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  • Part IVSpecial Occupancies and Operations

    CHAPTER20
    AVIATION FACILITIES

    SECTION2001
    GENERAL

    2001.1 Scope.

    Airports, heliports, helistops and aircraft hangars shall be in accordance with this chapter.

    2001.2 Regulations not covered.

    Regulations not specifically contained herein pertaining to airports, aircraft maintenance, aircraft hangars and appurtenant operations shall be in accordance with nationally recognized standards.

    2001.3 Permits.

    For permits to operate aircraft-refueling vehicles, application of flammable or combustible finishes and hot work, see Section 105.6.

    SECTION2002
    DEFINITIONS

    2002.1 Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    AIRCRAFT OPERATION AREA (AOA).

    AIRPORT.

    HELIPORT.

    HELISTOP.

    SECTION2003
    GENERAL PRECAUTIONS

    2003.1 Sources of ignition.

    Open flames, flame-producing devices and other sources of ignition shall not be permitted in a hangar, except in approved locations or in any location within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of an aircraft-fueling operation.

    2003.2 Smoking.

    Smoking shall be prohibited in aircraft-refueling vehicles, aircraft hangars and aircraft operation areas used for cleaning, paint removal, painting operations or fueling. “No Smoking” signs shall be provided in accordance with Section 310.

    Exception: Designated and approved smoking areas.

    2003.3 Housekeeping.

    The aircraft operation area (AOA) and related areas shall be kept free from combustible debris at all times.

    2003.4 Fire department access.

    Fire apparatus access roads shall be provided and maintained in accordance with Chapter 5. Fire apparatus access roads and aircraft parking positions shall be designed in a manner so as to preclude the possibility of fire vehicles traveling under any portion of a parked aircraft.

    2003.5 Dispensing of flammable and combustible liquids.

    The dispensing, transferring and storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with this chapter and Chapter 57. Aircraft motor vehicle fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in accordance with Chapter 23.

    2003.6 Combustible storage.

    Combustible materials stored in aircraft hangars shall be stored in approved locations and containers.

    2003.7 Hazardous material storage.

    Hazardous materials shall be stored in accordance with Chapter 50.

    SECTION2004
    AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE

    2004.1 Transferring flammable and combustible liquids.

    Flammable and combustible liquids shall not be dispensed into or removed from a container, tank, vehicle or aircraft except in approved locations.

    2004.2 Application of flammable and combustible liquid finishes.

    The application of flammable or Class II combustible liquid finishes is prohibited unless both of the following conditions are met:

    1. 1.The application of the liquid finish is accomplished in an approved location.

    2. 2.The application methods and procedures are in accordance with Chapter 24.

    2004.3 Cleaning parts.

    Class IA flammable liquids shall not be used to clean aircraft, aircraft parts or aircraft engines. Cleaning with other flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Section 5705.3.6.

    2004.4 Spills.

    Sections 2004.4.1 through 2004.4.3 shall apply to spills of flammable and combustible liquids and other hazardous materials. Fuel spill control shall also comply with Section 2006.11.

    2004.4.1 Cessation of work.

    Activities in the affected area not related to the mitigation of the spill shall cease until the spilled material has been removed or the hazard has been mitigated.

    2004.4.2 Vehicle movement.

    Aircraft or other vehicles shall not be moved through the spill area until the spilled material has been removed or the hazard has been mitigated.

    2004.4.3 Mitigation.

    Spills shall be reported, documented and mitigated in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and Section 5003.3.

    2004.5 Running engines.

    Aircraft engines shall not be run in aircraft hangars except in approved engine test areas.

    2004.6 Open flame.

    Repairing of aircraft requiring the use of open flames, spark-producing devices or the heating of parts above 500°F (260°C) shall only be done outdoors or in an area complying with the provisions of the International Building Code for a Group F-1 occupancy.

    2004.7 Other aircraft maintenance.

    Maintenance, repairs, modifications, or construction performed upon aircraft not addressed elsewhere in this code shall be conducted in accordance with NFPA 410.

    SECTION2005
    PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

    2005.1 General.

    Portable fire extinguishers suitable for flammable or combustible liquid and electrical-type fires shall be provided as specified in Sections 2005.2 through 2005.6 and Section 906. Extinguishers required by this section shall be inspected and maintained in accordance with Section 906.

    2005.2 On towing vehicles.

    Vehicles used for towing aircraft shall be equipped with not less than one listed portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 and having a minimum rating of 20-B:C.

    2005.3 On welding apparatus.

    Welding apparatus shall be equipped with not less than one listed portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 and having a minimum rating of 2-A:20-B:C.

    2005.4 On aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles.

    Aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles shall be equipped with not less than two listed portable fire extinguishers complying with Section 906, each having a minimum rating of 20-B:C. A portable fire extinguisher shall be readily accessible from either side of the vehicle.

    2005.5 On hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles.

    Hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles shall be equipped with not less than one listed portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906, and having a minimum rating of 20-B:C.

    2005.6 At fuel-dispensing stations.

    Portable fire extinguishers at fuel-dispensing stations shall be located such that pumps or dispensers are not more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from one such extinguisher. Fire extinguishers shall be provided as follows:

    1. 1.Where the open-hose discharge capacity of the fueling system is not more than 200 gallons per minute (13 L/s), not less than two listed portable fire extinguishers complying with Section 906 and having a minimum rating of 20-B:C shall be provided.

    2. 2.Where the open-hose discharge capacity of the fueling system is more than 200 gallons per minute (13 L/s) but not more than 350 gallons per minute (22 L/s), not less than one listed wheeled extinguisher complying with Section 906 and having a minimum extinguishing rating of 80-B:C, and a minimum agent capacity of 125 pounds (57 kg), shall be provided.

    3. 3.Where the open-hose discharge capacity of the fueling system is more than 350 gallons per minute (22 L/s), not less than two listed wheeled extinguishers complying with Section 906 and having a minimum rating of 80-B:C each, and a minimum capacity agent of 125 pounds (57 kg) of each, shall be provided.

    2005.7 Fire extinguisher access.

    Portable fire extinguishers required by this chapter shall be accessible at all times. Where necessary, provisions shall be made to clear accumulations of snow, ice and other forms of weather-induced obstructions.

    2005.7.1 Cabinets.

    Cabinets and enclosed compartments used to house portable fire extinguishers shall be clearly marked with the words FIRE EXTINGUISHER in letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) high. Cabinets and compartments shall be readily accessible at all times.

    2005.8 Reporting use.

    Use of a fire extinguisher under any circumstances shall be reported to the manager of the airport and the fire code official immediately after use.

    SECTION2006
    AIRCRAFT FUELING

    2006.1 Aircraft motor vehicle fuel-dispensing facilities.

    Aircraft motor vehicle fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in accordance with Chapter 23.

    2006.2 Airport fuel systems.

    Airport fuel systems shall be designed and constructed in accordance with NFPA 407.

    2006.3 Construction of aircraft-fueling vehicles and accessories.

    Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall comply with this section and shall be designed and constructed in accordance with NFPA 407.

    2006.3.1 Transfer apparatus.

    Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be equipped and maintained with an approved transfer apparatus.

    2006.3.1.1 Internal combustion type.

    Where such transfer apparatus is operated by an individual unit of the internal-combustion-motor type, such power unit shall be located as remotely as practicable from pumps, piping, meters, air eliminators, water separators, hose reels and similar equipment, and shall be housed in a separate compartment from any of the aforementioned items. The fuel tank in connection therewith shall be suitably designed and installed, and the maximum fuel capacity shall not exceed 5 gallons (19 L) where the tank is installed on the engine. The exhaust pipe, muffler and tail pipe shall be shielded.

    2006.3.1.2 Gear operated.

    Where operated by gears or chains, the gears, chains, shafts, bearings, housing and all parts thereof shall be of an approved design and shall be installed and maintained in an approved manner.

    2006.3.1.3 Vibration isolation.

    Flexible connections for the purpose of eliminating vibration are allowed if the material used therein is designed, installed and maintained in an approved manner, provided such connections do not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) in length.

    2006.3.2 Pumps.

    Pumps of a positive-displacement type shall be provided with a bypass relief valve set at a pressure of not more than 35 percent in excess of the normal working pressure of such unit. Such units shall be equipped and maintained with a pressure gauge on the discharge side of the pump.

    2006.3.3 Dispensing hoses and nozzles.

    Hoses shall be designed for the transferring of hydrocarbon liquids and shall not be any longer than necessary to provide efficient fuel transfer operations. Hoses shall be equipped with an approved shutoff nozzle. Fuel-transfer nozzles shall be self-closing and designed to be actuated by hand pressure only. Notches and other devices shall not be used for holding a nozzle valve handle in the open position. Nozzles shall be equipped with a bonding cable complete with proper attachment for aircraft to be serviced.

    2006.3.4 Protection of electrical equipment.

    Electric wiring, switches, lights and other sources of ignition, where located in a compartment housing piping, pumps, air eliminators, water separators, hose reels or similar equipment, shall be enclosed in a vapor-tight housing. Electrical motors located in such a compartment shall be of a type approved for use as specified in NFPA 70.

    2006.3.5 Venting of equipment compartments.

    Compartments housing piping, pumps, air eliminators, water separators, hose reels and similar equipment shall be adequately ventilated at floor level or within the floor itself.

    2006.3.6 Accessory equipment.

    Ladders, hose reels and similar accessory equipment shall be of an approved type and constructed substantially as follows:

    1. 1.Ladders constructed of noncombustible material are allowed to be used with or attached to aircraft-fueling vehicles, provided the manner of attachment or use of such ladders is approved and does not constitute an additional fire or accident hazard in the operation of such fueling vehicles.

    2. 2.Hose reels used in connection with fueling vehicles shall be constructed of noncombustible materials and shall be provided with a packing gland or other device that will preclude fuel leakage between reels and fuel manifolds.

    2006.3.7 Electrical bonding provisions.

    Transfer apparatus shall be metallically interconnected with tanks, chassis, axles and springs of aircraft-fueling vehicles.

    2006.3.7.1 Bonding cables.

    Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be provided and maintained with a substantial heavy-duty electrical cable of sufficient length to be bonded to the aircraft to be serviced. Such cable shall be metallically connected to the transfer apparatus or chassis of the aircraft-fueling vehicle on one end and shall be provided with a suitable metal clamp on the other end, to be fixed to the aircraft.

    2006.3.7.2 Bonding cable protection.

    The bonding cable shall be bare or have a transparent protective sleeve and be stored on a reel or in a compartment provided for no other purpose. It shall be carried in such a manner that it will not be subjected to sharp kinks or accidental breakage under conditions of general use.

    2006.3.8 Smoking.

    Smoking in aircraft-fueling vehicles is prohibited. Signs to this effect shall be conspicuously posted in the driver’s compartment of all fueling vehicles.

    2006.3.9 Smoking equipment.

    Smoking equipment such as cigarette lighters and ash trays shall not be provided in aircraft-fueling vehicles.

    2006.4 Operation, maintenance and use of aircraft-fueling vehicles.

    The operation, maintenance and use of aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be in accordance with Sections 2006.4.1 through 2006.4.4 and other applicable provisions of this chapter.

    2006.4.1 Proper maintenance.

    Aircraft-fueling vehicles and all related equipment shall be properly maintained and kept in good repair. Accumulations of oil, grease, fuel and other flammable or combustible materials is prohibited. Maintenance and servicing of such equipment shall be accomplished in approved areas.

    2006.4.2 Vehicle integrity.

    Tanks, pipes, hoses, valves and other fuel delivery equipment shall be maintained leak free at all times.

    2006.4.3 Removal from service.

    Aircraft-fueling vehicles and related equipment that are in violation of Section 2006.4.1 or 2006.4.2 shall be immediately defueled and removed from service and shall not be returned to service until proper repairs have been made.

    2006.4.4 Operators.

    Aircraft-fueling vehicles that are operated by a person, firm or corporation other than the permittee or the permittee’s authorized employee shall be provided with a legible sign visible from outside the vehicle showing the name of the person, firm or corporation operating such unit.

    2006.5 Fueling and defueling.

    Aircraft-fueling and defueling operations shall be in accordance with Sections 2006.5.1 through 2006.5.5.

    2006.5.1 Positioning of aircraft-fueling vehicles.

    Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall not be located, parked or permitted to stand in a position where such unit would obstruct egress from an aircraft should a fire occur during fuel-transfer operations. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall not be located, parked or permitted to stand under any portion of an aircraft.

    Exception: Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be allowed to be located under aircraft wings during underwing fueling of turbine-engine powered aircraft.

    2006.5.1.1 Fueling vehicle egress.

    A clear path shall be maintained for aircraft-fueling vehicles to provide for prompt and timely egress from the fueling area.

    2006.5.1.2 Aircraft vent openings.

    A clear space of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be maintained between aircraft fuel-system vent openings and any part or portion of an aircraft-fueling vehicle.

    2006.5.1.3 Parking.

    Prior to leaving the cab, the aircraft-fueling vehicle operator shall ensure that the parking brake has been set. Not less than two chock blocks not less than 5 inches by 5 inches by 12 inches (127 mm by 127 mm by 305 mm) in size and dished to fit the contour of the tires shall be utilized and positioned in such a manner as to preclude movement of the vehicle in any direction.

    2006.5.2 Electrical bonding.

    Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be electrically bonded to the aircraft being fueled or defueled. Bonding connections shall be made prior to making fueling connections and shall not be disconnected until the fuel-transfer operations are completed and the fueling connections have been removed.

    Where a hydrant service vehicle or cart is used for fueling, the hydrant coupler shall be connected to the hydrant system prior to bonding the fueling equipment to the aircraft.

    2006.5.2.1 Conductive hose.

    In addition to the bonding cable required by Section 2006.5.2, conductive hose shall be used for all fueling operations.

    2006.5.2.2 Bonding conductors on transfer nozzles.

    Transfer nozzles shall be equipped with approved bonding conductors that shall be clipped or otherwise positively engaged with the bonding attachment provided on the aircraft adjacent to the fuel tank cap prior to removal of the cap.

    Exception: In the case of overwing fueling where no appropriate bonding attachment adjacent to the fuel fill port has been provided on the aircraft, the fueling operator shall touch the fuel tank cap with the nozzle spout prior to removal of the cap. The nozzle shall be kept in contact with the fill port until fueling is completed.

    2006.5.2.3 Funnels.

    Where required, metal funnels are allowed to be used during fueling operations. Direct contact between the fueling receptacle, the funnel and the fueling nozzle shall be maintained during the fueling operation.

    2006.5.3 Training.

    Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be attended and operated only by persons instructed in methods of proper use and operation and who are qualified to use such fueling vehicles in accordance with minimum safety requirements.

    2006.5.3.1 Fueling hazards.

    Fuel-servicing personnel shall know and understand the hazards associated with each type of fuel dispensed by the airport fueling-system operator.

    2006.5.3.2 Fire safety training.

    Employees of fuel agents who fuel aircraft, accept fuel shipments or otherwise handle fuel shall receive approved fire safety training.

    2006.5.3.2.1 Fire extinguisher training.

    Fuel-servicing personnel shall receive approved training in the operation of fire-extinguishing equipment.

    2006.5.3.2.2 Records.

    The airport fueling-system operator shall maintain records of all training administered to its employees.

    2006.5.4 Transfer personnel.

    During fuel-transfer operations, a qualified person shall be in control of each transfer nozzle and another qualified person shall be in immediate control of the fuel-pumping equipment to shut off or otherwise control the flow of fuel from the time fueling operations are begun until they are completed.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.For underwing refueling, the person stationed at the point of fuel intake is not required.

    2. 2.For overwing refueling, the person stationed at the fuel pumping equipment shall not be required where the person at the fuel dispensing device is within 75 feet (22 800 mm) of the emergency shutoff device; is not on the wing of the aircraft and has a clear and unencumbered path to the fuel pumping equipment; and the fuel dispensing line does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm) in length.

    The fueling operator shall monitor the panel of the fueling equipment and the aircraft control panel during pressure fueling or shall monitor the fill port during overwing fueling.

    2006.5.5 Fuel flow control.

    Fuel flow-control valves shall be operable only by the direct hand pressure of the operator. Removal of the operator’s hand pressure shall cause an immediate cessation of the flow of fuel.

    2006.6 Emergency fuel shutoff.

    Emergency fuel shutoff controls and procedures shall comply with Sections 2006.6.1 through 2006.6.4.

    2006.6.1 Accessibility.

    Emergency fuel shutoff controls shall be readily accessible at all times when the fueling system is being operated.

    2006.6.2 Notification of the fire department.

    The fueling-system operator shall establish a procedure by which the fire department will be notified in the event of an activation of an emergency fuel shutoff control.

    2006.6.3 Determining cause.

    Prior to reestablishment of normal fuel flow, the cause of fuel shutoff conditions shall be determined and corrected.

    2006.6.4 Testing.

    Emergency fuel shutoff devices shall be operationally tested at intervals not exceeding three months. The fueling-system operator shall maintain testing records.

    2006.7 Protection of hoses.

    Before an aircraft-fueling vehicle is moved, fuel transfer hoses shall be properly placed on the approved reel or in the compartment provided, or stored on the top decking of the fueling vehicle if proper height rail is provided for security and protection of such equipment. Fuel-transfer hose shall not be looped or draped over any part of the fueling vehicle, except as herein provided. Fuel-transfer hose shall not be dragged when such fueling vehicle is moved from one fueling position to another.

    2006.8 Loading and unloading.

    Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be loaded only at an approved loading rack. Such loading racks shall be in accordance with Section 5706.5.1.12.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Aircraft-refueling units are allowed to be loaded from the fuel tanks of an aircraft during defueling operations.

    2. 2.Fuel transfer between tank vehicles is allowed to be performed in accordance with Section 5706.6 when the operation is not less than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from an aircraft.

    The fuel cargo of such units shall be unloaded only by approved transfer apparatus into the fuel tanks of aircraft, underground storage tanks or approved gravity storage tanks.

    2006.9 Passengers.

    Passenger traffic is allowed during the time fuel transfer operations are in progress, provided the following provisions are strictly enforced by the owner of the aircraft or the owner’s authorized employee:

    1. 1.Smoking and producing an open flame in the cabin of the aircraft or the outside thereof within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of such aircraft shall be prohibited.

      A qualified employee of the aircraft owner shall be responsible for seeing that the passengers are not allowed to smoke when remaining aboard the aircraft or while going across the ramp from the gate to such aircraft, or vice versa.

    2. 2.Passengers shall not be permitted to linger about the plane, but shall proceed directly between the loading gate and the aircraft.

    3. 3.Passenger loading stands or walkways shall be left in loading position until all fuel transfer operations are completed.

    4. 4.Fuel transfer operations shall not be performed on the main exit side of any aircraft containing passengers except when the owner of such aircraft or a capable and qualified employee of such owner remains inside the aircraft to direct and assist the escape of such passengers through regular and emergency exits in the event fire should occur during fuel transfer operations.

    2006.10 Sources of ignition.

    Smoking and producing open flames within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of a point where fuel is being transferred shall be prohibited. Electrical and motor-driven devices shall not be connected to or disconnected from an aircraft at any time fueling operations are in progress on such aircraft.

    2006.11 Fuel spill prevention and procedures.

    Fuel spill prevention and the procedures for handling spills shall comply with Sections 2006.11.1 through 2006.11.7.

    2006.11.1 Fuel-service equipment maintenance.

    Aircraft fuel-servicing equipment shall be maintained and kept free from leaks. Fuel-servicing equipment that malfunctions or leaks shall not be continued in service.

    2006.11.2 Transporting fuel nozzles.

    Fuel nozzles shall be carried utilizing appropriate handles. Dragging fuel nozzles along the ground shall be prohibited.

    2006.11.3 Drum fueling.

    Fueling from drums or other containers having a capacity greater than 5 gallons (19 L) shall be accomplished with the use of an approved pump.

    2006.11.4 Fuel spill procedures.

    The fueling-system operator shall establish procedures to follow in the event of a fuel spill. These procedures shall be comprehensive and shall provide for all of the following:

    1. 1.Upon observation of a fuel spill, the aircraft-fueling operator shall immediately stop the delivery of fuel by releasing hand pressure from the fuel flow-control valve.

    2. 2.Failure of the fuel control valve to stop the continued spillage of fuel shall be cause for the activation of the appropriate emergency fuel shutoff device.

    3. 3.A supervisor for the fueling-system operator shall respond to the fuel spill area immediately.

    2006.11.5 Notification of the fire department.

    The fire department shall be notified of any fuel spill that is considered a hazard to people or property or which meets one or more of the following criteria:

    1. 1.Any dimension of the spill is greater than 10 feet (3048 mm).

    2. 2.The spill area is greater than 50 square feet (4.65 m2).

    3. 3.The fuel flow is continuous in nature.

    2006.11.6 Investigation required.

    An investigation shall be conducted by the fueling-system operator of all spills requiring notification of the fire department. The investigation shall provide conclusive proof of the cause and verification of the appropriate use of emergency procedures. Where it is determined that corrective measures are necessary to prevent future incidents of the same nature, they shall be implemented immediately.

    2006.11.7 Multiple fuel delivery vehicles.

    Simultaneous delivery of fuel from more than one aircraft-fueling vehicle to a single aircraft-fueling manifold is prohibited unless proper backflow prevention devices are installed to prevent fuel flow into the tank vehicles.

    2006.12 Aircraft engines and heaters.

    Operation of aircraft onboard engines and combustion heaters shall be terminated prior to commencing fuel service operations and shall remain off until the fuel-servicing operation is completed.

    Exception: In an emergency, a single jet engine is allowed to be operated during fuel servicing where all of the following conditions are met:

    1. 1.The emergency shall have resulted from an onboard failure of the aircraft’s auxiliary power unit.

    2. 2.Restoration of auxiliary power to the aircraft by ground support services is not available.

    3. 3.The engine to be operated is either at the rear of the aircraft or on the opposite side of the aircraft from the fuel service operation.

    4. 4.The emergency operation is in accordance with a written procedure approved by the fire code official.

    2006.13 Vehicle and equipment restrictions.

    During aircraft-fueling operations, only the equipment actively involved in the fueling operation is allowed within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of the aircraft being fueled. Other equipment shall be prohibited in this area until the fueling operation is complete.

    Exception: Aircraft-fueling operations utilizing single-point refueling with a sealed, mechanically locked fuel line connection and the fuel is not a Class I flammable liquid.

    A clear space of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be maintained between aircraft fuel-system vent openings and any part or portion of aircraft-servicing vehicles or equipment.

    2006.13.1 Overwing fueling.

    Vehicles or equipment shall not be allowed beneath the trailing edge of the wing when aircraft fueling takes place over the wing and the aircraft fuel-system vents are located on the upper surface of the wing.

    2006.14 Electrical equipment.

    Electrical equipment, including but not limited to, battery chargers, ground or auxiliary power units, fans, compressors or tools, shall not be operated, nor shall they be connected or disconnected from their power source, during fuel service operations.

    2006.14.1 Other equipment.

    Electrical or other spark-producing equipment shall not be used within 10 feet (3048 mm) of fueling equipment, aircraft fill or vent points, or spill areas unless that equipment is intrinsically safe and approved for use in an explosive atmosphere.

    2006.15 Open flames.

    Open flames and open-flame devices are prohibited within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of any aircraft fuel-servicing operation or fueling equipment.

    2006.15.1 Other areas.

    The fire code official is authorized to establish other locations where open flames and open-flame devices are prohibited.

    2006.15.2 Matches and lighters.

    Personnel assigned to and engaged in fuel-servicing operations shall not carry matches or lighters on or about their person. Matches or lighters shall be prohibited in, on or about aircraft-fueling equipment.

    2006.16 Lightning procedures.

    The fire code official is authorized to require the airport authority and the fueling-system operator to establish written procedures to follow when lightning flashes are detected on or near the airport. These procedures shall establish criteria for the suspension and resumption of aircraft-fueling operations.

    2006.17 Fuel-transfer locations.

    Aircraft fuel-transfer operations shall be prohibited indoors.

    Exception: In aircraft hangars built in accordance with the provisions of the International Building Code for Group F-1 occupancies, aircraft fuel-transfer operations are allowed where either of the following conditions exist:

    1. 1.Necessary to accomplish aircraft fuel-system maintenance operations. Such operations shall be performed in accordance with nationally recognized standards.

    2. 2.The fuel being used has a flash point greater than 100°F (37.8°C).

    2006.17.1 Position of aircraft.

    Aircraft being fueled shall be positioned such that any fuel system vents and other fuel tank openings are not less than:

    1. 1.Twenty-five feet (7620 mm) from buildings or structures other than jet bridges; and

    2. 2.Fifty feet (15 240 mm) from air intake vents for boiler, heater or incinerator rooms.

    2006.17.2 Fire equipment access.

    Access for fire service equipment to aircraft shall be maintained during fuel-servicing operations.

    2006.18 Defueling operations.

    The requirements for fueling operations contained in this section shall also apply to aircraft defueling operations. Additional procedures shall be established by the fueling-system operator to prevent overfilling of the tank vehicle used in the defueling operation.

    2006.19 Maintenance of aircraft-fueling hose.

    Aircraft-fueling hoses shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 2006.19.1 through 2006.19.4.

    2006.19.1 Inspections.

    Hoses used to fuel or defuel aircraft shall be inspected periodically to ensure their serviceability and suitability for continued service. The fuel-service operator shall maintain records of all tests and inspections performed on fueling hoses. Hoses found to be defective or otherwise damaged shall be immediately removed from service.

    2006.19.1.1 Daily inspection.

    Each hose shall be inspected daily. This inspection shall include a complete visual scan of the exterior for evidence of damage, blistering or leakage. Each coupling shall be inspected for evidence of leaks, slippage or misalignment.

    2006.19.1.2 Monthly inspection.

    A more thorough inspection, including pressure testing, shall be accomplished for each hose on a monthly basis. This inspection shall include examination of the fuel delivery inlet screen for rubber particles, which indicates problems with the hose lining.

    2006.19.2 Damaged hose.

    Hose that has been subjected to severe abuse shall be immediately removed from service. Such hoses shall be hydrostatically tested prior to being returned to service.

    2006.19.3 Repairing hose.

    Hoses are allowed to be repaired by removing the damaged portion and recoupling the undamaged end. When recoupling hoses, only couplings designed and approved for the size and type of hose in question shall be used. Hoses repaired in this manner shall be visually inspected and hydrostatically tested prior to being placed back in service.

    2006.19.4 New hose.

    New hose shall be visually inspected prior to being placed into service.

    2006.20 Aircraft fuel-servicing vehicles parking.

    Unattended aircraft fuel-servicing vehicles shall be parked in areas that provide for both the unencumbered dispersal of vehicles in the event of an emergency and the control of leakage such that adjacent buildings and storm drains are not contaminated by leaking fuel.

    2006.20.1 Parking area design.

    Parking areas for tank vehicles shall be designed and utilized such that a clearance of 10 feet (3048 mm) is maintained between each parked vehicle for fire department access. In addition, a minimum clearance of 50 feet (15 240 mm) shall be maintained between tank vehicles and parked aircraft and structures other than those used for the maintenance and/or garaging of aircraft fuel-servicing vehicles.

    2006.21 Radar equipment.

    Aircraft fuel-servicing operations shall be prohibited while the weather-mapping radar of that aircraft is operating.

    Aircraft fuel-servicing or other operations in which flammable liquids, vapors or mists could be present shall not be conducted within 300 feet (91 440 mm) of an operating aircraft surveillance radar.

    Aircraft fuel-servicing operations shall not be conducted within 300 feet (91 440 mm) of airport flight traffic surveillance radar equipment.

    Aircraft fuel-servicing or other operations in which flammable liquids, vapors or mists could be present shall not be conducted within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of airport ground traffic surveillance radar equipment.

    2006.21.1 Direction of radar beams.

    The beam from ground radar equipment shall not be directed toward fuel storage or loading racks.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Fuel storage and loading racks in excess of 300 feet (91 440 mm) from airport flight traffic surveillance equipment.

    2. 2.Fuel storage and loading racks in excess of 100 feet (30 480 mm) from airport ground traffic surveillance equipment.

    SECTION2007
    HELISTOPS AND HELIPORTS

    2007.1 General.

    Helistops and heliports shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 2007.2 through 2007.8. Helistops and heliports on buildings shall be constructed in accordance with the International Building Code.

    2007.2 Clearances.

    The touchdown area shall be surrounded on all sides by a clear area having minimum average width at roof level of 15 feet (4572 mm) but no width less than 5 feet (1524 mm). The clear area shall be maintained.

    2007.3 Flammable and Class II combustible liquid spillage.

    Landing areas on structures shall be maintained so as to confine flammable or Class II combustible liquid spillage to the landing area itself, and provisions shall be made to drain such spillage away from exits or stairways serving the helicopter landing area or from a structure housing such exit or stairway.

    2007.4 Exits.

    Exits and stairways shall be maintained in accordance with Section 412.7 of the International Building Code.

    2007.5 Standpipe systems.

    A building with a rooftop helistop or heliport shall be provided with a Class I or III standpipe system extended to the roof level on which the helistop or heliport is located. All portions of the helistop and heliport area shall be within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of a 21/2-inch (63.5 mm) outlet on the standpipe system.

    2007.6 Foam protection.

    Foam fire-protection capabilities shall be provided for rooftop heliports. Such systems shall be designed, installed and maintained in accordance with the applicable provisions of Sections 903, 904 and 905.

    2007.7 Fire extinguishers.

    Not less than one portable fire extinguisher having a minimum 80-B:C rating shall be provided for each permanent takeoff and landing area and for the aircraft parking areas. Installation, inspection and maintenance of these extinguishers shall be in accordance with Section 906.

    2007.8 Federal approval.

    Before operating helicopters from helistops and heliports, approval shall be obtained from the Federal Aviation Administration.

    CHAPTER21
    DRY CLEANING

    SECTION2101
    GENERAL

    2101.1 Scope.

    Dry cleaning plants and their operations shall comply with the requirements of this chapter.

    2101.2 Permit required.

    Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.

    SECTION2102
    DEFINITIONS

    2102.1 Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    DRY CLEANING.

    DRY CLEANING PLANT.

    DRY CLEANING ROOM.

    DRY CLEANING SYSTEM.

    SOLVENT OR LIQUID CLASSIFICATIONS.

    Class I solvents.

    Class II solvents.

    Class IIIA solvents.

    Class IIIB solvents.

    Class IV solvents.

    SECTION2103
    CLASSIFICATIONS

    2103.1 Solvent classification.

    Dry cleaning solvents shall be classified according to their flash points as follows:

    1. 1.Class I solvents are liquids having a flash point below 100°F (38°C).

    2. 2.Class II solvents are liquids having a flash point at or above 100°F (38°C) and below 140°F (60°C).

    3. 3.Class IIIA solvents are liquids having a flash point at or above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C).

    4. 4.Class IIIB solvents are liquids having a flash point at or above 200°F (93°C).

    5. 5.Class IV solvents are liquids classified as nonflammable.

    2103.2 Classification of dry cleaning plants and systems.

    Dry cleaning plants and systems shall be classified based on the solvents used as follows:

    1. 1.Type I—systems using Class I solvents.

    2. 2.Type II—systems using Class II solvents.

    3. 3.Type III-A—systems using Class IIIA solvents.

    4. 4.Type III-B—systems using Class IIIB solvents.

    5. 5.Type IV—systems using Class IV solvents in which dry cleaning is not conducted by the public.

    6. 6.Type V—systems using Class IV solvents in which dry cleaning is conducted by the public.

    Spotting and pretreating operations conducted in accordance with Section 2106 shall not change the type of the dry cleaning plant.

    2103.2.1 Multiple solvents.

    Dry cleaning plants using more than one class of solvent for dry cleaning shall be classified based on the numerically lowest solvent class.

    2103.3 Design.

    The occupancy classification, design and construction of dry cleaning plants shall comply with the applicable requirements of the International Building Code.

    SECTION2104
    GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

    2104.1 Prohibited use.

    Type I dry cleaning plants shall be prohibited. Limited quantities of Class I solvents stored and used in accordance with this section shall not be prohibited in dry cleaning plants.

    2104.2 Building services.

    Building services and systems shall be designed, installed and maintained in accordance with this section and Chapter 6.

    2104.2.1 Ventilation.

    Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with Section 502 of the International Mechanical Code and DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000, where applicable.

    2104.2.2 Heating.

    In Type II dry cleaning plants, heating shall be by indirect means using steam, hot water or hot oil only.

    2104.2.3 Electrical wiring and equipment.

    Electrical wiring and equipment in dry cleaning rooms or other locations subject to flammable vapors shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 70.

    2104.2.4 Bonding and grounding.

    Storage tanks, treatment tanks, filters, pumps, piping, ducts, dry cleaning units, stills, tumblers, drying cabinets and other such equipment, where not inherently electrically conductive, shall be bonded together and grounded. Isolated equipment shall be grounded.

    SECTION2105
    OPERATING REQUIREMENTS

    2105.1 General.

    The operation of dry cleaning systems shall comply with the requirements of Sections 2105.1.1 through 2105.3.

    2105.1.1 Written instructions.

    Written instructions covering the proper installation and safe operation and use of equipment and solvent shall be given to the buyer.

    2105.1.1.1 Type II, III-A, III-B and IV systems.

    In Type II, III-A, III-B and IV dry cleaning systems, machines shall be operated in accordance with the operating instructions furnished by the machinery manufacturer. Employees shall be instructed as to the hazards involved in their departments and in the work they perform.

    2105.1.1.2 Type V systems.

    Operating instructions for customer use of Type V dry cleaning systems shall be conspicuously posted in a location near the dry cleaning unit. A telephone number shall be provided for emergency assistance.

    2105.1.2 Equipment identification.

    The manufacturer shall provide nameplates on dry cleaning machines indicating the class of solvent for which each machine is designed.

    2105.1.3 Open systems prohibited.

    Dry cleaning by immersion and agitation in open vessels shall be prohibited.

    2105.1.4 Prohibited use of solvent.

    The use of solvents with a flash point below that for which a machine is designed or listed shall be prohibited.

    2105.1.5 Equipment maintenance and housekeeping.

    Proper maintenance and operating practices shall be observed in order to prevent the leakage of solvent or the accumulation of lint. The handling of waste material generated by dry cleaning operations and the maintenance of facilities shall comply with the provisions of this section.

    2105.1.5.1 Floors.

    Class I and II liquids shall not be used for cleaning floors.

    2105.1.5.2 Filters.

    Filter residue and other residues containing solvent shall be handled and disposed of in covered metal containers.

    2105.1.5.3 Lint.

    Lint and refuse shall be removed from traps daily, deposited in approved waste cans, removed from the premises, and disposed of safely. At all other times, traps shall be held securely in place.

    2105.1.5.4 Customer areas.

    In Type V dry cleaning systems, customer areas shall be kept clean.

    2105.2 Type II systems.

    Special operating requirements for Type II dry cleaning systems shall comply with the provisions of Sections 2105.2.1 through 2105.2.3.

    2105.2.1 Inspection of materials.

    Materials to be dry cleaned shall be searched thoroughly and foreign materials, including matches and metallic substances, shall be removed.

    2105.2.2 Material transfer.

    In removing materials from the washer, provisions shall be made for minimizing the dripping of solvent on the floor. Where materials are transferred from a washer to a drain tub, a nonferrous metal drip apron shall be placed so that the apron rests on the drain tub and the cylinder of the washer.

    2105.2.3 Ventilation.

    A mechanical ventilation system which is designed to exhaust 1 cubic foot of air per minute for each square foot of floor area [0.0058 m3/(s • m2)] shall be installed in dry cleaning rooms and in drying rooms. The ventilation system shall operate automatically when the dry cleaning equipment is in operation and shall have manual controls at an approved location.

    2105.3 Type IV and V systems.

    Type IV and V dry cleaning systems shall be provided with an automatically activated exhaust ventilation system to maintain a minimum of 100 feet per minute (0.51 m/s) air velocity through the loading door when the door is opened. Such systems for dry cleaning equipment shall comply with the International Mechanical Code.

    Exception: Dry cleaning units are not required to be provided with exhaust ventilation where an exhaust hood is installed immediately outside of and above the loading door which operates at an airflow rate as follows:

    //cdn-codes.iccsafe.org/bundles/document/new_document_images/546/Eq0005.jpg(Equation 21-1)

    where:

    Q=flow rate exhausted through the hood, cubic feet per minute (m3/s).
    ALD=area of the loading door, square feet (m2).

    SECTION2106
    SPOTTING AND PRETREATING

    2106.1 General.

    Spotting and pretreating operations and equipment shall comply with the provisions of Sections 2106.2 through 2106.5.

    2106.2 Class I solvents.

    The maximum quantity of Class I solvents permitted at any work station shall be 1 gallon (4 L). Spotting or prespotting shall be permitted to be conducted with Class I solvents where they are stored in and dispensed from approved safety cans or in sealed DOT-approved metal shipping containers of not more than 1-gallon (4 L) capacity.

    2106.2.1 Spotting and prespotting.

    Spotting and prespotting shall be permitted to be conducted with Class I solvents where dispensed from plastic containers of not more than 1 pint (0.5 L) capacity.

    2106.3 Class II and III solvents.

    Scouring, brushing, and spotting and pretreating shall be permitted to be conducted with Class II or III solvents. The maximum quantity of Class II or III solvents permitted at any work station shall be 1 gallon (4 L). In other than Group H-2 occupancy, the aggregate quantities of solvents shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area for use-open system.

    2106.3.1 Spotting tables.

    Scouring, brushing or spotting tables on which articles are soaked in solvent shall have a liquid-tight top with a curb on all sides not less than 1 inch (25 mm) high. The top of the table shall be pitched to ensure thorough draining to a 11/2-inch (38 mm) drain connected to an approved container.

    2106.3.2 Special handling.

    Where approved, articles that cannot be washed in the usual washing machines are allowed to be cleaned in scrubbing tubs. Scrubbing tubs shall comply with the following:

    1. 1.Only Class II or III liquids shall be used.

    2. 2.The total amount of solvent used in such open containers shall not exceed 3 gallons (11 L).

    3. 3.Scrubbing tubs shall be secured to the floor.

    4. 4.Scrubbing tubs shall be provided with permanent 11/2-inch (38 mm) drains. Such drain shall be provided with a trap and shall be connected to an approved container.

    2106.3.3 Ventilation.

    Scrubbing tubs, scouring, brushing or spotting operations shall be located such that solvent vapors are captured and exhausted by the ventilating system.

    2106.3.4 Bonding and grounding.

    Metal scouring, brushing and spotting tables and scrubbing tubs shall be permanently and effectively bonded and grounded.

    2106.4 Type IV systems.

    Flammable and combustible liquids used for spotting operations shall be stored in approved safety cans or in sealed DOTn-approved shipping containers of not more than 1 gallon (4 L) in capacity. Aggregate amounts shall not exceed 10 gallons (38 L).

    2106.5 Type V systems.

    Spotting operations using flammable or combustible liquids are prohibited in Type V dry cleaning systems.

    SECTION2107
    DRY CLEANING SYSTEMS

    2107.1 General equipment requirements.

    Dry cleaning systems, including dry cleaning units, washing machines, stills, drying cabinets, tumblers and their appurtenances, including pumps, piping, valves, filters and solvent coolers, shall be installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 32. The construction of buildings in which such systems are located shall comply with the requirements of this section and the International Building Code.

    2107.2 Type II systems.

    Type II dry cleaning and solvent tank storage rooms shall not be located below grade or above the lowest floor level of the building and shall comply with Sections 2107.2.1 through 2107.2.3.

    Exception: Solvent storage tanks installed underground, in vaults or in special enclosures in accordance with Chapter 57.

    2107.2.1 Fire-fighting access.

    Type II dry cleaning plants shall be located so that access is provided and maintained from one side for fire-fighting and fire control purposes in accordance with Section 503.

    2107.2.2 Number of means of egress.

    Type II dry cleaning rooms shall have not less than two means of egress doors located at opposite ends of the room, not less than one of which shall lead directly to the outside.

    2107.2.3 Spill control and secondary containment.

    Curbs, drains or other provisions for spill control and secondary containment shall be provided in accordance with Section 5004.2 to collect solvent leakage and fire protection water and direct it to a safe location.

    2107.3 Solvent storage tanks.

    Solvent storage tanks for Class II, IIIA and IIIB liquids shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 57 and be located underground or outside, above ground.

    Exception: As provided in NFPA 32 for inside storage or treatment tanks.

    SECTION2108
    FIRE PROTECTION

    2108.1 General.

    Where required by this section, fire protection systems, devices and equipment shall be installed, inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with Chapter 9.

    2108.2 Automatic sprinkler system.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 throughout dry cleaning plants containing Type II, Type III-A or Type III-B dry cleaning systems.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.An automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in Type III-A dry cleaning plants where the aggregate quantity of Class III-A solvent in dry cleaning machines and storage does not exceed 330 gallons (1250 L) and dry cleaning machines are equipped with a feature that will accomplish any one of the following:

      1. 1.1.Prevent oxygen concentrations from reaching 8 percent or more by volume.

      2. 1.2.Keep the temperature of the solvent not less than 30°F (16.7°C) below the flash point.

      3. 1.3.Maintain the solvent vapor concentration at a level lower than 25 percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL).

      4. 1.4.Utilize equipment approved for use in Class I, Division 2 hazardous locations in accordance with NFPA 70.

      5. 1.5.Utilize an integrated dry-chemical, clean agent or water-mist automatic fire-extinguishing system designed in accordance with Chapter 9.

    2. 2.An automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in Type III-B dry cleaning plants where the aggregate quantity of Class III-B solvent in dry cleaning machines and storage does not exceed 3,300 gallons (12 490 L).

    2108.3 Automatic fire-extinguishing systems.

    Type II dry cleaning units, washer-extractors, and drying tumblers in Type II dry cleaning plants shall be provided with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system installed and maintained in accordance with Chapter 9.

    Exception: Where approved, a manual steam jet not less than 3/4 inch (19 mm) with a continuously available steam supply at a pressure not less than 15 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (103 kPa) is allowed to be substituted for the automatic fire-extinguishing system.

    2108.4 Portable fire extinguishers.

    Portable fire extinguishers shall be selected, installed and maintained in accordance with this section and Section 906. A minimum of two, 2-A:10-B:C portable fire extinguishers shall be provided near the doors inside dry cleaning rooms containing Type II, Type III-A and Type III-B dry cleaning systems.

    CHAPTER22
    COMBUSTIBLE DUST-PRODUCING OPERATIONS

    SECTION2201
    GENERAL

    2201.1 Scope.

    The equipment, processes and operations involving dust explosion hazards shall comply with the provisions of this chapter.

    2201.2 Permits.

    Permits shall be required for combustible dust-producing operations as set forth in Section 105.6.

    SECTION2202
    DEFINITION

    2202.1 Definition.

    The following term is defined in Chapter 2:

    COMBUSTIBLE DUST.

    SECTION2203
    PRECAUTIONS

    2203.1 Sources of ignition.

    Smoking or the use of heating or other devices employing an open flame, or the use of spark-producing equipment is prohibited in areas where combustible dust is generated, stored, manufactured, processed or handled.

    2203.2 Housekeeping.

    Accumulation of combustible dust shall be kept to a minimum in the interior of buildings. Accumulated combustible dust shall be collected by vacuum cleaning or other means that will not place combustible dust into suspension in air. Forced air or similar methods shall not be used to remove dust from surfaces.

    SECTION2204
    EXPLOSION PROTECTION

    2204.1 Standards.

    The fire code official is authorized to enforce applicable provisions of the codes and standards listed in Table 2204.1 to prevent and control dust explosions.

    TABLE 2204.1

    EXPLOSION PROTECTION STANDARDS

    CHAPTER23
    MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES

    SECTION2301
    GENERAL

    2301.1 Scope.

    Automotive motor fuel-dispensing facilities, marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities, fleet vehicle motor fuel-dispensing facilities, aircraft motor-vehicle fuel-dispensing facilities and repair garages shall be in accordance with this chapter and the International Building Code, International Fuel Gas Code and International Mechanical Code. Such operations shall include both those that are accessible to the public and private operations.

    2301.2 Permits.

    Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.

    2301.3 Construction documents.

    Construction documents shall be submitted for review and approval prior to the installation or construction of automotive, marine or fleet vehicle motor fuel-dispensing facilities and repair garages in accordance with Section 105.4.

    2301.4 Indoor motor fuel-dispensing facilities.

    Motor fuel-dispensing facilities located inside buildings shall comply with the International Building Code and NFPA 30A.

    2301.4.1 Protection of floor openings in indoor motor fuel-dispensing facilities.

    Where motor fuel-dispensing facilities are located inside buildings and the dispensers are located above spaces within the building, openings beneath dispensers shall be sealed to prevent the flow of leaked fuel to lower building spaces.

    2301.5 Electrical.

    Electrical wiring and equipment shall be suitable for the locations in which they are installed and shall comply with Section 605, NFPA 30A and NFPA 70.

    2301.6 Heat-producing appliances.

    Heat-producing appliances shall be suitable for the locations in which they are installed and shall comply with NFPA 30A and the International Fuel Gas Code or the International Mechanical Code.

    SECTION2302
    DEFINITIONS

    2302.1 Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    AIRCRAFT MOTOR-VEHICLE FUEL-DISPENING FACILITY.

    ALCOHOL-BLENDED FUELS.

    AUTOMOTIVE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY.

    DISPENSING DEVICE, OVERHEAD TYPE.

    FLEET VEHICLE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY.

    LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG).

    MARINE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY.

    REPAIR GARAGE.

    SELF-SERVICE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY.

    SECTION2303
    LOCATION OF DISPENSING DEVICES

    2303.1 Location of dispensing devices.

    Dispensing devices shall be located as follows:

    1. 1.Ten feet (3048 mm) or more from lot lines.

    2. 2.Ten feet (3048 mm) or more from buildings having combustible exterior wall surfaces or buildings having noncombustible exterior wall surfaces that are not part of a 1-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly or buildings having combustible overhangs.

      Exception: Canopies constructed in accordance with the International Building Code providing weather protection for the fuel islands.

    3. 3.Such that all portions of the vehicle being fueled will be on the premises of the motor fuel-dispensing facility.

    4. 4.Such that the nozzle, when the hose is fully extended, will not reach within 5 feet (1524 mm) of building openings.

    5. 5.Twenty feet (6096 mm) or more from fixed sources of ignition.

    2303.2 Emergency disconnect switches.

    An approved, clearly identified and readily accessible emergency disconnect switch shall be provided at an approved location to stop the transfer of fuel to the fuel dispensers in the event of a fuel spill or other emergency. The emergency disconnect switch for exterior fuel dispensers shall be located within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of, but not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from, the fuel dispensers. For interior fuel-dispensing operations, the emergency disconnect switch shall be installed at an approved location. Such devices shall be distinctly labeled as: EMERGENCY FUEL SHUTOFF. Signs shall be provided in approved locations.

    SECTION2304
    DISPENSING OPERATIONS

    2304.1 Supervision of dispensing.

    The dispensing of fuel at motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be conducted by a qualified attendant or shall be under the supervision of a qualified attendant at all times or shall be in accordance with Section 2304.3.

    2304.2 Attended self-service motor fuel-dispensing facilities.

    Attended self-service motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall comply with Sections 2304.2.1 through 2304.2.5. Attended self-service motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall have not less than one qualified attendant on duty while the facility is open for business. The attendant’s primary function shall be to supervise, observe and control the dispensing of fuel. The attendant shall prevent the dispensing of fuel into containers that do not comply with Section 2304.4.1, control sources of ignition, give immediate attention to accidental spills or releases, and be prepared to use fire extinguishers.

    2304.2.1 Special-type dispensers.

    Approved special-dispensing devices and systems such as, but not limited to, card- or coin-operated and remote-preset types, are allowed at motor fuel-dispensing facilities provided there is not less than one qualified attendant on duty while the facility is open to the public. Remote preset-type devices shall be set in the “off” position while not in use so that the dispenser cannot be activated without the knowledge of the attendant.

    2304.2.2 Emergency controls.

    Approved emergency controls shall be provided in accordance with Section 2303.2.

    2304.2.3 Operating instructions.

    Dispenser operating instructions shall be conspicuously posted in approved locations on every dispenser.

    2304.2.4 Obstructions to view.

    Dispensing devices shall be in clear view of the attendant at all times. Obstructions shall not be placed between the dispensing area and the attendant.

    2304.2.5 Communications.

    The attendant shall be able to communicate with persons in the dispensing area at all times. An approved method of communicating with the fire department shall be provided for the attendant.

    2304.3 Unattended self-service motor fuel-dispensing facilities.

    Unattended self-service motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall comply with Sections 2304.3.1 through 2304.3.7.

    2304.3.1 General.

    Where approved, unattended self-service motor fuel-dispensing facilities are allowed. As a condition of approval, the owner or operator shall provide, and be accountable for, daily site visits, regular equipment inspection and maintenance.

    2304.3.2 Dispensers.

    Dispensing devices shall comply with Section 2306.7. Dispensing devices operated by the insertion of coins or currency shall not be used unless approved.

    2304.3.3 Emergency controls.

    Approved emergency controls shall be provided in accordance with Section 2303.2. Emergency controls shall be of a type that is only manually resettable.

    2304.3.4 Operating instructions.

    Dispenser operating instructions shall be conspicuously posted in approved locations on every dispenser and shall indicate the location of the emergency controls required by Section 2304.3.3.

    2304.3.5 Emergency procedures.

    An approved emergency procedures sign, in addition to the signs required by Section 2305.6, shall be posted in a conspicuous location and shall read:

    IN CASE OF FIRE, SPILL OR RELEASE

    1. USE EMERGENCY PUMP SHUTOFF

    2. REPORT THE ACCIDENT!

    FIRE DEPARTMENT TELEPHONE NO.______

    FACILITY ADDRESS _____________________

    2304.3.6 Communications.

    A telephone not requiring a coin to operate or other approved, clearly identified means to notify the fire department shall be provided on the site in a location approved by the fire code official.

    2304.3.7 Quantity limits.

    Dispensing equipment used at unsupervised locations shall comply with one of the following:

    1. 1.Dispensing devices shall be programmed or set to limit uninterrupted fuel delivery to 25 gallons (95 L) and require a manual action to resume delivery.

    2. 2.The amount of fuel being dispensed shall be limited in quantity by a preprogrammed card as approved.

    2304.4 Dispensing into portable containers.

    The dispensing of flammable or combustible liquids into portable approved containers shall comply with Sections 2304.4.1 through 2304.4.3.

    2304.4.1 Approved containers required.

    Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall not be dispensed into a portable container unless such container does not exceed a 6-gallon (22.7 L) capacity, is listed or of approved material and construction, and has a tight closure with a screwed or spring-loaded cover so designed that the contents can be dispensed without spilling. Liquids shall not be dispensed into portable or cargo tanks.

    2304.4.2 Nozzle operation.

    A hose nozzle valve used for dispensing Class I liquids into a portable container shall be in compliance with Section 2306.7.6 and be manually held open during the dispensing operation.

    2304.4.3 Location of containers being filled.

    Portable containers shall not be filled while located inside the trunk, passenger compartment or truck bed of a vehicle.

    SECTION2305
    OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS

    2305.1 Tank filling operations for Class I, II or III liquids.

    Delivery operations to tanks for Class I, II or III liquids shall comply with Sections 2305.1.1 through 2305.1.3 and the applicable requirements of Chapter 57.

    2305.1.1 Delivery vehicle location.

    Where liquid delivery to above-ground storage tanks is accomplished by positive-pressure operation, tank vehicles shall be positioned not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from tanks receiving Class I liquids and 15 feet (4572 mm) from tanks receiving Class II and IIIA liquids.

    2305.1.2 Tank capacity calculation.

    The driver, operator or attendant of a tank vehicle shall, before making delivery to a tank, determine the unfilled, available capacity of such tank by an approved gauging device.

    2305.1.3 Tank fill connections.

    Delivery of flammable liquids to tanks more than 1,000 gallons (3785 L) in capacity shall be made by means of approved liquid- and vapor-tight connections between the delivery hose and tank fill pipe. Where tanks are equipped with any type of vapor recovery system, all connections required to be made for the safe and proper functioning of the particular vapor recovery process shall be made. Such connections shall be made liquid and vapor tight and remain connected throughout the unloading process. Vapors shall not be discharged at grade level during delivery.

    2305.2 Equipment maintenance and inspection.

    Motor fuel-dispensing facility equipment shall be maintained in proper working order at all times in accordance with Sections 2305.2.1 through 2305.2.5.

    2305.2.1 Inspections.

    Flammable and combustible liquid fuel-dispensing and containment equipment shall be periodically inspected where required by the fire code official to verify that the equipment is in proper working order and not subject to leakage. Records of inspections shall be maintained.

    2305.2.2 Repairs and service.

    The fire code official is authorized to require damaged or unsafe containment and dispensing equipment to be repaired or serviced in an approved manner.

    2305.2.3 Dispensing devices.

    Where maintenance to Class I liquid dispensing devices becomes necessary and such maintenance could allow the accidental release or ignition of liquid, the following precautions shall be taken before such maintenance is begun:

    1. 1.Only persons knowledgeable in performing the required maintenance shall perform the work.

    2. 2.Electrical power to the dispensing device and pump serving the dispenser shall be shut off at the main electrical disconnect panel.

    3. 3.The emergency shutoff valve at the dispenser, where installed, shall be closed.

    4. 4.Vehicle traffic and unauthorized persons shall be prevented from coming within 12 feet (3658 mm) of the dispensing device.

    2305.2.4 Emergency shutoff valves.

    Automatic emergency shutoff valves required by Section 2306.7.4 shall be checked not less than once per year by manually tripping the hold-open linkage.

    2305.2.5 Leak detectors.

    Leak detection devices required by Section 2306.7.7.1 shall be checked and tested not less than annually in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications to ensure proper installation and operation.

    2305.3 Spill control.

    Provisions shall be made to prevent liquids spilled during dispensing operations from flowing into buildings. Acceptable methods include, but shall not be limited to, grading driveways, raising doorsills or other approved means.

    2305.4 Sources of ignition.

    Smoking and open flames shall be prohibited in areas where fuel is dispensed. The engines of vehicles being fueled shall be shut off during fueling. Electrical equipment shall be in accordance with NFPA 70.

    2305.5 Fire extinguishers.

    Approved portable fire extinguishers complying with Section 906 with a minimum rating of 2-A:20-B:C shall be provided and located such that an extinguisher is not more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from pumps, dispensers or storage tank fill-pipe openings.

    2305.6 Warning signs.

    Warning signs shall be conspicuously posted within sight of each dispenser in the fuel-dispensing area and shall state the following:

    1. 1.No smoking.

    2. 2.Shut off motor.

    3. 3.Discharge your static electricity before fueling by touching a metal surface away from the nozzle.

    4. 4.To prevent static charge, do not reenter your vehicle while gasoline is pumping.

    5. 5.If a fire starts, do not remove nozzle—back away immediately.

    6. 6.It is unlawful and dangerous to dispense gasoline into unapproved containers.

    7. 7.No filling of portable containers in or on a motor vehicle. Place container on ground before filling.

    2305.7 Control of brush and debris.

    Fenced and diked areas surrounding above-ground tanks shall be kept free from vegetation, debris and other material that is not necessary to the proper operation of the tank and piping system.

    Weeds, grass, brush, trash and other combustible materials shall be kept not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from fuel-handling equipment.

    SECTION2306
    FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE
    LIQUID MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES

    2306.1 General.

    Storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 57 and Sections 2306.2 through 2306.6.3.

    2306.2 Method of storage.

    Approved methods of storage for Class I, II and III liquid fuels at motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in accordance with Sections 2306.2.1 through 2306.2.6.

    2306.2.1 Underground tanks.

    Underground tanks for the storage of Class I, II and IIIA liquid fuels shall comply with Chapter 57.

    2306.2.1.1 Inventory control for underground tanks.

    Accurate daily inventory records shall be maintained and reconciled on underground fuel storage tanks for indication of possible leakage from tanks and piping. The records shall include records for each product showing daily reconciliation between sales, use, receipts and inventory on hand. Where there is more than one system consisting of tanks serving separate pumps or dispensers for a product, the reconciliation shall be ascertained separately for each tank system. A consistent or accidental loss of product shall be immediately reported to the fire code official.

    2306.2.2 Above-ground tanks located inside buildings.

    Above-ground tanks for the storage of Class I, II and IIIA liquid fuels are allowed to be located in buildings. Such tanks shall be located in special enclosures complying with Section 2306.2.6, in a liquid storage room or a liquid storage warehouse complying with Chapter 57, or shall be listed and labeled as protected above-ground tanks in accordance with UL 2085.

    2306.2.3 Above-ground tanks located outside, above grade.

    Above-ground tanks shall not be used for the storage of Class I, II or III liquid motor fuels, except as provided by this section.

    1. 1.Above-ground tanks used for outside, above-grade storage of Class I liquids shall be listed and labeled as protected above-ground tanks in accordance with UL 2085 and shall be in accordance with Chapter 57. Such tanks shall be located in accordance with Table 2306.2.3.

    2. 2.Above-ground tanks used for outside, above-grade storage of Class II or IIIA liquids shall be listed and labeled as protected above-ground tanks in accordance with UL 2085 and shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 57. Tank locations shall be in accordance with Table 2306.2.3.

      Exception: Other above-ground tanks that comply with Chapter 57 where approved by the fire code official.

    3. 3.Tanks containing fuels shall not exceed 12,000 gallons (45 420 L) in individual capacity or 48,000 gallons (181 680 L) in aggregate capacity. Installations with the maximum allowable aggregate capacity shall be separated from other such installations by not less than 100 feet (30 480 mm).

    4. 4.Tanks located at farms, construction projects, or rural areas shall comply with Section 5706.2.

    5. 5.Above-ground tanks used for outside above-grade storage of Class IIIB liquid motor fuel shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 142 or listed and labeled as protected above-ground tanks in accordance with UL 2085 and shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 57. Tank locations shall be in accordance with Table 2306.2.3.

    TABLE 2306.2.3

    MINIMUM SEPARATION REQUIREMENTS FOR ABOVE-GROUND TANKS

    CLASS OF LIQUID AND TANK TYPEINDIVIDUAL TANK CAPACITY (gallons)MINIMUM DISTANCE FROM NEAREST IMPORTANT BUILDING ON SAME PROPERTY (feet)MINIMUM DISTANCE FROM NEAREST FUEL DISPENSER (feet)MINIMUM DISTANCE FROM LOT LINE THAT IS OR CAN BE BUILT UPON, INCLUDING THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF A PUBLIC WAY (feet)MINIMUM DISTANCE FROM NEAREST SIDE OF ANY PUBLIC WAY (feet)MINIMUM DISTANCE BETWEEN TANKS (feet)
    Class I protectedabove-ground tanksLess than or equalto 6,000525a1553
    Greater than 6,0001525a25153
    Class II and III pro-tected above-groundtanksSame as Class ISame as Class ISame as Class IcSame as Class ISame as Class ISame as Class I
    Tanks in vaults0-20,0000b00b0Separate compart-ment required foreach tank
    Other tanksAll5050100503

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

    1. a. At fleet vehicle motor fuel-dispensing facilities, a minimum separation distance is not required.

    2. b. Underground vaults shall be located such that they will not be subject to loading from nearby structures, or they shall be designed to accommodate applied loads from existing or future structures that can be built nearby.

    3. c. For Class IIIB liquids in protected above-ground tanks, a minimum separation distance is not required.

    2306.2.4 Above-ground tanks located in above-grade vaults or below-grade vaults.

    Above-ground tanks used for storage of Class I, II or IIIA liquid motor fuels are allowed to be installed in vaults located above grade or below grade in accordance with Section 5704.2.8 and shall comply with Sections 2306.2.4.1 and 2306.2.4.2. Tanks in above-grade vaults shall also comply with Table 2306.2.3.

    2306.2.4.1 Tank capacity limits.

    Tanks storing Class I and Class II liquids at an individual site shall be limited to a maximum individual capacity of 15,000 gallons (56 775 L) and an aggregate capacity of 48,000 gallons (181 680 L).

    2306.2.4.2 Fleet vehicle motor fuel-dispensing facilities.

    Tanks storing Class II and Class IIIA liquids at a fleet vehicle motor fuel-dispensing facility shall be limited to a maximum individual capacity of 20,000 gallons (75 700 L) and an aggregate capacity of 80,000 gallons (302 800 L).

    2306.2.5 Portable tanks.

    Where approved by the fire code official, portable tanks are allowed to be temporarily used in conjunction with the dispensing of Class I, II or III liquids into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles or motorized equipment on premises not normally accessible to the public. The approval shall include a definite time limit.

    2306.2.6 Special enclosures.

    Where installation of tanks in accordance with Section 5704.2.11 is impractical, or because of property or building limitations, tanks for liquid motor fuels are allowed to be installed in buildings in special enclosures in accordance with all of the following:

    1. 1.The special enclosure shall be liquid tight and vapor tight.

    2. 2.The special enclosure shall not contain backfill.

    3. 3.Sides, top and bottom of the special enclosure shall be of reinforced concrete not less than 6 inches (152 mm) thick, with openings for inspection through the top only.

    4. 4.Tank connections shall be piped or closed such that neither vapors nor liquid can escape into the enclosed space between the special enclosure and any tanks inside the special enclosure.

    5. 5.Means shall be provided whereby portable equipment can be employed to discharge to the outside any vapors that might accumulate inside the special enclosure should leakage occur.

    6. 6.Tanks containing Class I, II or IIIA liquids inside a special enclosure shall not exceed 6,000 gallons (22 710 L) in individual capacity or 18,000 gallons (68 130 L) in aggregate capacity.

    7. 7.Each tank within special enclosures shall be surrounded by a clear space of not less than 3 feet (910 mm) to allow for maintenance and inspection.

    2306.3 Security.

    Above-ground tanks for the storage of liquid motor fuels shall be safeguarded from public access or unauthorized entry in an approved manner.

    2306.4 Physical protection.

    Guard posts complying with Section 312 or other approved means shall be provided to protect above-ground tanks against impact by a motor vehicle unless the tank is listed as a protected above-ground tank with vehicle impact protection.

    2306.5 Secondary containment.

    Above-ground tanks shall be provided with drainage control or diking in accordance with Chapter 57. Drainage control and diking is not required for listed secondary containment tanks. Secondary containment systems shall be monitored either visually or automatically. Enclosed secondary containment systems shall be provided with emergency venting in accordance with Section 2306.6.2.5.

    2306.6 Piping, valves, fittings and ancillary equipment for use with flammable or combustible liquids.

    The design, fabrication, assembly, testing and inspection of piping, valves, fittings and ancillary equipment for use with flammable or combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 57 and Sections 2306.6.1 through 2306.6.3.

    2306.6.1 Protection from damage.

    Piping shall be located such that it is protected from physical damage.

    2306.6.2 Piping, valves, fittings and ancillary equipment for above-ground tanks for Class I, II and III liquids.

    Piping, valves, fittings and ancillary equipment for above-ground tanks storing Class I, II and III liquids shall comply with Sections 2306.6.2.1 through 2306.6.2.6.

    2306.6.2.1 Tank openings.

    Tank openings for aboveground tanks shall be through the top only.

    2306.6.2.2 Fill-pipe connections.

    The fill pipe for above-ground tanks shall be provided with a means for making a direct connection to the tank vehicle’s fuel-delivery hose so that the delivery of fuel is not exposed to the open air during the filling operation. Where any portion of the fill pipe exterior to the tank extends below the level of the top of the tank, a check valve shall be installed in the fill pipe not more than 12 inches (305 mm) from the fill-hose connection.

    2306.6.2.3 Overfill protection.

    Overfill protection shall be provided for above-ground flammable and combustible liquid storage tanks in accordance with Sections 5704.2.7.5.8 and 5704.2.9.7.6.

    2306.6.2.4 Siphon prevention.

    An approved antisiphon method shall be provided in the piping system to prevent flow of liquid by siphon action.

    2306.6.2.5 Emergency relief venting.

    Above-ground storage tanks, tank compartments and enclosed secondary containment spaces shall be provided with emergency relief venting in accordance with Chapter 57.

    2306.6.2.6 Spill containers.

    A spill container having a capacity of not less than 5 gallons (19 L) shall be provided for each fill connection. For tanks with a top fill connection, spill containers shall be noncombustible and shall be fixed to the tank and equipped with a manual drain valve that drains into the primary tank. For tanks with a remote fill connection, a portable spill container is allowed.

    2306.6.3 Piping, valves, fittings and ancillary equipment for underground tanks.

    Piping, valves, fittings and ancillary equipment for underground tanks shall comply with Chapter 57 and NFPA 30A.

    2306.7 Fuel-dispensing systems for flammable or combustible liquids.

    The design, fabrication and installation of fuel-dispensing systems for flammable or combustible liquid fuels shall be in accordance with Sections 2306.7.1 through 2306.7.9.2.4. Alcohol-blended fuel-dispensing systems shall also comply with Section 2306.8.

    2306.7.1 Listed equipment.

    Electrical equipment, dispensers, hose, nozzles and submersible or subsurface pumps used in fuel-dispensing systems shall be listed.

    2306.7.2 Fixed pumps required.

    Class I and II liquids shall be transferred from tanks by means of fixed pumps designed and equipped to allow control of the flow and prevent leakage or accidental discharge.

    2306.7.3 Mounting of dispensers.

    Dispensing devices, except those installed on top of a protected above-ground tank that qualifies as vehicle-impact resistant, shall be protected against physical damage by mounting on a concrete island 6 inches (152 mm) or more in height, or shall be protected in accordance with Section 312. Dispensing devices shall be installed and securely fastened to their mounting surface in accordance with the dispenser manufacturer’s instructions. Dispensing devices installed indoors shall be located in an approved position where they cannot be struck by an out-of-control vehicle descending a ramp or other slope.

    2306.7.4 Dispenser emergency shutoff valve.

    An approved automatic emergency shutoff valve designed to close in the event of a fire or impact shall be properly installed in the liquid supply line at the base of each dispenser supplied by a remote pump. The valve shall be installed so that the shear groove is flush with or within 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) of the top of the concrete dispenser island and there is clearance provided for maintenance purposes around the valve body and operating parts. The valve shall be installed at the liquid supply line inlet of each overhead-type dispenser. Where installed, a vapor return line located inside the dispenser housing shall have a shear section or approved flexible connector for the liquid supply line emergency shutoff valve to function. Emergency shutoff valves shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, tested at the time of initial installation and not less than yearly thereafter in accordance with Section 2305.2.4.

    2306.7.5 Dispenser hose.

    Dispenser hoses shall be not more than 18 feet (5486 mm) in length unless otherwise approved. Dispenser hoses shall be listed and approved. When not in use, hoses shall be reeled, racked or otherwise protected from damage.

    2306.7.5.1 Emergency breakaway devices.

    Dispenser hoses for Class I and II liquids shall be equipped with a listed emergency breakaway device designed to retain liquid on both sides of a breakaway point. Such devices shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Where hoses are attached to hose-retrieving mechanisms, the emergency breakaway device shall be located between the hose nozzle and the point of attachment of the hose-retrieval mechanism to the hose.

    2306.7.6 Fuel delivery nozzles.

    A listed automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve with or without a latch-open device shall be provided on island-type dispensers used for dispensing Class I, II or III liquids.

    Overhead-type dispensing units shall be provided with a listed automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve without a latch-open device.

    Exception: A listed automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve with latch-open device is allowed to be used on overhead-type dispensing units where the design of the system is such that the hose nozzle valve will close automatically in the event the valve is released from a fill opening or upon impact with a driveway.

    2306.7.6.1 Special requirements for nozzles.

    Where dispensing of Class I, II or III liquids is performed, a listed automatic-closing-type hose nozzle valve shall be used incorporating all of the following features:

    1. 1.The hose nozzle valve shall be equipped with an integral latch-open device.

    2. 2.Where the flow of product is normally controlled by devices or equipment other than the hose nozzle valve, the hose nozzle valve shall not be capable of being opened unless the delivery hose is pressurized. If pressure to the hose is lost, the nozzle shall close automatically.

      Exception: Vapor recovery nozzles incorporating insertion interlock devices designed to achieve shutoff on disconnect from the vehicle fill pipe.

    3. 3.The hose nozzle shall be designed such that the nozzle is retained in the fill pipe during the filling operation.

    4. 4.The system shall include listed equipment with a feature that causes or requires the closing of the hose nozzle valve before the product flow can be resumed or before the hose nozzle valve can be replaced in its normal position in the dispenser.

    2306.7.7 Remote pumping systems.

    Remote pumping systems for liquid fuels shall comply with Sections 2306.7.7.1 and 2306.7.7.2.

    2306.7.7.1 Leak detection.

    Where remote pumps are used to supply fuel dispensers, each pump shall have installed on the discharge side a listed leak detection device that will detect a leak in the piping and dispensers and provide an indication. A leak detection device is not required if the piping from the pump discharge to under the dispenser is above ground and visible.

    2306.7.7.2 Location.

    Remote pumps installed above grade, outside of buildings, shall be located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from lines of adjoining property that can be built upon and not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) from any building opening. Where an outside pump location is impractical, pumps are permitted to be installed inside buildings as provided for dispensers in Section 2301.4 and Chapter 57. Pumps shall be substantially anchored and protected against physical damage.

    2306.7.8 Gravity and pressure dispensing.

    Flammable liquids shall not be dispensed by gravity from tanks, drums, barrels or similar containers. Flammable or combustible liquids shall not be dispensed by a device operating through pressure within a storage tank, drum or container.

    2306.7.9 Vapor-recovery and vapor-processing systems.

    Vapor-recovery and vapor-processing systems shall be in accordance with Sections 2306.7.9.1 through 2306.7.9.2.4.

    2306.7.9.1 Vapor-balance systems.

    Vapor-balance systems shall comply with Sections 2306.7.9.1.1 through 2306.7.9.1.5.

    2306.7.9.1.1 Dispensing devices.

    Dispensing devices incorporating provisions for vapor recovery shall be listed and labeled. Where existing listed or labeled dispensing devices are modified for vapor recovery, such modifications shall be listed by report by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. The listing by report shall contain a description of the component parts used in the modification and recommended method of installation on specific dispensers. Such report shall be made available on request of the fire code official.

    Means shall be provided to shut down fuel dispensing in the event the vapor return line becomes blocked.

    2306.7.9.1.2 Vapor-return line closeoff.

    An acceptable method shall be provided to close off the vapor return line from dispensers when the product is not being dispensed.

    2306.7.9.1.3 Piping.

    Piping in vapor-balance systems shall be in accordance with Sections 5703.6, 5704.2.9 and 5704.2.11. Nonmetallic piping shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    Existing and new vent piping shall be in accordance with Sections 5703.6 and 5704.2. Vapor return piping shall be installed in a manner that drains back to the tank, without sags or traps in which liquid can become trapped. If necessary, because of grade, condensate tanks are allowed in vapor return piping. Condensate tanks shall be designed and installed so that they can be drained without opening.

    2306.7.9.1.4 Flexible joints and shear joints.

    Flexible joints shall be installed in accordance with Section 5703.6.9.

    An approved shear joint shall be rigidly mounted and connected by a union in the vapor return piping at the base of each dispensing device. The shear joint shall be mounted flush with the top of the surface on which the dispenser is mounted.

    2306.7.9.1.5 Testing.

    Vapor return lines and vent piping shall be tested in accordance with Section 5703.6.3.

    2306.7.9.2 Vapor-processing systems.

    Vapor-processing systems shall comply with Sections 2306.7.9.2.1 through 2306.7.9.2.4.

    2306.7.9.2.1 Equipment.

    Equipment in vapor-processing systems, including hose nozzle valves, vapor pumps, flame arresters, fire checks or systems for prevention of flame propagation, controls and vapor-processing equipment, shall be individually listed for the intended use in a specified manner.

    Vapor-processing systems that introduce air into the underground piping or storage tanks shall be provided with equipment for prevention of flame propagation that has been tested and listed as suitable for the intended use.

    2306.7.9.2.2 Location.

    Vapor-processing equipment shall be located at or above grade. Sources of ignition shall be located not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from fuel-transfer areas and not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above tank fill openings and tops of dispenser islands. Vapor-processing units shall be located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from the nearest building or lot line of a property that can be built upon.

    Exception: Where the required distances to buildings, lot lines or fuel-transfer areas cannot be obtained, means shall be provided to protect equipment against fire exposure. Acceptable means shall include but not be limited to either of the following:

    1. 1.Approved protective enclosures, which extend not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the equipment, constructed of fire-resistant or noncombustible materials.

    2. 2.Fire protection using an approved water-spray system.

    2306.7.9.2.2.1 Distance from dispensing devices.

    Vapor-processing equipment shall be located not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from dispensing devices.

    2306.7.9.2.2.2 Physical protection.

    Vapor-processing equipment shall be protected against physical damage by guardrails, curbs, protective enclosures or fencing. Where approved protective enclosures are used, approved means shall be provided to ventilate the volume within the enclosure to prevent pocketing of flammable vapors.

    2306.7.9.2.2.3 Downslopes.

    Where a downslope exists toward the location of the vapor-processing unit from a fuel-transfer area, the fire code official is authorized to require additional separation by distance and height.

    2306.7.9.2.3 Installation.

    Vapor-processing units shall be securely mounted on concrete, masonry or structural steel supports on concrete or other non-combustible foundations. Vapor-recovery and vapor-processing equipment is allowed to be installed on roofs where approved.

    2306.7.9.2.4 Piping.

    Piping in a mechanical-assist system shall be in accordance with Section 5703.6.

    2306.8 Alcohol-blended fuel-dispensing operations.

    The design, fabrication and installation of alcohol-blended fuel-dispensing systems shall be in accordance with Section 2306.7 and Sections 2306.8.1 through 2306.8.5.

    2306.8.1 Listed equipment.

    Dispensers shall be listed in accordance with UL 87A. Hoses, nozzles, breakaway fittings, swivels, flexible connectors or dispenser emergency shutoff valves, vapor recovery systems, leak detection devices and pumps used in alcohol-blended fuel-dispensing systems shall be listed for the specific purpose.

    2306.8.2 Compatibility.

    Dispensers shall be used only with the fuels for which they have been listed and which are marked on the product. Field-installed components including hose assemblies, breakaway fittings, swivel connectors and hose nozzle valves shall be provided in accordance with the listing and the marking on the unit.

    2306.8.3 Change of system contents.

    Fuel-dispensing systems subject to change in contents from gasoline to alcohol-blended fuels shall be subject to fire code official review and approval prior to commencing dispensing operations.

    2306.8.4 Facility identification.

    Facilities dispensing alcohol-blended fuels shall be identified by an approved means.

    2306.8.5 Marking.

    Dispensers shall be marked in an approved manner to identify the types of alcohol-blended fuels to be dispensed.

    2306.8.6 Maintenance and inspection.

    Equipment shall be maintained and inspected in accordance with Section 2305.2.

    SECTION2307
    LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS MOTOR
    FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES

    2307.1 General.

    Motor fuel-dispensing facilities for liquefied petroleum gas (LP-gas) fuel shall be in accordance with this section and Chapter 61.

    2307.2 Approvals.

    Storage vessels and equipment used for the storage or dispensing of LP-gas shall be approved or listed in accordance with Sections 2307.2.1 and 2307.2.2.

    2307.2.1 Approved equipment.

    Containers, pressure relief devices (including pressure relief valves), pressure regulators and piping for LP-gas shall be approved.

    2307.2.2 Listed equipment.

    Hoses, hose connections, vehicle fuel connections, dispensers, LP-gas pumps and electrical equipment used for LP-gas shall be listed.

    2307.3 Attendants.

    Motor fuel-dispensing operations for LP-gas shall be conducted by qualified attendants or in accordance with Section 2307.6 by persons trained in the proper handling of LP-gas.

    2307.4 Location of dispensing operations and equipment.

    The point of transfer for LP-gas dispensing operations shall be separated from buildings and other exposures in accordance with the following:

    1. 1.Not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from buildings where the exterior wall is not part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly having a rating of 1 hour or greater.

    2. 2.Not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from combustible overhangs on buildings, measured from a vertical line dropped from the face of the overhang at a point nearest the point of transfer.

    3. 3.Not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from the lot line of property that can be built upon.

    4. 4.Not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from the centerline of the nearest mainline railroad track.

    5. 5.Not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from public streets, highways, thoroughfares, sidewalks and driveways.

    6. 6.Not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from buildings where the exterior wall is part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly having a rating of 1 hour or greater.

    Exception: The point of transfer for LP-gas dispensing operations need not be separated from canopies that are constructed in accordance with the International Building Code and that provide weather protection for the dispensing equipment.

    LP-gas containers shall be located in accordance with Chapter 61. LP-gas storage and dispensing equipment shall be located outdoors.

    2307.5 Additional requirements for LP-gas dispensers and equipment.

    LP-gas dispensers and related equipment shall comply with the following provisions.

    1. 1.Pumps shall be fixed in place and shall be designed to allow control of the flow and to prevent leakage and accidental discharge.

    2. 2.Dispensing devices installed within 10 feet (3048 mm) of where vehicle traffic occurs shall be protected against physical damage by mounting on a concrete island 6 inches (152 mm) or more in height, or shall be protected in accordance with Section 312.

    3. 3.Dispensing devices shall be securely fastened to their mounting surface in accordance with the dispenser manufacturer’s instructions.

    2307.6 Installation of LP-gas dispensing devices and equipment.

    The installation and operation of LP-gas dispensing systems shall be in accordance with Sections 2307.6.1 through 2307.6.4 and Chapter 61. LP-gas dispensers and dispensing stations shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications and their listing.

    2307.6.1 Product control valves.

    The dispenser system piping shall be protected from uncontrolled discharge in accordance with the following:

    1. 1.Where mounted on a concrete base, a means shall be provided and installed within 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) of the top of the concrete base that will prevent flow from the supply piping in the event that the dispenser is displaced from its mounting.

    2. 2.A manual shutoff valve and an excess flow-control check valve shall be located in the liquid line between the pump and the dispenser inlet where the dispensing device is installed at a remote location and is not part of a complete storage and dispensing unit mounted on a common base.

    3. 3.An excess flow-control check valve or an emergency shutoff valve shall be installed in or on the dispenser at the point at which the dispenser hose is connected to the liquid piping.

    4. 4.A listed automatic-closing type hose nozzle valve with or without a latch-open device shall be provided on island-type dispensers.

    2307.6.2 Hoses.

    Hoses and piping for the dispensing of LP-gas shall be provided with hydrostatic relief valves. The hose length shall not exceed 18 feet (5486 mm). An approved method shall be provided to protect the hose against mechanical damage.

    2307.6.3 Emergency breakaway devices.

    Dispenser hoses shall be equipped with a listed emergency breakaway device designed to retain liquid on both sides of the breakaway point. Where hoses are attached to hose-retrieving mechanisms, the emergency breakaway device shall be located such that the breakaway device activates to protect the dispenser from being displaced.

    2307.6.4 Vehicle impact protection.

    Where installed within 10 feet of vehicle traffic, LP-gas storage containers, pumps and dispensers shall be protected in accordance with Section 2307.5, Item 2.

    2307.7 Public fueling of motor vehicles.

    Self-service LP-gas dispensing systems, including key, code and card lock dispensing systems, shall be limited to the filling of permanently mounted containers providing fuel to the LP-gas powered vehicle.

    The requirements for self-service LP-gas dispensing systems shall be in accordance with the following:

    1. 1.The arrangement and operation of the transfer of product into a vehicle shall be in accordance with this section and Chapter 61.

    2. 2.The system shall be provided with an emergency shutoff switch located within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of, but not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from, dispensers.

    3. 3.The owner of the LP-gas motor fuel-dispensing facility or the owner’s designee shall provide for the safe operation of the system and the training of users.

    4. 4.The dispenser and hose-end valve shall release not more than 1/8 fluid ounce (4 cc) of liquid to the atmosphere upon breaking the connection with the fill valve on the vehicle.

    5. 5.Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with Section 2305.5.

    6. 6.Warning signs shall be provided in accordance with Section 2305.6.

    7. 7.The area around the dispenser shall be maintained in accordance with Section 2305.7.

    2307.8 Overfilling.

    LP-gas containers shall not be filled with LP-gas in excess of the volume determined using the fixed maximum liquid level gauge installed on the container, the volume determined by the overfilling prevention device installed on the container or the weight determined by the required percentage of the water capacity marked on the container.

    SECTION2308
    COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS MOTOR
    FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES

    2308.1 General.

    Motor fuel-dispensing facilities for compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel shall be in accordance with this section and Chapter 53.

    2308.2 Approvals.

    Storage vessels and equipment used for the storage, compression or dispensing of CNG shall be approved or listed in accordance with Sections 2308.2.1 and 2308.2.2.

    2308.2.1 Approved equipment.

    Containers, compressors, pressure relief devices (including pressure relief valves), and pressure regulators and piping used for CNG shall be approved.

    2308.2.2 Listed equipment.

    Hoses, hose connections, dispensers, gas detection systems and electrical equipment used for CNG shall be listed. Vehicle-fueling connections shall be listed and labeled.

    2308.3 Location of dispensing operations and equipment.

    Compression, storage and dispensing equipment shall be located above ground, outside.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Compression, storage or dispensing equipment shall be allowed in buildings of noncombustible construction, as set forth in the International Building Code, that are unenclosed for three-quarters or more of the perimeter.

    2. 2.Compression, storage and dispensing equipment shall be allowed indoors or in vaults in accordance with Chapter 53.

    2308.3.1 Location on property.

    In addition to the requirements of Section 2303.1, compression, storage and dispensing equipment not located in vaults complying with Chapter 53 shall be installed as follows:

    1. 1.Not beneath power lines.

    2. 2.Ten feet (3048 mm) or more from the nearest building or lot line that could be built on, public street, sidewalk or source of ignition.

      Exception: Dispensing equipment need not be separated from canopies that are constructed in accordance with the International Building Code and that provide weather protection for the dispensing equipment.

    3. 3.Twenty-five feet (7620 mm) or more from the nearest rail of any railroad track and 50 feet (15 240 mm) or more from the nearest rail of any railroad main track or any railroad or transit line where power for train propulsion is provided by an outside electrical source, such as third rail or overhead catenary.

    4. 4.Fifty feet (15 240 mm) or more from the vertical plane below the nearest overhead wire of a trolley bus line.

    2308.4 Private fueling of motor vehicles.

    Self-service CNG-dispensing systems, including key, code and card lock dispensing systems, shall be limited to the filling of permanently mounted fuel containers on CNG-powered vehicles.

    In addition to the requirements in Section 2305, the owner of a self-service CNG motor fuel-dispensing facility shall ensure the safe operation of the system and the training of users.

    2308.5 Pressure regulators.

    Pressure regulators shall be designed and installed or protected so that their operation will not be affected by the elements (freezing rain, sleet, snow or ice), mud or debris. The protection is allowed to be an integral part of the regulator.

    2308.6 Valves.

    Gas piping to equipment shall be provided with a remote, readily accessible manual shutoff valve.

    2308.7 Emergency shutdown control.

    An emergency shutdown control shall be located within 75 feet (22 860 mm) of, but not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from, dispensers and shall also be provided in the compressor area. Upon activation, the emergency shutdown system shall automatically shut off the power supply to the compressor and close valves between the main gas supply and the compressor and between the storage containers and dispensers.

    2308.8 Discharge of CNG from motor vehicle fuel storage containers.

    The discharge of CNG from motor vehicle fuel cylinders for the purposes of maintenance, cylinder certification, calibration of dispensers or other activities shall be in accordance with Sections 2308.8.1 through 2308.8.1.2.6.

    2308.8.1 Methods of discharge.

    The discharge of CNG from motor vehicle fuel cylinders shall be accomplished through a closed transfer system in accordance with Section 2308.8.1.1 or an approved method of atmospheric venting in accordance with Section 2308.8.1.2.

    2308.8.1.1 Closed transfer system.

    A documented procedure that explains the logical sequence for discharging the cylinder shall be provided to the fire code official for review and approval. The procedure shall include what actions the operator will take in the event of a low-pressure or high-pressure natural gas release during the discharging activity. A drawing illustrating the arrangement of piping, regulators and equipment settings shall be provided to the fire code official for review and approval. The drawing shall illustrate the piping and regulator arrangement and shall be shown in spatial relation to the location of the compressor, storage vessels and emergency shutdown devices.

    2308.8.1.2 Atmospheric venting.

    Atmospheric venting of CNG shall comply with Sections 2308.8.1.2.1 through 2308.8.1.2.6.

    2308.8.1.2.1 Plans and specifications.

    A drawing illustrating the location of the vessel support, piping, the method of grounding and bonding, and other requirements specified herein shall be provided to the fire code official for review and approval.

    2308.8.1.2.2 Cylinder stability.

    A method of rigidly supporting the vessel during the venting of CNG shall be provided. The selected method shall provide not less than two points of support and shall prevent the horizontal and lateral movement of the vessel. The system shall be designed to prevent the movement of the vessel based on the highest gas-release velocity through valve orifices at the vessel’s rated pressure and volume. The structure or appurtenance shall be constructed of noncombustible materials.

    2308.8.1.2.3 Separation.

    The structure or appurtenance used for stabilizing the cylinder shall be separated from the site equipment, features and exposures and shall be located in accordance with Table 2308.8.1.2.3.

    TABLE 2308.8.1.2.3

    SEPARATION DISTANCE FOR ATMOSPHERIC VENTING OF CNG

    EQUIPMENT OR FEATUREMINIMUM SEPARATION (feet)
    Buildings25
    Building openings25
    CNG compressor and storage vessels25
    CNG dispensers25
    Lot lines15
    Public ways15
    Vehicles25

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    2308.8.1.2.4 Grounding and bonding.

    The structure or appurtenance used for supporting the cylinder shall be grounded in accordance with NFPA 70. The cylinder valve shall be bonded prior to the commencement of venting operations.

    2308.8.1.2.5 Vent tube.

    A vent tube that will divert the gas flow to atmosphere shall be installed on the cylinder prior to commencement of the venting and purging operation. The vent tube shall be constructed of pipe or tubing materials approved for use with CNG in accordance with Chapter 53.

    The vent tube shall be capable of dispersing the gas not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) above grade level. The vent tube shall not be provided with a rain cap or other feature that would limit or obstruct the gas flow.

    At the connection fitting of the vent tube and the CNG cylinder, a listed bidirectional detonation flame arrester shall be provided.

    2308.8.1.2.6 Signage.

    Approved “No Smoking” signs complying with Section 310 shall be posted within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the cylinder support structure or appurtenance. Approved CYLINDER SHALL BE BONDED signs shall be posted on the cylinder support structure or appurtenance.

    SECTION2309
    HYDROGEN MOTOR
    FUEL-DISPENSING AND GENERATION FACILITIES

    2309.1 General.

    Hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing and generation facilities shall be in accordance with this section and Chapter 58. Where a fuel-dispensing facility includes a repair garage, the repair operation shall comply with Section 2311.

    2309.2 Equipment.

    Equipment used for the generation, compression, storage or dispensing of hydrogen shall be designed for the specific application in accordance with Sections 2309.2.1 through 2309.2.3.

    2309.2.1 Approved equipment.

    Cylinders, containers and tanks; pressure relief devices, including pressure valves; hydrogen vaporizers; pressure regulators; and piping used for gaseous hydrogen systems shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Chapters 53, 55 and 58.

    2309.2.2 Listed or approved equipment.

    Hoses, hose connections, compressors, hydrogen generators, dispensers, detection systems and electrical equipment used for hydrogen shall be listed or approved for use with hydrogen. Hydrogen motor-fueling connections shall be listed and labeled or approved for use with hydrogen.

    2309.2.3 Electrical equipment.

    Electrical installations shall be in accordance with NFPA 70.

    2309.3 Location on property.

    In addition to the requirements of Section 2303.1, dispensing equipment shall be located in accordance with Sections 2309.3.1 through Section 2309.3.2.

    2309.3.1 Location of operations and equipment.

    Generation, compression, storage and dispensing equipment shall be located in accordance with Sections 2309.3.1.1 through 2309.3.1.5.5.

    2309.3.1.1 Outdoors.

    Generation, compression, or storage equipment shall be allowed outdoors in accordance with Chapter 58 and NFPA 2.

    2309.3.1.2 Indoors.

    Generation, compression, storage and dispensing equipment shall be located in indoor rooms or areas constructed in accordance with the requirements of the International Building Code, the International Fuel Gas Code, the International Mechanical Code and NFPA 2.

    2309.3.1.2.1 Maintenance.

    Gaseous hydrogen systems and detection devices shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    2309.3.1.2.2 Smoking.

    Smoking shall be prohibited in hydrogen cutoff rooms. “No Smoking” signs shall be provided at all entrances to hydrogen fuel gas rooms.

    2309.3.1.2.3 Ignition source control.

    Open flames, flame-producing devices and other sources of ignition shall be controlled in accordance with Chapter 58.

    2309.3.1.2.4 Housekeeping.

    Hydrogen fuel gas rooms shall be kept free from combustible debris and storage.

    2309.3.1.3 Gaseous hydrogen storage.

    Storage of gaseous hydrogen shall be in accordance with Chapters 53 and 58.

    2309.3.1.4 Liquefied hydrogen storage.

    Storage of liquefied hydrogen shall be in accordance with Chapters 55 and 58.

    2309.3.1.5 Canopy tops.

    Gaseous hydrogen compression and storage equipment located on top of motor fuel-dispensing facility canopies shall be in accordance with Sections 2309.3.1.5.1 through 2309.3.1.5.5, Chapters 53 and 58 and the International Fuel Gas Code.

    2309.3.1.5.1 Construction.

    Canopies shall be constructed in accordance with the motor fuel-dispensing facility canopy requirements of Section 406.7 of the International Building Code.

    2309.3.1.5.2 Fire-extinguishing systems.

    Fuel-dispensing areas under canopies shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. The design of the sprinkler system shall be not less than that required for Extra Hazard Group 2 occupancies. Operation of the sprinkler system shall activate the emergency functions of Sections 2309.3.1.5.3 and 2309.3.1.5.4.

    2309.3.1.5.3 Emergency discharge.

    Operation of the automatic sprinkler system shall activate an automatic emergency discharge system, which will discharge the hydrogen gas from the equipment on the canopy top through the vent pipe system.

    2309.3.1.5.4 Emergency shutdown control.

    Operation of the automatic sprinkler system shall activate the emergency shutdown control required by Section 2309.5.3.

    2309.3.1.5.5 Signage.

    Approved signage having 2-inch (51 mm) block letters shall be affixed at approved locations on the exterior of the canopy structure stating: CANOPY TOP HYDROGEN STORAGE.

    2309.3.2 Canopies.

    Dispensing equipment need not be separated from canopies of Type I or II construction that are constructed in a manner that prevents the accumulation of hydrogen gas and in accordance with Section 406.7 of the International Building Code.

    2309.4 Dispensing into motor vehicles at self-service hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing facilities.

    Self-service hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing systems, including key, code and card lock dispensing systems, shall be limited to the filling of permanently mounted fuel containers on hydrogen-powered vehicles.

    In addition to the requirements in Section 2311, the owner of a self-service hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing facility shall provide for the safe operation of the system through the institution of a fire safety plan submitted in accordance with Section 404, the training of employees and operators who use and maintain the system in accordance with Section 406, and provisions for hazard communication in accordance with Section 407.

    2309.4.1 Dispensing systems.

    Dispensing systems shall be equipped with an overpressure protection device set at not greater than 140 percent of the service pressure of the fueling nozzle it supplies.

    2309.5 Safety precautions.

    Safety precautions at hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing and generation facilities shall be in accordance with Sections 2309.5.1 through 2309.5.3.1.

    2309.5.1 Protection from vehicles.

    Guard posts or other approved means shall be provided to protect hydrogen storage systems and use areas subject to vehicular damage in accordance with Section 312.

    2309.5.1.1 Vehicle fueling pad.

    The vehicle shall be fueled on noncoated concrete or other approved paving material having a resistance not exceeding 1 megohm as determined by the methodology specified in EN 1081.

    2309.5.2 Emergency shutoff valves.

    A manual emergency shutoff valve shall be provided to shut down the flow of gas from the hydrogen supply to the piping system.

    2309.5.2.1 Identification.

    Manual emergency shutoff valves shall be identified and the location shall be clearly visible, accessible and indicated by means of a sign.

    2309.5.3 Emergency shutdown controls.

    In addition to the manual emergency shutoff valve required by Section 2309.5.2, a remotely located, manually activated emergency shutdown control shall be provided. An emergency shutdown control shall be located within 75 feet (22 860 mm) of, but not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from, dispensers and hydrogen generators.

    2309.5.3.1 System requirements.

    Activation of the emergency shutdown control shall automatically shut off the power supply to all hydrogen storage, compression and dispensing equipment; shut off natural gas or other fuel supply to the hydrogen generator; and close valves between the main supply and the compressor and between the storage containers and dispensing equipment.

    2309.6 Defueling of hydrogen from fuel storage containers.

    The discharge or defueling of hydrogen from fuel storage tanks for the purpose of maintenance, cylinder certification, calibration of dispensers or other activities shall be in accordance with Sections 2309.6.1 through 2309.6.1.2.4.

    2309.6.1 Methods of discharge.

    The discharge of hydrogen from fuel storage tanks shall be accomplished through a closed transfer system in accordance with Section 2309.6.1.1 or an approved method of atmospheric venting in accordance with Section 2309.6.1.2.

    2309.6.1.1 Closed transfer system.

    A documented procedure that explains the logic sequence for discharging the storage tank shall be provided to the fire code official for review and approval. The procedure shall include what actions the operator is required to take in the event of a low-pressure or high-pressure hydrogen release during discharging activity. Schematic design documents shall be provided illustrating the arrangement of piping, regulators and equipment settings. The construction documents shall illustrate the piping and regulator arrangement and shall be shown in spatial relation to the location of the compressor, storage vessels and emergency shutdown devices.

    2309.6.1.2 Atmospheric venting of hydrogen from fuel storage containers.

    Where atmospheric venting is used for the discharge of hydrogen from fuel storage tanks, such venting shall be in accordance with Sections 2309.6.1.2.1 through 2309.6.1.2.1.4.

    2309.6.1.2.1 Defueling equipment.

    Equipment used for defueling shall be listed and labeled or approved for the intended use.

    2309.6.1.2.1.1 Manufacturer’s equipment required.

    Equipment supplied by the manufacturer shall be used to connect the storage tanks to be defueled to the vent pipe system.

    2309.6.1.2.1.2 Vent pipe maximum diameter.

    Defueling vent pipes shall have a maximum inside diameter of 1 inch (25 mm).

    2309.6.1.2.1.3 Maximum flow rate.

    The maximum rate of hydrogen flow through the vent pipe system shall not exceed 1,000 cfm at NTP (0.47 m3/s) and shall be controlled by means of the manufacturer’s equipment, at low pressure and without adjustment.

    2309.6.1.2.1.4 Isolated use.

    The vent pipe used for defueling shall not be connected to another venting system used for any other purpose.

    2309.6.1.2.2 Construction documents.

    Construction documents shall be provided illustrating the defueling system to be utilized. Plan details shall be of sufficient detail and clarity to allow for evaluation of the piping and control systems to be utilized and include the method of support for cylinders, containers or tanks to be used as part of a closed transfer system, the method of grounding and bonding and other requirements specified herein.

    2309.6.1.2.3 Stability of cylinders, containers and tanks.

    A method of rigidly supporting cylinders, containers or tanks used during the closed transfer system discharge or defueling of hydrogen shall be provided. The method shall provide not less than two points of support and shall be designed to resist lateral movement of the receiving cylinder, container or tank. The system shall be designed to resist movement of the receiver based on the highest gas-release velocity through valve orifices at the receiver’s rated service pressure and volume. Supporting structures or appurtenances used to support receivers shall be constructed of noncombustible materials in accordance with the International Building Code.

    2309.6.1.2.4 Grounding and bonding.

    Cylinders, containers or tanks and piping systems used for defueling shall be bonded and grounded. Structures or appurtenances used for supporting the cylinders, containers or tanks shall be grounded in accordance with NFPA 70. The valve of the vehicle storage tank shall be bonded with the defueling system prior to the commencement of discharge or defueling operations.

    2309.6.2 Repair of hydrogen piping.

    Piping systems containing hydrogen shall not be opened to the atmosphere for repair without first purging the piping with an inert gas to achieve 1-percent hydrogen or less by volume. Defueling operations and exiting purge flow shall be vented in accordance with Section 2309.6.1.2.

    2309.6.3 Purging.

    Each individual manufactured component of a hydrogen generating, compression, storage or dispensing system shall have a label affixed as well as a description in the installation and owner’s manuals describing the procedure for purging air from the system during startup, regular maintenance and for purging hydrogen from the system prior to disassembly (to admit air).

    For the interconnecting piping between the individual manufactured components, the pressure rating must be not less than 20 times the absolute pressure present in the piping when any hydrogen meets any air.

    2309.6.3.1 System purge required.

    After installation, repair or maintenance, the hydrogen piping system shall be purged of air in accordance with the manufacturer’s procedure for purging air from the system.

    SECTION2310
    MARINE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES

    2310.1 General.

    The construction of marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in accordance with the International Building Code and NFPA 30A. The storage of Class I, II or IIIA liquids at marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in accordance with this chapter and Chapter 57.

    2310.2 Storage and handling.

    The storage and handling of Class I, II or IIIA liquids at marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in accordance with Sections 2310.2.1 through 2310.2.3.

    2310.2.1 Class I, II or IIIA liquid storage.

    Class I, II or IIIA liquids stored inside of buildings used for marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be stored in approved containers or portable tanks. Storage of Class I liquids shall not exceed 10 gallons (38 L).

    Exception: Storage in liquid storage rooms in accordance with Section 5704.3.7.

    2310.2.2 Class II or IIIA liquid storage and dispensing.

    Class II or IIIA liquids stored or dispensed inside of buildings used for marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be stored in and dispensed from approved containers or portable tanks. Storage of Class II and IIIA liquids shall not exceed 120 gallons (454 L).

    2310.2.3 Heating equipment.

    Heating equipment installed in Class I, II or IIIA liquid storage or dispensing areas shall comply with Section 2301.6.

    2310.3 Dispensing.

    The dispensing of liquid fuels at marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall comply with Sections 2310.3.1 through 2310.3.5.

    2310.3.1 General.

    Wharves, piers or floats at marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be used exclusively for the dispensing or transfer of petroleum products to or from marine craft, except that transfer of essential ship stores is allowed.

    2310.3.2 Supervision.

    Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall have an attendant or supervisor who is fully aware of the operation, mechanics and hazards inherent to fueling of boats on duty whenever the facility is open for business. The attendant’s primary function shall be to supervise, observe and control the dispensing of Class I, II or IIIA liquids or flammable gases.

    2310.3.3 Hoses and nozzles.

    Dispensing of Class I, II or IIIA liquids into the fuel tanks of marine craft shall be by means of an approved-type hose equipped with a listed automatic-closing nozzle without a latch-open device.

    Hoses used for dispensing or transferring Class I, II or IIIA liquids, when not in use, shall be reeled, racked or otherwise protected from mechanical damage.

    2310.3.4 Portable containers.

    Dispensing of Class I, II or IIIA liquids into containers, other than fuel tanks, shall be in accordance with Section 2304.4.1.

    2310.3.5 Liquefied petroleum gas.

    Liquefied petroleum gas cylinders shall not be filled at marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities unless approved. Approved storage facilities for LP-gas cylinders shall be provided. See also Section 2307.

    2310.4 Fueling of marine vehicles at other than approved marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities.

    Fueling of floating marine craft at other than a marine motor fuel-dispensing facility shall comply with Sections 2310.4.1 and 2310.4.2.

    2310.4.1 Class I liquid fuels.

    Fueling of floating marine craft with Class I fuels at other than a marine motor fuel-dispensing facility is prohibited.

    2310.4.2 Class II or III liquid fuels.

    Fueling of floating marine craft with Class II or III fuels at other than a marine motor fuel-dispensing facility shall be in accordance with all of the following:

    1. 1.The premises and operations shall be approved by the fire code official.

    2. 2.Tank vehicles and fueling operations shall comply with Section 5706.6.

    3. 3.The dispensing nozzle shall be of the listed automatic-closing type without a latch-open device.

    4. 4.Nighttime deliveries shall only be made in lighted areas.

    5. 5.The tank vehicle flasher lights shall be in operation while dispensing.

    6. 6.Fuel expansion space shall be left in each fuel tank to prevent overflow in the event of temperature increase.

    2310.5 Fire prevention regulations.

    General fire safety regulations for marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall comply with Sections 2310.5.1 through 2310.5.7.

    2310.5.1 Housekeeping.

    Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be maintained in a neat and orderly manner. Accumulations of rubbish or waste oils in excessive amounts shall be prohibited.

    2310.5.2 Spills.

    Spills of Class I, II or IIIA liquids at or on the water shall be reported immediately to the fire department and jurisdictional authorities.

    2310.5.3 Rubbish containers.

    Containers with tight-fitting or self-closing lids shall be provided for temporary storage of combustible debris, rubbish and waste material. The rubbish containers shall be constructed entirely of materials that comply with any one of the following:

    1. 1.Noncombustible materials.

    2. 2.Materials that meet a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 300 kW/m2 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m2 in the horizontal orientation.

    2310.5.4 Marine vessels and craft.

    Vessels or craft shall not be made fast to fuel docks serving other vessels or craft occupying a berth at a marine motor fuel-dispensing facility.

    2310.5.5 Sources of ignition.

    Construction, maintenance, repair and reconditioning work involving the use of open flames, arcs or spark-producing devices shall not be performed at marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities or within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of the dispensing facilities, including piers, wharves or floats, except for emergency repair work approved in writing by the fire code official. Fueling shall not be conducted at the pier, wharf or float during the course of such emergency repairs.

    2310.5.5.1 Smoking.

    Smoking or open flames shall be prohibited within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of fueling operations. “No Smoking” signs complying with Section 310 shall be posted conspicuously about the premises. Such signs shall have letters not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in height on a background of contrasting color.

    2310.5.6 Preparation of tanks for fueling.

    Boat owners and operators shall not offer their craft for fueling unless the tanks being filled are properly vented to dissipate fumes to the outside atmosphere.

    2310.5.7 Warning signs.

    Warning signs shall be prominently displayed at the face of each wharf, pier or float at such elevation as to be clearly visible from the decks of marine craft being fueled. Such signs shall have letters not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in height on a background of contrasting color bearing the following or approved equivalent wording:

    WARNING

    NO SMOKING—STOP ENGINE WHILE FUELING,

    SHUT OFF ELECTRICITY

    DO NOT START ENGINE UNTIL AFTER BELOW

    DECK SPACES ARE VENTILATED.

    2310.6 Fire protection.

    Fire protection features for marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall comply with Sections 2310.6.1 through 2310.6.4.

    2310.6.1 Standpipe hose stations.

    Fire hose, where provided, shall be enclosed within a cabinet, and hose stations shall be labeled: FIRE HOSE—EMERGENCY USE ONLY.

    2310.6.2 Obstruction of fire protection equipment.

    Materials shall not be placed on a pier in such a manner as to obstruct access to fire-fighting equipment or piping system control valves.

    2310.6.3 Access.

    Where the pier is accessible to vehicular traffic, an unobstructed roadway to the shore end of the wharf shall be maintained for access by fire apparatus.

    2310.6.4 Portable fire extinguishers.

    Portable fire extinguishers in accordance with Section 906, each having a minimum rating of 20-B:C, shall be provided as follows:

    1. 1.One on each float.

    2. 2.One on the pier or wharf within 25 feet (7620 mm) of the head of the gangway to the float, unless the office is within 25 feet (7620 mm) of the gangway or is on the float and an extinguisher is provided thereon.

    SECTION2311
    REPAIR GARAGES

    2311.1 General.

    Repair garages shall comply with this section and the International Building Code. Repair garages for vehicles that use more than one type of fuel shall comply with the applicable provisions of this section for each type of fuel used.

    Where a repair garage includes a motor fuel-dispensing facility, the fuel-dispensing operation shall comply with the requirements of this chapter for motor fuel-dispensing facilities.

    2311.2 Storage and use of flammable and combustible liquids.

    The storage and use of flammable and combustible liquids in repair garages shall comply with Chapter 57 and Sections 2311.2.1 through 2311.2.4.

    2311.2.1 Cleaning of parts.

    Cleaning of parts shall be conducted in listed and approved parts-cleaning machines in accordance with Chapter 57.

    2311.2.2 Waste oil, motor oil and other Class IIIB liquids.

    Waste oil, motor oil and other Class IIIB liquids shall be stored in approved tanks or containers, which are allowed to be stored and dispensed from inside repair garages.

    2311.2.2.1 Tank location.

    Tanks storing Class IIIB liquids in repair garages are allowed to be located at, below or above grade, provided that adequate drainage or containment is provided.

    2311.2.2.2 Liquid classification.

    Crankcase drainings shall be classified as Class IIIB liquids unless otherwise determined by testing.

    2311.2.3 Drainage and disposal of liquids and oil-soaked waste.

    Garage floor drains, where provided, shall drain to approved oil separators or traps discharging to a sewer in accordance with the International Plumbing Code. Contents of oil separators, traps and floor drainage systems shall be collected at sufficiently frequent intervals and removed from the premises to prevent oil from being carried into the sewers.

    2311.2.3.1 Disposal of liquids.

    Crankcase drainings and liquids shall not be dumped into sewers, streams or on the ground, but shall be stored in approved tanks or containers in accordance with Chapter 57 until removed from the premises.

    2311.2.3.2 Disposal of oily waste.

    Self-closing metal cans shall be used for oily waste.

    2311.2.4 Spray finishing.

    Spray finishing with flammable or combustible liquids shall comply with Chapter 24.

    2311.3 Sources of ignition.

    Sources of ignition shall not be located within 18 inches (457 mm) of the floor and shall comply with Chapters 3 and 35.

    2311.3.1 Equipment.

    Appliances and equipment installed in a repair garage shall comply with the provisions of the International Building Code, the International Mechanical Code and NFPA 70.

    2311.3.2 Smoking.

    Smoking shall not be allowed in repair garages except in approved locations.

    2311.4 Below-grade areas.

    Pits and below-grade work areas in repair garages shall comply with Sections 2311.4.1 through 2311.4.3.

    2311.4.1 Construction.

    Pits and below-grade work areas shall be constructed in accordance with the International Building Code.

    2311.4.2 Means of egress.

    Pits and below-grade work areas shall be provided with means of egress in accordance with Chapter 10.

    2311.4.3 Ventilation.

    Where Class I liquids or LP-gas are stored or used within a building having a basement or pit wherein flammable vapors could accumulate, the basement or pit shall be provided with mechanical ventilation in accordance with the International Mechanical Code, at a minimum rate of 11/2 cubic feet per minute per square foot (cfm/ft2) [0.008 m3/(s · m2)] to prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors.

    2311.5 Preparation of vehicles for repair.

    For vehicles powered by gaseous fuels, the fuel shutoff valves shall be closed prior to repairing any portion of the vehicle fuel system.

    Vehicles powered by gaseous fuels in which the fuel system has been damaged shall be inspected and evaluated for fuel system integrity prior to being brought into the repair garage. The inspection shall include testing of the entire fuel delivery system for leakage.

    2311.6 Fire extinguishers.

    Fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with Section 906.

    2311.7 Repair garages for vehicles fueled by lighter-than-air fuels.

    Repair garages for the conversion and repair of vehicles that use CNG, liquefied natural gas (LNG), hydrogen or other lighter-than-air motor fuels shall be in accordance with Sections 2311.7 through 2311.7.2.3 in addition to the other requirements of Section 2311.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Repair garages where work is not performed on the fuel system and is limited to exchange of parts and maintenance not requiring open flame or welding on the CNG-, LNG-, hydrogen- or other lighter-than-air-fueled motor vehicle.

    2. 2.Repair garages for hydrogen-fueled vehicles where work is not performed on the hydrogen storage tank and is limited to the exchange of parts and maintenance not requiring open flame or welding on the hydrogen-fueled vehicle. During the work, the entire hydrogen fuel system shall contain a quantity that is less than 200 cubic feet (5.6 m3) of hydrogen.

    2311.7.1 Ventilation.

    Repair garages used for the repair of natural gas- or hydrogen-fueled vehicles shall be provided with an approved mechanical ventilation system. The mechanical ventilation system shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and Sections 2311.7.1.1 and 2311.7.1.2.

    Exception: Repair garages with natural ventilation when approved.

    2311.7.1.1 Design.

    Indoor locations shall be ventilated utilizing air supply inlets and exhaust outlets arranged to provide uniform air movement to the extent practical. Inlets shall be uniformly arranged on exterior walls near floor level. Outlets shall be located at the high point of the room in exterior walls or the roof.

    Ventilation shall be by a continuous mechanical ventilation system or by a mechanical ventilation system activated by a continuously monitoring natural gas detection system or, for hydrogen, a continuously monitoring flammable gas detection system, each activating at a gas concentration of not more than 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL). In all cases, the system shall shut down the fueling system in the event of failure of the ventilation system.

    The ventilation rate shall be not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per 12 cubic feet [0.00139 m3 × (s · m3)] of room volume.

    2311.7.1.2 Operation.

    The mechanical ventilation system shall operate continuously.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Mechanical ventilation systems that are interlocked with a gas detection system designed in accordance with Sections 2311.7.2 through 2311.7.2.3.

    2. 2.Mechanical ventilation systems in repair garages that are used only for repair of vehicles fueled by liquid fuels or odorized gases, such as CNG, where the ventilation system is electrically interlocked with the lighting circuit.

    2311.7.2 Gas detection system.

    Repair garages used for repair of vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases including, but not limited to, hydrogen and nonodorized LNG, shall be provided with a flammable gas detection system.

    2311.7.2.1 System design.

    The flammable gas detection system shall be listed or approved and shall be calibrated to the types of fuels or gases used by vehicles to be repaired. The gas detection system shall be designed to activate when the level of flammable gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL). Gas detection shall be provided in lubrication or chassis service pits of repair garages used for repairing nonodorized LNG-fueled vehicles.

    2311.7.2.1.1 Gas detection system components.

    Gas detection system control units shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 864 or UL 2017. Gas detectors shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 2075 for use with the gases and vapors being detected.

    2311.7.2.2 Operation.

    Activation of the gas detection system shall result in all the following:

    1. 1.Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm signals in the repair garage.

    2. 2.Deactivation of all heating systems located in the repair garage.

    3. 3.Activation of the mechanical ventilation system, where the system is interlocked with gas detection.

    2311.7.2.3 Failure of the gas detection system.

    Failure of the gas detection system shall result in the deactivation of the heating system, activation of the mechanical ventilation system where the system is interlocked with the gas detection system and cause a trouble signal to sound in an approved location.

    2311.8 Defueling equipment required at vehicle maintenance and repair facilities.

    Facilities for repairing hydrogen fuel systems on hydrogen-fueled vehicles shall have equipment to defuel vehicle storage tanks. Where work must be performed on a vehicle’s fuel storage tank for the purpose of maintenance, repair or cylinder certification, defueling and purging shall be conducted in accordance with Section 2309.6.

    CHAPTER24
    FLAMMABLE FINISHES

    SECTION2401
    GENERAL

    2401.1 Scope.

    This chapter shall apply to locations or areas where any of the following activities are conducted:

    1. 1.The application of flammable finishes to articles or materials by means of spray apparatus.

    2. 2.The application of flammable finishes by dipping or immersing articles or materials into the contents of tanks, vats or containers of flammable or combustible liquids for coating, finishing, treatment or similar processes.

    3. 3.The application of flammable finishes by applying combustible powders to articles or materials utilizing powder spray guns, electrostatic powder spray guns, fluidized beds or electrostatic fluidized beds.

    4. 4.Floor surfacing or finishing operations using Class I or II liquids in areas exceeding 350 square feet (32.5 m2).

    5. 5.The application of flammable finishes consisting of dual-component coatings or Class I or II liquids when applied by brush or roller in quantities exceeding 1 gallon (4 L).

    2401.2 Nonapplicability.

    This chapter shall not apply to spray finishing utilizing flammable or combustible liquids that do not sustain combustion, including:

    1. 1.Liquids that have no fire point when tested in accordance with ASTM D 92.

    2. 2.Liquids with a flashpoint greater than 95°F (35°C) in a water-miscible solution or dispersion with a water and inert (noncombustible) solids content of more than 80 percent by weight.

    2401.3 Permits.

    Permits shall be required as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7.

    SECTION2402
    DEFINITIONS

    2402.1 Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    DETEARING.

    DIP TANK.

    ELECTROSTATIC FLUIDIZED BED.

    FLAMMABLE FINISHES.

    FLAMMABLE VAPOR AREA.

    FLUIDIZED BED.

    LIMITED SPRAYING SPACE.

    RESIN APPLICATION AREA.

    ROLL COATING.

    SPRAY BOOTH.

    SPRAY ROOM.

    SPRAYING SPACE.

    SECTION2403
    PROTECTION OF OPERATIONS

    2403.1 General.

    Operations covered by this chapter shall be protected as required by Sections 2403.2 through 2403.4.4.

    2403.2 Sources of ignition.

    Protection against sources of ignition shall be provided in accordance with Sections 2403.2.1 through 2403.2.8.

    2403.2.1 Electrical wiring and equipment.

    Electrical wiring and equipment shall comply with this chapter and NFPA 70.

    2403.2.1.1 Flammable vapor areas.

    Electrical wiring and equipment in flammable vapor areas shall be of an explosionproof type approved for use in such hazardous locations. Such areas shall be considered to be Class I, Division 1 or Class II, Division 1 hazardous locations in accordance with NFPA 70.

    2403.2.1.2 Areas subject to deposits of residues.

    Electrical equipment, flammable vapor areas or drying operations that are subject to splashing or dripping of liquids shall be specifically approved for locations containing deposits of readily ignitable residue and explosive vapors.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.This provision shall not apply to wiring in rigid conduit, threaded boxes or fittings not containing taps, splices or terminal connections.

    2. 2.This provision shall not apply to electrostatic equipment allowed by Section 2407.

    In resin application areas, electrical wiring and equipment that is subject to deposits of combustible residues shall be listed for such exposure and shall be installed as required for hazardous (classified) locations. Electrical wiring and equipment not subject to deposits of combustible residues shall be installed as required for ordinary hazard locations.

    2403.2.1.3 Areas adjacent to spray booths.

    Electrical wiring and equipment located outside of, but within 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally and 3 feet (914 mm) vertically of openings in a spray booth or a spray room, shall be approved for Class I, Division 2 or Class II, Division 2 hazardous locations, whichever is applicable.

    2403.2.1.4 Areas subject to overspray deposits.

    Electrical equipment in flammable vapor areas located such that deposits of combustible residues could readily accumulate thereon shall be specifically approved for locations containing deposits of readily ignitable residue and explosive vapors in accordance with NFPA 70.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Wiring in rigid conduit.

    2. 2.Boxes or fittings not containing taps, splices or terminal connections.

    3. 3.Equipment allowed by Sections 2404 and 2407 and Chapter 30.

    2403.2.2 Open flames and sparks.

    Open flames and spark-producing devices shall not be located in flammable vapor areas and shall not be located within 20 feet (6096 mm) of such areas unless separated by a permanent partition.

    Exception: Drying and baking apparatus complying with Section 2404.6.1.2.

    2403.2.3 Hot surfaces.

    Heated surfaces having a temperature sufficient to ignite vapors shall not be located in flammable vapor areas. Space-heating appliances, steam pipes or hot surfaces in a flammable vapor area shall be located such that they are not subject to accumulation of deposits of combustible residues.

    Exception: Drying apparatus complying with Section 2404.6.1.2.

    2403.2.4 Equipment enclosures.

    Equipment or apparatus that is capable of producing sparks or particles of hot metal that would fall into a flammable vapor area shall be totally enclosed.

    2403.2.5 Grounding.

    Metal parts of spray booths, exhaust ducts and piping systems conveying Class I or II liquids shall be electrically grounded in accordance with NFPA 70. Metallic parts located in resin application areas, including but not limited to exhaust ducts, ventilation fans, spray application equipment, workpieces and piping, shall be electrically grounded.

    2403.2.6 Smoking prohibited.

    Smoking shall be prohibited in flammable vapor areas and hazardous materials storage rooms associated with flammable finish processes. “No Smoking” signs complying with Section 310 shall be conspicuously posted in such areas.

    2403.2.7 Welding warning signs.

    Welding, cutting and similar spark-producing operations shall not be conducted in or adjacent to flammable vapor areas or dipping or coating operations unless precautions have been taken to provide safety. Conspicuous signs with the following warning shall be posted in the vicinity of flammable vapor areas, dipping operations and paint storage rooms:

    NO WELDING

    THE USE OF WELDING OR CUTTING

    EQUIPMENT IN OR NEAR THIS AREA

    IS DANGEROUS BECAUSE OF FIRE

    AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS. WELDING

    AND CUTTING SHALL BE DONE ONLY

    UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF THE

    PERSON IN CHARGE.

    2403.2.8 Powered industrial trucks.

    Powered industrial trucks used in electrically classified areas shall be listed for such use.

    2403.3 Storage, use and handling of flammable and combustible liquids.

    The storage, use and handling of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with this section and Chapter 57.

    2403.3.1 Use.

    Containers supplying spray nozzles shall be of a closed type or provided with metal covers that are kept closed. Containers not resting on floors shall be on noncombustible supports or suspended by wire cables. Containers supplying spray nozzles by gravity flow shall not exceed 10 gallons (37.9 L) in capacity.

    2403.3.2 Valves.

    Containers and piping to which a hose or flexible connection is attached shall be provided with a shutoff valve at the connection. Such valves shall be kept shut when hoses are not in use.

    2403.3.3 Pumped liquid supplies.

    Where flammable or combustible liquids are supplied to spray nozzles by positive displacement pumps, pump discharge lines shall be provided with an approved relief valve discharging to pump suction or a safe detached location.

    2403.3.4 Liquid transfer.

    Where a flammable mixture is transferred from one portable container to another, a bond shall be provided between the two containers. Not less than one container shall be grounded. Piping systems for Class I and II liquids shall be permanently grounded.

    2403.3.5 Class I liquids as solvents.

    Class I liquids used as solvents shall be used in spray gun and equipment cleaning machines that have been listed and approved for such purpose or shall be used in spray booths or spray rooms in accordance with Sections 2403.3.5.1 and 2403.3.5.2.

    2403.3.5.1 Listed devices.

    Cleaning machines for spray guns and equipment shall not be located in areas open to the public and shall be separated from ignition sources in accordance with their listings or by a distance of 3 feet (914 mm), whichever is greater. The quantity of solvent used in a machine shall not exceed the design capacity of the machine.

    2403.3.5.2 Within spray booths and spray rooms.

    When solvents are used for cleaning spray nozzles and auxiliary equipment within spray booths and spray rooms, the ventilating equipment shall be operated during cleaning.

    2403.3.6 Class II and III liquids.

    Solvents used outside of spray booths, spray rooms or listed and approved spray gun and equipment cleaning machines shall be restricted to Class II and III liquids.

    2403.4 Operations and maintenance.

    Flammable vapor areas, exhaust fan blades and exhaust ducts shall be kept free from the accumulation of deposits of combustible residues. Where excessive residue accumulates in such areas, spraying operations shall be discontinued until conditions are corrected.

    2403.4.1 Tools.

    Scrapers, spuds and other tools used for cleaning purposes shall be constructed of nonsparking materials.

    2403.4.2 Residue.

    Residues removed during cleaning and debris contaminated with residue shall be immediately removed from the premises and properly disposed.

    2403.4.3 Waste cans.

    Approved metal waste cans equipped with self-closing lids shall be provided wherever rags or waste are impregnated with finishing material. Such rags and waste shall be deposited therein immediately after being utilized. The contents of waste cans shall be properly disposed of not less than once daily and at the end of each shift.

    2403.4.4 Solvent recycling.

    Solvent distillation equipment used to recycle and clean dirty solvents shall comply with Section 5705.4.

    SECTION2404
    SPRAY FINISHING

    2404.1 General.

    The application of flammable or combustible liquids by means of spray apparatus in continuous or intermittent processes shall be in accordance with the requirements of Sections 2403 and 2404.2 through 2404.9.4.

    2404.2 Location of spray-finishing operations.

    Spray-finishing operations conducted in buildings used for Group A, E, I or R occupancies shall be located in a spray room protected with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and separated vertically and horizontally from other areas in accordance with the International Building Code. In other occupancies, spray-finishing operations shall be conducted in a spray room, spray booth or spraying space approved for such use.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Automobile undercoating spray operations and spray-on automotive lining operations conducted in areas with approved natural or mechanical ventilation shall be exempt from the provisions of Section 2404 when approved and where utilizing Class IIIA or IIIB combustible liquids.

    2. 2.In buildings other than Group A, E, I or R occupancies, approved limited spraying space in accordance with Section 2404.9.

    3. 3.Resin application areas used for manufacturing of reinforced plastics complying with Section 2409 shall not be required to be located in a spray room, spray booth or spraying space.

    2404.3 Design and construction.

    Design and construction of spray rooms, spray booths and spray spaces shall be in accordance with Sections 2404.3.1 through 2404.3.3.1.

    2404.3.1 Spray rooms.

    Spray rooms shall be constructed and designed in accordance with Section 2404.3.1.1 and the International Building Code, and shall comply with Sections 2404.4 through 2404.8.

    2404.3.1.1 Floor.

    Combustible floor construction in spray rooms shall be covered by approved, noncombustible, nonsparking material, except where combustible coverings, including but not limited to thin paper or plastic and strippable coatings, are utilized over non-combustible materials to facilitate cleaning operations in spray rooms.

    2404.3.2 Spray booths.

    The design and construction of spray booths shall be in accordance with Sections 2404.3.2.1 through 2404.3.2.6, Sections 2404.4 through 2404.8 and NFPA 33.

    2404.3.2.1 Construction.

    Spray booths shall be constructed of approved noncombustible materials. Aluminum shall not be used. Where walls or ceiling assemblies are constructed of sheet metal, single-skin assemblies shall be no thinner than 0.0478 inch (18 gage) (1.2 mm) and each sheet of double-skin assemblies shall be no thinner than 0.0359 inch (20 gage) (0.9 mm). Structural sections of spray booths are allowed to be sealed with latex-based or similar caulks and sealants.

    2404.3.2.2 Surfaces.

    The interior surfaces of spray booths shall be smooth; shall be constructed so as to permit the free passage of exhaust air from all parts of the interior, and to facilitate washing and cleaning; and shall be designed to confine residues within the booth. Aluminum shall not be used.

    2404.3.2.3 Floor.

    Combustible floor construction in spray booths shall be covered by approved, noncombustible, nonsparking material, except where combustible coverings, including but not limited to thin paper or plastic and strippable coatings, are utilized over non-combustible materials to facilitate cleaning operations in spray booths.

    2404.3.2.4 Means of egress.

    Means of egress shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 10.

    Exception: Means of egress doors from premanufactured spray booths shall be not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in width by 80 inches (2032 mm) in height.

    2404.3.2.5 Clear space.

    Spray booths shall be installed so that all parts of the booth are readily accessible for cleaning. A clear space of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) shall be maintained on all sides of the spray booth. This clear space shall be kept free of any storage or combustible construction.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.This requirement shall not prohibit locating a spray booth closer than 3 feet (914 mm) to or directly against an interior partition, wall or floor/ceiling assembly that has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour, provided the spray booth can be adequately maintained and cleaned.

    2. 2.This requirement shall not prohibit locating a spray booth closer than 3 feet (914 mm) to an exterior wall or a roof assembly, provided the wall or roof is constructed of noncombustible material and the spray booth can be adequately maintained and cleaned.

    2404.3.2.6 Size.

    The aggregate area of spray booths in a building shall not exceed the lesser of 10 percent of the area of any floor of a building or the basic area allowed for a Group H-2 occupancy without area increases, as set forth in the International Building Code. The area of an individual spray booth in a building shall not exceed the lesser of the aggregate size limit or 1,500 square feet (139 m2).

    Exception: One individual booth not exceeding 500 square feet (46 m2).

    2404.3.3 Spraying spaces.

    Spraying spaces shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the International Building Code, and Section 2404.3.3.1 and Sections 2404.4 through 2404.8 of this code.

    2404.3.3.1 Floor.

    Combustible floor construction in spraying spaces shall be covered by approved, noncombustible, nonsparking material, except where combustible coverings, such as thin paper or plastic and strippable coatings, are utilized over noncombustible materials to facilitate cleaning operations in spraying spaces.

    2404.4 Fire protection.

    Spray booths and spray rooms shall be protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system complying with Chapter 9. Protection shall also extend to exhaust plenums, exhaust ducts and both sides of dry filters when such filters are used.

    2404.4.1 Fire extinguishers.

    Portable fire extinguishers complying with Section 906 shall be provided for spraying areas in accordance with the requirements for an extra (high) hazard occupancy.

    2404.5 Housekeeping, maintenance and storage of hazardous materials.

    Housekeeping, maintenance, storage and use of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 2403.3, 2403.4, 2404.5.1 and 2404.5.2.

    2404.5.1 Different coatings.

    Spray booths, spray rooms and spraying spaces shall not be alternately utilized for different types of coating materials where the combination of materials is conducive to spontaneous ignition, unless all deposits of one material are removed from the booth, room or space and exhaust ducts prior to spraying with a different material.

    2404.5.2 Protection of sprinklers.

    Automatic sprinklers installed in flammable vapor areas shall be protected from the accumulation of residue from spraying operations in an approved manner. Bags used as a protective covering shall be 0.003-inch-thick (0.076 mm) polyethylene or cellophane or shall be thin paper. Automatic sprinklers contaminated by overspray particles shall be replaced with new automatic sprinklers.

    2404.6 Sources of ignition.

    Control of sources of ignition shall be in accordance with Section 2403.2 and Sections 2404.6.1 through 2404.6.2.4.

    2404.6.1 Drying operations.

    Spray booths and spray rooms shall not be alternately used for the purpose of drying by arrangements or methods that could cause an increase in the surface temperature of the spray booth or spray room except in accordance with Sections 2404.6.1.1 and 2404.6.1.2. Except as specifically provided in this section, drying or baking units utilizing a heating system having open flames or that are capable of producing sparks shall not be installed in a flammable vapor areas.

    2404.6.1.1 Spraying procedure.

    The spraying procedure shall use low-volume spray application.

    2404.6.1.2 Drying apparatus.

    Fixed drying apparatus shall comply with this chapter and the applicable provisions of Chapter 30. When recirculation ventilation is provided in accordance with Section 2404.7.2, the heating system shall not be within the recirculation air path.

    2404.6.1.2.1 Interlocks.

    The spraying apparatus, drying apparatus and ventilating system for the spray booth or spray room shall be equipped with interlocks arranged to accomplish all of the following:

    1. 1.Prevent operation of the spraying apparatus while drying operations are in progress.

    2. 2.Where the drying apparatus is located in the spray booth or spray room, prevent operation of the drying apparatus until a timed purge of spray vapors from the spray booth or spray room is complete. This purge time shall be based upon completing at least four air changes of spray booth or spray room volume or for a period of not less than 3 minutes, whichever is greater.

    3. 3.Have the ventilating system maintain a safe atmosphere within the spray booth or spray room during the drying process and automatically shut off drying apparatus in the event of a failure of the ventilating system.

    4. 4.Shut off the drying apparatus automatically if the air temperature within the booth exceeds 200°F (93°C).

    2404.6.1.2.2 Portable infrared apparatus.

    Where a portable infrared drying apparatus is used, electrical wiring and portable infrared drying equipment shall comply with NFPA 70. Electrical equipment located within 18 inches (457 mm) of floor level shall be approved for Class I, Division 2 hazardous locations. Metallic parts of drying apparatus shall be electrically bonded and grounded. During spraying operations, portable drying apparatus and electrical connections and wiring thereto shall not be located within spray booths, spray rooms or other areas where spray residue would be deposited thereon.

    2404.6.2 Illumination.

    Where spraying spaces, spray rooms or spray booths are illuminated through glass panels or other transparent materials, only fixed luminaires shall be utilized as a source of illumination.

    2404.6.2.1 Glass panels.

    Panels for luminaires or for observation shall be of heat-treated glass, wired glass or hammered wire glass and shall be sealed to confine vapors, mists, residues, dusts and deposits to the flammable vapor area. Panels for luminaires shall be separated from the luminaire to prevent the surface temperature of the panel from exceeding 200°F (93°C).

    2404.6.2.2 Exterior luminaires.

    Luminaires attached to the walls or ceilings of a flammable vapor area, but outside of any classified area and separated from the flammable vapor areas by vapor-tight glass panels, shall be suitable for use in ordinary hazard locations. Such luminaires shall be serviced from outside the flammable vapor areas.

    2404.6.2.3 Integral luminaires.

    Luminaires that are an integral part of the walls or ceiling of a flammable vapor area are allowed to be separated from the flammable vapor area by glass panels that are an integral part of the luminaire. Such luminaires shall be listed for use in Class I, Division 2 or Class II, Division 2 locations, whichever is applicable, and also shall be suitable for accumulations of deposits of combustible residues. Such luminaires are allowed to be serviced from inside the flammable vapor area.

    2404.6.2.4 Portable electric lamps.

    Portable electric lamps shall not be used in flammable vapor areas during spraying operations. Portable electric lamps used during cleaning or repairing operations shall be of a type approved for hazardous locations.

    2404.7 Ventilation.

    Mechanical ventilation of flammable vapor areas shall be provided in accordance with Section 502.7 of the International Mechanical Code.

    2404.7.1 Operation.

    Mechanical ventilation shall be kept in operation at all times while spraying operations are being conducted and for a sufficient time thereafter to allow vapors from drying coated articles and finishing material residue to be exhausted. Spraying equipment shall be interlocked with the ventilation of the flammable vapor areas such that spraying operations cannot be conducted unless the ventilation system is in operation.

    2404.7.2 Recirculation.

    Air exhausted from spraying operations shall not be recirculated.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Air exhausted from spraying operations is allowed to be recirculated as makeup air for unmanned spray operations, provided that all of the following conditions exist:

      1. 1.1.The solid particulate has been removed.

      2. 1.2.The vapor concentration is less than 25 percent of the LFL.

      3. 1.3.Approved equipment is used to monitor the vapor concentration.

      4. 1.4.When the vapor concentration exceeds 25 percent of the LFL, both of the following shall occur:

        1. a. An alarm shall sound.

        2. b. Spray operations shall automatically shut down.

      5. 1.5.In the event of shutdown of the vapor concentration monitor, 100 percent of the air volume specified in Section 510 of the International Mechanical Code is automatically exhausted.

    2. 2.Air exhausted from spraying operations is allowed to be recirculated as makeup air to manned spraying operations where all of the conditions provided in Exception 1 are included in the installation and documents have been prepared to show that the installation does not pose a life safety hazard to personnel inside the spray booth, spraying space or spray room.

    2404.7.3 Air velocity.

    The ventilation system shall be designed, installed and maintained so that the flammable contaminants are diluted in noncontaminated air to maintain concentrations in the exhaust airflow below 25 percent of the contaminant’s lower flammable limit (LFL). In addition, the spray booth shall be provided with mechanical ventilation so that the average air velocity through openings is in accordance with Sections 2404.7.3.1 and 2404.7.3.2.

    2404.7.3.1 Open-face or open-front spray booth.

    For spray application operations conducted in an open-face or open-front spray booth, the ventilation system shall be designed, installed and maintained so that the average air velocity into the spray booth through all openings is not less than 100 feet per minute (0.51 m/s).

    Exception: For fixed or automated electrostatic spray application equipment, the average air velocity into the spray booth through all openings shall be not less than 50 feet per minute (0.25 m/s).

    2404.7.3.2 Enclosed spray booth or spray room with openings for product conveyance.

    For spray application operations conducted in an enclosed spray booth or spray room with openings for product conveyance, the ventilation system shall be designed, installed and maintained so that the average air velocity into the spray booth through openings is not less than 100 feet per minute (0.51 m/s).

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.For fixed or automated electrostatic spray application equipment, the average air velocity into the spray booth through all openings shall be not less than 50 feet per minute (0.25 m/s).

    2. 2.Where methods are used to reduce cross drafts that can draw vapors and overspray through openings from the spray booth or spray room, the average air velocity into the spray booth or spray room shall be that necessary to capture and confine vapors and overspray to the spray booth or spray room.

    2404.7.4 Ventilation obstruction.

    Articles being sprayed shall be positioned in a manner that does not obstruct collection of overspray.

    2404.7.5 Independent ducts.

    Each spray booth and spray room shall have an independent exhaust duct system discharging to the outside.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Multiple spray booths having a combined frontal area of 18 square feet (1.67 m2) or less are allowed to have a common exhaust when identical spray finishing material is used in each booth. If more than one fan serves one booth, fans shall be interconnected such that all fans will operate simultaneously.

    2. 2.Where treatment of exhaust is necessary for air pollution control or for energy conservation, ducts shall be allowed to be manifolded if all of the following conditions are met:

      1. 2.1.The sprayed materials used are compatible and will not react or cause ignition of the residue in the ducts.

      2. 2.2.Nitrocellulose-based finishing material shall not be used.

      3. 2.3.A filtering system shall be provided to reduce the amount of overspray carried into the duct manifold.

      4. 2.4.Automatic sprinkler protection shall be provided at the junction of each booth exhaust with the manifold, in addition to the protection required by this chapter.

    2404.7.6 Termination point.

    The termination point for exhaust ducts discharging to the atmosphere shall be not less than the following distances:

    1. 1.Ducts conveying explosive or flammable vapors, fumes or dusts: 30 feet (9144 mm) from the lot line; 10 feet (3048 mm) from openings into the building; 6 feet (1829 mm) from exterior walls and roofs; 30 feet (9144 mm) from combustible walls or openings into the building that are in the direction of the exhaust discharge; 10 feet (3048 mm) above adjoining grade.

    2. 2.Other product-conveying outlets: 10 feet (3048 mm) from the lot line; 3 feet (914 mm) from exterior walls and roofs; 10 feet (3048 mm) from openings into the building; 10 feet (3048 mm) above adjoining grade.

    2404.7.7 Fan motors and belts.

    Electric motors driving exhaust fans shall not be placed inside booths or ducts. Fan rotating elements shall be nonferrous or nonsparking or the casing shall consist of, or be lined with, such material. Belts shall not enter the duct or booth unless the belt and pulley within the duct are tightly enclosed.

    2404.7.8 Filters.

    Air intake filters that are part of a wall or ceiling assembly shall be listed as Class I or II in accordance with UL 900. Exhaust filters shall be required.

    2404.7.8.1 Supports.

    Supports and holders for filters shall be constructed of noncombustible materials.

    2404.7.8.2 Attachment.

    Overspray collection filters shall be readily removable and accessible for cleaning or replacement.

    2404.7.8.3 Maintaining air velocity.

    Visible gauges, audible alarms or pressure-activated devices shall be installed to indicate or ensure that the required air velocity is maintained.

    2404.7.8.4 Filter rolls.

    Spray booths equipped with a filter roll that is automatically advanced when the air velocity is reduced to less than 100 feet per minute (0.51 m/s) shall be arranged to shut down the spraying operation if the filter roll fails to advance automatically.

    2404.7.8.5 Filter disposal.

    Discarded filter pads shall be immediately removed to a safe, detached location or placed in a noncombustible container with a tight-fitting lid and disposed of properly.

    2404.7.8.6 Spontaneous ignition.

    Spray booths using dry filters shall not be used for spraying materials that are highly susceptible to spontaneous heating and ignition. Filters shall be changed prior to spraying materials that could react with other materials previously collected. An example of a potentially reactive combination includes lacquer when combined with varnishes, stains or primers.

    2404.7.8.7 Waterwash spray booths.

    Waterwash spray booths shall be of an approved design so as to prevent excessive accumulation of deposits in ducts and residue at duct outlets. Such booths shall be arranged so that air and overspray are drawn through a continuously flowing water curtain before entering an exhaust duct to the building exterior.

    2404.8 Interlocks.

    Interlocks for spray application finishes shall be in accordance with Sections 2404.8.1 through 2404.8.2.

    2404.8.1 Automated spray application operations.

    Where protecting automated spray application operations, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be equipped with an approved interlock feature that will, upon discharge of the system, automatically stop the spraying operations and workpiece conveyors into and out of the flammable vapor areas. Where the building is equipped with a fire alarm system, discharge of the automatic fire-extinguishing system shall also activate the building alarm notification appliances.

    2404.8.1.1 Alarm station.

    A manual fire alarm and emergency system shutdown station shall be installed to serve each flammable vapor area. When activated, the station shall accomplish the functions indicated in Section 2404.8.1.

    2404.8.1.2 Alarm station location.

    Not less than one manual fire alarm and emergency system shutdown station shall be readily accessible to operating personnel. Where access to this station is likely to involve exposure to danger, an additional station shall be located adjacent to an exit from the area.

    2404.8.2 Ventilation interlock prohibited.

    Air makeup and flammable vapor area exhaust systems shall not be interlocked with the fire alarm system and shall remain in operation during a fire alarm condition.

    Exception: Where the type of fire-extinguishing system used requires such ventilation to be discontinued, air makeup and exhaust systems shall shut down and dampers shall close.

    2404.9 Limited spraying spaces.

    Limited spraying spaces shall comply with Sections 2404.9.1 through 2404.9.4.

    2404.9.1 Job size.

    The aggregate surface area to be sprayed shall not exceed 9 square feet (0.84 m2).

    2404.9.2 Frequency.

    Spraying operations shall not be of a continuous nature.

    2404.9.3 Ventilation.

    Positive mechanical ventilation providing a minimum of six complete air changes per hour shall be installed. Such system shall meet the requirements of this code for handling flammable vapor areas. Explosion venting is not required.

    2404.9.4 Electrical wiring.

    Electrical wiring within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the floor and 20 feet (6096 mm) horizontally of the limited spraying space shall be designed for Class I, Division 2 locations in accordance with NFPA 70.

    SECTION2405
    DIPPING OPERATIONS

    2405.1 General.

    Dip-tank operations shall comply with the requirements of Section 2403 and Sections 2405.2 through 2405.11.

    2405.2 Location of dip-tank operations.

    Dip-tank operations conducted in buildings used for Group A, I or R occupancies shall be located in a room designed for that purpose, equipped with an approved automatic sprinkler system and separated vertically and horizontally from other areas in accordance with the International Building Code.

    2405.3 Construction of dip tanks.

    Dip tanks shall be constructed in accordance with Sections 2405.3.1 through 2405.3.4.3 and NFPA 34. Dip tanks, including drain boards, shall be constructed of noncombustible material and their supports shall be of heavy metal, reinforced concrete or masonry.

    2405.3.1 Overflow.

    Dip tanks greater than 150 gallons (568 L) in capacity or 10 square feet (0.93 m2) in liquid surface area shall be equipped with a trapped overflow pipe leading to an approved location outside the building. The bottom of the overflow connection shall be not less than 6 inches (152 mm) below the top of the tank.

    2405.3.2 Bottom drains.

    Dip tanks greater than 500 gallons (1893 L) in liquid capacity shall be equipped with bottom drains that are arranged to automatically and manually drain the tank quickly in the event of a fire unless the viscosity of the liquid at normal atmospheric temperature makes this impractical. Manual operation shall be from a safe, accessible location. Where gravity flow is not practicable, automatic pumps shall be provided. Such drains shall be trapped and discharged to a closed, vented salvage tank or to an approved outside location.

    Exception: Dip tanks containing Class IIIB combustible liquids where the liquids are not heated above room temperature and the process area is protected by automatic sprinklers.

    2405.3.3 Dipping liquid temperature control.

    Protection against the accumulation of vapors, self-ignition and excessively high temperatures shall be provided for dipping liquids that are heated directly or heated by the surfaces of the object being dipped.

    2405.3.4 Dip-tank covers.

    Dip-tank covers allowed by Section 2405.4.1 shall be capable of manual operation and shall be automatic closing by approved automatic-closing devices designed to operate in the event of a fire.

    2405.3.4.1 Construction.

    Covers shall be constructed of noncombustible material or be of a tin-clad type with enclosing metal applied with locked joints.

    2405.3.4.2 Supports.

    Chain or wire rope shall be utilized for cover supports or operating mechanisms.

    2405.3.4.3 Closed covers.

    Covers shall be kept closed when tanks are not in use.

    2405.4 Fire protection.

    Dip-tank operations shall be protected in accordance with Sections 2405.4.1 through 2405.4.2.

    2405.4.1 Fixed fire-extinguishing equipment.

    An approved automatic fire-extinguishing system or dip-tank cover in accordance with Section 2405.3.4 shall be provided for the following dip tanks:

    1. 1.Dip tanks less than 150 gallons (568 L) in capacity or 10 square feet (0.93 m2) in liquid surface area.

    2. 2.Dip tanks containing a liquid with a flash point below 110°F (43°C) used in such manner that the liquid temperature could equal or be greater than its flash point from artificial or natural causes, and having both a capacity of more than 10 gallons (37.9 L) and a liquid surface area of more than 4 square feet (0.37 m2).

    2405.4.1.1 Fire-extinguishing system.

    An approved automatic fire-extinguishing system shall be provided for dip tanks with a 150-gallon (568 L) or more capacity or 10 square feet (0.93 m2) or larger in a liquid surface area. Fire-extinguishing system design shall be in accordance with NFPA 34.

    2405.4.2 Portable fire extinguishers.

    Areas in the vicinity of dip tanks shall be provided with portable fire extinguishers complying with Section 906 and suitable for flammable and combustible liquid fires as specified for extra (high) hazard occupancies.

    2405.5 Housekeeping, maintenance and storage of hazardous materials.

    Housekeeping, maintenance, storage and use of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 2403.3 and 2403.4.

    2405.6 Sources of ignition.

    Control of sources of ignition shall be in accordance with Section 2403.2.

    2405.7 Ventilation of flammable vapor areas.

    Flammable vapor areas shall be provided with mechanical ventilation adequate to prevent the dangerous accumulation of vapors. Required ventilation systems shall be arranged such that the failure of any ventilating fan shall automatically stop the dipping conveyor system.

    2405.8 Conveyor interlock.

    Dip tanks utilizing a conveyor system shall be arranged such that in the event of a fire, the conveyor system shall automatically cease motion and the required tank bottom drains shall open.

    2405.9 Hardening and tempering tanks.

    Hardening and tempering tanks shall comply with Sections 2405.3 through 2405.3.3, 2405.4.2 and 2405.8, but shall be exempt from other provisions of Section 2405.

    2405.9.1 Location.

    Tanks shall be located as far as practical from furnaces and shall not be located on or near combustible floors.

    2405.9.2 Hoods.

    Tanks shall be provided with a noncombustible hood and vent or other approved venting means, terminating outside of the structure to serve as a vent in case of a fire. Such vent ducts shall be treated as flues and proper clearances shall be maintained from combustible materials.

    2405.9.3 Alarms.

    Tanks shall be equipped with a high-temperature limit switch arranged to sound an alarm when the temperature of the quenching medium reaches 50°F (10°C) below the flash point.

    2405.9.4 Fire protection.

    Hardening and tempering tanks greater than 500 gallons (1893 L) in capacity or 25 square feet (2.3 m2) in liquid surface area shall be protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system complying with Chapter 9.

    2405.9.5 Use of air pressure.

    Air under pressure shall not be used to fill or agitate oil in tanks.

    2405.10 Flow-coating operations.

    Flow-coating operations shall comply with the requirements for dip tanks. The area of the sump and any areas on which paint flows shall be considered to be the area of a dip tank.

    2405.10.1 Paint supply.

    Paint shall be supplied by a gravity tank not exceeding 10 gallons (38 L) in capacity or by direct low-pressure pumps arranged to shut down automatically in case of a fire by means of approved heat-actuated devices.

    2405.11 Roll-coating operations.

    Roll-coating operations shall comply with Section 2405.10. In roll-coating operations utilizing flammable or combustible liquids, sparks from static electricity shall be prevented by electrically bonding and grounding all metallic rotating and other parts of machinery and equipment and by the installation of static collectors, or by maintaining a conductive atmosphere such as a high relative humidity.

    SECTION2406
    POWDER COATING

    2406.1 General.

    Operations using finely ground particles of protective finishing material applied in dry powder form by a fluidized bed, an electrostatic fluidized bed, powder spray guns or electrostatic powder spray guns shall comply with Sections 2406.2 through 2406.7. In addition, Section 2407 shall apply to fixed electrostatic equipment used in powder coating operations.

    2406.2 Location.

    Powder coating operations shall be conducted in enclosed powder coating rooms, enclosed powder coating facilities that are ventilated or ventilated spray booths.

    2406.3 Construction of powder coating rooms and booths.

    Powder coating rooms shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. Spray booths shall be constructed in accordance with Section 2404.3.2.

    Exception: Listed spray-booth assemblies that are constructed of other materials shall be allowed.

    2406.4 Fire protection.

    Areas used for powder coating shall be protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system complying with Chapter 9.

    2406.4.1 Additional protection for fixed systems.

    Automated powder application equipment shall be protected by the installation of an approved, supervised flame detection apparatus that shall react to the presence of flame within 0.5 second and shall accomplish all of the following:

    1. 1.Shutting down of energy supplies (electrical and compressed air) to conveyor, ventilation, application, transfer and powder collection equipment.

    2. 2.Closing of segregation dampers in associated duct-work to interrupt airflow from application equipment to powder collectors.

    3. 3.Activation of an alarm that is audible throughout the powder coating room or booth.

    2406.4.2 Fire extinguishers.

    Portable fire extinguishers complying with Section 906 shall be provided for areas used for powder coating in accordance with the requirements for an extra-hazard occupancy.

    2406.5 Operation and maintenance.

    Powder coating areas shall be kept free from the accumulation of powder coating dusts, including horizontal surfaces such as ledges, beams, pipes, hoods, booths and floors.

    2406.5.1 Cleaning.

    Surfaces shall be cleaned in such a manner so as to avoid scattering dusts to other places or creating dust clouds. Vacuum sweeping equipment shall be of a type approved for use in hazardous locations.

    2406.6 Sources of ignition.

    Control of sources of ignition shall be in accordance with Section 2403.2 and Sections 2406.6.1 through 2406.6.4.

    2406.6.1 Drying, curing and fusion equipment.

    Drying, curing and fusion equipment shall comply with Chapter 30.

    2406.6.2 Spark-producing metals.

    Iron or spark-producing metals shall be prevented from being introduced into the powders being applied by magnetic separators, filter-type separators or by other approved means.

    2406.6.3 Preheated parts.

    When parts are heated prior to coating, the temperature of the parts shall not exceed the ignition temperature of the powder to be used.

    2406.6.4 Grounding and bonding.

    Precautions shall be taken to minimize the possibility of ignition by static electrical sparks through static bonding and grounding, where possible, of powder transport, application and recovery equipment.

    2406.7 Ventilation.

    Exhaust ventilation shall be sufficient to maintain the atmosphere below one-half the minimum explosive concentration for the material being applied. Nondeposited, air-suspended powders shall be removed through exhaust ducts to the powder recovery system.

    SECTION2407
    ELECTROSTATIC APPARATUS

    2407.1 General.

    Electrostatic apparatus and devices used in connection with paint-spraying and paint-detearing operations shall be of an approved type.

    2407.2 Location and clear space.

    A space of not less than twice the sparking distance shall be maintained between goods being painted or deteared and electrodes, electrostatic atomizing heads or conductors. A sign stating the sparking distance shall be conspicuously posted near the assembly.

    Exception: Portable electrostatic paint-spraying apparatus listed for use in Class I, Division 1, locations.

    2407.3 Construction of equipment.

    Electrodes and electrostatic atomizing heads shall be of approved construction, rigidly supported in permanent locations and effectively insulated from ground. Insulators shall be nonporous and noncombustible.

    Exception: Portable electrostatic paint-spraying apparatus listed for use in Class I, Division 1, locations.

    2407.3.1 Barriers.

    Booths, fencing, railings or guards shall be placed about the equipment such that either by their location or character, or both, isolation of the process is maintained from plant storage and personnel. Railings, fencing and guards shall be of conductive material, adequately grounded, and not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) from processing equipment.

    Exception: Portable electrostatic paint-spraying apparatus listed for use in Class I, Division 1, locations.

    2407.4 Fire protection.

    Areas used for electrostatic spray finishing with fixed equipment shall be protected with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system complying with Chapter 9 and Section 2407.4.1.

    2407.4.1 Protection for automated liquid electrostatic spray application equipment.

    Automated liquid electrostatic spray application equipment shall be protected by the installation of an approved, supervised flame detection apparatus that shall, in the event of ignition, react to the presence of flame within 0.5 second and shall accomplish all of the following:

    1. 1.Activation of a local alarm in the vicinity of the spraying operation and activation of the building alarm system, if such a system is provided.

    2. 2.Shutting down of the coating material delivery system.

    3. 3.Termination of all spray application operations.

    4. 4.Stopping of conveyors into and out of the flammable vapor areas.

    5. 5.Disconnection of power to the high-voltage elements in the flammable vapor areas and disconnection of power to the system.

    2407.5 Housekeeping, maintenance and storage of hazardous materials.

    Housekeeping, maintenance, storage and use of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 2403.3, 2403.4 and Sections 2407.5.1 and 2407.5.2.

    2407.5.1 Maintenance.

    Insulators shall be kept clean and dry. Drip plates and screens subject to paint deposits shall be removable and taken to a safe place for cleaning. Grounds and bonding means for the paint-spraying apparatus and all associated equipment shall be periodically cleaned and maintained free of overspray.

    2407.5.2 Signs.

    Signs shall be posted to provide the following information:

    1. 1.Designate the process zone as dangerous with respect to fire and accident.

    2. 2.Identify the grounding requirements for all electrically conductive objects in the flammable vapor area, including persons.

    3. 3.Restrict access to qualified personnel only.

    2407.6 Sources of ignition.

    Transformers, power packs, control apparatus and all other electrical portions of the equipment, except high-voltage grids and electrostatic atomizing heads and connections, shall be located outside of the flammable vapor areas or shall comply with Section 2403.2.

    2407.7 Ventilation.

    The flammable vapor area shall be ventilated in accordance with Section 2404.7.

    2407.8 Emergency shutdown.

    Electrostatic apparatus shall be equipped with automatic controls operating without time delay to disconnect the power supply to the high-voltage transformer and signal the operator under any of the following conditions:

    1. 1.Stoppage of ventilating fans or failure of ventilating equipment from any cause.

    2. 2.Stoppage of the conveyor carrying articles past the high-voltage grid.

    3. 3.Occurrence of a ground or an imminent ground at any point of the high-voltage system.

    4. 4.Reduction of clearance below that required in Section 2407.2.

    2407.9 Ventilation interlock.

    Hand electrostatic equipment shall be interlocked with the ventilation system for the spraying area so that the equipment cannot be operated unless the ventilating system is in operation.

    SECTION2408
    ORGANIC PEROXIDES AND
    DUAL-COMPONENT COATINGS

    2408.1 General.

    Spraying operations involving the use of organic peroxides and other dual-component coatings shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section 2403 and Sections 2408.2 through 2408.5.

    2408.2 Use of organic peroxide coatings.

    Spraying operations involving the use of organic peroxides and other dual-component coatings shall be conducted in approved sprinklered spray booths complying with Section 2404.3.2.

    2408.3 Equipment.

    Spray guns and related handling equipment used with organic peroxides shall be of a type manufactured for such use.

    2408.3.1 Pressure tanks.

    Separate pressure vessels and inserts specifically for the application shall be used for the resin and for the organic peroxide, and shall not be interchanged. Organic peroxide pressure tank inserts shall be constructed of stainless steel or polyethylene.

    2408.4 Housekeeping, maintenance, storage and use of hazardous materials.

    Housekeeping, maintenance, storage and use of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 2403.3 and 2403.4 and Sections 2408.4.1 through 2408.4.7.

    2408.4.1 Contamination prevention.

    Organic peroxide initiators shall not be contaminated with foreign substances.

    2408.4.2 Spilled material.

    Spilled organic peroxides shall be promptly removed so there are no residues. Spilled material absorbed by using a noncombustible absorbent shall be promptly disposed of in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendation.

    2408.4.3 Residue control.

    Materials shall not be contaminated by dusts and overspray residues resulting from the sanding or spraying of finishing materials containing organic peroxides.

    2408.4.4 Handling.

    Handling of organic peroxides shall be conducted in a manner that avoids shock and friction that produces decomposition and violent reaction hazards.

    2408.4.5 Mixing.

    Organic peroxides shall not be mixed directly with accelerators or promoters.

    2408.4.6 Personnel qualifications.

    Personnel working with organic peroxides and dual-component coatings shall be specifically trained to work with these materials.

    2408.4.7 Storage.

    The storage of organic peroxides shall comply with Chapter 62.

    2408.5 Sources of ignition.

    Only nonsparking tools shall be used in areas where organic peroxides are stored, mixed or applied.

    SECTION2409
    INDOOR MANUFACTURING
    OF REINFORCED PLASTICS

    2409.1 General.

    Indoor manufacturing processes involving spray or hand application of reinforced plastics and using more than 5 gallons (19 L) of resin in a 24-hour period shall be in accordance with Sections 2409.2 through 2409.6.1.

    2409.2 Resin application equipment.

    Equipment used for spray application of resin shall be installed and used in accordance with Section 2408 and Sections 2409.3 through 2409.6.1.

    2409.3 Fire protection.

    Resin application areas shall be protected by an automatic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system design shall be not less than that required for Ordinary Hazard, Group 2, with a minimum design area of 3,000 square feet (279 m2). Where the materials or storage arrangements are required by other regulations to be provided with a higher level of sprinkler system protection, the higher level of sprinkler system protection shall be provided.

    2409.4 Housekeeping, maintenance, storage and use of hazardous materials.

    Housekeeping, maintenance, storage and use of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 2403.3 and 2403.4 and Sections 2409.4.1 through 2409.4.3.

    2409.4.1 Handling of excess catalyzed resin.

    A noncombustible, open-top container shall be provided for disposal of excess catalyzed resin. Excess catalyzed resin shall be drained into the container while still in the liquid state. Enough water shall be provided in the container to maintain a minimum 2-inch (51 mm) water layer over the contained resin.

    2409.4.2 Control of overchop.

    In areas where chopper guns are used, exposed wall and floor surfaces shall be covered with paper, polyethylene film or other approved material to allow for removal of overchop. Overchop shall be allowed to cure for not less than 4 hours prior to removal.

    2409.4.2.1 Disposal.

    Following removal, used wall and floor covering materials required by Section 2409.4.2 shall be placed in a noncombustible container and removed from the facility.

    2409.4.3 Storage and use of hazardous materials.

    Storage and use of organic peroxides shall be in accordance with Section 2408 and Chapter 62. Storage and use of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 57. Storage and use of unstable (reactive) materials shall be in accordance with Chapter 66.

    2409.5 Sources of ignition in resin application areas.

    Sources of ignition in resin application areas shall comply with Section 2403.2.

    2409.6 Ventilation.

    Mechanical ventilation shall be provided throughout resin application areas in accordance with Section 2404.7. The ventilation rate shall be adequate to maintain the concentration of flammable vapors in the resin application area at or below 25 percent of the LFL.

    Exception: Mechanical ventilation is not required for buildings that have 75 percent of the perimeter unenclosed.

    2409.6.1 Local ventilation.

    Local ventilation shall be provided inside of workpieces where personnel will be under or inside of the workpiece.

    SECTION2410
    FLOOR SURFACING AND FINISHING OPERATIONS

    2410.1 Scope.

    Floor surfacing and finishing operations exceeding 350 square feet (33 m2) and using Class I or II liquids shall comply with Sections 2410.2 through 2410.5.

    2410.2 Mechanical system operation.

    Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems shall not be operated during resurfacing or refinishing operations or within 4 hours of the application of flammable or combustible liquids.

    2410.3 Business operation.

    Floor surfacing and finishing operations shall not be conducted while an establishment is open to the public.

    2410.4 Ignition sources.

    The power shall be shut down to all electrical sources of ignition within the flammable vapor area, unless those devices are classified for use in Class I, Division 1 hazardous locations.

    2410.5 Ventilation.

    To prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors, mechanical ventilation at a minimum rate of 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot [0.00508 m3 /(s • m2)] of area being finished shall be provided. Such exhaust shall be by approved temporary or portable means. Vapors shall be exhausted to the exterior of the building.

    CHAPTER25
    FRUIT AND CROP RIPENING

    SECTION2501
    GENERAL

    2501.1 Scope.

    Ripening processes where ethylene gas is introduced into a room to promote the ripening of fruits, vegetables and other crops shall comply with this chapter.

    Exception: Mixtures of ethylene and one or more inert gases in concentrations that prevent the gas from reaching greater than 25 percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL) when released to the atmosphere.

    2501.2 Permits.

    Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.

    2501.3 Ethylene generators.

    Approved ethylene generators shall be operated and maintained in accordance with Section 2506.

    SECTION2502
    DEFINITIONS

    2502.1 Terms defined in Chapter 2.

    Words and terms used in this chapter and defined in Chapter 2 shall have the meanings ascribed to them as defined therein.

    SECTION2503
    ETHYLENE GAS

    2503.1 Location.

    Ethylene gas shall be discharged only into approved rooms or enclosures designed and constructed for this purpose.

    2503.2 Dispensing.

    Valves controlling discharge of ethylene shall provide positive and fail-closed control of flow and shall be set to limit the concentration of gas in air below 1,000 parts per million (ppm).

    SECTION2504
    SOURCES OF IGNITION

    2504.1 Ignition prevention.

    Sources of ignition shall be controlled or protected in accordance with this section and Chapter 3.

    2504.2 Electrical wiring and equipment.

    Electrical wiring and equipment, including luminaires, shall be approved for use in Class I, Division 2, Group C hazardous (classified) locations.

    2504.3 Static electricity.

    Containers, piping and equipment used to dispense ethylene shall be bonded and grounded to prevent the discharge of static sparks or arcs.

    2504.4 Lighting.

    Lighting shall be by approved electric lamps or luminaires only.

    2504.5 Heating.

    Heating shall be by indirect means utilizing low-pressure steam, hot water or warm air.

    Exception: Electric or fuel-fired heaters approved for use in hazardous (classified) locations and that are installed and operated in accordance with the applicable provisions of NFPA 70, the International Mechanical Code or the International Fuel Gas Code.

    SECTION2505
    COMBUSTIBLE WASTE

    2505.1 Housekeeping.

    Empty boxes, cartons, pallets and other combustible waste shall be removed from ripening rooms or enclosures and disposed of at regular intervals in accordance with Chapter 3.

    SECTION2506
    ETHYLENE GENERATORS

    2506.1 Ethylene generators.

    Ethylene generators shall be listed and labeled by an approved testing laboratory, approved by the fire code official and used only in approved rooms in accordance with the ethylene generator manufacturer’s instructions. The listing evaluation shall include documentation that the concentration of ethylene gas does not exceed 25 percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL).

    2506.2 Ethylene generator rooms.

    Ethylene generators shall be used in rooms having a volume of not less than 1,000 cubic feet (28 m3). Rooms shall have air circulation to ensure even distribution of ethylene gas and shall be free from sparks, open flames or other ignition sources.

    SECTION2507
    WARNING SIGNS

    2507.1 Where required.

    Approved warning signs indicating the danger involved and necessary precautions shall be posted on all doors and entrances to the premises.

    CHAPTER26
    FUMIGATION AND INSECTICIDAL FOGGING

    SECTION2601
    GENERAL

    2601.1 Scope.

    Fumigation and insecticidal fogging operations within buildings, structures and spaces shall comply with this chapter.

    2601.2 Permits.

    Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.

    SECTION2602
    DEFINITIONS

    2602.1 Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    FUMIGANT.

    FUMIGATION.

    INSECTICIDAL FOGGING.

    SECTION2603
    FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

    2603.1 General.

    Buildings, structures and spaces in which fumigation and insecticidal fogging operations are conducted shall comply with the fire protection and safety requirements of Sections 2603.2 through 2603.7.

    2603.2 Sources of ignition.

    Fires, open flames and similar sources of ignition shall be eliminated from the space under fumigation or insecticidal fogging. Heating, where needed, shall be of an approved type.

    2603.2.1 Electricity.

    Electricity in any part of the building, structure or space where operation of switches or electrical devices, equipment or systems could serve as a source of ignition shall be shut off.

    Exception: Circulating fans that have been specifically designed for utilization in hazardous atmospheres and installed in accordance with NFPA 70.

    2603.2.2 Electronic devices.

    Electronic devices, including portable equipment and cellular phones, shall be shut off. Telephone lines shall be disconnected from telephones.

    2603.2.3 Duration.

    Sources of ignition shall be shut off during the fumigation activity and remain shut off until the ventilation required in Section 2603.6 is completed.

    2603.3 Notification.

    The fire code official and fire chief shall be notified in writing not less than 48 hours before the building, structure or space is to be closed in connection with the utilization of any toxic or flammable fumigant. Notification shall give the location of the enclosed space to be fumigated or fogged, the occupancy, the fumigants or insecticides to be utilized, the person or persons responsible for the operation, and the date and time at which the operation will begin. Written notice of any fumigation or insecticidal fogging operation shall be given to all affected occupants of the building, structure or space in which such operations are to be conducted with sufficient advance notice to allow the occupants to evacuate the building, structure or space. Such notice shall inform the occupants as to the purposes, anticipated duration and hazards associated with the fumigation or insecticidal fogging operation.

    2603.3.1 Warning signs.

    Approved warning signs indicating the danger, type of chemical involved and necessary precautions shall be posted on all doors and entrances to the affected building, structure or space and upon all gangplanks and ladders from the deck, pier or land to a ship. Such notices shall be printed in red ink on a white background. Letters in the headlines shall be not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in height and shall state the date and time of the operation, the name and address of the person, the name of the operator in charge, and a warning stating that the affected building, structure or space shall be vacated not less than 1 hour before the operation begins and shall not be reentered until the danger signs have been removed by the proper authorities.

    2603.3.2 Breathing apparatus.

    Persons engaged in the business of fumigation or insecticidal fogging shall maintain and have available approved protective breathing apparatus.

    2603.3.3 Watch personnel.

    During the period fumigation is in progress, except where fumigation is conducted in a gas-tight vault or tank, a responsible watchperson shall remain on duty at the entrance or entrances to the enclosed fumigated space until after the fumigation is completed and the building, structure or space is properly ventilated and safe for occupancy. Sufficient watchers shall be provided to prevent persons from entering the enclosed space under fumigation without being observed.

    2603.3.4 Evacuation during fumigation.

    Occupants of the building, structure or space to be fumigated, except the personnel conducting the fumigation, shall be evacuated from such building, structure or space prior to commencing fumigation operations.

    2603.3.5 Evacuation during insecticidal fogging operations.

    Occupants in the building, structure or space to be fogged, except the personnel conducting the insecticidal fogging operations, shall be evacuated from such building, structure or space prior to commencing fogging operations.

    2603.4 Insecticidal fogging liquids.

    Insecticidal fogging liquids with a flash point below 100°F (38°C) shall not be utilized.

    2603.5 Sealing of buildings, structures and spaces.

    Paper and other similar materials that do not meet the flame propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701 shall not be used to wrap or cover a building, structure or space in excess of that required for the sealing of cracks, casements and similar openings.

    2603.5.1 Maintenance of openings.

    All openings to the building, structure or space to be fumigated or fogged shall be kept securely closed during such operation.

    2603.6 Venting and cleanup.

    At the end of the exposure period, fumigators shall safely and properly ventilate the premises and contents; properly dispose of fumigant containers, residues, debris and other materials used for such fumigation; and clear obstructions from gas-fired appliance vents.

    2603.7 Flammable fumigants restricted.

    The use of carbon disulfide and hydrogen cyanide shall be restricted to agricultural fumigation.

    CHAPTER27
    SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES

    SECTION2701
    GENERAL

    2701.1 Scope.

    Semiconductor fabrication facilities and comparable research and development areas classified as Group H-5 shall comply with this chapter and the International Building Code. The use, storage and handling of hazardous materials in Group H-5 shall comply with this chapter, other applicable provisions of this code and the International Building Code.

    2701.2 Application.

    The requirements set forth in this chapter are requirements specific only to Group H-5 and shall be applied as exceptions or additions to applicable requirements set forth elsewhere in this code.

    2701.3 Multiple hazards.

    Where a material poses multiple hazards, all hazards shall be addressed in accordance with Section 5001.1.

    2701.4 Existing buildings and existing fabrication areas.

    Existing buildings and existing fabrication areas shall comply with this chapter, except that transportation and handling of HPM in corridors and enclosures for stairways and ramps shall be allowed where in compliance with Section 2705.3.2 and the International Building Code.

    2701.5 Permits.

    Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.

    SECTION2702
    DEFINITIONS

    2702.1 Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM.

    EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION.

    FABRICATION AREA.

    HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM).

    HPM ROOM.

    PASS-THROUGH.

    SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITY.

    SERVICE CORRIDOR.

    TOOL.

    WORKSTATION.

    SECTION2703
    GENERAL SAFETY PROVISIONS

    2703.1 Emergency control station.

    An emergency control station shall be provided in accordance with Sections 2703.1.1 through 2703.1.3.

    2703.1.1 Location.

    The emergency control station shall be located on the premises at an approved location outside the fabrication area.

    2703.1.2 Staffing.

    Trained personnel shall continuously staff the emergency control station.

    2703.1.3 Signals.

    The emergency control station shall receive signals from emergency equipment and alarm and detection systems. Such emergency equipment and alarm and detection systems shall include, but not be limited to, the following where such equipment or systems are required to be provided either in this chapter or elsewhere in this code:

    1. 1.Automatic sprinkler system alarm and monitoring systems.

    2. 2.Manual fire alarm systems.

    3. 3.Emergency alarm systems.

    4. 4.Continuous gas detection systems.

    5. 5.Smoke detection systems.

    6. 6.Emergency power system.

    7. 7.Automatic detection and alarm systems for pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids required by Section 2705.2.3.4.

    8. 8.Exhaust ventilation flow alarm devices for pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids cabinet exhaust ventilation systems required by Section 2705.2.3.4.

    2703.2 Systems, equipment and processes.

    Systems, equipment and processes shall be in accordance with Sections 2703.2.1 through 2703.2.3.2.

    2703.2.1 Application.

    Systems, equipment and processes shall include, but not be limited to, containers, cylinders, tanks, piping, tubing, valves and fittings.

    2703.2.2 General requirements.

    In addition to the requirements in Section 2703.2, systems, equipment and processes shall also comply with Section 5003.2, other applicable provisions of this code, the International Building Code and the International Mechanical Code.

    2703.2.3 Additional requirements for HPM supply piping.

    In addition to the requirements in Section 2703.2, HPM supply piping and tubing for HPM gases and liquids shall comply with this section.

    2703.2.3.1 General requirements.

    The requirements set forth in Section 5003.2.2.2 shall apply to supply piping and tubing for HPM gases and liquids.

    2703.2.3.2 Health-hazard ranking 3 or 4 HPM.

    Supply piping and tubing for HPM gases and liquids having a health-hazard ranking of 3 or 4 shall be welded throughout, except for connections located within a ventilation enclosure if the material is a gas, or an approved method of drainage or containment provided for connections if the material is a liquid.

    2703.3 Construction requirements.

    Construction of semiconductor fabrication facilities shall be in accordance with Sections 2703.3.1 through 2703.3.9.

    2703.3.1 Fabrication areas.

    Construction and location of fabrication areas shall comply with the International Building Code.

    2703.3.2 Pass-throughs in exit access corridors.

    Pass-throughs in exit access corridors shall be constructed in accordance with the International Building Code.

    2703.3.3 Liquid storage rooms.

    Liquid storage rooms shall comply with Chapter 57 and the International Building Code.

    2703.3.4 HPM rooms.

    HPM rooms shall comply with the International Building Code.

    2703.3.5 Gas cabinets.

    Gas cabinets shall comply with Section 5003.8.6.

    2703.3.6 Exhausted enclosures.

    Exhausted enclosures shall comply with Section 5003.8.5.

    2703.3.7 Gas rooms.

    Gas rooms shall comply with Section 5003.8.4.

    2703.3.8 Service corridors.

    Service corridors shall comply with Section 2705.3 and the International Building Code.

    2703.3.9 Cabinets containing pyrophoric liquids or water-reactive Class 3 liquids.

    Cabinets in fabrication areas containing pyrophoric liquids or Class 3 water-reactive liquids in containers or in amounts greater than 1/2 gallon (2 L) shall comply with Section 2705.2.3.4.

    2703.4 Emergency plan.

    An emergency plan shall be established as set forth in Section 403.7.1.

    2703.5 Maintenance of equipment, machinery and processes.

    Maintenance of equipment, machinery and processes shall comply with Section 5003.2.6.

    2703.6 Security of areas.

    Areas shall be secured in accordance with Section 5003.9.2.

    2703.7 Electrical wiring and equipment.

    Electrical wiring and equipment in HPM facilities shall comply with Sections 2703.7.1 through 2703.7.3.

    2703.7.1 Fabrication areas.

    Electrical wiring and equipment in fabrication areas shall comply with NFPA 70.

    2703.7.2 Workstations.

    Electrical equipment and devices within 5 feet (1524 mm) of workstations in which flammable or pyrophoric gases or flammable liquids are used shall comply with NFPA 70 for Class I, Division 2 hazardous locations. Workstations shall not be energized without adequate exhaust ventilation in accordance with Section 2703.14.

    Exception: Class I, Division 2 hazardous electrical equipment is not required where the air removal from the workstation or dilution will prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors and fumes on a continuous basis.

    2703.7.3 Hazardous production material (HPM) rooms, gas rooms and liquid storage rooms.

    Electrical wiring and equipment in HPM rooms, gas rooms and liquid storage rooms shall comply with NFPA 70.

    2703.8 Corridors and enclosures for stairways and ramps.

    Hazardous materials shall not be used or stored in corridors or enclosures for stairways and ramps.

    2703.9 Service corridors.

    Hazardous materials shall not be used in an open-system use condition in service corridors.

    2703.10 Automatic sprinkler system.

    An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in accordance with Sections 2703.10.1 through 2703.10.5 and Chapter 9.

    2703.10.1 Workstations and tools.

    The design of the sprinkler system in the area shall take into consideration the spray pattern and the effect on the equipment.

    2703.10.1.1 Combustible workstations.

    A sprinkler head shall be installed within each branch exhaust connection or individual plenums of workstations of combustible construction. The sprinkler head in the exhaust connection or plenum shall be located not more than 2 feet (610 mm) from the point of the duct connection or the connection to the plenum. Where necessary to prevent corrosion, the sprinkler head and connecting piping in the duct shall be coated with approved or listed corrosion-resistant materials. The sprinkler head shall be accessible for periodic inspection.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Approved alternative automatic fire-extinguishing systems are allowed. Activation of such systems shall deactivate the related processing equipment.

    2. 2.Process equipment that operates at temperatures exceeding 932°F (500°C) and is provided with automatic shutdown capabilities for hazardous materials.

    3. 3.Exhaust ducts 10 inches (254 mm) or less in diameter from flammable gas storage cabinets that are part of a workstation.

    4. 4.Ducts listed or approved for use without internal automatic sprinkler protection.

    2703.10.1.2 Combustible tools.

    Where the horizontal surface of a combustible tool is obstructed from ceiling sprinkler discharge, automatic sprinkler protection that covers the horizontal surface of the tool shall be provided.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.An automatic gaseous fire-extinguishing local surface application system shall be allowed as an alternative to sprinklers. Gaseous-extinguishing systems shall be actuated by infrared (IR) or ultraviolet/infrared (UV/IR) optical detectors.

    2. 2.Tools constructed of materials that are listed as Class 1 or Class 2 in accordance with UL 2360 or approved for use without internal fire-extinguishing system protection.

    2703.10.2 Gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures.

    An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures containing HPM compressed gases.

    Exception: Gas cabinets located in an HPM room other than those cabinets containing pyrophoric gases.

    2703.10.3 Pass-throughs in existing exit access corridors.

    Pass-throughs in existing exit access corridors shall be protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system.

    2703.10.4 Exhaust ducts for HPM.

    An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in exhaust ducts conveying gases, vapors, fumes, mists or dusts generated from HPM in accordance with this section and the International Mechanical Code.

    2703.10.4.1 Metallic and noncombustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts.

    An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in metallic and noncombustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts where all of the following conditions apply:

    1. 1.Where the largest cross-sectional diameter is equal to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm).

    2. 2.The ducts are within the building.

    3. 3.The ducts are conveying flammable gases, vapors or fumes.

    2703.10.4.2 Combustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts.

    An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in combustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts where the largest cross-sectional diameter of the duct is equal to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm).

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Ducts listed or approved for applications without automatic sprinkler system protection.

    2. 2.Ducts not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) in length installed below ceiling level.

    2703.10.4.3 Exhaust connections and plenums of combustible workstations.

    Automatic fire-extinguishing system protection for exhaust connections and plenums of combustible workstations shall comply with Section 2703.10.1.1.

    2703.10.4.4 Exhaust duct sprinkler system requirements.

    Automatic sprinklers installed in exhaust duct systems shall be hydraulically designed to provide 0.5 gallons per minute (gpm) (1.9 L/min) over an area derived by multiplying the distance between the sprinklers in a horizontal duct by the width of the duct. Minimum discharge shall be 20 gpm (76 L/min) per sprinkler from the five hydraulically most remote sprinklers.

    2703.10.4.4.1 Sprinkler head locations.

    Automatic sprinklers shall be installed at 12-foot (3658 mm) intervals in horizontal ducts and at changes in direction. In vertical runs, automatic sprinklers shall be installed at the top and at alternate floor levels.

    2703.10.4.4.2 Control valve.

    A separate indicating control valve shall be provided for sprinklers installed in exhaust ducts.

    2703.10.4.4.3 Drainage.

    Drainage shall be provided to remove sprinkler water discharged in exhaust ducts.

    2703.10.4.4.4 Corrosive atmospheres.

    Where corrosive atmospheres exist, exhaust duct sprinklers and pipe fittings shall be manufactured of corrosion-resistant materials or coated with approved materials.

    2703.10.4.4.5 Maintenance and inspection.

    Sprinklers in exhaust ducts shall be accessible for periodic inspection and maintenance.

    2703.10.5 Sprinkler alarms and supervision.

    Automatic sprinkler systems shall be electrically supervised and provided with alarms in accordance with Chapter 9. Automatic sprinkler system alarm and supervisory signals shall be transmitted to the emergency control station.

    2703.11 Manual fire alarm system.

    A manual fire alarm system shall be installed throughout buildings containing a Group H-5 occupancy. Activation of the alarm system shall initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control station. Manual fire alarm systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section 907.

    2703.12 Emergency alarm system.

    Emergency alarm systems shall be provided in accordance with Sections 2703.12.1 through 2703.12.3, Section 5004.9 and Section 5005.4.4. The maximum allowable quantity per control area provisions of Section 5004.1 shall not apply to emergency alarm systems required for HPM.

    2703.12.1 Where required.

    Emergency alarm systems shall be provided in the areas indicated in Sections 2703.12.1.1 through 2703.12.1.3.

    2703.12.1.1 Service corridors.

    An approved emergency alarm system shall be provided in service corridors, with not less than one alarm device in the service corridor.

    2703.12.1.2 Corridors and interior exit stairways and ramps.

    Emergency alarms for corridors, interior exit stairways and ramps and exit passageways shall comply with Section 5005.4.4.

    2703.12.1.3 Liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms and gas rooms.

    Emergency alarms for liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms and gas rooms shall comply with Section 5004.9.

    2703.12.2 Alarm-initiating devices.

    An approved emergency telephone system, local alarm manual pull stations, or other approved alarm-initiating devices are allowed to be used as emergency alarm-initiating devices.

    2703.12.3 Alarm signals.

    Activation of the emergency alarm system shall sound a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control station.

    2703.13 Continuous gas detection systems.

    A continuous gas detection system shall be provided for HPM gases where the physiological warning threshold level of the gas is at a higher level than the accepted permissible exposure limit (PEL) for the gas and for flammable gases in accordance with Sections 2703.13.1 through 2703.13.2.2.

    2703.13.1 Where required.

    A continuous gas detection system shall be provided in the areas identified in Sections 2703.13.1.1 through 2703.13.1.4.

    2703.13.1.1 Fabrication areas.

    A continuous gas detection system shall be provided in fabrication areas where gas is used in the fabrication area.

    2703.13.1.2 HPM rooms.

    A continuous gas detection system shall be provided in HPM rooms where gas is used in the room.

    2703.13.1.3 Gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures and gas rooms.

    A continuous gas detection system shall be provided in gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided in gas rooms where gases are not located in gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures.

    2703.13.1.4 Corridors.

    Where gases are transported in piping placed within the space defined by the walls of a corridor and the floor or roof above the corridor, a continuous gas detection system shall be provided where piping is located and in the corridor.

    Exception: A continuous gas detection system is not required for occasional transverse crossings of the corridors by supply piping that is enclosed in a ferrous pipe or tube for the width of the corridor.

    2703.13.2 Gas detection system operation.

    The continuous gas detection system shall be capable of monitoring the room, area or equipment in which the gas is located at or below all the following gas concentrations:

    1. 1.Immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) values where the monitoring point is within an exhausted enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas cabinet.

    2. 2.Permissible exposure limit (PEL) levels where the monitoring point is in an area outside an exhausted enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas cabinet.

    3. 3.For flammable gases, the monitoring detection threshold level shall be vapor concentrations in excess of 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL) where the monitoring is within or outside an exhausted enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas cabinet.

    4. 4.Except as noted in this section, monitoring for highly toxic and toxic gases shall also comply with Chapter 60.

    2703.13.2.1 Alarms.

    The gas detection system shall initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control station when a short-term hazard condition is detected. The alarm shall be both visible and audible and shall provide warning both inside and outside the area where the gas is detected. The audible alarm shall be distinct from all other alarms.

    2703.13.2.2 Shut off of gas supply.

    The gas detection system shall automatically close the shutoff valve at the source on gas supply piping and tubing related to the system being monitored for which gas is detected when a short-term hazard condition is detected. Automatic closure of shutoff valves shall comply with the following:

    1. 1.Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure, the shutoff valve in the gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure for the specific gas detected shall automatically close.

    2. 2.Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a room and compressed gas containers are not in gas cabinets or exhausted enclosure, the shutoff valves on all gas lines for the specific gas detected shall automatically close.

    3. 3.Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a piping distribution manifold enclosure, the shutoff valve supplying the manifold for the compressed gas container of the specific gas detected shall automatically close.

    Exception: Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is at the use location or within a gas valve enclosure of a branch line downstream of a piping distribution manifold, the shutoff valve for the branch line located in the piping distribution manifold enclosure shall automatically close.

    2703.14 Exhaust ventilation systems for HPM.

    Exhaust ventilation systems and materials for exhaust ducts utilized for the exhaust of HPM shall comply with Sections 2703.14.1 through 2703.14.3, other applicable provisions of this code, the International Building Code and the International Mechanical Code.

    2703.14.1 Where required.

    Exhaust ventilation systems shall be provided in the following locations in accordance with the requirements of this section and the International Building Code:

    1. 1.Fabrication areas: Exhaust ventilation for fabrication areas shall comply with the International Building Code. The fire code official is authorized to require additional manual control switches.

    2. 2.Workstations: A ventilation system shall be provided to capture and exhaust gases, fumes and vapors at workstations.

    3. 3.Liquid storage rooms: Exhaust ventilation for liquid storage rooms shall comply with Section 5004.3.1 and the International Building Code.

    4. 4.HPM rooms: Exhaust ventilation for HPM rooms shall comply with Section 5004.3.1 and the International Building Code.

    5. 5.Gas cabinets: Exhaust ventilation for gas cabinets shall comply with Section 5003.8.6.2. The gas cabinet ventilation system is allowed to connect to a workstation ventilation system. Exhaust ventilation for gas cabinets containing highly toxic or toxic gases shall also comply with Chapter 60.

    6. 6.Exhausted enclosures: Exhaust ventilation for exhausted enclosures shall comply with Section 5003.8.5.2. Exhaust ventilation for exhausted enclosures containing highly toxic or toxic gases shall also comply with Chapter 60.

    7. 7.Gas rooms: Exhaust ventilation for gas rooms shall comply with Section 5003.8.4.2. Exhaust ventilation for gas rooms containing highly toxic or toxic gases shall also comply with Chapter 60.

    8. 8.Cabinets containing pyrophoric liquids or Class 3 water-reactive liquids: Exhaust ventilation for cabinets in fabrication areas containing pyrophoric liquids or Class 3 water-reactive liquids shall be as required in Section 2705.2.3.4.

    2703.14.2 Penetrations.

    Exhaust ducts penetrating fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the International Building Code shall be contained in a shaft of equivalent fire-resistance-rated construction. Exhaust ducts shall not penetrate fire walls. Fire dampers shall not be installed in exhaust ducts.

    2703.14.3 Treatment systems.

    Treatment systems for highly toxic and toxic gases shall comply with Chapter 60.

    2703.15 Emergency power system.

    An emergency power system shall be provided in Group H-5 occupancies in accordance with Section 604. The emergency power system shall supply power automatically to the electrical systems specified in Section 2703.15.1 when the normal supply system is interrupted.

    2703.15.1 Required electrical systems.

    Emergency power shall be provided for electrically operated equipment and connected control circuits for the following systems:

    1. 1.HPM exhaust ventilation systems.

    2. 2.HPM gas cabinet ventilation systems.

    3. 3.HPM exhausted enclosure ventilation systems.

    4. 4.HPM gas room ventilation systems.

    5. 5.HPM gas detection systems.

    6. 6.Emergency alarm systems.

    7. 7.Manual fire alarm systems.

    8. 8.Automatic sprinkler system monitoring and alarm systems.

    9. 9.Automatic alarm and detection systems for pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids required in Section 2705.2.3.4.

    10. 10.Flow alarm switches for pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids cabinet exhaust ventilation systems required in Section 2705.2.3.4.

    11. 11.Electrically operated systems required elsewhere in this code or in the International Building Code applicable to the use, storage or handling of HPM.

    2703.15.2 Exhaust ventilation systems.

    Exhaust ventilation systems are allowed to be designed to operate at not less than one-half the normal fan speed on the emergency power system where it is demonstrated that the level of exhaust will maintain a safe atmosphere.

    2703.16 Sub-atmospheric pressure gas systems.

    Sub-atmospheric pressure gas systems (SAGS) shall be in accordance with NFPA 318.

    SECTION2704
    STORAGE

    2704.1 General.

    Storage of hazardous materials shall comply with Section 2703 and this section and other applicable provisions of this code.

    2704.2 Fabrication areas.

    Hazardous materials storage and the maximum quantities of hazardous materials in use and storage allowed in fabrication areas shall be in accordance with Sections 2704.2.1 through 2704.2.2.1.

    2704.2.1 Location of HPM storage in fabrication areas.

    Storage of HPM in fabrication areas shall be within approved or listed storage cabinets, gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures or within a workstation as follows:

    1. 1.Flammable and combustible liquid storage cabinets shall comply with Section 5704.3.2.

    2. 2.Hazardous materials storage cabinets shall comply with Section 5003.8.7.

    3. 3.Gas cabinets shall comply with Section 5003.8.6. Gas cabinets for highly toxic or toxic gases shall also comply with Section 6004.1.2.

    4. 4.Exhausted enclosures shall comply with Section 5003.8.5. Exhausted enclosures for highly toxic or toxic gases shall also comply with Section 6004.1.3.

    5. 5.Workstations shall comply with Section 2705.2.3.

    2704.2.2 Maximum aggregate quantities in fabrication areas.

    The aggregate quantities of hazardous materials stored or used in a single fabrication area shall be limited as specified in this section.

    Exception: Fabrication areas containing quantities of hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area established by Sections 5003.1.1, 5704.3.4 and 5704.3.5.

    2704.2.2.1 Storage and use in fabrication areas.

    The maximum quantities of hazardous materials stored or used in a single fabrication area shall not exceed the quantities set forth in Table 2704.2.2.1.

    TABLE 2704.2.2.1

    QUANTITY LIMITS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN A SINGLE FABRICATION AREA IN GROUP H-5a

    HAZARD CATEGORYSOLIDS (pounds/square foot)LIQUIDS (gallons/square foot)GAS (cubic feet @ NTP/square foot)
    PHYSICAL-HAZARD MATERIALS
    Combustible dustNote bNot ApplicableNot Applicable
    Combustible fiber
    LooseNote bNot ApplicableNot Applicable
    BaledNotes b and c
    Combustible liquid
    Class II0.01
    Class IIIANot Applicable0.02Not Applicable
    Class IIIBNot Limited
    Combination Class I, II and IIIA0.04
    Cryogenic gas
    FlammableNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNote d
    Oxidizing1.25
    ExplosivesNote bNote bNote b
    Flammable gas
    GaseousNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNote d
    LiquefiedNote d
    Flammable liquid
    Class IA0.0025
    Class IB0.025
    Class ICNot Applicable0.025Not Applicable
    Combination Class IA, IB and IC0.025
    Combination Class I, II and IIIA0.04
    Flammable solid0.001Not ApplicableNot Applicable
    Organic peroxide
    Unclassified detonableNote b
    Class INote b
    Class II0.025Not ApplicableNot Applicable
    Class III0.1
    Class IVNot Limited
    Class VNot Limited
    Oxidizing gas
    Gaseous1.25
    LiquefiedNot ApplicableNot Applicable1.25
    Combination of Gaseous and Liquefied1.25
    Oxidizer
    Class 4Note b
    Class 30.003Note bNot Applicable
    Class 20.0030.03
    Class 10.0030.03
    Combination oxidizer Class 1, 2, 30.0030.03
    0.03
    Pyrophoric0.010.00125Notes d and e
    Unstable reactive
    Class 4Note bNote bNote b
    Class 30.0250.0025Note b
    Class 20.10.01Note b
    Class 1Not LimitedNot LimitedNot Limited
    PHYSICAL-HAZARD MATERIALS
    Water reactive
    Class 3Note b0.00125
    Class 20.250.025Not Applicable
    Class 1Not LimitedNot Limited
    HEALTH-HAZARD MATERIALS
    CorrosivesNot LimitedNot LimitedNot Limited
    Highly toxicsNot LimitedNot LimitedNote d
    ToxicsNot LimitedNot LimitedNote d

    For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 4.882 kg/m2, 1 gallon per square foot = 40.7 L/m2, 1 cubic foot @ NTP/square foot = 0.305 m3 @ NTP/m2, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3.

    1. a. Hazardous materials within piping shall not be included in the calculated quantities.

    2. b. Quantity of hazardous materials in a single fabrication area shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Tables 5003.1.1(1) and 5003.1.1(2).

    3. c. Densely packed baled cotton that complies with the packing requirements of ISO 8115 shall not be included in this material class.

    4. d. The aggregate quantity of flammable, pyrophoric, toxic and highly toxic gases shall not exceed 9,000 cubic feet at NTP.

    5. e. The aggregate quantity of pyrophoric gases in the building shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 5003.8.2.

    2704.3 Indoor storage outside of fabrication areas.

    The indoor storage of hazardous materials outside of fabrication areas shall be in accordance with Sections 2704.3.1 through 2704.3.3.

    2704.3.1 HPM storage.

    The indoor storage of HPM in quantities greater than those listed in Sections 5003.1.1 and 3404.3.4 shall be in a room complying with the requirements of the International Building Code and this code for a liquid storage room, HPM room or gas room as appropriate for the materials stored.

    2704.3.2 Other hazardous materials storage.

    The indoor storage of other hazardous materials shall comply with Sections 5001, 5003 and 5004 and other applicable provisions of this code.

    2704.3.3 Separation of incompatible hazardous materials.

    Incompatible hazardous materials in storage shall be separated from each other in accordance with Section 5003.9.8.

    SECTION2705
    USE AND HANDLING

    2705.1 General.

    The use and handling of hazardous materials shall comply with this section, Section 2703 and other applicable provisions of this code.

    2705.2 Fabrication areas.

    The use of hazardous materials in fabrication areas shall be in accordance with Sections 2705.2.1 through 2705.2.3.4.

    2705.2.1 Location of HPM in use in fabrication areas.

    Hazardous production materials in use in fabrication areas shall be within approved or listed gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures or a workstation.

    2705.2.2 Maximum aggregate quantities in fabrication areas.

    The aggregate quantities of hazardous materials in a single fabrication area shall comply with Section 2704.2.2, and Table 2704.2.2.1. The quantity of HPM in use at a workstation shall not exceed the quantities listed in Table 2705.2.2.

    TABLE 2705.2.2

    MAXIMUM QUANTITIES OF HPM AT A WORKSTATIONd

    HPM CLASSIFICATIONSTATEMAXIMUM QUANTITY
    Flammable, highly toxic, pyrophoric and toxic combinedGasCombined aggregate volume of all cylinders at a workstation shall not exceed an internal cylinder volume of 39.6 gallons or 5.29 cubic feet
    FlammableLiquidSolid15 gallonsa, b5 poundsa, b
    CorrosiveGasCombined aggregate volume of all cylinders at a workstation shall not exceed an internal cylinder volume of 39.6 gallons or 5.29 cubic feet
    LiquidUse-open system: 25 gallonsbUse-closed system: 150 gallonsb, e
    Solid20 poundsa, b
    Highly toxicLiquidSolid15 gallonsa5 poundsa
    OxidizerGasCombined aggregate volume of all cylinders at a workstation shall not exceed an internal cylinder volume of 39.6 gallons or 5.29 cubic feet
    LiquidUse-open system: 12 gallonsbUse-closed system: 60 gallonsb
    Solid20 poundsa, b
    PyrophoricLiquidSolid0.5 gallonc, f4.4 poundsc, f
    ToxicLiquidSolidUse-open system: 15 gallonsbUse-closed system: 60 gallonsb5 poundsa, b
    Unstable reactive Class 3LiquidSolid0.5 gallonsa, b5 poundsa, b
    Water-reactive Class 3LiquidSolid0.5 gallonc, fSee Table 2704.2.2.1

    For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

    1. a. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent for closed system operations. Where Note b also applies, the increase for both notes shall be allowed.

    2. b. Quantities shall be allowed to be increased 100 percent where workstations are internally protected with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing or suppression system complying with Chapter 9. Where Note a also applies, the increase for both notes shall be allowed. Where Note e also applies, the maximum increase allowed for both Notes b and e shall not exceed 100 percent.

    3. c. Allowed only in workstations that are internally protected with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing or fire protection system complying with Chapter 9 and compatible with the reactivity of materials in use at the workstation.

    4. d. The quantity limits apply only to materials classified as HPM.

    5. e. Quantities shall be allowed to be increased 100 percent for nonflammable, noncombustible corrosive liquids where the materials of construction for workstations are listed or approved for use without internal fire-extinguishing or suppression system protection. Where Note b also applies, the maximum increase allowed for both Notes b and e shall not exceed 100 percent.

    6. f. A maximum quantity of 5.3 gallons of liquids and 44 pounds of total liquids and solids shall be allowed at a workstation where conditions are in accordance with Section 2705.2.3.4.

    2705.2.3 Workstations.

    Workstations in fabrication areas shall be in accordance with Sections 2705.2.3.1 through 2705.2.3.4.

    2705.2.3.1 Construction.

    Workstations in fabrication areas shall be constructed of materials compatible with the materials used and stored at the workstation. The portion of the workstation that serves as a cabinet for HPM gases, Class I flammable liquids or Class II or Class IIIA combustible liquids shall be noncombustible and, if of metal, shall be not less than 0.0478-inch (18 gage) (1.2 mm) steel.

    2705.2.3.2 Protection of vessels.

    Vessels containing hazardous materials located in or connected to a workstation shall be protected as follows:

    1. 1.HPM: Vessels containing HPM shall be protected from physical damage and shall not project from the workstation.

    2. 2.Hazardous cryogenic fluids, gases and liquids: Hazardous cryogenic fluid, gas and liquid vessels located within a workstation shall be protected from seismic forces in an approved manner in accordance with the International Building Code.

    3. 3.Compressed gases: Protection for compressed gas vessels shall also comply with Section 5303.5.

    4. 4.Cryogenic fluids: Protection for cryogenic fluid vessels shall also comply with Section 5503.5.

    2705.2.3.3 Drainage and containment for HPM liquids.

    Each workstation utilizing HPM liquids shall have all of the following:

    1. 1.Drainage piping systems connected to a compatible system for disposition of such liquids.

    2. 2.The work surface provided with a slope or other means for directing spilled materials to the containment or drainage system.

    3. 3.An approved means of containing or directing spilled or leaked liquids to the drainage system.

    2705.2.3.4 Pyrophoric solids, liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids.

    Pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids in containers greater than 0.5-gallon (2 L) but not exceeding 5.3-gallon (20 L) capacity and pyrophoric solids in containers greater than 4.4 pounds (2 kg) but not exceeding 44 pounds (20 kg) shall be allowed at workstations where located inside cabinets and the following conditions are met:

    1. 1.Maximum amount per cabinet: The maximum amount per cabinet shall be limited to 5.3 gallons (20 L) of liquids and 44 pounds (20 kg) of total liquids and solids.

    2. 2.Cabinet construction: Cabinets shall be constructed in accordance with the following:

      1. 2.1.Cabinets shall be constructed of not less than 0.097-inch (2.5 mm) (12 gage) steel.

      2. 2.2.Cabinets shall be permitted to have self-closing limited access ports or noncombustible windows that provide access to equipment controls.

      3. 2.3.Cabinets shall be provided with self- or manual-closing doors. Manual-closing doors shall be equipped with a door switch that will initiate local audible and visual alarms when the door is in the open position.

    3. 3.Cabinet exhaust ventilation system: An exhaust ventilation system shall be provided for cabinets and shall comply with the following:

      1. 3.1.The system shall be designed to operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surrounding area.

      2. 3.2.The system shall be equipped with monitoring equipment to ensure that required exhaust flow or static pressure is provided.

      3. 3.3.Low-flow or static pressure conditions shall send an alarm to the on-site emergency control station. The alarm shall be both visual and audible.

    4. 4.Cabinet spill containment: Spill containment shall be provided in each cabinet, with the spill containment capable of holding the contents of the aggregate amount of liquids in containers in each cabinet.

    5. 5.Valves: Valves in supply piping between the product containers in the cabinet and the workstation served by the containers shall fail in the closed position upon power failure, loss of exhaust ventilation and upon actuation of the fire control system.

    6. 6.Fire detection system: Each cabinet shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection system complying with the following conditions:

      1. 6.1.Automatic detection system: UV/IR, high-sensitivity smoke detection (HSSD) or other approved detection systems shall be provided inside each cabinet.

      2. 6.2.Automatic shutoff: Activation of the detection system shall automatically close the shutoff valves at the source on the liquid supply.

      3. 6.3.Alarms and signals: Activation of the detection system shall initiate a local alarm within the fabrication area and transmit a signal to the emergency control station. The alarms and signals shall be both visual and audible.

    2705.3 Transportation and handling.

    The transportation and handling of hazardous materials shall comply with Sections 2705.3.1 through 2705.3.4.1 and other applicable provisions of this code.

    2705.3.1 Corridors and enclosures for stairways and ramps.

    Corridors and enclosures for exit stairways and ramps in new buildings or serving new fabrication areas shall not contain HPM, except as permitted in corridors by Section 415.11.6.4 of the International Building Code and Section 2705.3.2 of this code.

    2705.3.2 Transport in corridors and enclosures for stairways and ramps.

    Transport in corridors and enclosures for stairways and ramps shall be in accordance with Sections 2705.3.2.1 through 2705.3.3.

    2705.3.2.1 Fabrication area alterations.

    Where existing fabrication areas are altered or modified in existing buildings, HPM is allowed to be transported in existing corridors where such corridors comply with Section 5003.10 of this code and Section 415.11.2 of the International Building Code.

    2705.3.2.2 HPM transport in corridors and enclosures for stairways and ramps.

    Nonproduction HPM is allowed to be transported in corridors and enclosures for stairways and ramps where utilized for maintenance, lab work and testing when the transportation is in accordance with Section 5003.10.

    2705.3.3 Service corridors.

    Where a new fabrication area is constructed, a service corridor shall be provided where it is necessary to transport HPM from a liquid storage room, HPM room, gas room or from the outside of a building to the perimeter wall of a fabrication area. Service corridors shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the International Building Code.

    2705.3.4 Carts and trucks.

    Carts and trucks used to transport HPM in corridors and enclosures for stairways and ramps shall comply with Section 5003.10.3.

    2705.3.4.1 Identification.

    Carts and trucks shall be marked to indicate the contents.

    CHAPTER28
    LUMBER YARDS AND AGRO-INDUSTRIAL,
    SOLID BIOMASS AND WOODWORKING FACILITIES

    SECTION2801
    GENERAL

    2801.1Scope.

    The storage, manufacturing and processing of solid biomass feedstock, timber, lumber, plywood, nonmetallic pallets, veneers and agro-industrial byproducts shall be in accordance with this chapter.

    2801.2Permit.

    Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.

    SECTION2802
    DEFINITIONS

    2802.1Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    AGRO-INDUSTRIAL.

    BIOMASS.

    COLD DECK.

    FINES.

    HOGGED MATERIALS.

    PLYWOOD AND VENEER MILLS.

    RAW PRODUCT.

    SOLID BIOFUEL.

    SOLID BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK.

    STATIC PILES.

    TIMBER AND LUMBER PRODUCTION FACILITIES.

    SECTION2803
    GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

    2803.1Open yards.

    Open yards required by the International Building Code shall be maintained around structures.

    2803.2Dust control.

    Equipment or machinery located inside buildings that generates or emits combustible dust shall be provided with an approved dust collection and exhaust system installed in accordance with Chapter 22 and the International Mechanical Code. Equipment or systems that are used to collect, process or convey combustible dusts shall be provided with an approved explosion control system.

    2803.2.1Explosion venting.

    Where a dust explosion hazard exists in equipment rooms, buildings or other enclosures, such areas shall be provided with explosion (deflagration) venting or an approved explosion suppression system complying with Section 911.

    2803.3Waste removal.

    Sawmills, planning mills and other woodworking plants shall be equipped with a waste removal system that will collect and remove sawdust and shavings.

    Such systems shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 22 and the International Mechanical Code.

    Exception: Manual waste removal where approved.

    2803.3.1Housekeeping.

    Provisions shall be made for a systematic and thorough cleaning of the entire plant at sufficient intervals to prevent the accumulations of combustible dust and spilled combustible or flammable liquids.

    2803.3.2Metal scrap.

    Provision shall be made for separately collecting and disposing of any metal scrap so that such scrap will not enter the wood handling or processing equipment.

    2803.4Electrical equipment.

    Electrical wiring and equipment shall comply with NFPA 70.

    2803.5Control of ignition sources.

    Protection from ignition sources shall be provided in accordance with Sections 2803.5.1 through 2803.5.3.

    2803.5.1Cutting and welding.

    Cutting and welding shall comply with Chapter 35.

    2803.5.2Static electricity.

    Static electricity shall be prevented from accumulating on machines and equipment subject to static electricity buildup by permanent grounding and bonding wires or other approved means.

    2803.5.3Smoking.

    Where smoking constitutes a fire hazard, the fire code official is authorized to order the owner or occupant to post approved “No Smoking” signs complying with Section 310. The fire code official is authorized to designate specific locations where smoking is allowed.

    2803.6Fire apparatus access roads.

    Fire apparatus access roads shall be provided for buildings and facilities in accordance with Section 503.

    2803.7Access plan.

    Where storage pile configurations could change because of changes in product operations and processing, the access plan shall be submitted for approval when required by the fire code official.

    SECTION2804
    FIRE PROTECTION

    2804.1General.

    Fire protection in timber and lumber production mills, plywood and veneer mills and agro-industrial facilities shall comply with Sections 2804.2 through 2804.4.

    2804.2Fire alarms.

    An approved means for transmitting alarms to the fire department shall be provided in timber and lumber production mills and plywood and veneer mills.

    2804.2.1Manual fire alarms.

    A manual fire alarm system complying with Section 907.2 shall be installed in areas of timber and lumber production mills and for plywood and veneer mills that contain product dryers.

    Exception: Where dryers or other sources of ignition are protected by a supervised automatic sprinkler system complying with Section 903.

    2804.3Portable fire extinguishers or standpipes and hose.

    Portable fire extinguishers or standpipes and hose supplied from an approved water system shall be provided within a 50-foot (15 240 mm) distance of travel from any machine producing shavings or sawdust. Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with Section 906 for extra-high hazards.

    2804.4Automatic sprinkler systems.

    Automatic sprinkler systems shall be installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    SECTION2805
    PLYWOOD, VENEER AND
    COMPOSITE BOARD MILLS

    2805.1General.

    Plant operations of plywood, veneer and composite board mills shall comply with Sections 2805.2 and 2805.3.

    2805.2Dryer protection.

    Dryers shall be protected throughout by an approved, automatic deluge water-spray suppression system complying with Chapter 9. Deluge heads shall be inspected quarterly for pitch buildup. Deluge heads shall be flushed during regular maintenance for functional operation. Manual activation valves shall be located within 75 feet (22 860 mm) of the drying equipment.

    2805.3Thermal oil-heating systems.

    Facilities that use heat transfer fluids to provide process equipment heat through piped, indirect heating systems shall comply with this code and NFPA 664.

    SECTION2806
    LOG STORAGE AREAS

    2806.1General.

    Log storage areas shall comply with Sections 2806.2 through 2806.3.

    2806.2Cold decks.

    Cold decks shall not exceed 500 feet (152.4 m) in length, 300 feet (91 440 mm) in width and 20 feet (6096 mm) in height. Cold decks shall be separated from adjacent cold decks or other exposures by not less than 100 feet (30 480 mm).

    Exception: The size of cold decks shall be determined by the fire code official where the decks are protected by special fire protection including, but not limited to, additional fire flow, portable turrets and deluge sets, and hydrant hose houses equipped with approved fire-fighting equipment capable of reaching the entire storage area in accordance with Chapter 9.

    2806.3Pile stability.

    Log and pole piles shall be stabilized by approved means.

    SECTION2807
    STORAGE OF WOOD CHIPS AND HOGGED
    MATERIAL ASSOCIATED WITH TIMBER AND
    LUMBER PRODUCTION FACILITIES

    2807.1General.

    The storage of wood chips and hogged materials associated with timber and lumber production facilities shall comply with Sections 2807.2 through 2807.5.

    2807.2Size of piles.

    Piles shall not exceed 60 feet (18 288 mm) in height, 300 feet (91 440 mm) in width and 500 feet (152 m) in length. Piles shall be separated from adjacent piles or other exposures by approved fire apparatus access roads.

    Exception: The fire code official is authorized to allow the pile size to be increased where additional fire protection is provided in accordance with Chapter 9. The increase shall be based on the capabilities of the system installed.

    2807.3Pile fire protection.

    Automatic sprinkler protection shall be provided in conveyor tunnels and combustible enclosures that pass under a pile. Combustible or enclosed conveyor systems shall be equipped with an approved automatic sprinkler system.

    2807.4Material-handling equipment.

    Approved material-handling equipment shall be readily available for moving wood chips and hogged material.

    2807.5Emergency plan.

    The owner or operator shall develop a plan for monitoring, controlling and extinguishing spot fires. The plan shall be submitted to the fire code official for review and approval.

    SECTION2808
    STORAGE AND PROCESSING OF WOOD CHIPS,
    HOGGED MATERIAL, FINES, COMPOST, SOLID
    BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK AND RAW PRODUCT
    ASSOCIATED WITH YARD WASTE, AGRO-
    INDUSTRIAL AND RECYCLING FACILITIES

    2808.1General.

    The storage and processing of wood chips, hogged materials, fines, compost, solid biomass feedstock and raw product produced from yard waste, debris and agro-industrial and recycling facilities shall comply with Sections 2808.2 through 2808.10.

    2808.2Storage site.

    Storage sites shall be level and on solid ground, elevated soil lifts or other all-weather surface. Sites shall be thoroughly cleaned before transferring wood products to the site.

    2808.3Size of piles.

    Piles shall not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm) in height, 150 feet (45 720 mm) in width and 250 feet (76 200 mm) in length.

    Exception: The fire code official is authorized to allow the pile size to be increased where a fire protection plan is provided for approval that includes, but is not limited to, the following:

    1. 1.Storage yard areas and materials-handling equipment selection, design and arrangement shall be based upon sound fire prevention and protection principles.

    2. 2.Factors that lead to spontaneous heating shall be identified in the plan, and control of the various factors shall be identified and implemented, including provisions for monitoring the internal condition of the pile.

    3. 3.The plan shall include means for early fire detection and reporting to the public fire department; and facilities needed by the fire department for fire extinguishment including a water supply and fire hydrants.

    4. 4.Fire apparatus access roads around the piles and access roads to the top of the piles shall be established, identified and maintained.

    5. 5.Regular yard inspections by trained personnel shall be included as part of an effective fire prevention maintenance program.

    Additional fire protection called for in the plan shall be provided and shall be installed in accordance with this code. The increase of the pile size shall be based upon the capabilities of the installed fire protection systems and features.

    2808.4Pile separation.

    Piles shall be separated from adjacent piles by approved fire apparatus access roads.

    2808.5Combustible waste.

    The storage, accumulation and handling of combustible materials and control of vegetation shall comply with Chapter 3.

    2808.6Static pile protection.

    Static piles shall be monitored by an approved means to measure temperatures within the static piles. Internal pile temperatures shall be monitored and recorded weekly. Such records shall be maintained. An operational plan indicating procedures and schedules for the inspection, monitoring and restricting of excessive internal temperatures in static piles shall be submitted to the fire code official for review and approval.

    2808.7Pile fire protection.

    Automatic sprinkler protection shall be provided in conveyor tunnels and combustible enclosures that pass under a pile. Combustible conveyor systems and enclosed conveyor systems shall be equipped with an approved automatic sprinkler system.

    2808.8Fire extinguishers.

    Portable fire extinguishers complying with Section 906 and with a minimum rating of 4-A:60-B:C shall be provided on all vehicles and equipment operating on piles and at all processing equipment.

    2808.9Material-handling equipment.

    Approved material-handling equipment shall be available for moving wood chips, hogged material, wood fines and raw product during fire-fighting operations.

    2808.10Emergency plan.

    The owner or operator shall develop a plan for monitoring, controlling and extinguishing spot fires and submit the plan to the fire code official for review and approval.

    SECTION2809
    EXTERIOR STORAGE
    OF FINISHED LUMBER AND
    SOLID BIOFUEL PRODUCTS

    2809.1General.

    Exterior storage of finished lumber and solid biofuel products shall comply with Sections 2809.1 through 2809.5.

    2809.2Size of piles.

    Exterior storage shall be arranged to form stable piles with a maximum height of 20 feet (6096 mm). Piles shall not exceed 150,000 cubic feet (4248 m3) in volume.

    2809.3Fire apparatus access roads.

    Fire apparatus access roads in accordance with Section 503 shall be located so that a maximum grid system unit of 50 feet by 150 feet (15 240 mm by 45 720 mm) is established.

    2809.4Security.

    Permanent storage areas shall be surrounded with an approved fence. Fences shall be not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) in height.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Lumber piles inside of buildings and production mills for lumber, plywood and veneer.

    2. 2.Solid biofuel piles inside of buildings and agro-industrial processing facilities for solid biomass feedstock.

    2809.5Fire protection.

    An approved hydrant and hose system or portable fire-extinguishing equipment suitable for the fire hazard involved shall be provided for open storage yards. Hydrant and hose systems shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 24. Portable fire extinguishers complying with Section 906 shall be located so that the distance of travel from the nearest unit does not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm).

    CHAPTER29
    MANUFACTURE OF ORGANIC COATINGS

    SECTION2901
    GENERAL

    2901.1Scope.

    Organic coating manufacturing processes shall comply with this chapter, except that this chapter shall not apply to processes manufacturing nonflammable or water-thinned coatings or to operations applying coating materials.

    2901.2Permits.

    Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.

    2901.3Maintenance.

    Structures and their service equipment shall be maintained in accordance with this code and NFPA 35.

    SECTION2902
    DEFINITION

    2902.1Definition.

    The following term is defined in Chapter 2:

    ORGANIC COATING.

    SECTION2903
    GENERAL PRECAUTIONS

    2903.1Building features.

    Manufacturing of organic coatings shall be done only in buildings that do not have pits or basements.

    2903.2Location.

    Organic coating manufacturing operations and operations incidental to or connected with organic coating manufacturing shall not be located in buildings having other occupancies.

    2903.3Fire-fighting access.

    Organic coating manufacturing operations shall be accessible from not less than one side for the purpose of fire control. Approved aisles shall be maintained for the unobstructed movement of personnel and fire suppression equipment.

    2903.4Fire protection systems.

    Fire protection systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with Chapter 9.

    2903.5Portable fire extinguishers.

    Not less than one portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 for extra hazard shall be provided in organic coating areas.

    2903.6Open flames.

    Open flames and direct-fired heating devices shall be prohibited in areas where flammable vapor-air mixtures exist.

    2903.7Smoking.

    Smoking shall be prohibited in accordance with Section 310.

    2903.8Power equipment.

    Power-operated equipment and industrial trucks shall be of a type approved for the location.

    2903.9Tank maintenance.

    The cleaning of tanks and vessels that have contained flammable or combustible liquids shall be performed under the supervision of persons knowledgeable of the fire and explosion potential.

    2903.9.1Repairs.

    Where necessary to make repairs involving “hot work,” the work shall be authorized by the responsible individual before the work begins.

    2903.9.2Empty containers.

    Empty flammable or combustible liquid containers shall be removed to a detached, outside location and, if not cleaned on the premises, the empty containers shall be removed from the plant as soon as practical.

    2903.10Drainage.

    Drainage facilities shall be provided to direct flammable and combustible liquid leakage and fire protection water to an approved location away from the building, any other structure, storage area or adjoining premises.

    2903.11Alarm system.

    An approved fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.

    SECTION2904
    ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND PROTECTION

    2904.1Wiring and equipment.

    Electrical wiring and equipment shall comply with this chapter and shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 70.

    2904.2Hazardous locations.

    Where Class I liquids are exposed to the air, the design of equipment and ventilation of structures shall be such as to limit the Class I, Division 1, locations to the following:

    1. 1.Piping trenches.

    2. 2.The interior of equipment.

    3. 3.The immediate vicinity of pumps or equipment locations, such as dispensing stations, open centrifuges, plate and frame filters, opened vacuum filters, change cans and the surfaces of open equipment. The immediate vicinity shall include a zone extending from the vapor liberation point 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally in all directions and vertically from the floor to a level 3 feet (914 mm) above the highest point of vapor liberation.

    2904.2.1Other locations.

    Locations within the confines of the manufacturing room where Class I liquids are handled shall be Class I, Division 2, except locations indicated in Section 2904.2.

    2904.2.2Ordinary equipment.

    Ordinary electrical equipment, including switchgear, shall be prohibited, except where installed in a room maintained under positive pressure with respect to the hazardous area. The air or other media utilized for pressurization shall be obtained from a source that will not cause any amount or type of flammable vapor to be introduced into the room.

    2904.3Bonding.

    Equipment including, but not limited to, tanks, machinery and piping shall be bonded and connected to a ground where an ignitable mixture is capable of being present.

    2904.3.1Piping.

    Electrically isolated sections of metallic piping or equipment shall be grounded or bonded to the other grounded portions of the system.

    2904.3.2Vehicles.

    Tank vehicles loaded or unloaded through open connections shall be grounded and bonded to the receiving system.

    2904.3.3Containers.

    Where a flammable mixture is transferred from one portable container to another, a bond shall be provided between the two containers, and one shall be grounded.

    2904.4Ground.

    Metal framing of buildings shall be grounded with resistance of not more than 5 ohms.

    SECTION2905
    PROCESS STRUCTURES

    2905.1Design.

    Process structures shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the International Building Code.

    2905.2Fire apparatus access.

    Fire apparatus access complying with Section 503 shall be provided for the purpose of fire control to not less than one side of organic coating manufacturing operations.

    2905.3Drainage.

    Drainage facilities shall be provided in accordance with Section 2903.10 where topographical conditions are such that flammable and combustible liquids are capable of flowing from the organic coating manufacturing operation so as to constitute a fire hazard to other premises.

    2905.4Explosion control.

    Explosion control shall be provided in areas subject to potential deflagration hazards as indicated in NFPA 35. Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with Section 911.

    2905.5Ventilation.

    Enclosed structures in which Class I liquids are processed or handled shall be ventilated at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot [0.00508 m3/(s · m2)] of solid floor area. Ventilation shall be accomplished by exhaust fans that take suction at floor levels and discharge to a safe location outside the structure. Noncontaminated intake air shall be introduced in such a manner that all portions of solid floor areas are provided with continuous uniformly distributed air movement.

    2905.6Heating.

    Heating provided in hazardous areas shall be by indirect means. Ignition sources such as open flames or electrical heating elements, except as provided for in Section 2904, shall not be permitted within the structure.

    SECTION2906
    PROCESS MILLS AND KETTLES

    2906.1Mills.

    Mills, operating with close clearances, which process flammable and heat-sensitive materials, such as nitrocellulose, shall be located in a detached building or in a non-combustible structure without other occupancies. The amount of nitrocellulose or other flammable material brought into the area shall not be more than the amount required for a batch.

    2906.2Mixers.

    Mixers shall be of the enclosed type or, where of the open type, shall be provided with properly fitted covers. Where flow is by gravity, a shutoff valve shall be installed as close as practical to the mixer, and a control valve shall be provided near the end of the fill pipe.

    2906.3Open kettles.

    Open kettles shall be located in an outside area provided with a protective roof; in a separate structure of noncombustible construction; or separated from other areas by a noncombustible wall having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.

    2906.4Closed kettles.

    Contact-heated kettles containing solvents shall be equipped with safety devices that, in case of a fire, will turn off the process heat, turn on the cooling medium and inject inert gas into the kettle.

    2906.4.1Vaporizer location.

    The vaporizer section of heat-transfer systems that heat closed kettles containing solvents shall be remotely located.

    2906.5Kettle controls.

    The kettle and thin-down tank shall be instrumented, controlled and interlocked so that any failure of the controls will result in a safe condition. The kettle shall be provided with a pressure-rupture disc in addition to the primary vent. The vent piping from the rupture disc shall be of minimum length and shall discharge to an approved location. The thin-down tank shall be adequately vented. Thinning operations shall be provided with an adequate vapor removal system.

    SECTION2907
    PROCESS PIPING

    2907.1Design.

    Piping, valves and fittings shall be designed for the working pressures and structural stresses to which the piping, valves and fittings will be subjected, and shall be of steel or other material approved for the service intended.

    2907.2Valves.

    Valves shall be of an indicating type. Terminal valves on remote pumping systems shall be of the dead-man type, shutting off both the pump and the flow of solvent.

    2907.3Support.

    Piping systems shall be supported adequately and protected against physical damage. Piping shall be pitched to avoid unintentional trapping of liquids, or approved drains shall be provided.

    2907.4Connectors.

    Approved flexible connectors shall be installed where vibration exists or frequent movement is necessary. Hose at dispensing stations shall be of an approved type.

    2907.5Tests.

    Before being placed in service, all piping shall be free of leaks when tested for not less than 30 minutes at not less than 1.5 times the working pressure or a minimum of 5 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (35 kPa) at the highest point in the system.

    SECTION2908
    RAW MATERIALS IN PROCESS AREAS

    2908.1Nitrocellulose quantity.

    The amount of nitrocellulose brought into the operating area shall not exceed the amount required for a work shift. Nitrocellulose spillage shall be promptly swept up and disposed of properly.

    2908.2Organic peroxides quantity.

    Organic peroxides brought into the operating area shall be in the original shipping container. When in the operating area, the organic peroxide shall not be placed in locations exposed to ignition sources, heat or mechanical shocks.

    SECTION2909
    RAW MATERIALS AND FINISHED PRODUCTS

    2909.1General.

    The storage, handling and use of flammable and combustible liquids in process areas shall be in accordance with Chapter 57.

    2909.2Tank storage.

    Tank storage for flammable and combustible liquids located inside of structures shall be limited to storage areas at or above grade which are separated from the processing area in accordance with the International Building Code. Processing equipment containing flammable and combustible liquids and storage in quantities essential to the continuity of the operations shall not be prohibited in the processing area.

    2909.3Tank vehicle.

    Tank car and tank vehicle loading and unloading stations for Class I liquids shall be separated from the processing area, other plant structures, nearest lot line of property that can be built upon or public thoroughfare by a minimum clear distance of 25 feet (7620 mm).

    2909.3.1Loading.

    Loading and unloading structures and platforms for flammable and combustible liquids shall be designed and installed in accordance with Chapter 57.

    2909.3.2Safety.

    Tank cars for flammable liquids shall be unloaded such that the safety to persons and property is ensured. Tank vehicles for flammable and combustible liquids shall be loaded and unloaded in accordance with Chapter 57.

    2909.4Nitrocellulose storage.

    Nitrocellulose storage shall be located on a detached pad or in a separate structure or a room enclosed in accordance with the International Building Code. The nitrocellulose storage area shall not be utilized for any other purpose. Electrical wiring and equipment installed in storage areas adjacent to process areas shall comply with Section 2904.2.

    2909.4.1Containers.

    Nitrocellulose shall be stored in closed containers. Barrels shall be stored on end and not more than two tiers high. Barrels or other containers of nitrocellulose shall not be opened in the main storage structure but at the point of use or other location intended for that purpose.

    2909.4.2Spills.

    Spilled nitrocellulose shall be promptly wetted with water and disposed of by use or burning in the open at an approved detached location.

    2909.5Organic peroxide storage.

    The storage of organic peroxides shall be in accordance with Chapter 62.

    2909.5.1Size.

    The size of the package containing organic peroxide shall be selected so that, as nearly as practical, full packages are utilized at one time. Spilled peroxide shall be promptly cleaned up and disposed of as specified by the supplier.

    2909.6Finished products.

    Finished products that are flammable or combustible liquids shall be stored outside of structures, in a separate structure, or in a room separated from the processing area in accordance with the International Building Code. The storage of finished products shall be in tanks or closed containers in accordance with Chapter 57.

    CHAPTER30
    INDUSTRIAL OVENS

    SECTION3001
    GENERAL

    3001.1Scope.

    This chapter shall apply to the installation and operation of industrial ovens and furnaces. Industrial ovens and furnaces shall comply with the applicable provisions of NFPA 86, the International Fuel Gas Code, International Mechanical Code and this chapter. The terms “ovens” and “furnaces” are used interchangeably in this chapter.

    3001.2Permits.

    Permits shall be required as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7.

    SECTION3002
    DEFINITIONS

    3002.1Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    FURNACE CLASS A.

    FURNACE CLASS B.

    FURNACE CLASS C.

    FURNACE CLASS D.

    SECTION3003
    LOCATION

    3003.1Ventilation.

    Enclosed rooms or basements containing industrial ovens or furnaces shall be provided with combustion air in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and the International Fuel Gas Code, and with ventilation air in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

    3003.2Exposure.

    When locating ovens, oven heaters and related equipment, the possibility of fire resulting from overheating or from the escape of fuel gas or fuel oil and the possibility of damage to the building and injury to persons resulting from explosion shall be considered.

    3003.3Ignition source.

    Industrial ovens and furnaces shall be located so as not to pose an ignition hazard to flammable vapors or mists or combustible dusts.

    3003.4Temperatures.

    Roofs and floors of ovens shall be insulated and ventilated to prevent temperatures at combustible ceilings and floors from exceeding 160°F (71°C).

    SECTION3004
    FUEL PIPING

    3004.1Fuel-gas piping.

    Fuel-gas piping serving industrial ovens shall comply with the International Fuel Gas Code. Piping for other fuel sources shall comply with this section.

    3004.2Shutoff valves.

    Each industrial oven or furnace shall be provided with an approved manual fuel shutoff valve in accordance with the International Mechanical Code or the International Fuel Gas Code.

    3004.2.1Fuel supply lines.

    Valves for fuel supply lines shall be located within 6 feet (1829 mm) of the appliance served.

    Exception: When approved and the valve is located in the same general area as the appliance served.

    3004.3Valve position.

    The design of manual fuel shutoff valves shall incorporate a permanent feature which visually indicates the open or closed position of the valve. Manual fuel shutoff valves shall not be equipped with removable handles or wrenches unless the handle or wrench can only be installed parallel with the fuel line when the valve is in the open position.

    SECTION3005
    INTERLOCKS

    3005.1Shut down.

    Interlocks shall be provided for Class A ovens so that conveyors or sources of flammable or combustible materials shall shut down if either the exhaust or recirculation air supply fails.

    SECTION3006
    FIRE PROTECTION

    3006.1Required protection.

    Class A and B ovens that contain, or are utilized for the processing of, combustible materials shall be protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system complying with Chapter 9.

    3006.2Fixed fire-extinguishing systems.

    Fixed fire-extinguishing systems shall be provided for Class C or D ovens to protect against such hazards as overheating, spillage of molten salts or metals, quench tanks, ignition of hydraulic oil and escape of fuel. It shall be the user’s responsibility to consult with the fire code official concerning the necessary requirements for such protection.

    3006.3Fire extinguishers.

    Portable fire extinguishers complying with Section 906 shall be provided not closer than 15 feet (4572 mm) or not more than 50 feet (15 240 mm) or in accordance with NFPA 10. This shall apply to the oven and related equipment.

    SECTION3007
    OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

    3007.1Furnace system information.

    An approved, clearly worded, and prominently displayed safety design data form or manufacturer’s nameplate shall be provided stating the safe operating condition for which the furnace system was designed, built, altered or extended.

    3007.2Oven nameplate.

    Safety data for Class A solvent atmosphere ovens shall be furnished on the manufacturer’s nameplate. The nameplate shall provide the following design data:

    1. 1.The solvent used.

    2. 2.The number of gallons (L) used per batch or per hour of solvent entering the oven.

    3. 3.The required purge time.

    4. 4.The oven operating temperature.

    5. 5.The exhaust blower rating for the number of gallons (L) of solvent per hour or batch at the maximum operating temperature.

    Exception: For low-oxygen ovens, the maximum allowable oxygen concentration shall be included in place of the exhaust blower ratings.

    3007.3Training.

    Operating, maintenance and supervisory personnel shall be thoroughly instructed and trained in the operation of ovens or furnaces.

    3007.4Equipment maintenance.

    Equipment shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    CHAPTER31
    TENTS AND OTHER MEMBRANE STRUCTURES

    SECTION3101
    GENERAL

    3101.1Scope.

    Tents, temporary stage canopies and membrane structures shall comply with this chapter. The provisions of Section 3103 are applicable only to temporary tents and membrane structures. The provisions of Section 3104 are applicable to temporary and permanent tents and membrane structures. Other temporary structures shall comply with the International Building Code.

    SECTION3102
    DEFINITIONS

    3102.1Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE.

    AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE.

    MEMBRANE STRUCTURE.

    TEMPORARY STAGE CANOPY.

    TENT.

    SECTION3103
    TEMPORARY TENTS AND MEMBRANE
    STRUCTURES

    3103.1General.

    Tents and membrane structures used for temporary periods shall comply with this section. Other temporary structures erected for a period of 180 days or less shall comply with the International Building Code.

    3103.2Approval required.

    Tents and membrane structures having an area in excess of 400 square feet (37 m2) shall not be erected, operated or maintained for any purpose without first obtaining a permit and approval from the fire code official.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Tents used exclusively for recreational camping purposes.

    2. 2.Tents open on all sides that comply with all of the following:

      1. 2.1.Individual tents having a maximum size of 700 square feet (65 m2).

      2. 2.2.The aggregate area of multiple tents placed side by side without a fire break clearance of 12 feet (3658 mm), not exceeding 700 square feet (65 m2) total.

      3. 2.3.A minimum clearance of 12 feet (3658 mm) to all structures and other tents.

    3103.3Place of assembly.

    For the purposes of this chapter, a place of assembly shall include a circus, carnival, tent show, theater, skating rink, dance hall or other place of assembly in or under which persons gather for any purpose.

    3103.4Permits.

    Permits shall be required as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7.

    3103.5Use period.

    Temporary tents, air-supported, air-inflated or tensioned membrane structures shall not be erected for a period of more than 180 days within a 12-month period on a single premises.

    3103.6Construction documents.

    A detailed site and floor plan for tents or membrane structures with an occupant load of 50 or more shall be provided with each application for approval. The tent or membrane structure floor plan shall indicate details of the means of egress facilities, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating and location and type of heating and electrical equipment.

    3103.7Inspections.

    The entire tent, air-supported, air-inflated or tensioned membrane structure system shall be inspected at regular intervals, but not less than two times per permit use period, by the permittee, owner or agent to determine that the installation is maintained in accordance with this chapter.

    Exception: Permit use periods of less than 30 days.

    3103.7.1Inspection report.

    Where required by the fire code official, an inspection report shall be provided and shall consist of maintenance, anchors and fabric inspections.

    3103.8Access, location and parking.

    Access, location and parking for temporary tents and membrane structures shall be in accordance with this section.

    3103.8.1Access.

    Fire apparatus access roads shall be provided in accordance with Section 503.

    3103.8.2Location.

    Tents or membrane structures shall not be located within 20 feet (6096 mm) of lot lines, buildings, other tents or membrane structures, parked vehicles or internal combustion engines. For the purpose of determining required distances, support ropes and guy wires shall be considered as part of the temporary membrane structure or tent.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Separation distance between membrane structures and tents not used for cooking is not required where the aggregate floor area does not exceed 15,000 square feet (1394 m2).

    2. 2.Membrane structures or tents need not be separated from buildings when all of the following conditions are met:

      1. 2.1.The aggregate floor area of the membrane structure or tent shall not exceed 10,000 square feet (929 m2).

      2. 2.2.The aggregate floor area of the building and membrane structure or tent shall not exceed the allowable floor area including increases as indicated in the International Building Code.

      3. 2.3.Required means of egress are provided for both the building and the membrane structure or tent including travel distances.

      4. 2.4.Fire apparatus access roads are provided in accordance with Section 503.

    3103.8.3Location of structures in excess of 15,000 square feet in area.

    Membrane structures having an area of 15,000 square feet (1394 m2) or more shall be located not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from any other tent or structure as measured from the sidewall of the tent or membrane structure unless joined together by a corridor.

    3103.8.4Membrane structures on buildings.

    Membrane structures that are erected on buildings, balconies, decks or other structures shall be regulated as permanent membrane structures in accordance with Section 3102 of the International Building Code.

    3103.8.5Connecting corridors.

    Tents or membrane structures are allowed to be joined together by means of corridors. Exit doors shall be provided at each end of such corridor. On each side of such corridor and approximately opposite each other, there shall be provided openings not less than 12 feet (3658 mm) wide.

    3103.8.6Fire break.

    An unobstructed fire break passageway or fire road not less than 12 feet (3658 mm) wide and free from guy ropes or other obstructions shall be maintained on all sides of all tents and membrane structures unless otherwise approved by the fire code official.

    3103.9Anchorage required.

    Tents or membrane structures and their appurtenances shall be adequately roped, braced and anchored to withstand the elements of weather and prevent against collapsing. Documentation of structural stability shall be furnished to the fire code official on request.

    3103.9.1Tents and membrane structures exceeding one story.

    Tents and membrane structures exceeding one story shall be designed and constructed to comply with Chapter 16 of the International Building Code.

    3103.10Temporary air-supported and air-inflated membrane structures.

    Temporary air-supported and air-inflated membrane structures shall be in accordance with Sections 3103.10.1 through 3103.10.4.

    3103.10.1Door operation.

    During high winds exceeding 50 miles per hour (22 m/s) or in snow conditions, the use of doors in air-supported structures shall be controlled to avoid excessive air loss. Doors shall not be left open.

    3103.10.2Fabric envelope design and construction.

    Air-supported and air-inflated structures shall have the design and construction of the fabric envelope and the method of anchoring in accordance with Architectural Fabric Structures Institute ASI 77.

    3103.10.3Blowers.

    An air-supported structure used as a place of assembly shall be furnished with not less than two blowers, each of which has adequate capacity to maintain full inflation pressure with normal leakage. The design of the blower shall be so as to provide integral limiting pressure at the design pressure specified by the manufacturer.

    3103.10.4Auxiliary inflation systems.

    Places of public assembly for more than 200 persons shall be furnished with an auxiliary inflation system capable of powering a blower with the capacity to maintain full inflation pressure with normal leakage in accordance with Section 3103.10.3 for a minimum duration of 4 hours. The auxiliary inflation system shall be either a fully automatic auxiliary engine-generator set or a supplementary blower powered by an internal combustion engine that shall be automatic in operation. The system shall be capable of automatically operating the required blowers at full power within 60 seconds of a commercial power failure.

    3103.11Seating arrangements.

    Seating in tents or membrane structures shall be in accordance with Chapter 10.

    3103.12Means of egress.

    Means of egress for temporary tents and membrane structures shall be in accordance with Sections 3103.12.1 through 3103.12.8.

    3103.12.1Distribution.

    Exits shall be spaced at approximately equal intervals around the perimeter of the tent or membrane structure, and shall be located such that all points are 100 feet (30 480 mm) or less from an exit.

    3103.12.2Number.

    Tents, or membrane structures or a usable portion thereof shall have not less than one exit and not less than the number of exits required by Table 3103.12.2. The total width of means of egress in inches (mm) shall be not less than the total occupant load served by a means of egress multiplied by 0.2 inches (5 mm) per person.

    TABLE 3103.12.2

    MINIMUM NUMBER OF MEANS OF EGRESS AND MEANS OF EGRESS WIDTHS FROM TEMPORARY MEMBRANE STRUCTURES AND TENTS

    OCCUPANT LOADMINIMUM NUMBER OF MEANS OF EGRESSMINIMUM WIDTH OF EACH MEANS OF EGRESS (inches)MINIMUM WIDTH OF EACH MEANS OF EGRESS (inches)
    TentMembrane Structure
    10 to 19927236
    200 to 49937272
    500 to 99949672
    1,000 to 1,999512096
    2,000 to 2,999612096
    Over 3,000a712096

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    1. a.When the occupant load exceeds 3,000, the total width of means of egress (in inches) shall be not less than the total occupant load multiplied by 0.2 inches per person.

    3103.12.3Exit openings from tents.

    Exit openings from tents shall remain open unless covered by a flame-resistant curtain. The curtain shall comply with the following requirements:

    1. 1.Curtains shall be free sliding on a metal support. The support shall be not less than 80 inches (2032 mm) above the floor level at the exit. The curtains shall be so arranged that, when open, no part of the curtain obstructs the exit.

    2. 2.Curtains shall be of a color, or colors, that contrasts with the color of the tent.

    3103.12.4Doors.

    Exit doors shall swing in the direction of exit travel. To avoid hazardous air and pressure loss in air-supported membrane structures, such doors shall be automatic closing against operating pressures. Opening force at the door edge shall not exceed 15 pounds (66 N).

    3103.12.5Aisle.

    The width of aisles without fixed seating shall be in accordance with the following:

    1. 1.In areas serving employees only, the minimum aisle width shall be 24 inches (610 mm) but not less than the width required by the number of employees served.

    2. 2.In public areas, smooth-surfaced, unobstructed aisles having a minimum width of not less than 44 inches (1118 mm) shall be provided from seating areas, and aisles shall be progressively increased in width to provide, at all points, not less than 1 foot (305 mm) of aisle width for each 50 persons served by such aisle at that point.

    3103.12.5.1Arrangement and maintenance.

    The arrangement of aisles shall be subject to approval by the fire code official and shall be maintained clear at all times during occupancy.

    3103.12.6Exit signs.

    Exits shall be clearly marked. Exit signs shall be installed at required exit doorways and where otherwise necessary to indicate clearly the direction of egress where the exit serves an occupant load of 50 or more.

    3103.12.6.1Exit sign illumination.

    Exit signs shall be either listed and labeled in accordance with UL 924 as the internally illuminated type and used in accordance with the listing or shall be externally illuminated by luminaires supplied in either of the following manners:

    1. 1.Two separate circuits, one of which shall be separate from all other circuits, for occupant loads of 300 or less.

    2. 2.Two separate sources of power, one of which shall be an approved emergency system, shall be provided where the occupant load exceeds 300. Emergency systems shall be supplied from storage batteries or from the on-site generator set, and the system shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 70. The emergency system provided shall have a minimum duration of 90 minutes when operated at full design demand.

    3103.12.7Means of egress illumination.

    Means of egress shall be illuminated with light having an intensity of not less than 1 footcandle (11 lux) at floor level while the structure is occupied. Fixtures required for means of egress illumination shall be supplied from a separate circuit or source of power.

    3103.12.8Maintenance of means of egress.

    The required width of exits, aisles and passageways shall be maintained at all times to a public way. Guy wires, guy ropes and other support members shall not cross a means of egress at a height of less than 8 feet (2438 mm). The surface of means of egress shall be maintained in an approved manner.

    SECTION3104
    TEMPORARY AND PERMANENT TENTS
    AND MEMBRANE STRUCTURES

    3104.1General.

    Tents and membrane structures, both temporary and permanent, shall be in accordance with this section. Permanent tents and membrane structures shall also comply with the International Building Code.

    3104.2Flame propagation performance treatment.

    Before a permit is granted, the owner or agent shall file with the fire code official a certificate executed by an approved testing laboratory certifying that the tents and membrane structures and their appurtenances; sidewalls, drops and tarpaulins; floor coverings, bunting and combustible decorative materials and effects, including sawdust where used on floors or passageways, are composed of material meeting the flame propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701 or shall be treated with a flame retardant in an approved manner and meet the flame propagation performance criteria of Test Method 1 or Test Method 2, as appropriate, of NFPA 701, and that such flame propagation performance criteria are effective for the period specified by the permit.

    3104.3Label.

    Membrane structures or tents shall have a permanently affixed label bearing the identification of size and fabric or material type.

    3104.4Certification.

    An affidavit or affirmation shall be submitted to the fire code official and a copy retained on the premises on which the tent or air-supported structure is located. The affidavit shall attest to all of the following information relative to the flame propagation performance criteria of the fabric:

    1. 1.Names and address of the owners of the tent or air-supported structure.

    2. 2.Date the fabric was last treated with flame-retardant solution.

    3. 3.Trade name or kind of chemical used in treatment.

    4. 4.Name of person or firm treating the material.

    5. 5.Name of testing agency and test standard by which the fabric was tested.

    3104.5Combustible materials.

    Hay, straw, shavings or similar combustible materials shall not be located within any tent or membrane structure containing an assembly occupancy, except the materials necessary for the daily feeding and care of animals. Sawdust and shavings utilized for a public performance or exhibit shall not be prohibited provided the sawdust and shavings are kept damp. Combustible materials shall not be permitted under stands or seats at any time.

    3104.6Smoking.

    Smoking shall not be permitted in tents or membrane structures. Approved “No Smoking” signs shall be conspicuously posted in accordance with Section 310.

    3104.7Open or exposed flame.

    Open flame or other devices emitting flame, fire or heat or any flammable or combustible liquids, gas, charcoal or other cooking device or any other unapproved devices shall not be permitted inside or located within 20 feet (6096 mm) of the tent or membrane structures while open to the public unless approved by the fire code official.

    3104.8Fireworks.

    Fireworks shall not be used within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of tents or membrane structures.

    3104.9Spot lighting.

    Spot or effect lighting shall only be by electricity, and all combustible construction located within 6 feet (1829 mm) of such equipment shall be protected with approved noncombustible insulation not less than 91/4 inches (235 mm) thick.

    3104.10Safety film.

    Motion pictures shall not be displayed in tents or membrane structures unless the motion picture film is safety film.

    3104.11Clearance.

    There shall be a minimum clearance of at least 3 feet (914 mm) between the fabric envelope and all contents located inside membrane structures.

    3104.12Portable fire extinguishers.

    Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided as required by Section 906.

    3104.13Fire protection equipment.

    Fire hose lines, water supplies and other auxiliary fire equipment shall be maintained at the site in such numbers and sizes as required by the fire code official.

    3104.14Occupant load factors.

    The occupant load allowed in an assembly structure, or portion thereof, shall be determined in accordance with Chapter 10.

    3104.15Heating and cooking equipment.

    Heating and cooking equipment shall be in accordance with Sections 3104.15.1 through 3104.15.7.

    3104.15.1Installation.

    Heating or cooking equipment, tanks, piping, hoses, fittings, valves, tubing and other related components shall be installed as specified in the International Mechanical Code and the International Fuel Gas Code, and shall be approved by the fire code official.

    3104.15.2Venting.

    Gas, liquid and solid fuel-burning equipment designed to be vented shall be vented to the outside air as specified in the International Fuel Gas Code and the International Mechanical Code. Such vents shall be equipped with approved spark arresters where required. Where vents or flues are used, all portions of the tent or membrane structure shall be not less than 12 inches (305 mm) from the flue or vent.

    3104.15.3Location.

    Cooking and heating equipment shall not be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of exits or combustible materials.

    3104.15.4Operations.

    Operations such as warming of foods, cooking demonstrations and similar operations that use solid flammables, butane or other similar devices that do not pose an ignition hazard, shall be approved.

    3104.15.5Cooking tents.

    Tents with sidewalls or drops where cooking is performed shall be separated from other tents or membrane structures by not less than 20 feet (6096 mm).

    3104.15.6Outdoor cooking.

    Outdoor cooking that produces sparks or grease-laden vapors shall not be performed within 20 feet (6096 mm) of a tent or membrane structure.

    3104.15.7Electrical heating and cooking equipment.

    Electrical cooking and heating equipment shall comply with NFPA 70.

    3104.16LP-gas.

    The storage, handling and use of LP-gas and LP-gas equipment shall be in accordance with Sections 3104.16.1 through 3104.16.3.

    3104.16.1General.

    LP-gas equipment such as tanks, piping, hoses, fittings, valves, tubing and other related components shall be approved and in accordance with Chapter 61 and with the International Fuel Gas Code.

    3104.16.2Location of containers.

    LP-gas containers shall be located outside. Safety release valves shall be pointed away from the tent or membrane structure.

    3104.16.2.1Containers 500 gallons or less.

    Portable LP-gas containers with a capacity of 500 gallons (1893 L) or less shall have a minimum separation between the container and structure not less than 10 feet (3048 mm).

    3104.16.2.2Containers more than 500 gallons.

    Portable LP-gas containers with a capacity of more than 500 gallons (1893 L) shall have a minimum separation between the container and structures not less than 25 feet (7620 mm).

    3104.16.3Protection and security.

    Portable LP-gas containers, piping, valves and fittings that are located outside and are being used to fuel equipment inside a tent or membrane structure shall be adequately protected to prevent tampering, damage by vehicles or other hazards and shall be located in an approved location. Portable LP-gas containers shall be securely fastened in place to prevent unauthorized movement.

    3104.17Flammable and combustible liquids.

    The storage of flammable and combustible liquids and the use of flammable-liquid-fueled equipment shall be in accordance with Sections 3104.17.1 through 3104.17.3.

    3104.17.1Use.

    Flammable-liquid-fueled equipment shall not be used in tents or membrane structures.

    3104.17.2Flammable and combustible liquid storage.

    Flammable and combustible liquids shall be stored outside in an approved manner not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from tents or membrane structures. Storage shall be in accordance with Chapter 57.

    3104.17.3Refueling.

    Refueling shall be performed in an approved location not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from tents or membrane structures.

    3104.18Display of motor vehicles.

    Liquid- and gas-fueled vehicles and equipment used for display within tents or membrane structures shall be in accordance with Sections 3104.18.1 through 3104.18.5.3.

    3104.18.1Batteries.

    Batteries shall be disconnected in an appropriate manner.

    3104.18.2Fuel.

    Vehicles or equipment shall not be fueled or defueled within the tent or membrane structure.

    3104.18.2.1Quantity limit.

    Fuel in the fuel tank shall not exceed one-quarter of the tank capacity or 5 gallons
    (19 L), whichever is less.

    3104.18.2.2Inspection.

    Fuel systems shall be inspected for leaks.

    3104.18.2.3Closure.

    Fuel tank openings shall be locked and sealed to prevent the escape of vapors.

    3104.18.3Location.

    The location of vehicles or equipment shall not obstruct means of egress.

    3104.18.4Places of assembly.

    When a compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LP-gas) powered vehicle is parked inside a place of assembly, all the following conditions shall be met:

    1. 1.The quarter-turn shutoff valve or other shutoff valve on the outlet of the CNG or LP-gas container shall be closed and the engine shall be operated until it stops. Valves shall remain closed while the vehicle is indoors.

    2. 2.The hot lead of the battery shall be disconnected.

    3. 3.Dual-fuel vehicles equipped to operate on gasoline and CNG or LP-gas shall comply with this section and Sections 3104.18.1 through 3104.18.5.3 for gasoline-powered vehicles.

    3104.18.5Competitions and demonstrations.

    Liquid and gas-fueled vehicles and equipment used for competition or demonstration within a tent or membrane structure shall comply with Sections 3104.18.5.1 through 3104.18.5.3.

    3104.18.5.1Fuel storage.

    Fuel for vehicles or equipment shall be stored in approved containers in an approved location outside of the structure in accordance with Section 3104.17.2.

    3104.18.5.2Fueling.

    Refueling shall be performed outside of the structure in accordance with Section 3104.17.3.

    3104.18.5.3Spills.

    Fuel spills shall be cleaned up immediately.

    3104.19Separation of generators.

    Generators and other internal combustion power sources shall be separated from tents or membrane structures by not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) and shall be isolated from contact with the public by fencing, enclosure or other approved means.

    3104.20Standby personnel.

    Where, in the opinion of the fire code official, it is essential for public safety in a tent or membrane structure used as a place of assembly or any other use where people congregate, because of the number of persons, or the nature of the performance, exhibition, display, contest or activity, the owner, agent or lessee shall employ one or more qualified persons, as required and approved, to remain on duty during the times such places are open to the public, or when such activity is being conducted.

    3104.20.1Duties.

    Before each performance or the start of such activity, standby personnel shall keep diligent watch for fires during the time such place is open to the public or such activity is being conducted and take prompt measures for extinguishment of fires that occur and assist in the evacuation of the public from the structure.

    3104.20.2Crowd managers.

    There shall be trained crowd managers or crowd manager/supervisors at a ratio of one crowd manager/supervisor for every 250 occupants, as approved.

    3104.21Combustible vegetation.

    Combustible vegetation that could create a fire hazard shall be removed from the area occupied by a tent or membrane structure, and from areas within 30 feet (9144 mm) of such structures.

    3104.22Combustible waste material.

    The floor surface inside tents or membrane structures and the grounds outside and within a 30-foot (9144 mm) perimeter shall be kept free of combustible waste and other combustible materials that could create a fire hazard. Such waste shall be stored in approved containers and removed from the premises not less than once a day during the period the structure is occupied by the public.

    SECTION3105
    TEMPORARY STAGE CANOPIES

    3105.1General.

    Temporary stage canopies shall comply with Section 3104, Sections 3105.2 through 3105.8 and ANSI E1.21.

    3105.2Approval.

    Temporary stage canopies in excess of 400 square feet (37 m2) shall not be erected, operated or maintained for any purpose without first obtaining approval and a permit from the fire code official and the building official.

    3105.3Permits.

    Permits shall be required as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7.

    3105.4Use period.

    Temporary stage canopies shall not be erected for a period of more than 45 days.

    3105.5Required documents.

    The following documents shall be submitted to the fire code official and the building official for review before a permit is approved:

    1. 1.Construction documents: Construction documents shall be prepared in accordance with the International Building Code by a registered design professional. Construction documents shall include:

      1. 1.1.A summary sheet showing the building code used, design criteria, loads and support reactions.

      2. 1.2.Detailed construction and installation drawings.

      3. 1.3.Design calculations.

      4. 1.4.Operating limits of the structure explicitly outlined by the registered design professional including environmental conditions and physical forces.

      5. 1.5.Effects of additive elements such as video walls, supported scenery, audio equip-ment, vertical and horizontal coverings.

      6. 1.6.Means for adequate stability including specific requirements for guying and cross-bracing, ground anchors or ballast for different ground conditions.

    2. 2.Designation of responsible party: The owner of the temporary stage canopy shall designate in writing a person to have responsibility for the temporary stage canopy on the site. The designated person shall have sufficient knowledge of the construction documents, manufacturer’s recommendations and operations plan to make judgments regarding the structure’s safety and to coordinate with the fire code official.

    3. 3.Operations plan: The operations plan shall reflect manufacturer’s operational guidelines, procedures for environmental monitoring and actions to be taken under specified conditions consistent with the construction documents.

    3105.6Inspections.

    Inspections shall comply with Section 106 and Sections 3105.6.1 and 3105.6.2.

    3105.6.1Independent inspector.

    The owner of a temporary stage canopy shall employ a qualified, independent approved agency or individual to inspect the installation of a temporary stage canopy.

    3105.6.2Inspection report.

    The inspecting agency or individual shall furnish an inspection report to the fire code official. The inspection report shall indicate that the temporary stage canopy was inspected and was or was not installed in accordance with the approved construction documents. Discrepancies shall be brought to the immediate attention of the installer for correction. Where any discrepancy is not corrected, it shall be brought to the attention of the fire code official and the designated responsible party.

    3105.7Means of egress.

    The means of egress for temporary stage canopies shall comply with Chapter 10.

    3105.8Location.

    Temporary stage canopies shall be located a distance from property lines and buildings to accommodate distances indicated in the construction drawings for guy wires, cross-bracing, ground anchors or ballast. Location shall not interfere with egress from a building or encroach on fire apparatus access roads.

    CHAPTER32
    HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE

    SECTION3201
    GENERAL

    3201.1Scope.

    High-piled combustible storage shall be in accordance with this chapter. In addition to the requirements of this chapter, the following material-specific requirements shall apply:

    1. 1.Aerosols shall be in accordance with Chapter 51.

    2. 2.Flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 57.

    3. 3.Hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Chapter 50.

    4. 4.Storage of combustible paper records shall be in accordance with NFPA 13.

    5. 5.Storage of combustible fibers shall be in accordance with Chapter 37.

    6. 6.General storage of combustible material shall be in accordance with Chapter 3.

    3201.2Permits.

    A permit shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.

    3201.3Construction documents.

    At the time of building permit application for new structures designed to accommodate high-piled storage or for requesting a change of occupancy/use, and at the time of application for a storage permit, plans and specifications shall be submitted for review and approval. In addition to the information required by the International Building Code, the storage permit submittal shall include the information specified in this section. Following approval of the plans, a copy of the approved plans shall be maintained on the premises in an approved location. The plans shall include all of the following:

    1. 1.Floor plan of the building showing locations and dimensions of high-piled storage areas.

    2. 2.Usable storage height for each storage area.

    3. 3.Number of tiers within each rack, if applicable.

    4. 4.Commodity clearance between top of storage and the sprinkler deflector for each storage arrangement.

    5. 5.Aisle dimensions between each storage array.

    6. 6.Maximum pile volume for each storage array.

    7. 7.Location and classification of commodities in accordance with Section 3203.

    8. 8.Location of commodities that are banded or encapsulated.

    9. 9.Location of required fire department access doors.

    10. 10.Type of fire suppression and fire detection systems.

    11. 11.Location of valves controlling the water supply of ceiling and in-rack sprinklers.

    12. 12.Type, location and specifications of smoke removal and curtain board systems.

    13. 13.Dimension and location of transverse and longitudinal flue spaces.

    14. 14.Additional information regarding required design features, commodities, storage arrangement and fire protection features within the high-piled storage area shall be provided at the time of permit, when required by the fire code official.

    3201.4Evacuation plan.

    Where required by the fire code official, an evacuation plan for public accessible areas and a separate set of plans indicating location and width of aisles, location of exits, exit access doors, exit signs, height of storage, and locations of hazardous materials shall be submitted at the time of permit application for review and approval. Following approval of the plans, a copy of the approved plans shall be maintained on the premises in an approved location.

    SECTION3202
    DEFINITIONS

    3202.1Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    ARRAY.

    ARRAY, CLOSED.

    AUTOMATED RACK STORAGE.

    BIN BOX.

    COMMODITY.

    EARLY SUPPRESSION FAST-RESPONSE (ESFR) SPRINKLER.

    EXPANDED PLASTIC.

    EXTRA-HIGH-RACK COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE.

    HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE.

    HIGH-PILED STORAGE AREA.

    LONGITUDINAL FLUE SPACE.

    MANUAL STOCKING METHODS.

    MECHANICAL STOCKING METHODS.

    SHELF STORAGE.

    SOLID SHELVING.

    TRANSVERSE FLUE SPACE.

    SECTION3203
    COMMODITY CLASSIFICATION

    3203.1Classification of commodities.

    Commodities shall be classified as Class I, II, III, IV or high hazard in accordance with this section. Materials listed within each commodity classification are assumed to be unmodified for improved combustibility characteristics. Use of flame-retarding modifiers or the physical form of the material could change the classification. See Section 3203.7 for classification of Group A, B and C plastics.

    3203.2Class I commodities.

    Class I commodities are essentially noncombustible products on wooden pallets, in ordinary corrugated cartons with or without single-thickness dividers, or in ordinary paper wrappings with or without pallets. Class I commodities are allowed to contain a limited amount of Group A plastics in accordance with Section 3203.7.4. Examples of Class I commodities include, but are not limited to, the following:

    Alcoholic beverages not exceeding 20-percent alcohol

    Appliances noncombustible, electrical

    Cement in bags

    Ceramics

    Dairy products in nonwax-coated containers (excluding bottles)

    Dry insecticides

    Foods in noncombustible containers

    Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic trays or containers

    Frozen foods

    Glass

    Glycol in metal cans

    Gypsum board

    Inert materials, bagged

    Insulation, noncombustible

    Noncombustible liquids in plastic containers having less than a 5-gallon (19 L) capacity

    Noncombustible metal products

    3203.3Class II commodities.

    Class II commodities are Class I products in slatted wooden crates, solid wooden boxes, multiple-thickness paperboard cartons or equivalent combustible packaging material with or without pallets. Class II commodities are allowed to contain a limited amount of Group A plastics in accordance with Section 3203.7.4. Examples of Class II commodities include, but are not limited to, the following:

    Alcoholic beverages not exceeding 20-percent alcohol, in combustible containers

    Foods in combustible containers

    Incandescent or fluorescent light bulbs in cartons

    Thinly coated fine wire on reels or in cartons

    3203.4Class III commodities.

    Class III commodities are commodities of wood, paper, natural fiber cloth, or Group C plastics or products thereof, with or without pallets. Products are allowed to contain limited amounts of Group A or B plastics, such as metal bicycles with plastic handles, pedals, seats and tires. Group A plastics shall be limited in accordance with Section 3203.7.4. Examples of Class III commodities include, but are not limited to, the following:

    Aerosol, Level 1 (see Chapter 51)

    Biomass briquettes, bagged, and static piles

    Biomass pellets, bagged, and static piles

    Charcoal

    Combustible fiberboard

    Cork, baled

    Corn cobs, static piles

    Corn stover, baled and chopped

    Feed, bagged

    Fertilizers, bagged

    Firewood

    Food in plastic containers

    Forest residue, round wood or chipped (branches, bark, cross-cut ends, edgings and treetops)

    Furniture: wood, natural fiber, upholstered, nonplastic, wood or metal with plastic-padded and covered armrests

    Glycol in combustible containers not exceeding 25 percent

    Lubricating or hydraulic fluid in metal cans

    Lumber

    Mattresses, excluding foam rubber and foam plastics

    Noncombustible liquids in plastic containers having a capacity of more than 5 gallons (19 L)

    Paints, oil base, in metal cans

    Paper, waste, baled

    Paper and pulp, horizontal storage, or vertical storage that is banded or protected with approved wrap

    Paper in cardboard boxes

    Peanut hulls, bagged, and static piles

    Pillows, excluding foam rubber and foam plastics

    Plastic-coated paper food containers

    Plywood

    Rags, baled

    Recovered construction wood

    Rice hulls, bagged, and static piles

    Rugs, without foam backing

    Seasonal grasses, baled and chopped

    Straw, baled

    Sugar, bagged

    Wood, baled

    Wood chips, bagged, and static piles

    Woody biomass, round wood or chipped (vase-shaped stubby bushes, bamboo, willows; branches, bark and stem wood)

    Wood doors, frames and cabinets

    Wood pellets, bagged, and static piles

    Yarns of natural fiber and viscose

    3203.5Class IV commodities.

    Class IV commodities are Class I, II or III products containing Group A plastics in ordinary corrugated cartons and Class I, II and III products with Group A plastic packaging, with or without pallets. Group B plastics and free-flowing Group A plastics are also included in this class. The total amount of nonfree-flowing Group A plastics shall be in accordance with Section 3203.7.4. Examples of Class IV commodities include, but are not limited to, the following:

    Aerosol, Level 2 (see Chapter 51)

    Alcoholic beverages, exceeding 20-percent but less than 80-percent alcohol, in cans or bottles in cartons

    Clothing, synthetic or nonviscose

    Combustible metal products (solid)

    Furniture, plastic upholstered

    Furniture, wood or metal with plastic covering and padding

    Glycol in combustible containers (greater than 25 percent and less than 50 percent)

    Linoleum products

    Paints, oil base in combustible containers

    Pharmaceutical, alcoholic elixirs, tonics, etc.

    Rugs, foam back

    Shingles, asphalt

    Thread or yarn, synthetic or nonviscose

    3203.6High-hazard commodities.

    High-hazard commodities are high-hazard products presenting special fire hazards beyond those of Class I, II, III or IV. Group A plastics not otherwise classified are included in this class. Examples of high-hazard commodities include, but are not limited to, the following:

    Aerosol, Level 3 (see Chapter 51)

    Alcoholic beverages, exceeding 80-percent alcohol, in bottles or cartons

    Commodities of any class in plastic containers in carousel storage

    Flammable solids (except solid combustible metals)

    Glycol in combustible containers (50 percent or greater)

    Lacquers that dry by solvent evaporation, in metal cans or cartons

    Lubricating or hydraulic fluid in plastic containers

    Mattresses, foam rubber or foam plastics

    Pallets and flats that are idle combustible

    Paper and pulp, rolled, in vertical storage that is unbanded or not protected with an approved wrap

    Paper, asphalt, rolled, horizontal storage

    Paper, asphalt, rolled, vertical storage

    Pillows, foam rubber and foam plastics

    Pyroxylin

    Rubber tires

    Vegetable oil and butter in plastic containers

    3203.7Classification of plastics.

    Plastics shall be designated as Group A, B or C in accordance with Sections 3203.7.1 through 3203.7.4.

    3203.7.1Group A plastics.

    Group A plastics are plastic materials having a heat of combustion that is much higher than that of ordinary combustibles, and a burning rate higher than that of Group B plastics. Examples of Group A plastics include, but are not limited to, the following:

    ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer)

    Acetal (polyformaldehyde)

    Acrylic (polymethyl methacrylate)

    Butyl rubber

    EPDM (ethylene propylene rubber)

    FRP (fiberglass-reinforced polyester)

    Natural rubber (expanded)

    Nitrile rubber (acrylonitrile butadiene rubber)

    PET or PETE (polyethylene terephthalate)

    Polybutadiene

    Polycarbonate

    Polyester elastomer

    Polyethylene

    Polypropylene

    Polystyrene (expanded and unexpanded)

    Polyurethane (expanded and unexpanded)

    PVC (polyvinyl chloride greater than 15-percent plasticized, e.g., coated fabric unsupported film)

    SAN (styrene acrylonitrile)

    SBR (styrene butadiene rubber)

    3203.7.2Group B plastics.

    Group B plastics are plastic materials having a heat of combustion and a burning rate higher than that of ordinary combustibles, but not as high as those of Group A plastics. Examples of Group B plastics include, but are not limited to, the following:

    Cellulosics (cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate butyrate, ethyl cellulose)

    Chloroprene rubber

    Fluoroplastics (ECTFE, ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer; ETFE, ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer; FEP, fluorinated ethylene-propylene copolymer)

    Natural rubber (nonexpanded)

    Nylon (Nylon 6, Nylon 6/6)

    PVC (polyvinyl chloride greater than 5-percent, but not exceeding 15-percent plasticized)

    Silicone rubber

    3203.7.3Group C plastics.

    Group C plastics are plastic materials having a heat of combustion and a burning rate similar to those of ordinary combustibles. Examples of Group C plastics include, but are not limited to, the following:

    Fluoroplastics (PCTFE, polychlorotrifluoroethylene; PTFE, polytetrafluoroethylene)

    Melamine (melamine formaldehyde)

    Phenol

    PVC (polyvinyl chloride, rigid or plasticized less than 5 percent, e.g., pipe, pipe fittings)

    PVDC (polyvinylidene chloride)

    PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride)

    PVF (polyvinyl fluoride)

    Urea (urea formaldehyde)

    3203.7.4Limited quantities of Group A plastics in mixed commodities.

    Figure 3203.7.4 shall be used to determine the quantity of Group A plastics allowed to be stored in a package or carton or on a pallet without increasing the commodity classification.

    FIGURE 3203.7.4

    MIXED COMMODITIESa, b

    1. a.This figure is intended to determine the commodity classification of a mixed commodity in a package, carton or on a pallet where plastics are involved.

    2. b.The following is an example of how to apply the figure: A package containing a Class III commodity has 12-percent Group A expanded plastic by volume. The weight of the unexpanded Group A plastic is 10 percent. This commodity is classified as a Class IV commodity. If the weight of the unexpanded plastic is increased to 14 percent, the classification changes to a high-hazard commodity.

    3. c.Images///cdn-codes.iccsafe.org/bundles/document/new_document_images/546/Eq0006.jpg

    4. d.Images///cdn-codes.iccsafe.org/bundles/document/new_document_images/546/Eq0007.jpg

    SECTION3204
    DESIGNATION OF HIGH-PILED STORAGE AREAS

    3204.1General.

    High-piled storage areas, and portions of high-piled storage areas intended for storage of a different commodity class than adjacent areas, shall be designed and specifically designated to contain Class I, Class II, Class III, Class IV or high-hazard commodities. The designation of a high-piled combustible storage area, or portion thereof intended for storage of a different commodity class, shall be based on the highest hazard commodity class stored except as provided in Section 3204.2.

    3204.2Designation based on engineering analysis.

    The designation of a high-piled combustible storage area, or portion thereof, is allowed to be based on a lower hazard class than that of the highest class of commodity stored when a limited quantity of the higher hazard commodity has been demonstrated by engineering analysis to be adequately protected by the automatic sprinkler system provided. The engineering analysis shall consider the ability of the sprinkler system to deliver the higher density required by the higher hazard commodity. The higher density shall be based on the actual storage height of the pile or rack and the minimum allowable design area for sprinkler operation as set forth in the density/area figures provided in NFPA 13. The contiguous area occupied by the higher hazard commodity shall not exceed 120 square feet (11 m2) and additional areas of higher hazard commodity shall be separated from other such areas by 25 feet (7620 mm) or more. The sprinkler system shall be capable of delivering the higher density over a minimum area of 900 square feet (84 m2) for wet pipe systems and 1,200 square feet (111 m2) for dry pipe systems. The shape of the design area shall be in accordance with Section 903.

    SECTION3205
    HOUSEKEEPING AND MAINTENANCE

    3205.1Rack structures.

    The structural integrity of racks shall be maintained.

    3205.2Ignition sources.

    Clearance from ignition sources shall be provided in accordance with Section 305.

    3205.3Smoking.

    Smoking shall be prohibited. Approved “No Smoking” signs shall be conspicuously posted in accordance with Section 310.

    3205.4Aisle maintenance.

    When restocking is not being conducted, aisles shall be kept clear of storage, waste material and debris. Fire department access doors, aisles and exit doors shall not be obstructed. During restocking operations using manual stocking methods, a minimum unobstructed aisle width of 24 inches (610 mm) shall be maintained in 48-inch (1219 mm) or smaller aisles, and a minimum unobstructed aisle width of one-half of the required aisle width shall be maintained in aisles greater than 48 inches (1219 mm). During mechanical stocking operations, a minimum unobstructed aisle width of 44 inches (1118 mm) shall be maintained in accordance with Section 3206.9.

    3205.5Pile dimension and height limitations.

    Pile dimensions and height limitations shall comply with Section 3207.3.

    3205.6Designation of storage heights.

    Where required by the fire code official, a visual method of indicating the maximum allowable storage height shall be provided.

    3205.7Arrays.

    Arrays shall comply with Section 3207.4.

    3205.8Flue spaces.

    Flue spaces shall comply with Section 3208.3.

    SECTION3206
    GENERAL FIRE PROTECTION
    AND LIFE SAFETY FEATURES

    3206.1General.

    Fire protection and life safety features for high-piled storage areas shall be in accordance with Sections 3206.2 through 3206.10.

    3206.2Extent and type of protection.

    Where required by Table 3206.2, fire detection systems, smoke and heat removal and automatic sprinkler design densities shall extend the lesser of 15 feet (4572 mm) beyond the high-piled storage area or to a permanent partition. Where portions of high-piled storage areas have different fire protection requirements because of commodity, method of storage or storage height, the fire protection features required by Table 3206.2 within this area shall be based on the most restrictive design requirements.

    TABLE 3206.2

    GENERAL FIRE PROTECTION AND LIFE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

    COMMODITY CLASSSIZE OF HIGH-PILED STORAGE AREAa(square feet)(see Sections 3206.2 and 3206.4)ALL STORAGE AREAS (See Sections 3206, 3207 and 3208)bSOLID-PILED STORAGE, SHELF STORAGE AND PALLETIZED STORAGE(see Section 3207.3)
    Automatic fire-extinguishing system (see Section 3206.4)Fire detection system (see Section 3206.5)Building access (see Section 3206.6)Smoke and heat removal (see Section 3206.7)Maximum pile dimensionc (feet)Maximum permissible storage heightd (feet)Maximum pile volume (cubic feet)
    I-IV0-500Not RequiredaNot RequiredNot RequiredeNot RequiredNot RequiredNot RequiredNot Required
    501-2,500Not RequiredaYesiNot RequiredeNot Required10040100,000
    2,501-12,000 Public accessibleYesNot RequiredNot RequiredeNot Required10040400,000
    2,501-12,000 Nonpublic accessible (Option 1)YesNot RequiredNot RequiredeNot Required10040400,000
    2,501-12,000 Nonpublic accessible (Option 2)Not RequiredaYesYesYesj10030f200,000
    12,001-20,000YesNot RequiredYesYesj10040400,000
    20,001-500,000YesNot RequiredYesYesj10040400,000
    Greater than 500,000gYesNot RequiredYesYesj10040400,000
    High hazard0-500Not RequiredaNot RequiredNot RequiredeNot Required50Not RequiredNot Required
    501-2,500 Public accessibleYesNot RequiredNot RequiredeNot Required503075,000
    501-2,500 Nonpublic accessible (Option 1)YesNot RequiredNot RequiredeNot Required503075,000
    501-2,500 Nonpublic accessible (Option 2)Not RequiredaYesYesYesj502050,000
    2,501-300,000YesNot RequiredYesYesj503075,000
    300,001-500,000g,hYesNot RequiredYesYesj503075,000

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3 , 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.

    1. a.Where automatic sprinklers are required for reasons other than those in Chapter 32, the portion of the sprinkler system protecting the high-piled storage area shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 3207 and 3208.

    2. b.For aisles, see Section 3206.9.

    3. c.Piles shall be separated by aisles complying with Section 3206.9.

    4. d.For storage in excess of the height indicated, special fire protection shall be provided in accordance with Note g where required by the fire code official. See Chapters 51 and 57 for special limitations for aerosols and flammable and combustible liquids, respectively.

    5. e.Section 503 shall apply for fire apparatus access.

    6. f.For storage exceeding 30 feet in height, Option 1 shall be used.

    7. g.Special fire protection provisions including, but not limited to, fire protection of exposed steel columns; increased sprinkler density; additional in-rack sprinklers, without associated reductions in ceiling sprinkler density; or additional fire department hose connections shall be provided when required by the fire code official.

    8. h.High-piled storage areas shall not exceed 500,000 square feet. A 2-hour fire wall constructed in accordance with Section 706 of the International Building Code shall be used to divide high-piled storage exceeding 500,000 square feet in area.

    9. i.Not required where an automatic fire-extinguishing system is designed and installed to protect the high-piled storage area in accordance with Sections 3207 and 3208.

    10. j.Not required where storage areas are protected by either early suppression fast response (ESFR) sprinkler systems or control mode special application sprinklers with a response time index of 50 (m • s)1/2 or less that are listed to control a fire in the stored commodities with 12 or fewer sprinklers, installed in accordance with NFPA 13.

    3206.3Separation of high-piled storage areas.

    High-piled storage areas shall be separated from other portions of the building where required by Sections 3206.3.1 through 3206.3.2.2.

    3206.3.1Separation from other uses.

    Mixed occupancies shall be separated in accordance with the International Building Code.

    3206.3.2Multiple high-piled storage areas.

    Multiple high-piled storage areas shall be in accordance with Section 3206.3.2.1 or 3206.3.2.2.

    3206.3.2.1Aggregate area.

    The aggregate of all high-piled storage areas within a building shall be used for the application of Table 3206.2 unless such areas are separated from each other by 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 the International Building Code. Openings in such fire barriers shall be protected by opening protectives having a 1-hour fire protection rating.

    3206.3.2.2Multiclass high-piled storage areas.

    High-piled storage areas classified as Class I through IV not separated from high-piled storage areas classified as high hazard shall utilize the aggregate of all high-piled storage areas as high hazard for the purposes of the application of Table 3206.2. To be considered as separated, 1-hour fire barriers shall be constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code. Openings in such fire barriers shall be protected by opening protectives having a 1-hour fire protection rating.

    Exception: As provided for in Section 3204.2.

    3206.4Automatic sprinklers.

    Automatic sprinkler systems shall be provided in accordance with Sections 3207, 3208 and 3209.

    3206.4.1Pallets.

    Automatic sprinkler system requirements based upon the presence of pallets shall be in accordance with NFPA 13.

    3206.4.1.1Plastic pallets.

    Plastic pallets listed and labeled in accordance with UL 2335 or FM 4996 shall be treated as wood pallets for determining required sprinkler protection.

    3206.5Fire detection.

    Where fire detection is required by Table 3206.2, an approved automatic fire detection system shall be installed throughout the high-piled storage area. The system shall be monitored and be in accordance with Section 907.

    3206.6Building access.

    Where building access is required by Table 3206.2, fire apparatus access roads in accordance with Section 503 shall be provided within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of all portions of the exterior walls of buildings used for high-piled storage.

    Exception: Where fire apparatus access roads cannot be installed because of topography, railways, waterways, nonnegotiable grades or other similar conditions, the fire code official is authorized to require additional fire protection.

    3206.6.1Access doors.

    Where building access is required by Table 3206.2, fire department access doors shall be provided in accordance with this section. Access doors shall be accessible without the use of a ladder.

    3206.6.1.1Number of doors required.

    Not less than one access door shall be provided in each 100 linear feet (30 480 mm), or fraction thereof, of the exterior walls that face required fire apparatus access roads. The required access doors shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent access doors does not exceed 100 feet (30 480 mm).

    Exception: The linear distance between adjacent access doors is allowed to exceed 100 feet (30 480 mm) in existing buildings where no change in occupancy is proposed. The number and distribution of access doors in existing buildings shall be approved.

    3206.6.1.2Door size and type.

    Access doors shall be not less than 3 feet (914 mm) in width and 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) in height. Roll-up doors shall not be used unless approved.

    3206.6.1.3Locking devices.

    Only approved locking devices shall be used.

    3206.7Smoke and heat removal.

    Where smoke and heat removal is required by Table 3206.2 it shall be provided in accordance with Section 910.

    3206.8Fire department hose connections.

    Where exit passageways are required by the International Building Code for egress, a Class I standpipe system shall be provided in accordance with Section 905.

    3206.9Aisles.

    Aisles providing access to exits and fire department access doors shall be provided in high-piled storage areas exceeding 500 square feet (46 m2), in accordance with Sections 3206.9.1 through 3206.9.3. Aisles separating storage piles or racks shall comply with NFPA 13. Aisles shall also comply with Chapter 10.

    Exception: Where aisles are precluded by rack storage systems, alternate methods of access and protection are allowed when approved.

    3206.9.1Width.

    Aisle width shall be in accordance with Sections 3206.9.1.1 and 3206.9.1.2.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Aisles crossing rack structures or storage piles, that are used only for employee access, shall be not less than 24 inches (610 mm) wide.

    2. 2.Aisles separating shelves classified as shelf storage shall be not less than 30 inches (762 mm) wide.

    3206.9.1.1Sprinklered buildings.

    Aisles in sprinklered buildings shall be not less than 44 inches (1118 mm) wide. Aisles shall be not less than 96 inches (2438 mm) wide in high-piled storage areas exceeding 2,500 square feet (232 m2) in area, that are accessible to the public and designated to contain high-hazard commodities.

    Exception: Aisles in high-piled storage areas exceeding 2,500 square feet (232 m2) in area, that are accessible to the public and designated to contain high-hazard commodities, are protected by a sprinkler system designed for multiple-row racks of high-hazard commodities shall be not less than 44 inches (1118 mm) wide.

    Aisles shall be not less than 96 inches (2438 mm) wide in areas accessible to the public where mechanical stocking methods are used.

    3206.9.1.2Nonsprinklered buildings.

    Aisles in nonsprinklered buildings shall be not less than 96 inches (2438 mm) wide.

    3206.9.2Clear height.

    The required aisle width shall extend from floor to ceiling. Rack structural supports and catwalks are allowed to cross aisles at a minimum height of 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) above the finished floor level, provided that such supports do not interfere with fire department hose stream trajectory.

    3206.9.3Dead-end aisles.

    Dead-end aisles shall not exceed 20 feet (6096 mm) in length in Group M occupancies. Dead-end aisles shall not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm) in length in all other occupancies.

    Exception: Dead-end aisles are not limited where the length of the dead-end aisle is less than 2.5 times the least width of the dead-end aisle.

    3206.10Portable fire extinguishers.

    Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with Section 906.

    SECTION3207
    SOLID-PILED AND SHELF STORAGE

    3207.1General.

    Shelf storage and storage in solid piles, solid piles on pallets and bin box storage in bin boxes not exceeding 5 feet (1524 mm) in any dimension, shall be in accordance with Sections 3206 and this section.

    3207.2Fire protection.

    Where automatic sprinklers are required by Table 3206.2, an approved automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the building or to 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code. Openings in such fire barriers shall be protected by opening protectives having a 1-hour fire protection rating. The design and installation of the automatic sprinkler system and other applicable fire protection shall be in accordance with the International Building Code and NFPA 13.

    3207.2.1Shelf storage.

    Shelf storage greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) but less than 15 feet (4572 mm) in height shall be in accordance with the fire protection requirements set forth in NFPA 13. Shelf storage 15 feet (4572 mm) or more in height shall be protected in an approved manner with special fire protection, such as in-rack sprinklers.

    3207.3Pile dimension and height limitations.

    Pile dimensions, the maximum permissible storage height and pile volume shall be in accordance with Table 3206.2.

    3207.4Array.

    Where an automatic sprinkler system design utilizes protection based on a closed array, array clearances shall be provided and maintained as specified by the standard used.

    SECTION3208
    RACK STORAGE

    3208.1General.

    Rack storage shall be in accordance with Section 3206 and this section. Bin boxes exceeding 5 feet (1524 mm) in any dimension shall be regulated as rack storage.

    3208.2Fire protection.

    Where automatic sprinklers are required by Table 3206.2, an approved automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the building or to 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code. Openings in such fire barriers shall be protected by opening protectives having a 1-hour fire protection rating. The design and installation of the automatic sprinkler system and other applicable fire protection shall be in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the International Building Code.

    3208.2.1Plastic shelves.

    Storage on plastic shelves shall be protected by approved specially engineered fire protection systems.

    3208.2.2Racks with solid shelving.

    Racks with solid shelving having an area greater than 20 square feet (1.9 m2), measured between approved flue spaces at all four edges of the shelf, shall be in accordance with this section.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Racks with mesh, grated, slatted or similar shelves having uniform openings not more than 6 inches (152 mm) apart, comprising not less than 50 percent of the overall shelf area, and with approved flue spaces are allowed to be treated as racks without solid shelves.

    2. 2.Racks used for the storage of combustible paper records, with solid shelving, shall be in accordance with NFPA 13.

    3208.2.2.1Fire protection.

    Fire protection for racks with solid shelving shall be in accordance with NFPA 13.

    3208.3Flue spaces.

    Flue spaces shall be provided in accordance with Table 3208.3. Required flue spaces shall be maintained.

    TABLE 3208.3

    REQUIRED FLUE SPACES FOR RACK STORAGE

    RACK CONFIGURATIONAUTOMATIC SPRINKLER PROTECTIONSPRINKLER AT THE CEILING WITH OR WITHOUT MINIMUM IN-RACK SPRINKLERSIN-RACK SPRINKLERS AT EVERY TIERNONSPRINKLERED
    25 feet> 25 feetAny heightAny height
    Storage heightOption 1Option 2
    Single-row rackTransverse flue spaceSizeb3 inchesNot Applicable3 inchesNot RequiredNot Required
    Vertically alignedNot RequiredNot ApplicableYesNot ApplicableNot Required
    Longitudinal flue spaceNot RequiredNot ApplicableNot RequiredNot RequiredNot Required
    Double-row rackTransverse flue spaceSizeb6 inchesa3 inches3 inchesNot RequiredNot Required
    Vertically alignedNot RequiredNot RequiredYesNot ApplicableNot Required
    Longitudinal flue spaceNot Required6 inches6 inchesNot RequiredNot Required
    Multirow rackTransverse flue spaceSizeb6 inchesNot Applicable6 inchesNot RequiredNot Required
    Vertically alignedNot RequiredNot ApplicableYesNot ApplicableNot Required
    Longitudinal flue spaceNot RequiredNot ApplicableNot RequiredNot RequiredNot Required

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    1. a.Three-inch transverse flue spaces shall be provided not less than every 10 feet where ESFR sprinkler protection is provided.

    2. b.Random variations are allowed, provided that the configuration does not obstruct water penetration.

    3208.3.1Flue space protection.

    Where required by the fire code official, flue spaces required by Table 3208.3, in single-, double- or multiple-row rack storage installations shall be equipped with approved devices to protect the required flue spaces. Such devices shall not be removed or modified.

    3208.4Column protection.

    Steel building columns shall be protected in accordance with NFPA 13.

    3208.5Extra-high-rack storage systems.

    Approval of the fire code official shall be obtained prior to installing extra-high-rack combustible storage.

    3208.5.1Fire protection.

    Buildings with extra-high-rack combustible storage shall be protected with a specially engineered automatic sprinkler system. Extra-high-rack combustible storage shall be provided with additional special fire protection, such as separation from other buildings and additional built-in fire protection features and fire department access, where required by the fire code official.

    SECTION3209
    AUTOMATED STORAGE

    3209.1General.

    Automated storage shall be in accordance with this section.

    3209.2Automatic sprinklers.

    Where automatic sprinklers are required by Table 3206.2, the building shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    3209.3Carousel storage.

    High-piled storage areas having greater than 500 square feet (46 m2) of carousel storage shall be provided with automatic shutdown in accordance with one of the following:

    1. 1.An automatic smoke detection system installed in accordance with Section 907, with coverage extending 15 feet (4575 mm) in all directions beyond unenclosed carousel storage systems and that sounds a local alarm at the operator’s station and stops the carousel storage system upon the activation of a single detector.

    2. 2.An automatic smoke detection system installed in accordance with Section 907 and within enclosed carousel storage systems, that sounds a local alarm at the operator’s station and stops the carousel storage system upon the activation of a single detector.

    3. 3.A single dead-man-type control switch that allows the operation of the carousel storage system only when the operator is present. The switch shall be in the same room as the carousel storage system and located to provide for observation of the carousel system.

    3209.4Automated rack storage.

    High-piled storage areas with automated rack storage shall be provided with a manually activated emergency shutdown switch for use by emergency personnel. The switch shall be clearly identified and shall be in a location approved by the fire chief.

    SECTION3210
    SPECIALTY STORAGE

    3210.1General.

    Records storage facilities used for the rack or shelf storage of combustible paper records greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) in height shall be in accordance with Sections 3206 and 3208 and NFPA 13. Palletized storage of records shall be in accordance with Section 3207.

    CHAPTER33
    FIRE SAFETY DURING CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION

    SECTION3301
    GENERAL

    3301.1Scope.

    This chapter shall apply to structures in the course of construction, alteration or demolition, including those in underground locations. Compliance with NFPA 241 is required for items not specifically addressed herein.

    3301.2Purpose.

    This chapter prescribes minimum safeguards for construction, alteration and demolition operations to provide reasonable safety to life and property from fire during such operations.

    SECTION3302
    DEFINITIONS

    3302.1Terms defined in Chapter 2.

    Words and terms used in this chapter and defined in Chapter 2 shall have the meanings ascribed to them as defined therein.

    SECTION3303
    TEMPORARY HEATING EQUIPMENT

    3303.1Listed.

    Temporary heating devices shall be listed and labeled in accordance with the International Mechanical Code or the International Fuel Gas Code. Installation, maintenance and use of temporary heating devices shall be in accordance with the terms of the listing.

    3303.2Oil-fired heaters.

    Oil-fired heaters shall comply with Section 603.

    3303.3LP-gas heaters.

    Fuel supplies for liquefied-petroleum gas-fired heaters shall comply with Chapter 61 and the International Fuel Gas Code.

    3303.4Refueling.

    Refueling operations for liquid-fueled equipment or appliances shall be conducted in accordance with Section 5705. The equipment or appliance shall be allowed to cool prior to refueling.

    3303.5Installation.

    Clearance to combustibles from temporary heating devices shall be maintained in accordance with the labeled equipment. When in operation, temporary heating devices shall be fixed in place and protected from damage, dislodgement or overturning in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    3303.6Supervision.

    The use of temporary heating devices shall be supervised and maintained only by competent personnel.

    SECTION3304
    PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE

    3304.1Smoking.

    Smoking shall be prohibited except in approved areas. Signs shall be posted in accordance with Section 310. In approved areas where smoking is permitted, approved ashtrays shall be provided in accordance with Section 310.

    3304.2Combustible debris, rubbish and waste.

    Combustible debris, rubbish and waste material shall comply with the requirements of Sections 3304.2.1 through 3304.2.4.

    3304.2.1Combustible waste material accumulation.

    Combustible debris, rubbish and waste material shall not be accumulated within buildings.

    3304.2.2Combustible waste material removal.

    Combustible debris, rubbish and waste material shall be removed from buildings at the end of each shift of work.

    3304.2.3Rubbish containers.

    Where rubbish containers with a capacity exceeding 5.33 cubic feet (40 gallons) (0.15 m3) are used for temporary storage of combustible debris, rubbish and waste material, they shall have tight-fitting or self-closing lids. Such rubbish containers shall be constructed entirely of materials that comply with either of the following:

    1. 1.Noncombustible materials.

    2. 2.Materials that meet a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 300 kW/m2 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m2 in the horizontal orientation.

    3304.2.4Spontaneous ignition.

    Materials susceptible to spontaneous ignition, such as oily rags, shall be stored in a listed disposal container.

    3304.3Burning of combustible debris, rubbish and waste.

    Combustible debris, rubbish and waste material shall not be disposed of by burning on the site unless approved.

    3304.4Open burning.

    Open burning shall comply with Section 307.

    3304.5Fire watch.

    Where required by the fire code official for building demolition, or building construction during working hours that is hazardous in nature, qualified personnel shall be provided to serve as an on-site fire watch. Fire watch personnel shall be provided with not less than one approved means for notification of the fire department and their sole duty shall be to perform constant patrols and watch for the occurrence of fire.

    3304.6Cutting and welding.

    Operations involving the use of cutting and welding shall be done in accordance with Chapter 35.

    3304.7Electrical.

    Temporary wiring for electrical power and lighting installations used in connection with the construction, alteration or demolition of buildings, structures, equipment or similar activities shall comply with NFPA 70.

    SECTION3305
    FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS

    3305.1Storage of flammable and combustible liquids.

    Storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Section 5704.

    3305.2Class I and Class II liquids.

    The storage, use and handling of flammable and combustible liquids at construction sites shall be in accordance with Section 5706.2. Ventilation shall be provided for operations involving the application of materials containing flammable solvents.

    3305.3Housekeeping.

    Flammable and combustible liquid storage areas shall be maintained clear of combustible vegetation and waste materials. Such storage areas shall not be used for the storage of combustible materials.

    3305.4Precautions against fire.

    Sources of ignition and smoking shall be prohibited in flammable and combustible liquid storage areas. Signs shall be posted in accordance with Section 310.

    3305.5Handling at point of final use.

    Class I and II liquids shall be kept in approved safety containers.

    3305.6Leakage and spills.

    Leaking vessels shall be immediately repaired or taken out of service and spills shall be cleaned up and disposed of properly.

    SECTION3306
    FLAMMABLE GASES

    3306.1Storage and handling.

    The storage, use and handling of flammable gases shall comply with Chapter 58.

    3306.2Cleaning with flammable gas.

    Flammable gases shall not be used to clean or remove debris from piping open to the atmosphere.

    3306.2.1Pipe cleaning and purging.

    The cleaning and purging of flammable gas piping systems, including cleaning new or existing piping systems, purging piping systems into service and purging piping systems out of service, shall comply with NFPA 56.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Compressed gas piping systems other than fuel gas piping systems where in accordance with Chapter 53.

    2. 2.Piping systems regulated by the International Fuel Gas Code.

    3. 3.Liquefied petroleum gas systems in accordance with Chapter 61.

    SECTION3307
    EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS

    3307.1Storage and handling.

    Explosive materials shall be stored, used and handled in accordance with Chapter 56.

    3307.2Supervision.

    Blasting operations shall be conducted in accordance with Chapter 56.

    3307.3Demolition using explosives.

    Approved fire hoses for use by demolition personnel shall be maintained at the demolition site whenever explosives are used for demolition. Such fire hoses shall be connected to an approved water supply and shall be capable of being brought to bear on post-detonation fires anywhere on the site of the demolition operation.

    SECTION3308
    OWNER’S RESPONSIBILITY FOR FIRE PROTECTION

    3308.1Program superintendent.

    The owner shall designate a person to be the fire prevention program superintendent who shall be responsible for the fire prevention program and ensure that it is carried out through completion of the project. The fire prevention program superintendent shall have the authority to enforce the provisions of this chapter and other provisions as necessary to secure the intent of this chapter. Where guard service is provided, the superintendent shall be responsible for the guard service.

    3308.2Prefire plans.

    The fire prevention program superintendent shall develop and maintain an approved prefire plan in cooperation with the fire chief. The fire chief and the fire code official shall be notified of changes affecting the utilization of information contained in such prefire plans.

    3308.3Training.

    Training of responsible personnel in the use of fire protection equipment shall be the responsibility of the fire prevention program superintendent.

    3308.4Fire protection devices.

    The fire prevention program superintendent shall determine that all fire protection equipment is maintained and serviced in accordance with this code. The quantity and type of fire protection equipment shall be approved.

    3308.5Hot work operations.

    The fire prevention program superintendent shall be responsible for supervising the permit system for hot work operations in accordance with Chapter 35.

    3308.6Impairment of fire protection systems.

    Impairments to any fire protection system shall be in accordance with Section 901.

    3308.7Temporary covering of fire protection devices.

    Coverings placed on or over fire protection devices to protect them from damage during construction processes shall be immediately removed upon the completion of the construction processes in the room or area in which the devices are installed.

    SECTION3309
    FIRE REPORTING

    3309.1Emergency telephone.

    Readily accessible emergency telephone facilities shall be provided in an approved location at the construction site. The street address of the construction site and the emergency telephone number of the fire department shall be posted adjacent to the telephone.

    SECTION3310
    ACCESS FOR FIRE FIGHTING

    3310.1Required access.

    Approved vehicle access for fire fighting shall be provided to all construction or demolition sites. Vehicle access shall be provided to within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of temporary or permanent fire department connections. Vehicle access shall be provided by either temporary or permanent roads, capable of supporting vehicle loading under all weather conditions. Vehicle access shall be maintained until permanent fire apparatus access roads are available.

    3310.2Key boxes.

    Key boxes shall be provided as required by Chapter 5.

    SECTION3311
    MEANS OF EGRESS

    [BE]3311.1 Stairways required.

    Where a building has been constructed to a building height of 50 feet (15 240 mm) or four stories, or where an existing building exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm) in building height is altered, not less than one temporary lighted stairway shall be provided unless one or more of the permanent stairways are erected as the construction progresses.

    3311.2Maintenance.

    Required means of egress shall be maintained during construction and demolition, remodeling or alterations and additions to any building.

    Exception:Approved temporary means of egress systems and facilities.

    SECTION3312
    WATER SUPPLY FOR FIRE PROTECTION

    3312.1When required.

    An approved water supply for fire protection, either temporary or permanent, shall be made available as soon as combustible material arrives on the site.

    SECTION3313
    STANDPIPES

    3313.1Where required.

    In buildings required to have standpipes by Section 905.3.1, not less than one standpipe shall be provided for use during construction. Such standpipes shall be installed prior to construction exceeding 40 feet (12 192 mm) in height above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access. Such standpipe shall be provided with fire department hose connections at accessible locations adjacent to usable stairways. Such standpipes shall be extended as construction progresses to within one floor of the highest point of construction having secured decking or flooring.

    3313.2Buildings being demolished.

    Where a building is being demolished and a standpipe is existing within such a building, such standpipe shall be maintained in an operable condition so as to be available for use by the fire department. Such standpipe shall be demolished with the building but shall not be demolished more than one floor below the floor being demolished.

    3313.3Detailed requirements.

    Standpipes shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of Section 905.

    Exception: Standpipes shall be either temporary or permanent in nature, and with or without a water supply, provided that such standpipes comply with the requirements of Section 905 as to capacity, outlets and materials.

    SECTION3314
    AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM

    3314.1Completion before occupancy.

    In buildings where an automatic sprinkler system is required by this code or the International Building Code, it shall be unlawful to occupy any portion of a building or structure until the automatic sprinkler system installation has been tested and approved, except as provided in Section 105.3.4.

    3314.2Operation of valves.

    Operation of sprinkler control valves shall be allowed only by properly authorized personnel and shall be accompanied by notification of duly designated parties. Where the sprinkler protection is being regularly turned off and on to facilitate connection of newly completed segments, the sprinkler control valves shall be checked at the end of each work period to ascertain that protection is in service.

    SECTION3315
    PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

    3315.1Where required.

    Structures under construction, alteration or demolition shall be provided with not less than one approved portable fire extinguisher in accordance with Section 906 and sized for not less than ordinary hazard as follows:

    1. 1.At each stairway on all floor levels where combustible materials have accumulated.

    2. 2.In every storage and construction shed.

    3. 3.Additional portable fire extinguishers shall be provided where special hazards exist including, but not limited to, the storage and use of flammable and combustible liquids.

    SECTION3316
    MOTORIZED CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT

    3316.1Conditions of use.

    Internal-combustion-powered construction equipment shall be used in accordance with all of the following conditions:

    1. 1.Equipment shall be located so that exhausts do not discharge against combustible material.

    2. 2.Exhausts shall be piped to the outside of the building.

    3. 3.Equipment shall not be refueled while in operation.

    4. 4.Fuel for equipment shall be stored in an approved area outside of the building.

    SECTION3317
    SAFEGUARDING ROOFING OPERATIONS

    3317.1General.

    Roofing operations utilizing heat-producing systems or other ignition sources shall be conducted in accordance with Sections 3317.2 and 3317.3 and Chapter 35.

    3317.2Asphalt and tar kettles.

    Asphalt and tar kettles shall be operated in accordance with Section 303.

    3317.3Fire extinguishers for roofing operations.

    Fire extinguishers shall comply with Section 906. There shall be not less than one multipurpose portable fire extinguisher with a minimum 3-A 40-B:C rating on the roof being covered or repaired.

    CHAPTER34
    TIRE REBUILDING AND TIRE STORAGE

    SECTION3401
    GENERAL

    3401.1Scope.

    Tire rebuilding plants, tire storage and tire byproduct facilities shall comply with this chapter, other applicable requirements of this code and NFPA 13. Tire storage in buildings shall also comply with Chapter 32.

    3401.2Permit required.

    Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.

    SECTION3402
    DEFINITIONS

    3402.1Terms defined in Chapter 2.

    Words and terms used in this chapter and defined in Chapter 2 shall have the meanings ascribed to them as defined therein.

    SECTION3403
    TIRE REBUILDING

    3403.1Construction.

    Tire rebuilding plants shall comply with the requirements of the International Building Code, as to construction, separation from other buildings or other portions of the same building, and protection.

    3403.2Location.

    Buffing operations shall be located in a room separated from the remainder of the building housing the tire rebuilding or tire recapping operations by a 1-hour fire barrier.

    Exception: Buffing operations are not required to be separated where all of the following conditions are met:

    1. 1.Buffing operations are equipped with an approved continuous automatic water-spray system directed at the point of cutting action.

    2. 2.Buffing machines are connected to particle-collecting systems providing a minimum air movement of 1,500 cubic feet per minute (cfm) (0.71 m3/s) in volume and 4,500 feet per minute (fpm) (23 m/s) in-line velocity.

    3. 3.The collecting system shall discharge the rubber particles to an approved outdoor noncombustible or fire-resistant container that is emptied at frequent intervals to prevent overflow.

    3403.3Cleaning.

    The buffing area shall be cleaned at frequent intervals to prevent the accumulation of rubber particles.

    3403.4Spray rooms and booths.

    Each spray room or spray booth where flammable or combustible solvents are applied, shall comply with Chapter 24.

    SECTION3404
    PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FIRE

    3404.1Open burning.

    Open burning is prohibited in tire storage yards.

    3404.2Sources of heat.

    Cutting, welding or heating devices shall not be operated in tire storage yards.

    3404.3Smoking prohibited.

    Smoking is prohibited in tire storage yards, except in designated areas.

    3404.4Power lines.

    Tire storage piles shall not be located beneath electrical power lines having a voltage in excess of 750 volts or that supply power to fire emergency systems.

    3404.5Fire safety plan.

    The owner or individual in charge of the tire storage yard shall be required to prepare and submit to the fire code official a fire safety plan for review and approval. The fire safety plan shall include provisions for fire department vehicle access. Not less than one copy of the fire safety plan shall be prominently posted and maintained at the storage yard.

    3404.6Telephone number.

    The telephone number of the fire department and location of the nearest telephone shall be posted conspicuously in attended locations.

    SECTION3405
    OUTDOOR STORAGE

    3405.1Individual piles.

    Tire storage shall be restricted to individual piles not exceeding 5,000 square feet (464.5 m2) of continuous area. Piles shall not exceed 50,000 cubic feet (1416 m3) in volume or 10 feet (3048 mm) in height.

    3405.2Separation of piles.

    Individual tire storage piles shall be separated from other piles by a clear space of not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm).

    3405.3Distance between piles of other stored products.

    Tire storage piles shall be separated by a clear space of not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm) from piles of other stored product.

    3405.4Distance from lot lines and buildings.

    Tire storage piles shall be located not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from lot lines and buildings.

    3405.5Fire breaks.

    Storage yards shall be maintained free from combustible ground vegetation for a distance of 40 feet (12 192 mm) from the stored material to grass and weeds; and for a distance of 100 feet (30 480 mm) from the stored product to brush and forested areas.

    3405.6Volume more than 150,000 cubic feet.

    Where the bulk volume of stored product is more than 150,000 cubic feet (4248 m3), storage arrangement shall be in accordance with the following:

    1. 1.Individual storage piles shall comply with size and separation requirements in Sections 3405.1 through 3405.5.

    2. 2.Adjacent storage piles shall be considered a group, and the aggregate volume of storage piles in a group shall not exceed 150,000 cubic feet (4248 m3).

    Separation between groups shall be not less than 75 feet (22 860 mm) wide.

    3405.7Location of storage.

    Outdoor waste tire storage shall not be located under bridges, elevated trestles, elevated roadways or elevated railroads.

    SECTION3406
    FIRE DEPARTMENT ACCESS

    3406.1Required access.

    New tire storage yards shall be provided with fire apparatus access roads in accordance with Section 503 and Section 3406.2. Existing tire storage yards shall be provided with fire apparatus access roads where required in Chapter 11.

    3406.2Location.

    Fire apparatus access roads shall be located within all pile clearances identified in Section 3405.4 and within all fire breaks required in Section 3405.5. Access roadways shall be within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of any point in the storage yard where storage piles are located, not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from any storage pile.

    SECTION3407
    FENCING

    3407.1Where required.

    Where the bulk volume of stored material is more than 20,000 cubic feet (566 m3), a firmly anchored fence or other approved method of security that controls unauthorized access to the storage yard shall surround the storage yard.

    3407.2Construction.

    The fence shall be constructed of approved materials and shall be not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) high and provided with gates at least 20 feet (6096 mm) wide.

    3407.3Locking.

    Gates to the storage yard shall be locked when the storage yard is not staffed.

    3407.4Unobstructed.

    Gateways shall be kept clear of obstructions and be fully openable at all times.

    SECTION3408
    FIRE PROTECTION

    3408.1Water supply.

    A public or private fire protection water supply shall be provided in accordance with Section 508. The water supply shall be arranged such that any part of the storage yard can be reached by using not more than 500 feet (152 m) of hose.

    3408.2Fire extinguishers.

    Buildings or structures shall be provided with portable fire extinguishers in accordance with Section 906. Fuel-fired vehicles operating in the storage yard shall be equipped with a minimum 2-A:20-B:C-rated portable fire extinguisher.

    SECTION3409
    INDOOR STORAGE ARRANGEMENT

    3409.1Pile dimensions.

    Where tires are stored on-tread, the dimension of the pile in the direction of the wheel hole shall be not more than 50 feet (15 240 mm). Tires stored adjacent to or along one wall shall not extend more than 25 feet (7620 mm) from that wall. Other piles shall be not more than 50 feet (15 240 mm) in width.

    CHAPTER35
    WELDING AND OTHER HOT WORK

    SECTION3501
    GENERAL

    3501.1Scope.

    Welding, cutting, open torches and other hot work operations and equipment shall comply with this chapter.

    3501.2Permits.

    Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.

    3501.3Restricted areas.

    Hot work shall only be conducted in areas designed or authorized for that purpose by the personnel responsible for a Hot Work Program. Hot work shall not be conducted in the following areas unless approval has been obtained from the fire code official:

    1. 1.Areas where the sprinkler system is impaired.

    2. 2.Areas where there exists the potential of an explosive atmosphere, such as locations where flammable gases, liquids or vapors are present.

    3. 3.Areas with readily ignitable materials, such as storage of large quantities of bulk sulfur, baled paper, cotton, lint, dust or loose combustible materials.

    4. 4.On board ships at dock or ships under construction or repair.

    5. 5.At other locations as specified by the fire code official.

    3501.4Cylinders and containers.

    Compressed gas cylinders and fuel containers shall comply with this chapter and Chapter 53.

    3501.5Design and installation of oxygen-fuel gas systems.

    An oxygen-fuel gas system with two or more manifolded cylinders of oxygen shall be in accordance with NFPA 51.

    SECTION3502
    DEFINITIONS

    3502.1Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    HOT WORK.

    HOT WORK AREA.

    HOT WORK EQUIPMENT.

    HOT WORK PERMITS.

    HOT WORK PROGRAM.

    RESPONSIBLE PERSON.

    TORCH-APPLIED ROOF SYSTEM.

    SECTION3503
    GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

    3503.1General.

    Hot work conditions and operations shall comply with this chapter.

    3503.2Temporary and fixed hot work areas.

    Temporary and fixed hot work areas shall comply with this section.

    3503.3<