.

      Exception: Enclosed parking garages located beneath Group R-3 occupancies.

    903.2.10.1 Commercial parking garages.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings used for storage of commercial motor vehicles where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).

    903.2.11 Specific buildings areas and hazards.

    In all occupancies other than Group U, an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed for building design or hazards in the locations set forth in Sections 903.2.11.1 through 903.2.11.6.

    903.2.11.1 Stories without openings.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout all stories, including basements, of all buildings where the floor area exceeds 1,500 square feet (139.4 m2) and where there is not provided not fewer than one of the following types of exterior wall openings:

    1. 1.Openings below grade that lead directly to ground level by an exterior stairway complying with Section 1011 or an outside ramp complying with Section 1012. Openings shall be located in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm).

    2. 2.Openings entirely above the adjoining ground level totaling not less than 20 square feet (1.86 m2) in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm). The height of the bottom of the clear opening shall not exceed 44 inches (1118 mm) measured from the floor.

    903.2.11.1.1 Opening dimensions and access.

    Openings shall have a minimum dimension of not less than 30 inches (762 mm). Such openings shall be accessible to the fire department from the exterior and shall not be obstructed in a manner such that fire fighting or rescue cannot be accomplished from the exterior.

    903.2.11.1.2 Openings on one side only.

    Where openings in a story are provided on only one side and the opposite wall of such story is more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from such openings, the story shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system or openings as specified above shall be provided on not fewer than two sides of the story.

    903.2.11.1.3 Basements.

    Where any portion of a basement is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from openings required by Section 903.2.11.1, or where walls, partitions or other obstructions are installed that restrict the application of water from hose streams, the basement shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.

    903.2.11.2 Rubbish and linen chutes.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed at the top of rubbish and linen chutes and in their terminal rooms. Chutes shall have additional sprinkler heads installed at alternate floors and at the lowest intake. Where a rubbish chute extends through a building more than one floor below the lowest intake, the extension shall have sprinklers installed that are recessed from the drop area of the chute and protected from freezing in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Such sprinklers shall be installed at alternate floors beginning with the second level below the last intake and ending with the floor above the discharge. Chute sprinklers shall be accessible for servicing.

    903.2.11.3 Buildings 55 feet or more in height.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings that have one or more stories with an occupant load of 30 or more located 55 feet (16 764 mm) or more above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, measured to the finished floor.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Open parking structures.

    2. 2.Occupancies in Group F-2.

    903.2.11.4 Ducts conveying hazardous exhausts.

    Where required by the International Mechanical Code, automatic sprinklers shall be provided in ducts conveying hazardous exhaust or flammable or combustible materials.

    Exception: Ducts where the largest cross-sectional diameter of the duct is less than 10 inches (254 mm).

    903.2.11.5 Commercial cooking operations.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct systems where an automatic sprinkler system is used to comply with Section 904.

    903.2.11.6 Other required suppression systems.

    In addition to the requirements of Section 903.2, the provisions indicated in Table 903.2.11.6 require the installation of a fire suppression system for certain buildings and areas.

    TABLE 903.2.11.6

    ADDITIONAL REQUIRED FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS

    SECTIONSUBJECT
    914.2.1Covered and open mall buildings
    914.3.1High-rise buildings
    914.4.1Atriums
    914.5.1Underground structures
    914.6.1Stages
    914.7.1Special amusement buildings
    914.8.2Airport traffic control towers
    914.8.3, 914.8.6Aircraft hangars
    914.9Flammable finishes
    914.10Drying rooms
    914.11.1Ambulatory care facilities
    1029.6.2.3Smoke-protected assembly seating
    1103.5.1Pyroxylin plastic storage in existing buildings
    1103.5.2Existing Group I-2 occupancies
    1103.5.3Existing Group I-2 Condition 2 occupancies
    1103.5.4Pyroxylin plastics
    2108.2Dry cleaning plants
    2108.3Dry cleaning machines
    2309.3.2.6.2Hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing area canopies
    2404.2Spray finishing in Group A, E, I or R
    2404.4Spray booths and spray rooms
    2405.2Dip-tank rooms in Group A, I or R
    2405.4.1Dip tanks
    2405.9.4Hardening and tempering tanks
    2703.10HPM facilities
    2703.10.1.1HPM work station exhaust
    2703.10.2HPM gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures
    2703.10.3HPM exit access corridor
    2703.10.4HPM exhaust ducts
    2703.10.4.1HPM noncombustible ducts
    2703.10.4.2HPM combustible ducts
    2807.3Lumber production conveyor enclosures
    2808.7Recycling facility conveyor enclosures
    3006.1Class A and B ovens
    3006.2Class C and D ovens
    Table 3206.2Storage fire protection
    3206.4Storage
    3704.5Storage of more than 1,000 cubic feet of loose combustible fibers
    5003.8.4.1Gas rooms
    5003.8.5.3Exhausted enclosures
    5004.5Indoor storage of hazardous materials
    5005.1.8Indoor dispensing of hazardous materials
    5104.4.1Aerosol warehouses
    5106.3.2Aerosol display and merchandising areas
    5306.2.1Exterior medical gas storage room
    5306.2.2Interior medical gas storage room
    5306.2.3Medical gas storage cabinet
    5606.5.2.1Storage of smokeless propellant
    5606.5.2.3Storage of small arms primers
    5704.3.7.5.1Flammable and combustible liquid storage rooms
    5704.3.8.4Flammable and combustible liquid storage warehouses
    5705.3.7.3Flammable and combustible liquid Group H-2 or H-3 areas
    6004.1.2Gas cabinets for highly toxic and toxic gas
    6004.1.3Exhausted enclosures for highly toxic and toxic gas
    6004.2.2.6Gas rooms for highly toxic and toxic gas
    6004.3.3Outdoor storage for highly toxic and toxic gas
    6504.1.1Pyroxylin plastic storage cabinets
    6504.1.3Pyroxylin plastic storage vaults
    6504.2Pyroxylin plastic storage and manufacturing

    For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.023 m3.

    903.2.12 During construction.

    Automatic sprinkler systems required during construction, alteration and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Section 3313.

    903.3 Installation requirements.

    Automatic sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 903.3.1 through 903.3.8.

    903.3.1 Standards.

    Sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, unless otherwise permitted by Sections 903.3.1.2 and 903.3.1.3 and other chapters of this code, as applicable.

    903.3.1.1 NFPA 13 sprinkler systems.

    Where the provisions of this code require that a building or portion thereof be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with this section, sprinklers shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13 except as provided in Sections 903.3.1.1.1 and 903.3.1.1.2.

    903.3.1.1.1 Exempt locations.

    Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in the following rooms or areas where such rooms or areas are protected with an approved automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 that will respond to visible or invisible particles of combustion. Sprinklers shall not be omitted from a room merely because it is damp, of fire-resistance-rated construction or contains electrical equipment.

    1. 1.A room where the application of water, or flame and water, constitutes a serious life or fire hazard.

    2. 2.A room or space where sprinklers are considered undesirable because of the nature of the contents, where approved by the fire code official.

    3. 3.Generator and transformer rooms separated from the remainder of the building by walls and floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.

    4. 4.Rooms or areas that are of noncombustible construction with wholly noncombustible contents.

    5. 5.Fire service access elevator machine rooms and machinery spaces.

    6. 6.Machine rooms, machinery spaces, control rooms and control spaces associated with occupant evacuation elevators designed in accordance with Section 3008 of the International Building Code.

    903.3.1.1.2 Bathrooms.

    In Group R occupancies, other than Group R-4 occupancies, sprinklers shall not be required in bathrooms that do not exceed 55 square feet (5 m2) in area and are located within individual dwelling units or sleeping units, provided that walls and ceilings, including the walls and ceilings behind a shower enclosure or tub, are of noncombustible or limited-combustible materials with a 15-minute thermal barrier rating.

    903.3.1.2 NFPA 13R sprinkler systems.

    Automatic sprinkler systems in Group R occupancies up to and including four stories in height in buildings not exceeding 60 feet (18 288 mm) in height above grade plane shall be permitted to be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13R.

    The number of stories of Group R occupancies constructed in accordance with Sections 510.2 and 510.4 of the International Building Code shall be measured from the horizontal assembly creating separate buildings.

    903.3.1.2.1 Balconies and decks.

    Sprinkler protection shall be provided for exterior balconies, decks and ground floor patios of dwelling units and sleeping units where the building is of Type V construction, provided there is a roof or deck above. Sidewall sprinklers that are used to protect such areas shall be permitted to be located such that their deflectors are within 1 inch (25 mm) to 6 inches (152 mm) below the structural members and a maximum distance of 14 inches (356 mm) below the deck of the exterior balconies and decks that are constructed of open wood joist construction.

    903.3.1.2.2 Open-ended corridors.

    Sprinkler protection shall be provided in open-ended corridors and associated exterior stairways and ramps as specified in Section 1027.6, Exception 3.

    903.3.1.3 NFPA 13D sprinkler systems.

    Automatic sprinkler systems installed in one- and two-family dwellings; Group R-3; Group R-4 Condition 1 and townhouses shall be permitted to be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13D.

    903.3.2 Quick-response and residential sprinklers.

    Where automatic sprinkler systems are required by this code, quick-response or residential automatic sprinklers shall be installed in all of the following areas in accordance with Section 903.3.1 and their listings:

    1. 1.Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing care recipient sleeping units in Group I-2 in accordance with the International Building Code.

    2. 2.Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing treatment rooms in ambulatory care facilities.

    3. 3.Dwelling units and sleeping units in Group I-1 and R occupancies.

    4. 4.Light-hazard occupancies as defined in NFPA 13.

    903.3.3 Obstructed locations.

    Automatic sprinklers shall be installed with due regard to obstructions that will delay activation or obstruct the water distribution pattern. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed in or under covered kiosks, displays, booths, concession stands or equipment that exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. Not less than a 3-foot (914 mm) clearance shall be maintained between automatic sprinklers and the top of piles of combustible fibers.

    Exception: Kitchen equipment under exhaust hoods protected with a fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 904.

    903.3.4 Actuation.

    Automatic sprinkler systems shall be automatically actuated unless specifically provided for in this code.

    903.3.5 Water supplies.

    Water supplies for automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section and the standards referenced in Section 903.3.1. The potable water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance with the requirements of this section and the International Plumbing Code. For connections to public waterworks systems, the water supply test used for design of fire protection systems shall be adjusted to account for seasonal and daily pressure fluctuations based on information from the water supply authority and as approved by the fire code official.

    903.3.5.1 Domestic services.

    Where the domestic service provides the water supply for the automatic sprinkler system, the supply shall be in accordance with this section.

    903.3.5.2 Residential combination services.

    A single combination water supply shall be allowed provided that the domestic demand is added to the sprinkler demand as required by NFPA 13R.

    903.3.6 Hose threads.

    Fire hose threads and fittings used in connection with automatic sprinkler systems shall be as prescribed by the fire code official.

    903.3.7 Fire department connections.

    Fire department connections for automatic sprinkler systems shall be installed in accordance with Section 912.

    903.3.8 Limited area sprinkler systems.

    Limited area sprinkler systems shall be in accordance with the standards listed in Section 903.3.1 except as provided in Sections 903.3.8.1 through 903.3.8.5.

    903.3.8.1 Number of sprinklers.

    Limited area sprinkler systems shall not exceed six sprinklers in any single fire area.

    903.3.8.2 Occupancy hazard classification.

    Only areas classified by NFPA 13 as Light Hazard or Ordinary Hazard Group 1 shall be permitted to be protected by limited area sprinkler systems.

    903.3.8.3 Piping arrangement.

    Where a limited area sprinkler system is installed in a building with an automatic wet standpipe system, sprinklers shall be supplied by the standpipe system. Where a limited area sprinkler system is installed in a building without an automatic wet standpipe system, water shall be permitted to be supplied by the plumbing system provided that the plumbing system is capable of simultaneously supplying domestic and sprinkler demands.

    903.3.8.4 Supervision.

    Control valves shall not be installed between the water supply and sprinklers unless the valves are of an approved indicating type that are supervised or secured in the open position.

    903.3.8.5 Calculations.

    Hydraulic calculations in accordance with NFPA 13 shall be provided to demonstrate that the available water flow and pressure are adequate to supply all sprinklers installed in any single fire area with discharge densities corresponding to the hazard classification.

    903.4 Sprinkler system supervision and alarms.

    Valves controlling the water supply for automatic sprinkler systems, pumps, tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical air pressures and waterflow switches on all sprinkler systems shall be electrically supervised by a listed fire alarm control unit.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and two-family dwellings.

    2. 2.Limited area sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.3.8.

    3. 3.Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13R where a common supply main is used to supply both domestic water and the automatic sprinkler system, and a separate shutoff valve for the automatic sprinkler system is not provided.

    4. 4.Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked in the open position.

    5. 5.Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in the open position.

    6. 6.Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump engines that are sealed or locked in the open position.

    7. 7.Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked in the open position.

    903.4.1 Monitoring.

    Alarm, supervisory and trouble signals shall be distinctly different and shall be automatically transmitted to an approved supervising station or, where approved by the fire code official, shall sound an audible signal at a constantly attended location.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility are not required to be monitored.

    2. 2.Backflow prevention device test valves located in limited area sprinkler system supply piping shall be locked in the open position. In occupancies required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, the backflow preventer valves shall be electrically supervised by a tamper switch installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and separately annunciated.

    903.4.2 Alarms.

    An approved audible device, located on the exterior of the building in an approved location, shall be connected to each automatic sprinkler system. Such sprinkler waterflow alarm devices shall be activated by water flow equivalent to the flow of a single sprinkler of the smallest orifice size installed in the system. Where a fire alarm system is installed, actuation of the automatic sprinkler system shall actuate the building fire alarm system.

    903.4.3 Floor control valves.

    Approved supervised indicating control valves shall be provided at the point of connection to the riser on each floor in high-rise buildings.

    903.5 Testing and maintenance.

    Sprinkler systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with Section 901.

    903.6 Where required in existing buildings and structures.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in existing buildings and structures where required in Chapter 11.

    SECTION904
    ALTERNATIVE AUTOMATIC
    FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS

    904.1 General.

    Automatic fire-extinguishing systems, other than automatic sprinkler systems, shall be designed, installed, inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the provisions of this section and the applicable referenced standards.

    904.1.1 Certification of service personnel for fire-extinguishing equipment.

    Service personnel providing or conducting maintenance on automatic fire-extinguishing systems, other than automatic sprinkler systems, shall possess a valid certificate issued by an approved governmental agency, or other approved organization for the type of system and work performed.

    904.2 Where permitted.

    Automatic fire-extinguishing systems installed as an alternative to the required automatic sprinkler systems of Section 903 shall be approved by the fire code official.

    904.2.1 Restriction on using automatic sprinkler system exceptions or reductions.

    Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall not be considered alternatives for the purposes of exceptions or reductions allowed for automatic sprinkler systems or by other requirements of this code.

    904.2.2 Commercial hood and duct systems.

    Each required commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system required by Section 609 to have a Type I hood shall be protected with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system installed in accordance with this code.

    904.3 Installation.

    Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed in accordance with this section.

    904.3.1 Electrical wiring.

    Electrical wiring shall be in accordance with NFPA 70.

    904.3.2 Actuation.

    Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be automatically actuated and provided with a manual means of actuation in accordance with Section 904.12.1. Where more than one hazard could be simultaneously involved in fire due to their proximity, all hazards shall be protected by a single system designed to protect all hazards that could become involved.

    Exception: Multiple systems shall be permitted to be installed if they are designed to operate simultaneously.

    904.3.3 System interlocking.

    Automatic equipment interlocks with fuel shutoffs, ventilation controls, door closers, window shutters, conveyor openings, smoke and heat vents and other features necessary for proper operation of the fire-extinguishing system shall be provided as required by the design and installation standard utilized for the hazard.

    904.3.4 Alarms and warning signs.

    Where alarms are required to indicate the operation of automatic fire-extinguishing systems, distinctive audible, visible alarms and warning signs shall be provided to warn of pending agent discharge. Where exposure to automatic-extinguishing agents poses a hazard to persons and a delay is required to ensure the evacuation of occupants before agent discharge, a separate warning signal shall be provided to alert occupants once agent discharge has begun. Audible signals shall be in accordance with Section 907.5.2.

    904.3.5 Monitoring.

    Where a building fire alarm system is installed, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be monitored by the building fire alarm system in accordance with NFPA 72.

    904.4 Inspection and testing.

    Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with the provisions of this section prior to acceptance.

    904.4.1 Inspection.

    Prior to conducting final acceptance tests, all of the following items shall be inspected:

    1. 1.Hazard specification for consistency with design hazard.

    2. 2.Type, location and spacing of automatic- and manual-initiating devices.

    3. 3.Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge orifices.

    4. 4.Location and identification of audible and visible alarm devices.

    5. 5.Identification of devices with proper designations.

    6. 6.Operating instructions.

    904.4.2 Alarm testing.

    Notification appliances, connections to fire alarm systems and connections to approved supervising stations shall be tested in accordance with this section and Section 907 to verify proper operation.

    904.4.2.1 Audible and visible signals.

    The audibility and visibility of notification appliances signaling agent discharge or system operation, where required, shall be verified.

    904.4.3 Monitor testing.

    Connections to protected premises and supervising station fire alarm systems shall be tested to verify proper identification and retransmission of alarms from automatic fire-extinguishing systems.

    904.5 Wet-chemical systems.

    Wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17A and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.

    904.5.1 System test.

    Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at six-month intervals. Tests shall include a check of the detection system, alarms and releasing devices, including manual stations and other associated equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed and the required amount of agent verified. Stored pressure-type units shall be checked for the required pressure. The cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed and replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer.

    904.5.2 Fusible link maintenance.

    Fixed temperature-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper operation of the system.

    904.6 Dry-chemical systems.

    Dry-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.

    904.6.1 System test.

    Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at six-month intervals. Tests shall include a check of the detection system, alarms and releasing devices, including manual stations and other associated equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed, and the required amount of agent verified. Stored pressure-type units shall be checked for the required pressure. The cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed and replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer.

    904.6.2 Fusible link maintenance.

    Fixed temperature-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper operation of the system.

    904.7 Foam systems.

    Foam-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 11 and NFPA 16 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.

    904.7.1 System test.

    Foam-extinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested at intervals in accordance with NFPA 25.

    904.8 Carbon dioxide systems.

    Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.

    904.8.1 System test.

    Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 12-month intervals.

    904.8.2 High-pressure cylinders.

    High-pressure cylinders shall be weighed and the date of the last hydrostatic test shall be verified at six-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original content of more than 10 percent, the cylinder shall be refilled or replaced.

    904.8.3 Low-pressure containers.

    The liquid-level gauges of low-pressure containers shall be observed at one-week intervals. Where a container shows a content loss of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled to maintain the minimum gas requirements.

    904.8.4 System hoses.

    System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. At five-year intervals, all hoses shall be tested.

    904.8.4.1 Test procedure.

    Hoses shall be tested at not less than 2,500 pounds per square inch (psi) (17 238 kPa) for high-pressure systems and at not less than 900 psi (6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems.

    904.8.5 Auxiliary equipment.

    Auxiliary and supplementary components, such as switches, door and window releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and supplementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 12-month intervals to ensure that such components are in proper operating condition.

    904.9 Halon systems.

    Halogenated extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12A and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.

    904.9.1 System test.

    Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 12-month intervals.

    904.9.2 Containers.

    The extinguishing agent quantity and pressure of containers shall be checked at six-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original weight of more than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure (adjusted for temperature) of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the container shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container.

    904.9.3 System hoses.

    System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. At five-year intervals, all hoses shall be tested.

    904.9.3.1 Test procedure.

    For Halon 1301 systems, hoses shall be tested at not less than 1,500 psi (10 343 kPa) for 600 psi (4137 kPa) charging pressure systems and not less than 900 psi (6206 kPa) for 360 psi (2482 kPa) charging pressure systems. For Halon 1211 hand-hose line systems, hoses shall be tested at 2,500 psi (17 238 kPa) for high-pressure systems and 900 psi (6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems.

    904.9.4 Auxiliary equipment.

    Auxiliary and supplementary components, such as switches, door and window releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and supplementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 12-month intervals to ensure such components are in proper operating condition.

    904.10 Clean-agent systems.

    Clean-agent fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 2001 and their listing. Records of inspections and testing shall be maintained.

    904.10.1 System test.

    Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 12-month intervals.

    904.10.2 Containers.

    The extinguishing agent quantity and pressure of the containers shall be checked at six-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original weight of more than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure, adjusted for temperature, of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the container shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container.

    904.10.3 System hoses.

    System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. All hoses shall be tested at five-year intervals.

    904.11 Automatic water mist systems.

    Automatic water mist systems shall be permitted in applications that are consistent with the applicable listing or approvals and shall comply with Sections 904.11.1 through 904.11.3.

    904.11.1 Design and installation requirements.

    Automatic water mist systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 904.11.1.1 through 904.11.1.4.

    904.11.1.1 General.

    Automatic water mist systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 750 and the manufacturer’s instructions.

    904.11.1.2 Actuation.

    Automatic water mist systems shall be automatically actuated.

    904.11.1.3 Water supply protection.

    Connections to a potable water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance with the International Plumbing Code.

    904.11.1.4 Secondary water supply.

    Where a secondary water supply is required for an automatic sprinkler system, an automatic water mist system shall be provided with an approved secondary water supply.

    904.11.2 Water mist system supervision and alarms.

    Supervision and alarms shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.

    904.11.2.1 Monitoring.

    Monitoring shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.1.

    904.11.2.2 Alarms.

    Alarms shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.2.

    904.11.2.3 Floor control valves.

    Floor control valves shall be provided as required for automatic sprinkler systems in accordance with Section 903.4.3.

    904.11.3 Testing and maintenance.

    Automatic water mist systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with Section 901.6.

    904.12 Commercial cooking systems.

    The automatic fire-extinguishing system for commercial cooking systems shall be of a type recognized for protection of commercial cooking equipment and exhaust systems of the type and arrangement protected. Preengineered automatic dry- and wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be tested in accordance with UL 300 and listed and labeled for the intended application. Other types of automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be listed and labeled for specific use as protection for commercial cooking operations. The system shall be installed in accordance with this code, its listing and the manufacturer’s installation instructions. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems of the following types shall be installed in accordance with the referenced standard indicated, as follows:

    1. 1.Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems, NFPA 12.

    2. 2.Automatic sprinkler systems, NFPA 13.

    3. 3.Foam-water sprinkler system or foam-water spray systems, NFPA 16.

    4. 4.Dry-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17.

    5. 5.Wet-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17A.

    Exception: Factory-built commercial cooking recirculating systems that are tested in accordance with UL 710B and listed, labeled and installed in accordance with Section 304.1 of the International Mechanical Code.

    904.12.1 Manual system operation.

    A manual actuation device shall be located at or near a means of egress from the cooking area not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) and not more than 20 feet (6096 mm) from the kitchen exhaust system. The manual actuation device shall be installed not more than 48 inches (1200 mm) nor less than 42 inches (1067 mm) above the floor and shall clearly identify the hazard protected. The manual actuation shall require a maximum force of 40 pounds (178 N) and a maximum movement of 14 inches (356 mm) to actuate the fire suppression system.

    Exception: Automatic sprinkler systems shall not be required to be equipped with manual actuation means.

    904.12.2 System interconnection.

    The actuation of the fire extinguishing system shall automatically shut down the fuel or electrical power supply to the cooking equipment. The fuel and electrical supply reset shall be manual.

    904.12.3 Carbon dioxide systems.

    Where carbon dioxide systems are used, there shall be a nozzle at the top of the ventilating duct. Additional nozzles that are symmetrically arranged to give uniform distribution shall be installed within vertical ducts exceeding 20 feet (6096 mm) and horizontal ducts exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). Dampers shall be installed at either the top or the bottom of the duct and shall be arranged to operate automatically upon activation of the fire-extinguishing system. Where the damper is installed at the top of the duct, the top nozzle shall be immediately below the damper. Automatic carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing systems shall be sufficiently sized to protect all hazards venting through a common duct simultaneously.

    904.12.3.1 Ventilation system.

    Commercial-type cooking equipment protected by an automatic carbon dioxide extinguishing system shall be arranged to shut off the ventilation system upon activation.

    904.12.4 Special provisions for automatic sprinkler systems.

    Automatic sprinkler systems protecting commercial-type cooking equipment shall be supplied from a separate, readily accessible, indicating-type control valve that is identified.

    904.12.4.1 Listed sprinklers.

    Sprinklers used for the protection of fryers shall be tested in accordance with UL 199E, listed for that application and installed in accordance with their listing.

    904.12.5 Portable fire extinguishers for commercial cooking equipment.

    Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided within a 30-foot (9144 mm) distance of travel from commercial-type cooking equipment. Cooking equipment involving solid fuels or vegetable or animal oils and fats shall be protected by a Class K rated portable extinguisher in accordance with Section 904.12.5.1 or 904.12.5.2, as applicable.

    904.12.5.1 Portable fire extinguishers for solid fuel cooking appliances.

    Solid fuel cooking appliances, whether or not under a hood, with fireboxes 5 cubic feet (0.14 m3) or less in volume shall have a minimum 2.5-gallon (9 L) or two 1.5-gallon (6 L) Class K wet-chemical portable fire extinguishers located in accordance with Section 904.12.5.

    904.12.5.2 Class K portable fire extinguishers for deep fat fryers.

    Where hazard areas include deep fat fryers, listed Class K portable fire extinguishers shall be provided as follows:

    1. 1.For up to four fryers having a maximum cooking medium capacity of 80 pounds (36.3 kg) each: one Class K portable fire extinguisher of a minimum 1.5-gallon ( 6 L) capacity.

    2. 2.For every additional group of four fryers having a maximum cooking medium capacity of 80 pounds (36.3 kg) each: one additional Class K portable fire extinguisher of a minimum 1.5-gallon (6 L) capacity shall be provided.

    3. 3.For individual fryers exceeding 6 square feet (0.55 m2) in surface area: Class K portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in accordance with the extinguisher manufacturer’s recommendations.

    904.12.6 Operations and maintenance.

    Automatic fire-extinguishing systems protecting commercial cooking systems shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 904.12.6.1 through 904.12.6.3.

    904.12.6.1 Existing automatic fire-extinguishing systems.

    Where changes in the cooking media, positioning of cooking equipment or replacement of cooking equipment occur in existing commercial cooking systems, the automatic fire-extinguishing system shall be required to comply with the applicable provisions of Sections 904.12 through 904.12.4.

    904.12.6.2 Extinguishing system service.

    Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be serviced at least every six months and after activation of the system. Inspection shall be by qualified individuals, and a certificate of inspection shall be forwarded to the fire code official upon completion.

    904.12.6.3 Fusible link and sprinkler head replacement.

    Fusible links and automatic sprinkler heads shall be replaced at least annually, and other protection devices shall be serviced or replaced in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    Exception: Frangible bulbs are not required to be replaced annually.

    904.13 Domestic cooking systems in Group I-2 Condition 1.

    In Group I-2 Condition 1 occupancies where cooking facilities are installed in accordance with Section 407.2.6 of the International Building Code, the domestic cooking hood provided over the cooktop or range shall be equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system of a type recognized for protection of domestic cooking equipment. Preengineered automatic extinguishing systems shall be tested in accordance with UL 300A and listed and labeled for the intended application. The system shall be installed in accordance with this code, its listing and the manufacturer’s instructions.

    904.13.1 Manual system operation and interconnection.

    Manual actuation and system interconnection for the hood suppression system shall be in accordance with Sections 904.12.1 and 904.12.2, respectively.

    904.13.2 Portable fire extinguishers for domestic cooking equipment in Group I-2 Condition 1.

    A portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 shall be installed within a 30-foot (9144 mm) distance of travel from domestic cooking appliances.

    SECTION905
    STANDPIPE SYSTEMS

    905.1 General.

    Standpipe systems shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 905.2 through 905.10. In buildings used for high-piled combustible storage, fire protection shall be in accordance with Chapter 32.

    905.2 Installation standard.

    Standpipe systems shall be installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 14. Fire department connections for standpipe systems shall be in accordance with Section 912.

    905.3 Required Installations.

    Standpipe systems shall be installed where required by Sections 905.3.1 through 905.3.8. Standpipe systems are allowed to be combined with automatic sprinkler systems.

    Exception: Standpipe systems are not required in Group R-3 occupancies.

    905.3.1 Height.

    Class III standpipe systems shall be installed throughout buildings where the floor level of the highest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) above the lowest level of the fire department vehicle access, or where the floor level of the lowest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the highest level of fire department vehicle access.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

    2. 2.Class I manual standpipes are allowed in open parking garages where the highest floor is located not more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.

    3. 3.Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in open parking garages that are subject to freezing temperatures, provided that the hose connections are located as required for Class II standpipes in accordance with Section 905.5.

    4. 4.Class I standpipes are allowed in basements equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system.

    5. 5.In determining the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, it shall not be required to consider either of the following:

      1. 5.1.Recessed loading docks for four vehicles or less.

      2. 5.2.Conditions where topography makes access from the fire department vehicle to the building impractical or impossible.

    905.3.2 Group A.

    Class I automatic wet standpipes shall be provided in nonsprinklered Group A buildings having an occupant load exceeding 1,000 persons.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Open-air-seating spaces without enclosed spaces.

    2. 2.Class I automatic dry and semiautomatic dry standpipes or manual wet standpipes are allowed in buildings that are not high-rise buildings.

    905.3.3 Covered and open mall buildings.

    Covered mall and open mall buildings shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system where required by Section 905.3.1. Mall buildings not required to be equipped with a standpipe system by Section 905.3.1 shall be equipped with Class I hose connections connected to the automatic sprinkler system sized to deliver water at 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) at the most hydraulically remote hose connection while concurrently supplying the automatic sprinkler system demand. The standpipe system shall be designed not to exceed a 50 pounds per square inch (psi) (345 kPa) residual pressure loss with a flow of 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) from the fire department connection to the hydraulically most remote hose connection. Hose connections shall be provided at each of the following locations:

    1. 1.Within the mall at the entrance to each exit passageway or corridor.

    2. 2.At each floor-level landing within interior exit stairways opening directly on the mall.

    3. 3.At exterior public entrances to the mall of a covered mall building

    4. 4.At public entrances at the perimeter line of an open mall building.

    5. 5.At other locations as necessary so that the distance to reach all portions of a tenant space does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection.

    905.3.4 Stages.

    Stages greater than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) in area shall be equipped with a Class III wet standpipe system with 11/2-inch and 21/2-inch (38 mm and 64 mm) hose connections on each side of the stage.

    Exception: Where the building or area is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system, a 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose connection shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13 or in accordance with NFPA 14 for Class II or III standpipes.

    905.3.4.1 Hose and cabinet.

    The 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose connections shall be equipped with sufficient lengths of 11/2-inch (38 mm) hose to provide fire protection for the stage area. Hose connections shall be equipped with an approved adjustable fog nozzle and be mounted in a cabinet or on a rack.

    905.3.5 Underground buildings.

    Underground buildings shall be equipped throughout with a Class I automatic wet or manual wet standpipe system.

    905.3.6 Helistops and heliports.

    Buildings with a rooftop helistop or heliport shall be equipped with a Class I or III standpipe system extended to the roof level on which the helistop or heliport is located in accordance with Section 2007.5.

    905.3.7 Marinas and boatyards.

    Standpipes in marinas and boatyards shall comply with Chapter 36.

    905.3.8 Rooftop gardens and landscaped roofs.

    Buildings or structures that have rooftop gardens or landscaped roofs and that are equipped with a standpipe system shall have the standpipe system extended to the roof level on which the rooftop garden or landscaped roof is located.

    905.4 Location of Class I standpipe hose connections.

    Class I standpipe hose connections shall be provided in all of the following locations:

    1. 1.In every required interior exit stairway, a hose connection shall be provided for each story above and below grade plane. Hose connections shall be located at an intermediate landing between stories, unless otherwise approved by the fire code official.

    2. 2.On each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of a horizontal exit.

      Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to a horizontal exit are reachable from an interior exit stairway hose connection by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the horizontal exit.

    3. 3.In every exit passageway, at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of a building.

      Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to an exit passageway are reachable from an interior exit stairway hose connection by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of the building.

    4. 4.In covered mall buildings, adjacent to each exterior public entrance to the mall and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall. In open mall buildings, adjacent to each public entrance to the mall at the perimeter line and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall.

    5. 5.Where the roof has a slope less than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3-percent slope), a hose connection shall be located to serve the roof or at the highest landing of an interior exit stairway with access to the roof provided in accordance with Section 1011.12.

    6. 6.Where the most remote portion of a nonsprinklered floor or story is more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from a hose connection or the most remote portion of a sprinklered floor or story is more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection, the fire code official is authorized to require that additional hose connections be provided in approved locations.

    905.4.1 Protection.

    Risers and laterals of Class I standpipe systems not located within an interior exit stairway shall be protected by a degree of fire resistance equal to that required for vertical enclosures in the building in which they are located.

    Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, laterals that are not located within an interior exit stairway are not required to be enclosed within fire-resistance-rated construction.

    905.4.2 Interconnection.

    In buildings where more than one standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14.

    905.5 Location of Class II standpipe hose connections.

    Class II standpipe hose connections shall be accessible and shall be located so that all portions of the building are within 30 feet (9144 mm) of a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose.

    905.5.1 Groups A-1 and A-2.

    In Group A-1 and A-2 occupancies with occupant loads of more than 1,000, hose connections shall be located on each side of any stage, on each side of the rear of the auditorium, on each side of the balcony and on each tier of dressing rooms.

    905.5.2 Protection.

    Fire-resistance-rated protection of risers and laterals of Class II standpipe systems is not required.

    905.5.3 Class II system 1-inch hose.

    A minimum 1-inch (25 mm) hose shall be allowed to be used for hose stations in light-hazard occupancies where investigated and listed for this service and where approved by the fire code official.

    905.6 Location of Class III standpipe hose connections.

    Class III standpipe systems shall have hose connections located as required for Class I standpipes in Section 905.4 and shall have Class II hose connections as required in Section 905.5.

    905.6.1 Protection.

    Risers and laterals of Class III standpipe systems shall be protected as required for Class I systems in accordance with Section 905.4.1.

    905.6.2 Interconnection.

    In buildings where more than one Class III standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14.

    905.7 Cabinets.

    Cabinets containing fire-fighting equipment, such as standpipes, fire hose, fire extinguishers or fire department valves, shall not be blocked from use or obscured from view.

    905.7.1 Cabinet equipment identification.

    Cabinets shall be identified in an approved manner by a permanently attached sign with letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) high in a color that contrasts with the background color, indicating the equipment contained therein.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Doors not large enough to accommodate a written sign shall be marked with a permanently attached pictogram of the equipment contained therein.

    2. 2.Doors that have either an approved visual identification clear glass panel or a complete glass door panel are not required to be marked.

    905.7.2 Locking cabinet doors.

    Cabinets shall be unlocked.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Visual identification panels of glass or other approved transparent frangible material that is easily broken and allows access.

    2. 2.Approved locking arrangements.

    3. 3.Group I-3 occupancies.

    905.8 Dry standpipes.

    Dry standpipes shall not be installed.

    Exception: Where subject to freezing and in accordance with NFPA 14.

    905.9 Valve supervision.

    Valves controlling water supplies shall be supervised in the open position so that a change in the normal position of the valve will generate a supervisory signal at the supervising station required by Section 903.4. Where a fire alarm system is provided, a signal shall be transmitted to the control unit.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility do not require supervision.

    2. 2.Valves locked in the normal position and inspected as provided in this code in buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system.

    905.10 During construction.

    Standpipe systems required during construction and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Section 3313.

    905.11 Existing buildings.

    Where required in Chapter 11, existing structures shall be equipped with standpipes installed in accordance with Section 905.

    SECTION906
    PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

    906.1 Where required.

    Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in all of the following locations:

    1. 1.In new and existing Group A, B, E, F, H, I, M, R-1, R-2, R-4 and S occupancies.

      Exception: In Group R-2 occupancies, portable fire extinguishers shall be required only in locations specified in Items 2 through 6 where each dwelling unit is provided with a portable fire extinguisher having a minimum rating of 1-A:10-B:C.

    2. 2.Within 30 feet (9144 mm) of commercial cooking equipment.

    3. 3.In areas where flammable or combustible liquids are stored, used or dispensed.

    4. 4.On each floor of structures under construction, except Group R-3 occupancies, in accordance with Section 3315.1.

    5. 5.Where required by the sections indicated in Table 906.1.

    6. 6.Special-hazard areas, including but not limited to laboratories, computer rooms and generator rooms, where required by the fire code official.

    TABLE 906.1

    ADDITIONAL REQUIRED PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

    SECTIONSUBJECT
    303.5Asphalt kettles
    307.5Open burning
    308.1.3Open flames—torches
    309.4Powered industrial trucks
    2005.2Aircraft towing vehicles
    2005.3Aircraft welding apparatus
    2005.4Aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles
    2005.5Aircraft hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles
    2005.6Aircraft fuel-dispensing stations
    2007.7Heliports and helistops
    2108.4Dry cleaning plants
    2305.5Motor fuel-dispensing facilities
    2310.6.4Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities
    2311.6Repair garages
    2404.4.1Spray-finishing operations
    2405.4.2Dip-tank operations
    2406.4.2Powder-coating areas
    2804.3Lumberyards/woodworking facilities
    2808.8Recycling facilities
    2809.5Exterior lumber storage
    2903.5Organic-coating areas
    3006.3Industrial ovens
    3104.12Tents and membrane structures
    3206.10High-piled storage
    3315.1Buildings under construction or demolition
    3317.3Roofing operations
    3408.2Tire rebuilding/storage
    3504.2.6Welding and other hot work
    3604.4Marinas
    3703.6Combustible fibers
    5703.2.1Flammable and combustible liquids, general
    5704.3.3.1Indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids
    5704.3.7.5.2Liquid storage rooms for flammable and combustible liquids
    5705.4.9Solvent distillation units
    5706.2.7Farms and construction sites—flammable and combustible liquids storage
    5706.4.10.1Bulk plants and terminals for flammable and combustible liquids
    5706.5.4.5Commercial, industrial, governmental or manufacturing establishments—fuel dispensing
    5706.6.4Tank vehicles for flammable and combustible liquids
    5906.5.7Flammable solids
    6108.2LP-gas

    906.2 General requirements.

    Portable fire extinguishers shall be selected, installed and maintained in accordance with this section and NFPA 10.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.The distance of travel to reach an extinguisher shall not apply to the spectator seating portions of Group A-5 occupancies.

    2. 2.Thirty-day inspections shall not be required and maintenance shall be allowed to be once every 3 years for dry-chemical or halogenated agent portable fire extinguishers that are supervised by a listed and approved electronic monitoring device, provided that all of the following conditions are met:

      1. 2.1.Electronic monitoring shall confirm that extinguishers are properly positioned, properly charged and unobstructed.

      2. 2.2.Loss of power or circuit continuity to the electronic monitoring device shall initiate a trouble signal.

      3. 2.3.The extinguishers shall be installed inside of a building or cabinet in a noncorrosive environment.

      4. 2.4.Electronic monitoring devices and supervisory circuits shall be tested every 3 years when extinguisher maintenance is performed.

      5. 2.5.A written log of required hydrostatic test dates for extinguishers shall be maintained by the owner to verify that hydrostatic tests are conducted at the frequency required by NFPA 10.

    3. 3.In Group I-3, portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be located at staff locations.

    906.2.1 Certification of service personnel for portable fire extinguishers.

    Service personnel providing or conducting maintenance on portable fire extinguishers shall possess a valid certificate issued by an approved governmental agency, or other approved organization for the type of work performed.

    906.3 Size and distribution.

    The size and distribution of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.3.1 through 906.3.4.

    TABLE 906.3(1)

    FIRE EXTINGUISHERS FOR CLASS A FIRE HAZARDS

    LIGHT (Low) HAZARD OCCUPANCYORDINARY (Moderate) HAZARD OCCUPANCYEXTRA (High) HAZARD OCCUPANCY
    Minimum rated single extinguisher2-Ac2-A4-Aa
    Maximum floor area per unit of A3,000 square feet1,500 square feet1,000 square feet
    Maximum floor area for extinguisherb11,250 square feet11,250 square feet11,250 square feet
    Maximum distance of travel to extinguisher75 feet75 feet75 feet

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

    1. a. Two 21/2-gallon water-type extinguishers shall be deemed the equivalent of one 4-A rated extinguisher.

    2. b. Annex E.3.3 of NFPA 10 provides more details concerning application of the maximum floor area criteria.

    3. c. Two water-type extinguishers each with a 1-A rating shall be deemed the equivalent of one 2-A rated extinguisher for Light (Low) Hazard Occupancies.

    TABLE 906.3(2)

    FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS WITH DEPTHS OF LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 0.25-INCHa

    TYPE OF HAZARDBASIC MINIMUM EXTINGUISHER RATINGMAXIMUM DISTANCE OF TRAVEL TO EXTINGUISHERS (feet)
    Light (Low)5-B30
    10-B50
    Ordinary (Moderate)10-B30
    20-B50
    Extra (High)40-B30
    80-B50

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    1. a. For requirements on water-soluble flammable liquids and alternative sizing criteria, see Section 5.5 of NFPA 10.

    906.3.1 Class A fire hazards.

    Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies that involve primarily Class A fire hazards, the minimum sizes and distribution shall comply with Table 906.3(1).

    906.3.2 Class B fire hazards.

    Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with depths of less than or equal to 0.25-inch (6.4 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with Table 906.3(2).

    Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with a depth of greater than 0.25-inch (6.4 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 10.

    906.3.3 Class C fire hazards.

    Portable fire extinguishers for Class C fire hazards shall be selected and placed on the basis of the anticipated Class A or B hazard.

    906.3.4 Class D fire hazards.

    Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving combustible metals shall be selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 10.

    906.4 Cooking grease fires.

    Fire extinguishers provided for the protection of cooking grease fires shall be of an approved type compatible with the automatic fire-extinguishing system agent and in accordance with Section 904.12.5.

    906.5 Conspicuous location.

    Portable fire extinguishers shall be located in conspicuous locations where they will be readily accessible and immediately available for use. These locations shall be along normal paths of travel, unless the fire code official determines that the hazard posed indicates the need for placement away from normal paths of travel.

    906.6 Unobstructed and unobscured.

    Portable fire extinguishers shall not be obstructed or obscured from view. In rooms or areas in which visual obstruction cannot be completely avoided, means shall be provided to indicate the locations of extinguishers.

    906.7 Hangers and brackets.

    Hand-held portable fire extinguishers, not housed in cabinets, shall be installed on the hangers or brackets supplied. Hangers or brackets shall be securely anchored to the mounting surface in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions.

    906.8 Cabinets.

    Cabinets used to house portable fire extinguishers shall not be locked.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Where portable fire extinguishers subject to malicious use or damage are provided with a means of ready access.

    2. 2.In Group I-3 occupancies and in mental health areas in Group I-2 occupancies, access to portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked or to be located in staff locations provided the staff has keys.

    906.9 Extinguisher installation.

    The installation of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.9.1 through 906.9.3.

    906.9.1 Extinguishers weighing 40 pounds or less.

    Portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight not exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor.

    906.9.2 Extinguishers weighing more than 40 pounds.

    Hand-held portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 3.5 feet (1067 mm) above the floor.

    906.9.3 Floor clearance.

    The clearance between the floor and the bottom of installed hand-held portable fire extinguishers shall be not less than 4 inches (102 mm).

    906.10 Wheeled units.

    Wheeled fire extinguishers shall be conspicuously located in a designated location.

    SECTION907
    FIRE ALARM AND DETECTION SYSTEMS

    907.1 General.

    This section covers the application, installation, performance and maintenance of fire alarm systems and their components in new and existing buildings and structures. The requirements of Section 907.2 are applicable to new buildings and structures. The requirements of Section 907.9 are applicable to existing buildings and structures.

    907.1.1 Construction documents.

    Construction documents for fire alarm systems shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this code, the International Building Code and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as determined by the fire code official.

    907.1.2 Fire alarm shop drawings.

    Shop drawings for fire alarm systems shall be submitted for review and approval prior to system installation, and shall include, but not be limited to, all of the following where applicable to the system being installed:

    1. 1.A floor plan that indicates the use of all rooms.

    2. 2.Locations of alarm-initiating devices.

    3. 3.Locations of alarm notification appliances, including candela ratings for visible alarm notification appliances.

    4. 4.Design minimum audibility level for occupant notification.

    5. 5.Location of fire alarm control unit, transponders and notification power supplies.

    6. 6.Annunciators.

    7. 7.Power connection.

    8. 8.Battery calculations.

    9. 9.Conductor type and sizes.

    10. 10.Voltage drop calculations.

    11. 11.Manufacturers’ data sheets indicating model numbers and listing information for equipment, devices and materials.

    12. 12.Details of ceiling height and construction.

    13. 13.The interface of fire safety control functions.

    14. 14.Classification of the supervising station.

    907.1.3 Equipment.

    Systems and components shall be listed and approved for the purpose for which they are installed.

    907.2 Where required—new buildings and structures.

    An approved fire alarm system installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and NFPA 72 shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 907.2.1 through 907.2.23 and provide occupant notification in accordance with Section 907.5, unless other requirements are provided by another section of this code.

    Not fewer than one manual fire alarm box shall be provided in an approved location to initiate a fire alarm signal for fire alarm systems employing automatic fire detectors or waterflow detection devices. Where other sections of this code allow elimination of fire alarm boxes due to sprinklers, a single fire alarm box shall be installed.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.The manual fire alarm box is not required for fire alarm systems dedicated to elevator recall control and supervisory service.

    2. 2.The manual fire alarm box is not required for Group R-2 occupancies unless required by the fire code official to provide a means for fire watch personnel to initiate an alarm during a sprinkler system impairment event. Where provided, the manual fire alarm box shall not be located in an area that is accessible to the public.

    907.2.1 Group A.

    A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group A occupancies where the occupant load due to the assembly occupancy is 300 or more. Group A occupancies not separated from one another in accordance with Section 707.3.10 of the International Building Code shall be considered as a single occupancy for the purposes of applying this section. Portions of Group E occupancies occupied for assembly purposes shall be provided with a fire alarm system as required for the Group E occupancy.

    Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.

    907.2.1.1 System initiation in Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 1,000 or more.

    Activation of the fire alarm in Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 1,000 or more shall initiate a signal using an emergency voice/alarm communications system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

    Exception: Where approved, the prerecorded announcement is allowed to be manually deactivated for a period of time, not to exceed 3 minutes, for the sole purpose of allowing a live voice announcement from an approved, constantly attended location.

    907.2.1.2 Emergency voice/alarm communication system captions.

    Stadiums, arenas and grandstands required to caption audible public announcements shall be in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.4.

    907.2.2 Group B.

    A manual fire alarm system shall be installed in Group B occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

    1. 1.The combined Group B occupant load of all floors is 500 or more.

    2. 2.The Group B occupant load is more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.

    3. 3.The fire area contains an ambulatory care facility.

    Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.

    907.2.2.1 Ambulatory care facilities.

    Fire areas containing ambulatory care facilities shall be provided with an electronically supervised automatic smoke detection system installed within the ambulatory care facility and in public use areas outside of tenant spaces, including public corridors and elevator lobbies.

    Exception: Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 provided the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.

    907.2.3 Group E.

    A manual fire alarm system that initiates the occupant notification signal utilizing an emergency voice/alarm communication system meeting the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2 and installed in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be installed in Group E occupancies. When automatic sprinkler systems or smoke detectors are installed, such systems or detectors shall be connected to the building fire alarm system.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.A manual fire alarm system is not required in Group E occupancies with an occupant load of 50 or less.

    2. 2.Emergency voice/alarm communication systems meeting the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2 and installed in accordance with Section 907.6 shall not be required in Group E occupancies with occupant loads of 100 or less, provided that activation of the manual fire alarm system initiates an approved occupant notification signal in accordance with Section 907.5.

    3. 3.Manual fire alarm boxes are not required in Group E occupancies where all of the following apply:

      1. 3.1.Interior corridors are protected by smoke detectors.

      2. 3.2.Auditoriums, cafeterias, gymnasiums and similar areas are protected by heat detectors or other approved detection devices.

      3. 3.3.Shops and laboratories involving dusts or vapors are protected by heat detectors or other approved detection devices.

    4. 4.Manual fire alarm boxes shall not be required in Group E occupancies where all of the following apply:

      1. 4.1.The building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

      2. 4.2.The emergency voice/alarm communication system will activate on sprinkler water flow.

      3. 4.3.Manual activation is provided from a normally occupied location.

    907.2.4 Group F.

    A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group F occupancies where both of the following conditions exist:

    1. 1.The Group F occupancy is two or more stories in height.

    2. 2.The Group F occupancy has a combined occupant load of 500 or more above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.

    Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.

    907.2.5 Group H.

    A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group H-5 occupancies and in occupancies used for the manufacture of organic coatings. An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed for highly toxic gases, organic peroxides and oxidizers in accordance with Chapters 60, 62 and 63, respectively.

    907.2.6 Group I.

    A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group I occupancies. An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.2.6.1, 907.2.6.2 and 907.2.6.3.3.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Manual fire alarm boxes in sleeping units of Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies shall not be required at exits if located at all care providers’ control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such stations are visible and continuously accessible and that the distances of travel required in Section 907.4.2.1 are not exceeded.

    2. 2.Occupant notification systems are not required to be activated where private mode signaling installed in accordance with NFPA 72 is approved by the fire code official and staff evacuation responsibilities are included in the fire safety and evacuation plan required by Section 404.

    907.2.6.1 Group I-1.

    An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in corridors, waiting areas open to corridors and habitable spaces other than sleeping units and kitchens. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.5.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1. For Group I-1 Condition 1 occupancies, smoke detection in habitable spaces is not required where the facility is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    2. 2.Smoke detection is not required for exterior balconies.

    907.2.6.1.1 Smoke alarms.

    Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.

    907.2.6.2 Group I-2.

    An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in corridors in Group I-2 Condition 1 facilities and spaces permitted to be open to the corridors by Section 407.2 of the International Building Code. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.4. Group I-2 Condition 2 occupancies shall be equipped with an automatic smoke detection system as required in Section 407 of the International Building Code.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Corridor smoke detection is not required in smoke compartments that contain sleeping units where such units are provided with smoke detectors that comply with UL 268. Such detectors shall provide a visual display on the corridor side of each sleeping unit and shall provide an audible and visual alarm at the care providers’ station attending each unit.

    2. 2.Corridor smoke detection is not required in smoke compartments that contain sleeping units where sleeping unit doors are equipped with automatic door-closing devices with integral smoke detectors on the unit sides installed in accordance with their listing, provided that the integral detectors perform the required alerting function.

    907.2.6.3 Group I-3 occupancies.

    Group I-3 occupancies shall be equipped with a manual fire alarm system and automatic smoke detection system installed for alerting staff.

    907.2.6.3.1 System initiation.

    Actuation of an automatic fire-extinguishing system, automatic sprinkler system, a manual fire alarm box or a fire detector shall initiate an approved fire alarm signal that automatically notifies staff.

    907.2.6.3.2 Manual fire alarm boxes.

    Manual fire alarm boxes are not required to be located in accordance with Section 907.4.2 where the fire alarm boxes are provided at staff-attended locations having direct supervision over areas where manual fire alarm boxes have been omitted.

    907.2.6.3.2.1 Manual fire alarms boxes in detainee areas.

    Manual fire alarm boxes are allowed to be locked in areas occupied by detainees, provided that staff members are present within the subject area and have keys readily available to operate the manual fire alarm boxes.

    907.2.6.3.3 Automatic smoke detection system.

    An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed throughout resident housing areas, including sleeping units and contiguous day rooms, group activity spaces and other common spaces normally accessible to residents.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Other approved smoke detection arrangements providing equivalent protection, including, but not limited to, placing detectors in exhaust ducts from cells or behind protective guards listed for the purpose, are allowed when necessary to prevent damage or tampering.

    2. 2.Sleeping units in Use Conditions 2 and 3 as described in Section 308 of the International Building Code.

    3. 3.Smoke detectors are not required in sleeping units with four or fewer occupants in smoke compartments that are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    907.2.7 Group M.

    A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group M occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

    1. 1.The combined Group M occupant load of all floors is 500 or more persons.

    2. 2.The Group M occupant load is more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.A manual fire alarm system is not required in covered or open mall buildings complying with Section 402 of the International Building Code.

    2. 2.Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will automatically activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.

    907.2.7.1 Occupant notification.

    During times that the building is occupied, the initiation of a signal from a manual fire alarm box or from a waterflow switch shall not be required to activate the alarm notification appliances when an alarm signal is activated at a constantly attended location from which evacuation instructions shall be initiated over an emergency voice/alarm communication system installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

    907.2.8 Group R-1.

    Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-1 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.8.1 through 907.2.8.3.

    907.2.8.1 Manual fire alarm system.

    A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-1 occupancies.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.A manual fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces to those units are separated from each other and public or common areas by not less than 1-hour fire partitions and each individual sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard.

    2. 2.Manual fire alarm boxes are not required throughout the building where all of the following conditions are met:

      1. 2.1.The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

      2. 2.2.The notification appliances will activate upon sprinkler water flow.

      3. 2.3.Not fewer than one manual fire alarm box is installed at an approved location.

    907.2.8.2 Automatic smoke detection system.

    An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed throughout all interior corridors serving sleeping units.

    Exception: An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit.

    907.2.8.3 Smoke alarms.

    Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.

    907.2.9 Group R-2.

    Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.9.1 and 907.2.9.3.

    907.2.9.1 Manual fire alarm system.

    A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies where any of the following conditions apply:

    1. 1.Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located three or more stories above the lowest level of exit discharge.

    2. 2.Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located more than one story below the highest level of exit discharge of exits serving the dwelling unit or sleeping unit.

    3. 3.The building contains more than 16 dwelling units or sleeping units.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.A fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all dwelling units or sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces are separated from each other and public or common areas by not less than 1-hour fire partitions and each dwelling unit or sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard.

    2. 2.Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and the occupant notification appliances will automatically activate throughout the notification zones upon a sprinkler water flow.

    3. 3.A fire alarm system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving dwelling units and are protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided that dwelling units either have a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior exit access that leads directly to the exits or are served by open-ended corridors designed in accordance with Section 1027.6, Exception 3.

    907.2.9.2 Smoke alarms.

    Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.

    907.2.9.3 Group R-2 college and university buildings.

    An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies operated by a college or university for student or staff housing in all of the following locations:

    1. 1.Common spaces outside of dwelling units and sleeping units.

    2. 2.Laundry rooms, mechanical equipment rooms and storage rooms.

    3. 3.All interior corridors serving sleeping units or dwelling units.

      Exception: An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units or dwelling units and where each sleeping unit or dwelling unit either has a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit or a means of egress door opening directly to an exit.

    Required smoke alarms in dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R-2 occupancies operated by a college or university for student or staff housing shall be interconnected with the fire alarm system in accordance with NFPA 72.

    907.2.10 Group R-4.

    Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-4 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.10.1 through 907.2.10.3.

    907.2.10.1 Manual fire alarm system.

    A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-4 occupancies.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.A manual fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces to those units are separated from each other and public or common areas by not less than 1-hour fire partitions and each individual sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, egress court or yard.

    2. 2.Manual fire alarm boxes are not required throughout the building where all of the following conditions are met:

      1. 2.1.The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

      2. 2.2.The notification appliances will activate upon sprinkler water flow.

      3. 2.3.Not fewer than one manual fire alarm box is installed at an approved location.

    3. 3.Manual fire alarm boxes in resident or patient sleeping areas shall not be required at exits where located at all nurses’ control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such stations are visible and continuously accessible and that the distances of travel required in Section 907.4.2.1 are not exceeded.

    907.2.10.2 Automatic smoke detection system.

    An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be installed in corridors, waiting areas open to corridors and habitable spaces other than sleeping units and kitchens.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Smoke detection in habitable spaces is not required where the facility is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    2. 2.An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit.

    907.2.10.3 Smoke alarms.

    Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.

    907.2.11 Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms.

    Listed single- and multiple-station smoke alarms complying with UL 217 shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.11.1 through 907.2.11.6 and NFPA 72.

    907.2.11.1 Group R-1.

    Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in all of the following locations in Group R-1:

    1. 1.In sleeping areas.

    2. 2.In every room in the path of the means of egress from the sleeping area to the door leading from the sleeping unit.

    3. 3.In each story within the sleeping unit, including basements. For sleeping units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.

    907.2.11.2 Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and I-1.

    Single or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed and maintained in Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and I-1 regardless of occupant load at all of the following locations:

    1. 1.On the ceiling or wall outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of bedrooms.

    2. 2.In each room used for sleeping purposes.

    3. 3.In each story within a dwelling unit, including basements but not including crawl spaces and uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.

    907.2.11.3 Installation near cooking appliances.

    Smoke alarms shall not be installed in the following locations unless this would prevent placement of a smoke alarm in a location required by Section 907.2.11.1 or 907.2.11.2:

    1. 1.Ionization smoke alarms shall not be installed less than 20 feet (6096 mm) horizontally from a permanently installed cooking appliance.

    2. 2.Ionization smoke alarms with an alarm-silencing switch shall not be installed less than 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally from a permanently installed cooking appliance.

    3. 3.Photoelectric smoke alarms shall not be installed less than 6 feet (1829 mm) horizontally from a permanently installed cooking appliance.

    907.2.11.4 Installation near bathrooms.

    Smoke alarms shall be installed not less than 3 feet (914 mm) horizontally from the door or opening of a bathroom that contains a bathtub or shower unless this would prevent placement of a smoke alarm required by Section 907.2.11.1 or 907.2.11.2.

    907.2.11.5 Interconnection.

    Where more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individual dwelling unit or sleeping unit in Group R or I-1 occupancies, the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in such a manner that the activation of one alarm will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. Physical interconnection of smoke alarms shall not be required where listed wireless alarms are installed and all alarms sound upon activation of one alarm. The alarm shall be clearly audible in all bedrooms over background noise levels with all intervening doors closed.

    907.2.11.6 Power source.

    In new construction, required smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring where such wiring is served from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a battery backup. Smoke alarms with integral strobes that are not equipped with battery back-up shall be connected to an emergency electrical system in accordance with Section 604. Smoke alarms shall emit a signal when the batteries are low. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than as required for overcurrent protection.

    Exception: Smoke alarms are not required to be equipped with battery backup where they are connected to an emergency electrical system that complies with Section 604.

    907.2.11.7 Smoke detection system.

    Smoke detectors listed in accordance with UL 268 and provided as part of the building fire alarm system shall be an acceptable alternative to single- and multiple-station smoke alarms and shall comply with the following:

    1. 1.The fire alarm system shall comply with all applicable requirements in Section 907.

    2. 2.Activation of a smoke detector in a dwelling unit or sleeping unit shall initiate alarm notification in the dwelling unit or sleeping unit in accordance with Section 907.5.2.

    3. 3.Activation of a smoke detector in a dwelling unit or sleeping unit shall not activate alarm notification appliances outside of the dwelling unit or sleeping unit, provided that a supervisory signal is generated and monitored in accordance with Section 907.6.6.

    907.2.12 Special amusement buildings.

    An automatic smoke detection system shall be provided in special amusement buildings in accordance with Sections 907.2.12.1 through 907.2.12.3.

    907.2.12.1 Alarm.

    Activation of any single smoke detector, the automatic sprinkler system or any other automatic fire detection device shall immediately activate an audible and visible alarm at the building at a constantly attended location from which emergency action can be initiated, including the capability of manual initiation of requirements in Section 907.2.12.2.

    907.2.12.2 System response.

    The activation of two or more smoke detectors, a single smoke detector equipped with an alarm verification feature, the automatic sprinkler system or other approved fire detection device shall automatically do all of the following:

    1. 1.Cause illumination of the means of egress with light of not less than 1 footcandle (11 lux) at the walking surface level.

    2. 2.Stop any conflicting or confusing sounds and visual distractions.

    3. 3.Activate an approved directional exit marking that will become apparent in an emergency.

    4. 4.Activate a prerecorded message, audible throughout the special amusement building, instructing patrons to proceed to the nearest exit. Alarm signals used in conjunction with the prerecorded message shall produce a sound that is distinctive from other sounds used during normal operation.

    907.2.12.3 Emergency voice/alarm communication system.

    An emergency voice/alarm communication system, which is also allowed to serve as a public address system, shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2 and be audible throughout the entire special amusement building.

    907.2.13 High-rise buildings.

    High-rise buildings shall be provided with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section 907.2.13.1, a fire department communication system in accordance with Section 907.2.13.2 and an emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Section 907.2.22 of this code and Section 412 of the International Building Code.

    2. 2.Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.5 of the International Building Code.

    3. 3.Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5 in accordance with Section 303.1 of the International Building Code.

    4. 4.Low-hazard special occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1 of the International Building Code.

    5. 5.Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 in accordance with Section 415 of the International Building Code.

    6. 6.In Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies, the alarm shall sound at a constantly attended location and occupant notification shall be broadcast by the emergency voice/alarm communication system.

    907.2.13.1 Automatic smoke detection.

    Automatic smoke detection in high-rise buildings shall be in accordance with Sections 907.2.13.1.1 and 907.2.13.1.2.

    907.2.13.1.1 Area smoke detection.

    Area smoke detectors shall be provided in accordance with this section. Smoke detectors shall be connected to an automatic fire alarm system. The activation of any detector required by this section shall activate the emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. In addition to smoke detectors required by Sections 907.2.1 through 907.2.10, smoke detectors shall be located as follows:

    1. 1.In each mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment or similar room that is not provided with sprinkler protection.

    2. 2.In each elevator machine room, machinery space, control room and control space and in elevator lobbies.

    [M]907.2.13.1.2 Duct smoke detection.

    Duct smoke detectors complying with Section 907.3.1 shall be located as follows:

    1. 1.In the main return air and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system having a capacity greater than 2,000 cubic feet per minute (cfm) (0.94 m3/s). Such detectors shall be located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet.

    2. 2.At each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more stories from a return air duct or plenum of an air-conditioning system. In Group R-1 and R-2 occupancies, a smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 m3/s) and serving not more than 10 air-inlet openings.

    907.2.13.2 Fire department communication system.

    Where a wired communication system is approved in lieu of an emergency responder radio coverage system in accordance with Section 510, the wired fire department communication system shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and shall operate between a fire command center complying with Section 508, elevators, elevator lobbies, emergency and standby power rooms, fire pump rooms, areas of refuge and inside interior exit stairways. The fire department communication device shall be provided at each floor level within the interior exit stairway.

    907.2.14 Atriums connecting more than two stories.

    A fire alarm system shall be installed in occupancies with an atrium that connects more than two stories, with smoke detection in locations required by a rational analysis in Section 909.4 and in accordance with the system operation requirements in Section 909.17. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.5. Such occupancies in Group A, E or M shall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm communication system complying with the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2.

    907.2.15 High-piled combustible storage areas.

    An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed throughout high-piled combustible storage areas where required by Section 3206.5.

    907.2.16 Aerosol storage uses.

    Aerosol storage rooms and general-purpose warehouses containing aerosols shall be provided with an approved manual fire alarm system where required by this code.

    907.2.17 Lumber, wood structural panel and veneer mills.

    Lumber, wood structural panel and veneer mills shall be provided with a manual fire alarm system.

    907.2.18 Underground buildings with smoke control systems.

    Where a smoke control system is installed in an underground building in accordance with the International Building Code, automatic smoke detectors shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.18.1.

    907.2.18.1 Smoke detectors.

    Not fewer than one smoke detector listed for the intended purpose shall be installed in all of the following areas:

    1. 1.Mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment, elevator machine or similar rooms.

    2. 2.Elevator lobbies.

    3. 3.The main return and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system serving more than one story and located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet.

    4. 4.Each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more floors from return air ducts or plenums of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems, except that in Group R occupancies, a listed smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 m3/s) and serving not more than 10 air inlet openings.

    907.2.18.2 Alarm required.

    Activation of the smoke control system shall activate an audible alarm at a constantly attended location.

    907.2.19 Deep underground buildings.

    Where the lowest level of a structure is more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge, the structure shall be equipped throughout with a manual fire alarm system, including an emergency voice/alarm communication system installed in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

    907.2.20 Covered and open mall buildings.

    Where the total floor area exceeds 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) within either a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building, an emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be accessible to the fire department. The system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

    907.2.21 Residential aircraft hangars.

    Not fewer than one single-station smoke alarm shall be installed within a residential aircraft hangar as defined in Chapter 2 of the International Building Code and shall be interconnected into the residential smoke alarm or other sounding device to provide an alarm that will be audible in all sleeping areas of the dwelling.

    907.2.22 Airport traffic control towers.

    An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be provided in airport control towers in accordance with Sections 907.2.22.1 and 907.2.22.2.

    Exception: Audible appliances shall not be installed within the control tower cab.

    907.2.22.1 Airport traffic control towers with multiple exits and automatic sprinklers.

    Airport traffic control towers with multiple exits and equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall be provided with smoke detectors in all of the following locations:

    1. 1.Airport traffic control cab.

    2. 2.Electrical and mechanical equipment rooms.

    3. 3.Airport terminal radar and electronics rooms.

    4. 4.Outside each opening into interior exit stairways.

    5. 5.Along the single means of egress permitted from observation levels.

    6. 6.Outside each opening into the single means of egress permitted from observation levels.

    907.2.22.2 Other airport traffic control towers.

    Airport traffic control towers with a single exit or where sprinklers are not installed throughout shall be provided with smoke detectors in all of the following locations:

    1. 1.Airport traffic control cab.

    2. 2.Electrical and mechanical equipment rooms.

    3. 3.Airport terminal radar and electronics rooms.

    4. 4.Office spaces incidental to the tower operation.

    5. 5.Lounges for employees, including sanitary facilities.

    6. 6.Means of egress.

    7. 7.Accessible utility shafts.

    907.2.23 Battery rooms.

    An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in areas containing stationary storage battery systems with a liquid capacity of more than 50 gallons (189 L).

    907.3 Fire safety functions.

    Automatic fire detectors utilized for the purpose of performing fire safety functions shall be connected to the building’s fire alarm control unit where a fire alarm system is required by Section 907.2. Detectors shall, upon actuation, perform the intended function and activate the alarm notification appliances or activate a visible and audible supervisory signal at a constantly attended location. In buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system, the automatic fire detector shall be powered by normal electrical service and, upon actuation, perform the intended function. The detectors shall be located in accordance with NFPA 72.

    907.3.1 Duct smoke detectors.

    Smoke detectors installed in ducts shall be listed for the air velocity, temperature and humidity present in the duct. Duct smoke detectors shall be connected to the building’s fire alarm control unit when a fire alarm system is required by Section 907.2. Activation of a duct smoke detector shall initiate a visible and audible supervisory signal at a constantly attended location and shall perform the intended fire safety function in accordance with this code and the International Mechanical Code. In facilities that are required to be monitored by a supervising station, duct smoke detectors shall report only as a supervisory signal and not as a fire alarm. They shall not be used as a substitute for required open area detection.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.The supervisory signal at a constantly attended location is not required where duct smoke detectors activate the building’s alarm notification appliances.

    2. 2.In occupancies not required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, actuation of a smoke detector shall activate a visible and an audible signal in an approved location. Smoke detector trouble conditions shall activate a visible or audible signal in an approved location and shall be identified as air duct detector trouble.

    907.3.2 Delayed egress locks.

    Where delayed egress locks are installed on means of egress doors in accordance with Section 1010.1.9.7, an automatic smoke or heat detection system shall be installed as required by that section.

    907.3.3 Elevator emergency operation.

    Automatic fire detectors installed for elevator emergency operation shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of ASME A17.1/CSA B44 and NFPA 72.

    907.3.4 Wiring.

    The wiring to the auxiliary devices and equipment used to accomplish the fire safety functions shall be monitored for integrity in accordance with NFPA 72.

    907.4 Initiating devices.

    Where manual or automatic alarm initiation is required as part of a fire alarm system, the initiating devices shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.4.1 through 907.4.3.1.

    907.4.1 Protection of fire alarm control unit.

    In areas that are not continuously occupied, a single smoke detector shall be provided at the location of each fire alarm control unit, notification appliance circuit power extenders and supervising station transmitting equipment.

    Exception: Where ambient conditions prohibit installation of smoke detector, a heat detector shall be permitted.

    907.4.2 Manual fire alarm boxes.

    Where a manual fire alarm system is required by another section of this code, it shall be activated by fire alarm boxes installed in accordance with Sections 907.4.2.1 through 907.4.2.6.

    907.4.2.1 Location.

    Manual fire alarm boxes shall be located not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the entrance to each exit. In buildings not protected by an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, additional manual fire alarm boxes shall be located so that the exit access travel distance to the nearest box does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).

    907.4.2.2 Height.

    The height of the manual fire alarm boxes shall be not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) and not more than 48 inches (1372 mm) measured vertically, from the floor level to the activating handle or lever of the box.

    907.4.2.3 Color.

    Manual fire alarm boxes shall be red in color.

    907.4.2.4 Signs.

    Where fire alarm systems are not monitored by a supervising station, an approved permanent sign shall be installed adjacent to each manual fire alarm box that reads: WHEN ALARM SOUNDS— CALL FIRE DEPARTMENT.

    Exception: Where the manufacturer has permanently provided this information on the manual fire alarm box.

    907.4.2.5 Protective covers.

    The fire code official is authorized to require the installation of listed manual fire alarm box protective covers to prevent malicious false alarms or to provide the manual fire alarm box with protection from physical damage. The protective cover shall be transparent or red in color with a transparent face to permit visibility of the manual fire alarm box. Each cover shall include proper operating instructions. A protective cover that emits a local alarm signal shall not be installed unless approved. Protective covers shall not project more than that permitted by Section 1003.3.3.

    907.4.2.6 Unobstructed and unobscured.

    Manual fire alarm boxes shall be accessible, unobstructed, unobscured and visible at all times.

    907.4.3 Automatic smoke detection.

    Where an automatic smoke detection system is required it shall utilize smoke detectors unless ambient conditions prohibit such an installation. In spaces where smoke detectors cannot be utilized due to ambient conditions, approved automatic heat detectors shall be permitted.

    907.4.3.1 Automatic sprinkler system.

    For conditions other than specific fire safety functions noted in Section 907.3, in areas where ambient conditions prohibit the installation of smoke detectors, an automatic sprinkler system installed in such areas in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and that is connected to the fire alarm system shall be approved as automatic heat detection.

    907.5 Occupant notification systems.

    A fire alarm system shall annunciate at the fire alarm control unit and shall initiate occupant notification upon activation, in accordance with Sections 907.5.1 through 907.5.2.3.3. Where a fire alarm system is required by another section of this code, it shall be activated by:

    1. 1.Automatic fire detectors.

    2. 2.Automatic sprinkler system waterflow devices.

    3. 3.Manual fire alarm boxes.

    4. 4.Automatic fire-extinguishing systems.

      Exception: Where notification systems are allowed elsewhere in Section 907 to annunciate at a constantly attended location.

    907.5.1 Presignal feature.

    A presignal feature shall not be installed unless approved by the fire code official and the fire department. Where a presignal feature is provided, a signal shall be annunciated at a constantly attended location approved by the fire department, so that occupant notification can be activated in the event of fire or other emergency.

    907.5.2 Alarm notification appliances.

    Alarm notification appliances shall be provided and shall be listed for their purpose.

    907.5.2.1 Audible alarms.

    Audible alarm notification appliances shall be provided and emit a distinctive sound that is not to be used for any purpose other than that of a fire alarm.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Audible alarm notification appliances are not required in critical care areas of Group I-2 Condition 2 occupancies that are in compliance with Section 907.2.6, Exception 2.

    2. 2.A visible alarm notification appliance installed in a nurses’ control station or other continuously attended staff location in a Group I-2 Condition 2 suite shall be an acceptable alternative to the installation of audible alarm notification appliances throughout the suite in Group I-2 Condition 2 occupancies that are in compliance with Section 907.2.6, Exception 2.

    3. 3.Where provided, audible notification appliances located in each occupant evacuation elevator lobby in accordance with Section 3008.9.1 of the International Building Code shall be connected to a separate notification zone for manual paging only.

    907.5.2.1.1 Average sound pressure.

    The audible alarm notification appliances shall provide a sound pressure level of 15 decibels (dBA) above the average ambient sound level or 5 dBA above the maximum sound level having a duration of not less than 60 seconds, whichever is greater, in every occupiable space within the building.

    907.5.2.1.2 Maximum sound pressure.

    The maximum sound pressure level for audible alarm notification appliances shall be 110 dBA at the minimum hearing distance from the audible appliance. Where the average ambient noise is greater than 95 dBA, visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 72 and audible alarm notification appliances shall not be required.

    907.5.2.2 Emergency voice/alarm communication systems.

    Emergency voice/alarm communication systems required by this code shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 72. The operation of any automatic fire detector, sprinkler waterflow device or manual fire alarm box shall automatically sound an alert tone followed by voice instructions giving approved information and directions for a general or staged evacuation in accordance with the building’s fire safety and evacuation plans required by Section 404. In high-rise buildings, the system shall operate on at least the alarming floor, the floor above and the floor below. Speakers shall be provided throughout the building by paging zones. At a minimum, paging zones shall be provided as follows:

    1. 1.Elevator groups.

    2. 2.Interior exit stairways.

    3. 3.Each floor.

    4. 4.Areas of refuge as defined in Chapter 2.

    Exception: In Group I-1 and I-2 occupancies, the alarm shall sound in a constantly attended area and a general occupant notification shall be broadcast over the overhead page.

    907.5.2.2.1 Manual override.

    A manual override for emergency voice communication shall be provided on a selective and all-call basis for all paging zones.

    907.5.2.2.2 Live voice messages.

    The emergency voice/alarm communication system shall have the capability to broadcast live voice messages by paging zones on a selective and all-call basis.

    907.5.2.2.3 Alternate uses.

    The emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be allowed to be used for other announcements, provided the manual fire alarm use takes precedence over any other use.

    907.5.2.2.4 Emergency voice/alarm communication captions.

    Where stadiums, arenas and grandstands are required to caption audible public announcements in accordance with Section 1108.2.7.3 of the International Building Code, the emergency/voice alarm communication system shall be captioned. Prerecorded or live emergency captions shall be from an approved location constantly attended by personnel trained to respond to an emergency.

    907.5.2.2.5 Emergency power.

    Emergency voice/alarm communications systems shall be provided with emergency power in accordance with Section 604. The system shall be capable of powering the required load for a duration of not less than 24 hours, as required in NFPA 72.

    907.5.2.3 Visible alarms.

    Visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.5.2.3.1 through 907.5.2.3.3.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Visible alarm notification appliances are not required in alterations, except where an existing fire alarm system is upgraded or replaced, or a new fire alarm system is installed.

    2. 2.Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in exits as defined in Chapter 2.

    3. 3.Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in elevator cars.

    4. 4.Visual alarm notification appliances are not required in critical care areas of Group I-2 Condition 2 occupancies that are in compliance with Section 907.2.6, Exception 2.

    907.5.2.3.1 Public use areas and common use areas.

    Visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in public use areas and common use areas.

    Exception: Where employee work areas have audible alarm coverage, the notification appliance circuits serving the employee work areas shall be initially designed with not less than 20-percent spare capacity to account for the potential of adding visible notification appliances in the future to accommodate hearing-impaired employee(s).

    907.5.2.3.2 Groups I-1 and R-1.

    Group I-1 and R-1 dwelling units or sleeping units in accordance with Table 907.5.2.3.2 shall be provided with a visible alarm notification appliance, activated by both the in-room smoke alarm and the building fire alarm system.

    TABLE 907.5.2.3.2

    VISIBLE ALARMS

    NUMBER OF SLEEPING UNITSSLEEPING ACCOMMODATIONS WITH VISIBLE ALARMS
    6 to 252
    26 to 504
    51 to 757
    76 to 1009
    101 to 15012
    151 to 20014
    201 to 30017
    301 to 40020
    401 to 50022
    501 to 1,0005% of total
    1,001 and over50 plus 3 for each 100 over 1,000

    907.5.2.3.3 Group R-2.

    In Group R-2 occupancies required by Section 907 to have a fire alarm system, all dwelling units and sleeping units shall be provided with the capability to support visible alarm notification appliances in accordance with Chapter 10 of ICC A117.1. Such capability shall be permitted to include the potential for future interconnection of the building fire alarm system with the unit smoke alarms, replacement of audible appliances with combination audible/visible appliances, or future extension of the existing wiring from the unit smoke alarm locations to required locations for visible appliances.

    907.6 Installation and monitoring.

    A fire alarm system shall be installed and monitored in accordance with Sections 907.6.1 through 907.6.6.2 and NFPA 72.

    907.6.1 Wiring.

    Wiring shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 70 and NFPA 72. Wireless protection systems utilizing radio-frequency transmitting devices shall comply with the special requirements for supervision of low-power wireless systems in NFPA 72.

    907.6.2 Power supply.

    The primary and secondary power supply for the fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 72.

    Exception: Backup power for single-station and multiple-station smoke alarms as required in Section 907.2.11.6.

    907.6.3 Initiating device identification.

    The fire alarm system shall identify the specific initiating device address, location, device type, floor level where applicable and status including indication of normal, alarm, trouble and supervisory status, as appropriate.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Fire alarm systems in single-story buildings less than 22,500 square feet (2090 m2) in area.

    2. 2.Fire alarm systems that only include manual fire alarm boxes, waterflow initiating devices and not more than 10 additional alarm-initiating devices.

    3. 3.Special initiating devices that do not support individual device identification.

    4. 4.Fire alarm systems or devices that are replacing existing equipment.

    907.6.3.1 Annunciation.

    The initiating device status shall be annunciated at an approved on-site location.

    907.6.4 Zones.

    Each floor shall be zoned separately and a zone shall not exceed 22,500 square feet (2090 m2). The length of any zone shall not exceed 300 feet (91 440 mm) in any direction.

    Exception: Automatic sprinkler system zones shall not exceed the area permitted by NFPA 13.

    907.6.4.1 Zoning indicator panel.

    A zoning indicator panel and the associated controls shall be provided in an approved location. The visual zone indication shall lock in until the system is reset and shall not be canceled by the operation of an audible alarm-silencing switch.

    907.6.4.2 High-rise buildings.

    In high-rise buildings, a separate zone by floor shall be provided for each of the following types of alarm-initiating devices where provided:

    1. 1.Smoke detectors.

    2. 2.Sprinkler waterflow devices.

    3. 3.Manual fire alarm boxes.

    4. 4.Other approved types of automatic fire detection-devices or suppression systems.

    907.6.5 Access.

    Access shall be provided to each fire alarm device and notification appliance for periodic inspection, maintenance and testing.

    907.6.6 Monitoring.

    Fire alarm systems required by this chapter or by the International Building Code shall be monitored by an approved supervising station in accordance with NFPA 72.

    Exception: Monitoring by a supervising station is not required for:

    1. 1.Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms required by Section 907.2.11.

    2. 2.Smoke detectors in Group I-3 occupancies.

    3. 3.Automatic sprinkler systems in one- and two-family dwellings.

    907.6.6.1 Automatic telephone-dialing devices.

    Automatic telephone-dialing devices used to transmit an emergency alarm shall not be connected to any fire department telephone number unless approved by the fire chief.

    907.6.6.2 Termination of monitoring service.

    Termination of fire alarm monitoring services shall be in accordance with Section 901.9.

    907.7 Acceptance tests and completion.

    Upon completion of the installation, the fire alarm system and all fire alarm components shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 72.

    907.7.1 Single- and multiple-station alarm devices.

    When the installation of the alarm devices is complete, each device and interconnecting wiring for multiple-station alarm devices shall be tested in accordance with the smoke alarm provisions of NFPA 72.

    907.7.2 Record of completion.

    A record of completion in accordance with NFPA 72 verifying that the system has been installed and tested in accordance with the approved plans and specifications shall be provided.

    907.7.3 Instructions.

    Operating, testing and maintenance instructions and record drawings (“as builts”) and equipment specifications shall be provided at an approved location.

    907.8 Inspection, testing and maintenance.

    The maintenance and testing schedules and procedures for fire alarm and fire detection systems shall be in accordance with Sections 907.8.1 through 907.8.5 and NFPA 72. Records of inspection, testing and maintenance shall be maintained.

    907.8.1 Maintenance required.

    Where required for compliance with the provisions of this code, devices, equipment, systems, conditions, arrangements, levels of protection or other features shall thereafter be continuously maintained in accordance with applicable NFPA requirements or as directed by the fire code official.

    907.8.2 Testing.

    Testing shall be performed in accordance with the schedules in NFPA 72 or more frequently where required by the fire code official. Records of testing shall be maintained.

    Exception: Devices or equipment that are inaccessible for safety considerations shall be tested during scheduled shutdowns where approved by the fire code official, but not less than every 18 months.

    907.8.3 Smoke detector sensitivity.

    Smoke detector sensitivity shall be checked within one year after installation and every alternate year thereafter. After the second calibration test, where sensitivity tests indicate that the detector has remained within its listed and marked sensitivity range (or 4-percent obscuration light grey smoke, if not marked), the length of time between calibration tests shall be permitted to be extended to not more than 5 years. Where the frequency is extended, records of detector-caused nuisance alarms and subsequent trends of these alarms shall be maintained. In zones or areas where nuisance alarms show any increase over the previous year, calibration tests shall be performed.

    907.8.4 Sensitivity test method.

    To verify that each smoke detector is within its listed and marked sensitivity range, it shall be tested using one of the following methods:

    1. 1.A calibrated test method.

    2. 2.The manufacturer’s calibrated sensitivity test instrument.

    3. 3.Listed control equipment arranged for the purpose.

    4. 4.A smoke detector/control unit arrangement whereby the detector causes a signal at the control unit where the detector’s sensitivity is outside its acceptable sensitivity range.

    5. 5.Another calibrated sensitivity test method acceptable to the fire code official.

    Detectors found to have a sensitivity outside the listed and marked sensitivity range shall be cleaned and recalibrated or replaced.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Detectors listed as field adjustable shall be permitted to be either adjusted within the listed and marked sensitivity range and cleaned and recalibrated or they shall be replaced.

    2. 2.This requirement shall not apply to single-station smoke alarms.

    907.8.4.1 Sensitivity testing device.

    Smoke detector sensitivity shall not be tested or measured using a device that administers an unmeasured concentration of smoke or other aerosol into the detector.

    907.8.5 Inspection, testing and maintenance.

    The building owner shall be responsible to maintain the fire and life safety systems in an operable condition at all times. Service personnel shall meet the qualification requirements of NFPA 72 for inspection, testing and maintenance of such systems. Records of inspection, testing and maintenance shall be maintained.

    907.9 Where required in existing buildings and structures.

    An approved fire alarm system shall be provided in existing buildings and structures where required in Chapter 11.

    SECTION908
    EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEMS

    908.1 Group H occupancies.

    Emergency alarms for the detection and notification of an emergency condition in Group H occupancies shall be provided as required in Chapter 50.

    908.2 Group H-5 occupancy.

    Emergency alarms for notification of an emergency condition in an HPM facility shall be provided as required in Section 2703.12. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided for HPM gases in accordance with Section 2703.13.

    908.3 Highly toxic and toxic materials.

    Where required by Section 6004.2.2.10, a gas detection system shall be provided for indoor storage and use of highly toxic and toxic compressed gases.

    908.4 Ozone gas-generator rooms.

    A gas detection system shall be provided in ozone gas-generator rooms in accordance with Section 6005.3.2.

    908.5 Repair garages.

    A flammable-gas detection system shall be provided in repair garages for vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases in accordance with Section 2311.7.2.

    908.6 Refrigeration systems.

    Refrigeration system machinery rooms shall be provided with a refrigerant detector in accordance with Section 606.8.

    908.7 Carbon dioxide (CO2) systems.

    Emergency alarm systems in accordance with Section 5307.5.2 shall be provided where required for compliance with Section 5307.5.

    SECTION909
    SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEMS

    909.1 Scope and purpose.

    This section applies to mechanical or passive smoke control systems where they are required for new buildings or portions thereof by provisions of the International Building Code or this code. The purpose of this section is to establish minimum requirements for the design, installation and acceptance testing of smoke control systems that are intended to provide a tenable environment for the evacuation or relocation of occupants. These provisions are not intended for the preservation of contents, the timely restoration of operations or for assistance in fire suppression or overhaul activities. Smoke control systems regulated by this section serve a different purpose than the smoke- and heat-venting provisions found in Section 910. Mechanical smoke control systems shall not be considered exhaust systems under Chapter 5 of the International Mechanical Code.

    909.2 General design requirements.

    Buildings, structures, or parts thereof required by the International Building Code or this code to have a smoke control system or systems shall have such systems designed in accordance with the applicable requirements of Section 909 and the generally accepted and well-established principles of engineering relevant to the design. The construction documents shall include sufficient information and detail to describe adequately the elements of the design necessary for the proper implementation of the smoke control systems. These documents shall be accompanied with sufficient information and analysis to demonstrate compliance with these provisions.

    909.3 Special inspection and test requirements.

    In addition to the ordinary inspection and test requirements that buildings, structures and parts thereof are required to undergo, smoke control systems subject to the provisions of Section 909 shall undergo special inspections and tests sufficient to verify the proper commissioning of the smoke control design in its final installed condition. The design submission accompanying the construction documents shall clearly detail procedures and methods to be used and the items subject to such inspections and tests. Such commissioning shall be in accordance with generally accepted engineering practice and, where possible, based on published standards for the particular testing involved. The special inspections and tests required by this section shall be conducted under the same terms as in Section 1704 of the International Building Code.

    909.4 Analysis.

    A rational analysis supporting the types of smoke control systems to be employed, the methods of their operations, the systems supporting them and the methods of construction to be utilized shall accompany the construction documents submission and include, but not be limited to, the items indicated in Sections 909.4.1 through 909.4.7.

    909.4.1 Stack effect.

    The system shall be designed such that the maximum probable normal or reverse stack effect will not adversely interfere with the system’s capabilities. In determining the maximum probable stack effect, altitude, elevation, weather history and interior temperatures shall be used.

    909.4.2 Temperature effect of fire.

    Buoyancy and expansion caused by the design fire in accordance with Section 909.9 shall be analyzed. The system shall be designed such that these effects do not adversely interfere with the system’s capabilities.

    909.4.3 Wind effect.

    The design shall consider the adverse effects of wind. Such consideration shall be consistent with the wind-loading provisions of the International Building Code.

    909.4.4 Systems.

    The design shall consider the effects of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems on both smoke and fire transport. The analysis shall include all permutations of systems status. The design shall consider the effects of the fire on the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems.

    909.4.5 Climate.

    The design shall consider the effects of low temperatures on systems, property and occupants. Air inlets and exhausts shall be located so as to prevent snow or ice blockage.

    909.4.6 Duration of operation.

    All portions of active or engineered smoke control systems shall be capable of continued operation after detection of the fire event for a period of not less than either 20 minutes or 1.5 times the calculated egress time, whichever is greater.

    909.4.7 Smoke control system interaction.

    The design shall consider the interaction effects of the operation of multiple smoke control systems for all design scenarios.

    909.5 Smoke barrier construction.

    Smoke barriers required for passive smoke control and a smoke control system using the pressurization method shall comply with Section 709 of the International Building Code. The maximum allowable leakage area shall be the aggregate area calculated using the following leakage area ratios:

    1. 1.Walls: A/Aw = 0.00100

    2. 2.Interior exit stairways and ramps and exit passageways: A/Aw = 0.00035

    3. 3.Enclosed exit access stairways and ramps and all other shafts: A/Aw = 0.00150

    4. 4.Floors and roofs: A/AF = 0.00050

      where:

      A=Total leakage area, square feet (m2).
      AF=Unit floor or roof area of barrier, square feet (m2).
      Aw=Unit wall area of barrier, square feet (m2).

    The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings due to gaps around doors and operable windows. The total leakage area of the smoke barrier shall be determined in accordance with Section 909.5.1 and tested in accordance with Section 909.5.2.

    909.5.1 Total leakage area.

    Total leakage area of the barrier is the product of the smoke barrier gross area multiplied by the allowable leakage area ratio, plus the area of other openings such as gaps around doors and operable windows.

    909.5.2 Testing of leakage area.

    Compliance with the maximum total leakage area shall be determined by achieving the minimum air pressure difference across the barrier with the system in the smoke control mode for mechanical smoke control systems utilizing the pressurization method. Compliance with the maximum total leakage area of passive smoke control systems shall be verified through methods such as door fan testing or other methods, as approved by the fire code official.

    909.5.3 Opening protection.

    Openings in smoke barriers shall be protected by automatic-closing devices actuated by the required controls for the mechanical smoke control system. Door openings shall be protected by fire door assemblies complying with Section 716.5.3 of the International Building Code.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Passive smoke control systems with automatic-closing devices actuated by spot-type smoke detectors listed for releasing service installed in accordance with Section 907.3.

    2. 2.Fixed openings between smoke zones that are protected utilizing the airflow method.

    3. 3.In Group I-1 Condition 2, Group I-2 and ambulatory care facilities, where a pair of opposite-swinging doors are installed across a corridor in accordance with Section 909.5.3.1, the doors shall not be required to be protected in accordance with Section 716 of the International Building Code. The doors shall be close-fitting within operational tolerances and shall not have a center mullion or undercuts in excess of 3/4-inch (19.1 mm) louvers or grilles. The doors shall have head and jamb stops and astragals or rabbets at meeting edges and, where permitted by the door manufacturer’s listing, positive-latching devices are not required.

    4. 4.In Group I-2 and ambulatory care facilities, where such doors are special-purpose horizontal sliding, accordion or folding door assemblies installed in accordance with Section 1010.1.4.3 and are automatic closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3 of the International Building Code.

    5. 5.Group I-3.

    6. 6.Openings between smoke zones with clear ceiling heights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and bank-down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as determined by the design fire size.

    909.5.3.1 Group I-1 Condition 2, Group I-2 and ambulatory care facilities.

    In Group I-1 Condition 2, Group I-2 and ambulatory care facilities, where doors are installed across a corridor, the doors shall be automatic closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3 of the International Building Code and shall have a vision panel with fire-protection-rated glazing materials in fire-protection-rated frames, the area of which shall not exceed that tested.

    909.5.3.2 Ducts and air transfer openings.

    Ducts and air transfer openings are required to be protected with a minimum Class II, 250°F (121°C) smoke damper complying with Section 717 of the International Building Code.

    909.6 Pressurization method.

    The primary mechanical means of controlling smoke shall be by pressure differences across smoke barriers. Maintenance of a tenable environment is not required in the smoke-control zone of fire origin.

    909.6.1 Minimum pressure difference.

    The minimum pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be 0.05-inch water gage (0.0124 kPa) in fully sprinklered buildings.

    In buildings allowed to be other than fully sprinklered, the smoke control system shall be designed to achieve pressure differences not less than two times the maximum calculated pressure difference produced by the design fire.

    909.6.2 Maximum pressure difference.

    The maximum air pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be determined by required door-opening or closing forces. The actual force required to open exit doors when the system is in the smoke control mode shall be in accordance with Section 1010.1.3. Opening and closing forces for other doors shall be determined by standard engineering methods for the resolution of forces and reactions. The calculated force to set a side-hinged, swinging door in motion shall be determined by:

    //cdn-codes.iccsafe.org/bundles/document/new_document_images/546/Eq0001.jpg(Equation 9-1)

    where:

    A=Door area, square feet (m2).
    d=Distance from door handle to latch edge of door, feet (m).
    F=Total door opening force, pounds (N).
    Fdc=Force required to overcome closing device, pounds (N).
    K=Coefficient 5.2 (1.0).
    W=Door width, feet (m).
    ΔP=Design pressure difference, inches of water (Pa).

    909.6.3 Pressurized stairways and elevator hoistways.

    Where stairways or elevator hoistways are pressurized, such pressurization systems shall comply with Section 909 as smoke control systems, in addition to the requirements of Section 909.21 of this code and Section 909.20 of the International Building Code.

    909.7 Airflow design method.

    Where approved by the fire code official, smoke migration through openings fixed in a permanently open position, which are located between smoke control zones by the use of the airflow method, shall be permitted. The design airflow shall be in accordance with this section. Airflow shall be directed to limit smoke migration from the fire zone. The geometry of openings shall be considered to prevent flow reversal from turbulent effects. Smoke control systems using the airflow method shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 92.

    909.7.1 Prohibited conditions.

    This method shall not be employed where either the quantity of air or the velocity of the airflow will adversely affect other portions of the smoke control system, unduly intensify the fire, disrupt plume dynamics or interfere with exiting. In no case shall airflow toward the fire exceed 200 feet per minute (1.02 m/s). Where the calculated airflow exceeds this limit, the airflow method shall not be used.

    909.8 Exhaust method.

    Where approved by the fire code official, mechanical smoke control for large enclosed volumes, such as in atriums or malls, shall be permitted to utilize the exhaust method. Smoke control systems using the exhaust method shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 92.

    909.8.1 Smoke layer.

    The height of the lowest horizontal surface of the smoke layer interface shall be maintained not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above a walking surface that forms a portion of a required egress system within the smoke zone.

    909.9 Design fire.

    The design fire shall be based on a rational analysis performed by the registered design professional and approved by the fire code official. The design fire shall be based on the analysis in accordance with Section 909.4 and this section.

    909.9.1 Factors considered.

    The engineering analysis shall include the characteristics of the fuel, fuel load, effects included by the fire and whether the fire is likely to be steady or unsteady.

    909.9.2 Design fire fuel.

    Determination of the design fire shall include consideration of the type of fuel, fuel spacing and configuration.

    909.9.3 Heat-release assumptions.

    The analysis shall make use of best available data from approved sources and shall not be based on excessively stringent limitations of combustible material.

    909.9.4 Sprinkler effectiveness assumptions.

    A documented engineering analysis shall be provided for conditions that assume fire growth is halted at the time of sprinkler activation.

    909.10 Equipment.

    Equipment including, but not limited to, fans, ducts, automatic dampers and balance dampers shall be suitable for their intended use, suitable for the probable exposure temperatures that the rational analysis indicates, and as approved by the fire code official.

    909.10.1 Exhaust fans.

    Components of exhaust fans shall be rated and certified by the manufacturer for the probable temperature rise to which the components will be exposed. This temperature rise shall be computed by:

    //cdn-codes.iccsafe.org/bundles/document/new_document_images/546/Eq0002.jpg(Equation 9-2)

    where:

    c=Specific heat of smoke at smoke layer temperature, Btu/lb°F · (kJ/kg · K).
    m=Exhaust rate, pounds per second (kg/s).
    Qc=Convective heat output of fire, Btu/s (kW).
    Ta=Ambient temperature, °F (K).
    Ts=Smoke temperature, °F (K).

    Exception: Reduced Ts as calculated based on the assurance of adequate dilution air.

    909.10.2 Ducts.

    Duct materials and joints shall be capable of withstanding the probable temperatures and pressures to which they are exposed as determined in accordance with Section 909.10.1. Ducts shall be constructed and supported in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. Ducts shall be leak tested to 1.5 times the maximum design pressure in accordance with nationally accepted practices. Measured leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of design flow. Results of such testing shall be a part of the documentation procedure. Ducts shall be supported directly from fire-resistance-rated structural elements of the building by substantial, noncombustible supports.

    Exception: Flexible connections, for the purpose of vibration isolation, complying with the International Mechanical Code and that are constructed of approved fire-resistance-rated materials.

    909.10.3 Equipment, inlets and outlets.

    Equipment shall be located so as to not expose uninvolved portions of the building to an additional fire hazard. Outside air inlets shall be located so as to minimize the potential for introducing smoke or flame into the building. Exhaust outlets shall be so located as to minimize reintroduction of smoke into the building and to limit exposure of the building or adjacent buildings to an additional fire hazard.

    909.10.4 Automatic dampers.

    Automatic dampers, regardless of the purpose for which they are installed within the smoke control system, shall be listed and conform to the requirements of approved recognized standards.

    909.10.5 Fans.

    In addition to other requirements, belt-driven fans shall have 1.5 times the number of belts required for the design duty with the minimum number of belts being two. Fans shall be selected for stable performance based on normal temperature and, where applicable, elevated temperature. Calculations and manufacturer’s fan curves shall be part of the documentation procedures. Fans shall be supported and restrained by noncombustible devices in accordance with the structural design requirements of Chapter 16 of the International Building Code.

    Motors driving fans shall not be operated beyond their nameplate horsepower (kilowatts) as determined from measurement of actual current draw and shall have a minimum service factor of 1.15.

    909.11 Standby power.

    Smoke control systems shall be provided with standby power in accordance with Section 604.

    909.11.1 Equipment room.

    The standby power source and its transfer switches shall be in a room separate from the normal power transformers and switch gears and ventilated directly to and from the exterior. The room shall be enclosed with not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the International Building Code, or both.

    909.11.2 Power sources and power surges.

    Elements of the smoke control system relying on volatile memories or the like shall be supplied with uninterruptable power sources of sufficient duration to span 15-minute primary power interruption. Elements of the smoke control system susceptible to power surges shall be suitably protected by conditioners, suppressors or other approved means.

    909.12 Detection and control systems.

    Fire detection systems providing control input or output signals to mechanical smoke control systems or elements thereof shall comply with the requirements of Section 907. Such systems shall be equipped with a control unit complying with UL 864 and listed as smoke control equipment.

    909.12.1 Verification.

    Control systems for mechanical smoke control systems shall include provisions for verification. Verification shall include positive confirmation of actuation, testing, manual override and the presence of power downstream of all disconnects. A preprogrammed weekly test sequence shall report abnormal conditions audibly, visually and by printed report. The preprogrammed weekly test shall operate all devices, equipment, and components used for smoke control.

    Exception: Where verification of individual components tested through the preprogrammed weekly testing sequence will interfere with, and produce unwanted effects to, normal building operation, such individual components are permitted to be bypassed from the preprogrammed weekly testing, where approved by the fire code official and in accordance with both of the following:

    1. 1.Where the operation of components is bypassed from the preprogrammed weekly test, presence of power downstream of all disconnects shall be verified weekly by a listed control unit.

    2. 2.Testing of all components bypassed from the preprogrammed weekly test shall be in accordance with Section 909.20.6.

    909.12.2 Wiring.

    In addition to meeting requirements of NFPA 70, all wiring, regardless of voltage, shall be fully enclosed within continuous raceways.

    909.12.3 Activation.

    Smoke control systems shall be activated in accordance with this section.

    909.12.3.1 Pressurization, airflow or exhaust method.

    Mechanical smoke control systems using the pressurization, airflow or exhaust method shall have completely automatic control.

    909.12.3.2 Passive method.

    Passive smoke control systems actuated by approved spot-type detectors listed for releasing service shall be permitted.

    909.12.4 Automatic control.

    Where completely automatic control is required or used, the automatic-control sequences shall be initiated from an appropriately zoned automatic sprinkler system complying with Section 903.3.1.1, manual controls that are readily accessible to the fire department and any smoke detectors required by the engineering analysis.

    909.13 Control air tubing.

    Control air tubing shall be of sufficient size to meet the required response times. Tubing shall be flushed clean and dry prior to final connections and shall be adequately supported and protected from damage. Tubing passing through concrete or masonry shall be sleeved and protected from abrasion and electrolytic action.

    909.13.1 Materials.

    Control air tubing shall be hard drawn copper, Type L, ACR in accordance with ASTM B 42, ASTM B 43, ASTM B 68, ASTM B 88, ASTM B 251 and ASTM B 280. Fittings shall be wrought copper or brass, solder type, in accordance with ASME B 16.18 or ASME B 16.22. Changes in direction shall be made with appropriate tool bends. Brass compression-type fittings shall be used at final connection to devices; other joints shall be brazed using a BCuP5 brazing alloy with solidus above 1,100°F (593°C) and liquidus below 1,500°F (816°C). Brazing flux shall be used on copper-to-brass joints only.

    Exception: Nonmetallic tubing used within control panels and at the final connection to devices, provided all of the following conditions are met:

    1. 1.Tubing shall comply with the requirements of Section 602.2.1.3 of the International Mechanical Code.

    2. 2.Tubing and the connected device shall be completely enclosed within a galvanized or paint-grade steel enclosure having a minimum thickness of 0.0296 inch (0.7534 mm) (No. 22 gage). Entry to the enclosure shall be by copper tubing with a protective grommet of neoprene or Teflon or by suitable brass compression to male-barbed adapter.

    3. 3.Tubing shall be identified by appropriately documented coding.

    4. 4.Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported within the enclosure. Tubing bridging cabinets and doors or moveable devices shall be of sufficient length to avoid tension and excessive stress. Tubing shall be protected against abrasion. Tubing serving devices on doors shall be fastened along hinges.

    909.13.2 Isolation from other functions.

    Control tubing serving other than smoke control functions shall be isolated by automatic isolation valves or shall be an independent system.

    909.13.3 Testing.

    Control air tubing shall be tested at three times the operating pressure for not less than 30 minutes without any noticeable loss in gauge pressure prior to final connection to devices.

    909.14 Marking and identification.

    The detection and control systems shall be clearly marked at all junctions, accesses and terminations.

    909.15 Control diagrams.

    Identical control diagrams showing all devices in the system and identifying their location and function shall be maintained current and kept on file with the fire code official, the fire department and in the fire command center in a format and manner approved by the fire chief.

    909.16 Fire fighter’s smoke control panel.

    A fire fighter’s smoke control panel for fire department emergency response purposes only shall be provided and shall include manual control or override of automatic control for mechanical smoke control systems. The panel shall be located in a fire command center complying with Section 508 in high-rise buildings or buildings with smoke-protected assembly seating. In all other buildings, the fire fighter’s smoke control panel shall be installed in an approved location adjacent to the fire alarm control panel. The fire fighter’s smoke control panel shall comply with Sections 909.16.1 through 909.16.3.

    909.16.1 Smoke control systems.

    Fans within the building shall be shown on the fire fighter’s control panel. A clear indication of the direction of airflow and the relationship of components shall be displayed. Status indicators shall be provided for all smoke control equipment, annunciated by fan and zone and by pilot-lamp-type indicators as follows:

    1. 1.Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their normal status—WHITE.

    2. 2.Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their off or closed status—RED.

    3. 3.Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their on or open status—GREEN.

    4. 4.Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in a fault status—YELLOW/AMBER.

    909.16.2 Smoke control panel.

    The fire fighter’s control panel shall provide control capability over the complete smoke control system equipment within the building as follows:

    1. 1.ON-AUTO-OFF control over each individual piece of operating smoke control equipment that can also be controlled from other sources within the building. This includes stairway pressurization fans; smoke exhaust fans; supply, return and exhaust fans; elevator shaft fans; and other operating equipment used or intended for smoke control purposes.

    2. 2.OPEN-AUTO-CLOSE control over individual dampers relating to smoke control and that are also controlled from other sources within the building.

    3. 3.ON-OFF or OPEN-CLOSE control over smoke control and other critical equipment associated with a fire or smoke emergency and that can only be controlled from the fire fighter’s control panel.

      Exceptions:

      1. 1.Complex systems, where approved, where the controls and indicators are combined to control and indicate all elements of a single smoke zone as a unit.

      2. 2.Complex systems, where approved, where the control is accomplished by computer interface using approved, plain English commands.

    909.16.3 Control action and priorities.

    The fire fighter’s control panel actions shall be as follows:

    1. 1.ON-OFF and OPEN-CLOSE control actions shall have the highest priority of any control point within the building. Once issued from the fire fighter’s control panel, automatic or manual control from any other control point within the building shall not contradict the control action. Where automatic means are provided to interrupt normal, nonemergency equipment operation or produce a specific result to safeguard the building or equipment including, but not limited to, duct freezestats, duct smoke detectors, high-temperature cutouts, temperature-actuated linkage and similar devices, such means shall be capable of being overridden by the fire fighter’s control panel. The last control action as indicated by each fire fighter’s control panel switch position shall prevail. Control actions shall not require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at any one time.

      Exception: Power disconnects required by NFPA 70.

    2. 2.Only the AUTO position of each three-position fire-fighter’s control panel switch shall allow automatic or manual control action from other control points within the building. The AUTO position shall be the NORMAL, nonemergency, building control position. Where a fire fighter’s control panel is in the AUTO position, the actual status of the device (on, off, open, closed) shall continue to be indicated by the status indicator described in Section 909.16.1. Where directed by an automatic signal to assume an emergency condition, the NORMAL position shall become the emergency condition for that device or group of devices within the zone. Control actions shall not require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at any one time.

    909.17 System response time.

    Smoke-control system activation shall be initiated immediately after receipt of an appropriate automatic or manual activation command. Smoke control systems shall activate individual components (such as dampers and fans) in the sequence necessary to prevent physical damage to the fans, dampers, ducts and other equipment. For purposes of smoke control, the fire fighter’s control panel response time shall be the same for automatic or manual smoke control action initiated from any other building control point. The total response time, including that necessary for detection, shutdown of operating equipment and smoke control system startup, shall allow for full operational mode to be achieved before the conditions in the space exceed the design smoke condition. The system response time for each component and their sequential relationships shall be detailed in the required rational analysis and verification of their installed condition reported in the required final report.

    909.18 Acceptance testing.

    Devices, equipment, components and sequences shall be individually tested. These tests, in addition to those required by other provisions of this code, shall consist of determination of function, sequence and, where applicable, capacity of their installed condition.

    909.18.1 Detection devices.

    Smoke or fire detectors that are a part of a smoke control system shall be tested in accordance with Chapter 9 in their installed condition. Where applicable, this testing shall include verification of airflow in both minimum and maximum conditions.

    909.18.2 Ducts.

    Ducts that are part of a smoke control system shall be traversed using generally accepted practices to determine actual air quantities.

    909.18.3 Dampers.

    Dampers shall be tested for function in their installed condition.

    909.18.4 Inlets and outlets.

    Inlets and outlets shall be read using generally accepted practices to determine air quantities.

    909.18.5 Fans.

    Fans shall be examined for correct rotation. Measurements of voltage, amperage, revolutions per minute and belt tension shall be made.

    909.18.6 Smoke barriers.

    Measurements using inclined manometers or other approved calibrated measuring devices shall be made of the pressure differences across smoke barriers. Such measurements shall be conducted for each possible smoke control condition.

    909.18.7 Controls.

    Each smoke zone equipped with an automatic-initiation device shall be put into operation by the actuation of one such device. Each additional device within the zone shall be verified to cause the same sequence without requiring the operation of fan motors in order to prevent damage. Control sequences shall be verified throughout the system, including verification of override from the fire fighter’s control panel and simulation of standby power conditions.

    909.18.8 Testing for smoke control.

    Smoke control systems shall be tested by a special inspector in accordance with Section 1705.18 of the International Building Code.

    909.18.8.1 Scope of testing.

    Testing shall be conducted in accordance with the following:

    1. 1.During erection of ductwork and prior to concealment for the purposes of leakage testing and recording of device location.

    2. 2.Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion for the purposes of pressure-difference testing, flow measurements, and detection and control verification.

    909.18.8.2 Qualifications.

    Approved agencies for smoke control testing shall have expertise in fire protection engineering, mechanical engineering and certification as air balancers.

    909.18.8.3 Reports.

    A complete report of testing shall be prepared by the approved agency. The report shall include identification of all devices by manufacturer, nameplate data, design values, measured values and identification tag or mark. The report shall be reviewed by the responsible registered design professional and, when satisfied that the design intent has been achieved, the responsible registered design professional shall sign, seal and date the report.

    909.18.8.3.1 Report filing.

    A copy of the final report shall be filed with the fire code official and an identical copy shall be maintained in an approved location at the building.

    909.18.9 Identification and documentation.

    Charts, drawings and other documents identifying and locating each component of the smoke control system, and describing their proper function and maintenance requirements, shall be maintained on file at the building as an attachment to the report required by Section 909.18.8.3. Devices shall have an approved identifying tag or mark on them consistent with the other required documentation and shall be dated indicating the last time they were successfully tested and by whom.

    909.19 System acceptance.

    Buildings, or portions thereof, required by this code to comply with this section shall not be issued a certificate of occupancy until such time that the fire code official determines that the provisions of this section have been fully complied with and that the fire department has received satisfactory instruction on the operation, both automatic and manual, of the system and a written maintenance program complying with the requirements of Section 909.20.1 has been submitted and approved by the fire code official.

    Exception: In buildings of phased construction, a temporary certificate of occupancy, as approved by the fire code official, shall be allowed, provided that those portions of the building to be occupied meet the requirements of this section and that the remainder does not pose a significant hazard to the safety of the proposed occupants or adjacent buildings.

    909.20 Maintenance.

    Smoke control systems shall be maintained to ensure to a reasonable degree that the system is capable of controlling smoke for the duration required. The system shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and Sections 909.20.1 through 909.20.6.

    909.20.1 Schedule.

    A routine maintenance and operational testing program shall be initiated immediately after the smoke control system has passed the acceptance tests. A written schedule for routine maintenance and operational testing shall be established.

    909.20.2 Records.

    Records of smoke control system testing and maintenance shall be maintained. The record shall include the date of the maintenance, identification of the servicing personnel and notification of any unsatisfactory condition and the corrective action taken, including parts replaced.

    909.20.3 Testing.

    Operational testing of the smoke control system shall include all equipment such as initiating devices, fans, dampers, controls, doors and windows.

    909.20.4 Dedicated smoke control systems.

    Dedicated smoke control systems shall be operated for each control sequence semiannually. The system shall be tested under standby power conditions.

    909.20.5 Nondedicated smoke control systems.

    Nondedicated smoke control systems shall be operated for each control sequence annually. The system shall be tested under standby power conditions.

    909.20.6 Components bypassing weekly test.

    Where components of the smoke control system are bypassed by the preprogrammed weekly test required by Section 909.12.1, such components shall be tested semiannually. The system shall be tested under standby power conditions.

    [BF]909.21 Elevator hoistway pressurization alternative.

    Where elevator hoistway pressurization is provided in lieu of required enclosed elevator lobbies, the pressurization system shall comply with Sections 909.21.1 through 909.21.11.

    [BF]909.21.1 Pressurization requirements.

    Elevator hoistways shall be pressurized to maintain a minimum positive pressure of 0.10 inch of water (25 Pa) and a maximum positive pressure of 0.25 inch of water (67 Pa) with respect to adjacent occupied space on all floors. This pressure shall be measured at the midpoint of each hoistway door, with all elevator cars at the floor of recall and all hoistway doors on the floor of recall open and all other hoistway doors closed. The pressure differentials shall be measured between the hoistway and the adjacent elevator landing. The opening and closing of hoistway doors at each level must be demonstrated during this test. The supply air intake shall be from an outside, uncontaminated source located a minimum distance of 20 feet (6096 mm) from any air exhaust system or outlet.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.On floors containing only Group R occupancies, the pressure differential is permitted to be measured between the hoistway and a dwelling unit or sleeping unit.

    2. 2.Where an elevator opens into a lobby enclosed in accordance with Section 3007.6 or 3008.6 of the International Building Code, the pressure differential is permitted to be measured between the hoistway and the space immediately outside the door(s) from the floor to the enclosed lobby.

    3. 3.The pressure differential is permitted to be measured relative to the outdoor atmosphere on floors other than the following:

      1. 3.1.The fire floor.

      2. 3.2.The two floors immediately below the fire floor.

      3. 3.3.The floor immediately above the fire floor.

    4. 4.The minimum positive pressure of 0.10 inch of water (25 Pa) and a maximum positive pressure of 0.25 inch of water (67 Pa) with respect to occupied floors is not required at the floor of recall with the doors open.

    [BF]909.21.1.1 Use of ventilation systems.

    Ventilation systems, other than hoistway supply air systems, are permitted to be used to exhaust air from adjacent spaces on the fire floor, two floors immediately below and one floor immediately above the fire floor to the building’s exterior where necessary to maintain positive pressure relationships as required in Section 909.21.1 during operation of the elevator shaft pressurization system.

    [BF]909.21.2 Rational analysis.

    A rational analysis complying with Section 909.4 shall be submitted with the construction documents.

    [BF]909.21.3 Ducts for system.

    Any duct system that is part of the pressurization system shall be protected with the same fire-resistance rating as required for the elevator shaft enclosure.

    [BF]909.21.4 Fan system.

    The fan system provided for the pressurization system shall be as required by Sections 909.21.4.1 through 909.21.4.4.

    [BF]909.21.4.1 Fire resistance.

    Where located within the building, the fan system that provides the pressurization shall be protected with the same fire-resistance rating required for the elevator shaft enclosure.

    [BF]909.21.4.2 Smoke detection.

    The fan system shall be equipped with a smoke detector that will automatically shut down the fan system when smoke is detected within the system.

    [BF]909.21.4.3 Separate systems.

    A separate fan system shall be used for each elevator hoistway.

    [BF]909.21.4.4 Fan capacity.

    The supply fan shall be either adjustable with a capacity of not less than 1,000 cfm (0.4719 m3/s) per door, or that specified by a registered design professional to meet the requirements of a designed pressurization system.

    [BF]909.21.5 Standby power.

    The pressurization system shall be provided with standby power in accordance with Section 604.

    [BF]909.21.6 Activation of pressurization system.

    The elevator pressurization system shall be activated upon activation of either the building fire alarm system or the elevator lobby smoke detectors. Where both a building fire alarm system and elevator lobby smoke detectors are present, each shall be independently capable of activating the pressurization system.

    [BF]909.21.7 Testing.

    Testing for performance shall be required in accordance with Section 909.18.8. System acceptance shall be in accordance with Section 909.19.

    [BF]909.21.8 Marking and identification.

    Detection and control systems shall be marked in accordance with Section 909.14.

    [BF]909.21.9 Control diagrams.

    Control diagrams shall be provided in accordance with Section 909.15.

    [BF]909.21.10 Control panel.

    A control panel complying with Section 909.16 shall be provided.

    [BF]909.21.11 System response time.

    Hoistway pressurization systems shall comply with the requirements for smoke control system response time in Section 909.17.

    SECTION910
    SMOKE AND HEAT REMOVAL

    910.1 General.

    Where required by this code, smoke and heat vents or mechanical smoke removal systems shall conform to the requirements of this section.

    910.2 Where required.

    Smoke and heat vents or a mechanical smoke removal system shall be installed as required by Sections 910.2.1 and 910.2.2.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Frozen food warehouses used solely for storage of Class I and II commodities where protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system.

    2. 2.Smoke and heat removal shall not be required in areas of buildings equipped with early suppression fast-response (ESFR) sprinklers.

    3. 3.Smoke and heat removal shall not be required in areas of buildings equipped with control mode special application sprinklers with a response time index of 50 (m · S)1/2 or less that are listed to control a fire in stored commodities with 12 or fewer sprinklers.

    910.2.1 Group F-1 or S-1.

    Smoke and heat vents installed in accordance with Section 910.3 or a mechanical smoke removal system installed in accordance with Section 910.4 shall be installed in buildings and portions thereof used as a Group F-1 or S-1 occupancy having more than 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) of undivided area. In occupied portions of a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, where the upper surface of the story is not a roof assembly, a mechanical smoke removal system in accordance with Section 910.4 shall be installed.

    Exception: Group S-1 aircraft repair hangars.

    910.2.2 High-piled combustible storage.

    Smoke and heat removal required by Table 3206.2 for buildings and portions thereof containing high-piled combustible storage shall be installed in accordance with Section 910.3 in unsprinklered buildings. In buildings and portions thereof containing high-piled combustible storage equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, a smoke and heat removal system shall be installed in accordance with Section 910.3 or 910.4. In occupied portions of a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 where the upper surface of the story is not a roof assembly, a mechanical smoke removal system in accordance with Section 910.4 shall be installed.

    910.3 Smoke and heat vents.

    The design and installation of smoke and heat vents shall be in accordance with Sections 910.3.1 through 910.3.3.

    910.3.1 Listing and labeling.

    Smoke and heat vents shall be listed and labeled to indicate compliance with UL 793 or FM 4430.

    910.3.2 Smoke and heat vent locations.

    Smoke and heat vents shall be located 20 feet (6096 mm) or more from adjacent lot lines and fire walls and 10 feet (3048 mm) or more from fire barriers. Vents shall be uniformly located within the roof in the areas of the building where the vents are required to be installed by Section 910.2, with consideration given to roof pitch, sprinkler location and structural members.

    910.3.3 Smoke and heat vents area.

    The required aggregate area of smoke and heat vents shall be calculated as follows:

    For buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1:

    //cdn-codes.iccsafe.org/bundles/document/new_document_images/546/Eq0003.jpg(Equation 9-3)

    where:

    AVR=The required aggregate vent area (ft2).
    V=Volume (ft3) of the area that requires smoke removal.

    For unsprinklered buildings:

    //cdn-codes.iccsafe.org/bundles/document/new_document_images/546/Eq0004.jpg(Equation 9-4)

    where:

    AVR=The required aggregate vent area (ft2).
    AFA=The area of the floor in the area that requires smoke removal.

    910.4 Mechanical smoke removal systems.

    Mechanical smoke removal systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 910.4.1 through 910.4.7.

    910.4.1 Automatic sprinklers required.

    The building shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    910.4.2 Exhaust fan construction.

    Exhaust fans that are part of a mechanical smoke removal system shall be rated for operation at 221°F (105°C). Exhaust fan motors shall be located outside of the exhaust fan air stream.

    910.4.3 System design criteria.

    The mechanical smoke removal system shall be sized to exhaust the building at a minimum rate of two air changes per hour based upon the volume of the building or portion thereof without contents. The capacity of each exhaust fan shall not exceed 30,000 cubic feet per minute (14.2 m3/sec).

    910.4.3.1 Makeup air.

    Makeup air openings shall be provided within 6 feet (1829 mm) of the floor level. Operation of makeup air openings shall be manual or automatic. The minimum gross area of makeup air inlets shall be 8 square feet per 1,000 cubic feet per minute (0.74 m2 per 0.4719 m3/s) of smoke exhaust.

    910.4.4 Activation.

    The mechanical smoke removal system shall be activated by manual controls only.

    910.4.5 Manual control location.

    Manual controls shall be located so as to be accessible to the fire service from an exterior door of the building and protected against interior fire exposure by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the International Building Code, or both.

    910.4.6 Control wiring.

    Wiring for operation and control of mechanical smoke removal systems shall be connected ahead of the main disconnect in accordance with Section 701.12E of NFPA 70 and be protected against interior fire exposure to temperatures in excess of 1,000°F (538°C) for a period of not less than 15 minutes.

    910.4.7 Controls.

    Where building air-handling and mechanical smoke removal systems are combined or where independent building air-handling systems are provided, fans shall automatically shut down in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. The manual controls provided for the smoke removal system shall have the capability to override the automatic shutdown of fans that are part of the smoke removal system.

    910.5 Maintenance.

    Smoke and heat vents and mechanical smoke removal systems shall be maintained in an operative condition in accordance with Section 910.5.1 or 910.5.2, respectively.

    910.5.1 Smoke and heat vents.

    Smoke and heat vents shall be maintained in an operative condition in accordance with NFPA 204 and Section 910.5.1.1

    910.5.1.1 Fusible links.

    Fusible links for smoke and heat vents shall be replaced whenever fused, damaged or painted.

    910.5.2 Mechanical smoke removal systems.

    Mechanical smoke removal systems shall be maintained in accordance with the equipment manufacturer’s maintenance instructions and Sections 910.5.2.1 through 910.5.2.4.

    910.5.2.1 Frequency.

    Systems shall be operationally tested not less than once per year. Testing shall include the operation of all system components, including control elements.

    910.5.2.2 Testing.

    Operational testing of the mechanical smoke removal system shall include all equipment such as fans, controls and make-up air openings.

    910.5.2.3 Schedule.

    A routine maintenance and operational testing program shall be initiated and a written schedule for routine maintenance and operational testing shall be established.

    910.5.2.4 Written record.

    A written record of mechanical smoke exhaust system testing and maintenance shall be maintained on the premises. The written record shall include the date of the maintenance, identification of the servicing personnel and notification of any unsatisfactory condition and the corrective action taken, including parts replaced.

    SECTION911
    EXPLOSION CONTROL

    911.1 General.

    Explosion control shall be provided in the following locations:

    1. 1.Where a structure, room or space is occupied for purposes involving explosion hazards as identified in Table 911.1.

    2. 2.Where quantities of hazardous materials specified in Table 911.1 exceed the maximum allowable quantities in Table 5003.1.1(1).

    Such areas shall be provided with explosion (deflagration) venting, explosion (deflagration) prevention systems or barricades in accordance with this section and NFPA 69, or NFPA 495 as applicable. Deflagration venting shall not be utilized as a means to protect buildings from detonation hazards.

    TABLE 911.1

    EXPLOSION CONTROL REQUIREMENTSf

    MATERIALCLASSEXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS
    Barricade constructionExplosion (deflagration) venting or explosion (deflagration) prevention systems
    Hazard Category
    Combustible dustsaNot requiredRequired
    Cryogenic fluidsFlammableNot requiredRequired
    ExplosivesDivision 1.1RequiredNot required
    Division 1.2RequiredNot required
    Division 1.3Not requiredRequired
    Division 1.4Not requiredRequired
    Division 1.5RequiredNot required
    Division 1.6RequiredNot required
    Flammable gasGaseousNot requiredRequired
    LiquefiedNot requiredRequired
    Flammable liquidsIAbNot requiredRequired
    IBcNot requiredRequired
    Organic peroxidesUnclassified detonableRequiredNot permitted
    IRequiredNot permitted
    Oxidizer liquids and solids4RequiredNot permitted
    PyrophoricGasesNot requiredRequired
    Unstable (reactive)4RequiredNot permitted
    3 detonableRequiredNot permitted
    3 nondetonableNot requiredRequired
    Water-reactive liquids and solids3Not requiredRequired
    2eNot requiredRequired
    Special Uses
    Acetylene generator roomsNot requiredRequired
    Grain processingNot requiredRequired
    Liquefied petroleum gas distribution facilitiesNot requiredRequired
    Where explosion hazards existdDetonationRequiredNot permitted
    DeflagrationNot requiredRequired
    1. a. Combustible dusts that are generated during manufacturing or processing. See definition of “Combustible dust” in Chapter 2.

    2. b. Storage or use.

    3. c. In open use or dispensing.

    4. d. Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials where an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process.

    5. e. A method of explosion control shall be provided where Class 2 water-reactive materials can form potentially explosive mixtures.

    6. f. Explosion venting is not required for Group H-5 Fabrication Areas complying with Chapter 27 and the International Building Code.

    911.2 Required deflagration venting.

    Areas that are required to be provided with deflagration venting shall comply with the following:

    1. 1.Walls, ceilings and roofs exposing surrounding areas shall be designed to resist a minimum internal pressure of 100 pounds per square foot (psf) (4788 Pa). The minimum internal design pressure shall be not less than five times the maximum internal relief pressure specified in Item 5 of this section.

    2. 2.Deflagration venting shall be provided only in exterior walls and roofs.

      Exception: Where sufficient exterior wall and roof venting cannot be provided because of inadequate exterior wall or roof area, deflagration venting shall be allowed by specially designed shafts vented to the exterior of the building.

    3. 3.Deflagration venting shall be designed to prevent unacceptable structural damage. Where relieving a deflagration, vent closures shall not produce projectiles of sufficient velocity and mass to cause life threatening injuries to the occupants or other persons on the property or adjacent public ways.

    4. 4.The aggregate clear area of vents and venting devices shall be governed by the pressure resistance of the construction assemblies specified in Item 1 of this section and the maximum internal pressure allowed by Item 5 of this section.

    5. 5.Vents shall be designed to withstand loads in accordance with the International Building Code. Vents shall consist of any one or any combination of the following to relieve at a maximum internal pressure of 20 pounds per square foot (958 Pa), but not less than the loads required by the International Building Code:

      1. 5.1. Exterior walls designed to release outward.

      2. 5.2.Hatch covers.

      3. 5.3.Outward swinging doors.

      4. 5.4.Roofs designed to uplift.

      5. 5.5.Venting devices listed for the purpose.

    6. 6.Vents designed to release from the exterior walls or roofs of the building when venting a deflagration shall discharge directly to the exterior of the building where an unoccupied space not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) in width is provided between the exterior walls of the building and the lot line.

      Exception: Vents complying with Item 7 of this section.

    7. 7.Vents designed to remain attached to the building when venting a deflagration shall be so located that the discharge opening shall be not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) vertically from window openings and exits in the building and 20 feet (6096 mm) horizontally from exits in the building, from window openings and exits in adjacent buildings on the same lot and from the lot line.

    8. 8.Discharge from vents shall not be into the interior of the building.

    911.3 Explosion prevention systems.

    Explosion prevention systems shall be of an approved type and installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and NFPA 69.

    911.4 Barricades.

    Barricades shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 495.

    SECTION912
    FIRE DEPARTMENT CONNECTIONS

    912.1 Installation.

    Fire department connections shall be installed in accordance with the NFPA standard applicable to the system design and shall comply with Sections 912.2 through 912.7.

    912.2 Location.

    With respect to hydrants, driveways, buildings and landscaping, fire department connections shall be so located that fire apparatus and hose connected to supply the system will not obstruct access to the buildings for other fire apparatus. The location of fire department connections shall be approved by the fire chief.

    912.2.1 Visible location.

    Fire department connections shall be located on the street side of buildings, fully visible and recognizable from the street or nearest point of fire department vehicle access or as otherwise approved by the fire chief.

    912.2.2 Existing buildings.

    On existing buildings, wherever the fire department connection is not visible to approaching fire apparatus, the fire department connection shall be indicated by an approved sign mounted on the street front or on the side of the building. Such sign shall have the letters “FDC” not less than 6 inches (152 mm) high and words in letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) high or an arrow to indicate the location. Such signs shall be subject to the approval of the fire code official.

    912.3 Fire hose threads.

    Fire hose threads used in connection with standpipe systems shall be approved and shall be compatible with fire department hose threads.

    912.4 Access.

    Immediate access to fire department connections shall be maintained at all times and without obstruction by fences, bushes, trees, walls or any other fixed or moveable object. Access to fire department connections shall be approved by the fire chief.

    Exception: Fences, where provided with an access gate equipped with a sign complying with the legend requirements of Section 912.5 and a means of emergency operation. The gate and the means of emergency operation shall be approved by the fire chief and maintained operational at all times.

    912.4.1 Locking fire department connection caps.

    The fire code official is authorized to require locking caps on fire department connections for water-based fire protection systems where the responding fire department carries appropriate key wrenches for removal.

    912.4.2 Clear space around connections.

    A working space of not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in width, 36 inches (914 mm) in depth and 78 inches (1981 mm) in height shall be provided and maintained in front of and to the sides of wall-mounted fire department connections and around the circumference of free-standing fire department connections, except as otherwise required or approved by the fire chief.

    912.4.3 Physical protection.

    Where fire department connections are subject to impact by a motor vehicle, vehicle impact protection shall be provided in accordance with Section 312.

    912.5 Signs.

    A metal sign with raised letters not less than 1 inch (25 mm) in size shall be mounted on all fire department connections serving automatic sprinklers, standpipes or fire pump connections. Such signs shall read: AUTOMATIC SPRINKLERS or STANDPIPES or TEST CONNECTION or a combination thereof as applicable. Where the fire department connection does not serve the entire building, a sign shall be provided indicating the portions of the building served.

    912.6 Backflow protection.

    The potable water supply to automatic sprinkler and standpipe systems shall be protected against backflow as required by the International Plumbing Code.

    912.7 Inspection, testing and maintenance.

    Fire department connections shall be periodically inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with NFPA 25. Records of inspection, testing and maintenance shall be maintained.

    SECTION913
    FIRE PUMPS

    913.1 General.

    Where provided, fire pumps shall be installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 20.

    913.2 Protection against interruption of service.

    The fire pump, driver and controller shall be protected in accordance with NFPA 20 against possible interruption of service through damage caused by explosion, fire, flood, earthquake, rodents, insects, windstorm, freezing, vandalism and other adverse conditions.

    913.2.1 Protection of fire pump rooms.

    Rooms where fire pumps are located shall be separated from all other areas of the building in accordance with Section 913.2.1 of the International Building Code.

    913.2.2 Circuits supplying fire pumps.

    Cables used for survivability of circuits supplying fire pumps shall be listed in accordance with UL 2196. Electrical circuit protective systems shall be installed in accordance with their listing requirements.

    913.3 Temperature of pump room.

    Suitable means shall be provided for maintaining the temperature of a pump room or pump house, where required, above 40°F (5°C).

    913.3.1 Engine manufacturer’s recommendation.

    Temperature of the pump room, pump house or area where engines are installed shall never be less than the minimum recommended by the engine manufacturer. The engine manufacturer’s recommendations for oil heaters shall be followed.

    913.4 Valve supervision.

    Where provided, the fire pump suction, discharge and bypass valves, and isolation valves on the backflow prevention device or assembly shall be supervised open by one of the following methods:

    1. 1.Central-station, proprietary or remote-station signaling service.

    2. 2.Local signaling service that will cause the sounding of an audible signal at a constantly attended location.

    3. 3.Locking valves open.

    4. 4.Sealing of valves and approved weekly recorded inspection where valves are located within fenced enclosures under the control of the owner.

    913.4.1 Test outlet valve supervision.

    Fire pump test outlet valves shall be supervised in the closed position.

    913.5 Testing and maintenance.

    Fire pumps shall be inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the requirements of this section and NFPA 25. Records of inspection, testing and maintenance shall be maintained.

    913.5.1 Acceptance test.

    Acceptance testing shall be done in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 20.

    913.5.2 Generator sets.

    Engine generator sets supplying emergency or standby power to fire pump assemblies shall be periodically tested in accordance with NFPA 110. Records of testing shall be maintained.

    913.5.3 Transfer switches.

    Automatic transfer switches shall be periodically tested in accordance with NFPA 110. Records of testing shall be maintained.

    913.5.4 Pump room environmental conditions.

    Tests of pump room environmental conditions, including heating, ventilation and illumination, shall be made to ensure proper manual or automatic operation of the associated equipment.

    SECTION914
    FIRE PROTECTION BASED ON SPECIAL DETAILED
    REQUIREMENTS OF USE AND OCCUPANCY

    914.1 General.

    This section shall specify where fire protection systems are required based on the detailed requirements of use and occupancy of the International Building Code.

    914.2 Covered and open mall buildings.

    Covered and open mall buildings shall comply with Sections 914.2.1 through 914.2.4.

    914.2.1 Automatic sprinkler system.

    Covered and open mall buildings and buildings connected shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, which shall comply with the all of the following:

    1. 1.The automatic sprinkler system shall be complete and operative throughout occupied space in the mall building prior to occupancy of any of the tenant spaces. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly protected unless provided with approved alternative protection.

    2. 2.Sprinkler protection for the mall of a covered mall building shall be independent from that provided for tenant spaces or anchor buildings.

    3. 3.Sprinkler protection for the tenant spaces of an open mall building shall be independent from that provided for anchor buildings.

    4. 4.Sprinkler protection shall be provided beneath exterior circulation balconies located adjacent to an open mall.

    5. 5.Where tenant spaces are supplied by the same system, they shall be independently controlled.

    Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in spaces or areas of open parking garages separated from the covered or open mall in accordance with Section 402.4.2.3 of the International Building Code and constructed in accordance with Section 406.5 of the International Building Code.

    914.2.2 Standpipe system.

    The covered and open mall building shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system as required by Section 905.3.3.

    914.2.3 Emergency voice/alarm communication system.

    Where the total floor area exceeds 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) within either a covered mall building or within the perimeter line of an open mall building, an emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be accessible to the fire department. The system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

    914.2.4 Fire department access to equipment.

    Rooms or areas containing controls for air-conditioning systems, automatic fire-extinguishing systems, automatic sprinkler systems or other detection, suppression or control elements shall be identified for use by the fire department.

    914.3 High-rise buildings.

    High-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 914.3.1 through 914.3.7.

    914.3.1 Automatic sprinkler system.

    Buildings and structures shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and a secondary water supply where required by Section 914.3.3.

    Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in spaces or areas of:

    1. 1.Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.5 of the International Building Code.

    2. 2.Telecommunications equipment buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided that those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or not less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the International Building Code, or both.

    914.3.1.1 Number of sprinkler risers and system design.

    Each sprinkler system zone in buildings that are more than 420 feet (128 m) in height shall be supplied by no fewer than two risers. Each riser shall supply sprinklers on alternate floors. If more than two risers are provided for a zone, sprinklers on adjacent floors shall not be supplied from the same riser.

    914.3.1.1.1 Riser location.

    Sprinkler risers shall be placed in interior exit stairways and ramps that are remotely located in accordance with Section 1007.

    914.3.1.2 Water supply to required fire pumps.

    In buildings that are more than 420 feet (128 m) in building height, required fire pumps shall be supplied by connections to no fewer than two water mains located in different streets. Separate supply piping shall be provided between each connection to the water main and the pumps. Each connection and the supply piping between the connection and the pumps shall be sized to supply the flow and pressure required for the pumps to operate.

    Exception: Two connections to the same main shall be permitted provided the main is valved such that an interruption can be isolated so that the water supply will continue without interruption through no fewer than one of the connections.

    914.3.2 Secondary water supply.

    An automatic secondary on-site water supply having a capacity not less than the hydraulically calculated sprinkler demand, including the hose stream requirement, shall be provided for high-rise buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F as determined by the International Building Code. An additional fire pump shall not be required for the secondary water supply unless needed to provide the minimum design intake pressure at the suction side of the fire pump supplying the automatic sprinkler system. The secondary water supply shall have a duration of not less than 30 minutes as determined by the occupancy hazard classification in accordance with NFPA 13.

    Exception: Existing buildings.

    914.3.3 Fire alarm system.

    A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13.

    914.3.4 Automatic smoke detection.

    Smoke detection shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13.1.

    914.3.5 Emergency voice/alarm communication system.

    An emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

    914.3.6 Emergency responder radio coverage