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  • PartVIIAppendices

    APPENDIXA
    BOARD OF APPEALS

    The provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance.

    SECTIONA101
    GENERAL

    A101.1 Scope.

    A board of appeals shall be established within the jurisdiction for the purpose of hearing applications for modification of the requirements of the International Fire Code pursuant to the provisions of Section 108 of the International Fire Code. The board shall be established and operated in accordance with this section, and shall be authorized to hear evidence from appellants and the fire code official pertaining to the application and intent of this code for the purpose of issuing orders pursuant to these provisions.

    A101.2 Membership.

    The membership of the board shall consist of five voting members having the qualifications established by this section. Members shall be nominated by the fire code official or the chief administrative officer of the jurisdiction, subject to confirmation by a majority vote of the governing body. Members shall serve without remuneration or compensation, and shall be removed from office prior to the end of their appointed terms only for cause.

    A101.2.1 Design professional.

    One member shall be a practicing design professional registered in the practice of engineering or architecture in the state in which the board is established.

    A101.2.2 Fire protection engineering professional.

    One member shall be a qualified engineer, technologist, technician or safety professional trained in fire protection engineering, fire science or fire technology. Qualified representatives in this category shall include fire protection contractors and certified technicians engaged in fire protection system design.

    A101.2.3 Industrial safety professional.

    One member shall be a registered industrial or chemical engineer, certified hygienist, certified safety professional, certified hazardous materials manager or comparably qualified specialist experienced in chemical process safety or industrial safety.

    A101.2.4 General contractor.

    One member shall be a contractor regularly engaged in the construction, alteration, maintenance, repair or remodeling of buildings or building services and systems regulated by the code.

    A101.2.5 General industry or business representative.

    One member shall be a representative of business or industry not represented by a member from one of the other categories of board members described above.

    A101.3 Terms of office.

    Members shall be appointed for terms of 4 years. No member shall be reappointed to serve more than two consecutive full terms.

    A101.3.1 Initial appointments.

    Of the members first appointed, two shall be appointed for a term of 1 year, two for a term of 2 years, one for a term of 3 years.

    A101.3.2 Vacancies.

    Vacancies shall be filled for an unexpired term in the manner in which original appointments are required to be made. Members appointed to fill a vacancy in an unexpired term shall be eligible for reappointment to two full terms.

    A101.3.3 Removal from office.

    Members shall be removed from office prior to the end of their terms only for cause. Continued absence of any member from regular meetings of the board shall, at the discretion of the applicable governing body, render any such member liable to immediate removal from office.

    A101.4 Quorum.

    Three members of the board shall constitute a quorum. In varying the application of any provisions of this code or in modifying an order of the fire code official, affirmative votes of the majority present, but not less than three, shall be required.

    A101.5 Secretary of board.

    The fire code official shall act as secretary of the board and shall keep a detailed record of all its proceedings, which shall set forth the reasons for its decisions, the vote of each member, the absence of a member and any failure of a member to vote.

    A101.6 Legal counsel.

    The jurisdiction shall furnish legal counsel to the board to provide members with general legal advice concerning matters before them for consideration. Members shall be represented by legal counsel at the jurisdiction’s expense in all matters arising from service within the scope of their duties.

    A101.7 Meetings.

    The board shall meet at regular intervals, to be determined by the chairman. In any event, the board shall meet within 10 days after notice of appeal has been received.

    A101.8 Conflict of interest.

    Members with a material or financial interest in a matter before the board shall declare such interest and refrain from participating in discussions, deliberations and voting on such matters.

    A101.9 Decisions.

    Every decision shall be promptly filed in writing in the office of the fire code official and shall be open to public inspection. A certified copy shall be sent by mail or otherwise to the appellant, and a copy shall be kept publicly posted in the office of the fire code official for 2 weeks after filing.

    A101.10 Procedures.

    The board shall be operated in accordance with the Administrative Procedures Act of the state in which it is established or shall establish rules and regulations for its own procedure not inconsistent with the provisions of this code and applicable state law.

    APPENDIXB
    FIRE-FLOW REQUIREMENTS FOR BUILDINGS

    The provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance.

    SECTIONB101
    GENERAL

    B101.1 Scope.

    The procedure for determining fire-flow requirements for buildings or portions of buildings hereafter constructed shall be in accordance with this appendix. This appendix does not apply to structures other than buildings.

    SECTIONB102
    DEFINITIONS

    B102.1 Definitions.

    For the purpose of this appendix, certain terms are defined as follows:

    FIRE-FLOW. The flow rate of a water supply, measured at 20 pounds per square inch (psi) (138 kPa) residual pressure, that is available for fire fighting.

    FIRE-FLOW CALCULATION AREA. The floor area, in square feet (m2), used to determine the required fire flow.

    SECTIONB103
    MODIFICATIONS

    B103.1 Decreases.

    The fire chief is authorized to reduce the fire-flow requirements for isolated buildings or a group of buildings in rural areas or small communities where the development of full fire-flow requirements is impractical.

    B103.2 Increases.

    The fire chief is authorized to increase the fire-flow requirements where conditions indicate an unusual susceptibility to group fires or conflagrations. An increase shall not be more than twice that required for the building under consideration.

    B103.3 Areas without water supply systems.

    For information regarding water supplies for fire-fighting purposes in rural and suburban areas in which adequate and reliable water supply systems do not exist, the fire code official is authorized to utilize NFPA 1142 or the International Wildland-Urban Interface Code.

    SECTIONB104
    FIRE-FLOW CALCULATION AREA

    B104.1 General.

    The fire-flow calculation area shall be the total floor area of all floor levels within the exterior walls, and under the horizontal projections of the roof of a building, except as modified in Section B104.3.

    B104.2 Area separation.

    Portions of buildings which are separated by fire walls without openings, constructed in accordance with the International Building Code, are allowed to be considered as separate fire-flow calculation areas.

    B104.3 Type IA and Type IB construction.

    The fire-flow calculation area of buildings constructed of Type IA and Type IB construction shall be the area of the three largest successive floors.

    Exception: Fire-flow calculation area for open parking garages shall be determined by the area of the largest floor.

    SECTIONB105
    FIRE-FLOW REQUIREMENTS FOR BUILDINGS

    B105.1 One- and two-family dwellings, Group R-3 and R-4 buildings and townhouses.

    The minimum fire-flow and flow duration requirements for one- and two-family dwellings, Group R-3 and R-4 buildings and townhouses shall be as specified in Tables B105.1(1) and B105.1(2).

    TABLE B105.1(1)

    REQUIRED FIRE-FLOW FOR ONE- AND TWO-FAMILY DWELLINGS, GROUP R-3 AND R-4 BUILDINGS AND TOWNHOUSES

    FIRE-FLOW CALCULATION AREA (square feet)AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM (Design Standard)MINIMUM FIRE-FLOW (gallons per minute)FLOW DURATION (hours)
    0-3,600No automatic sprinkler system1,0001
    3,601 and greaterNo automatic sprinkler systemValue in Table B105.1(2)Duration in Table B105.1(2) at the required fire-flow rate
    0-3,600Section 903.3.1.3 of the International Fire Code orSection P2904 of the International Residential Code5001/2
    3,601 and greaterSection 903.3.1.3 of the International Fire Code orSection P2904 of the International Residential Code1/2 value in Table B105.1(2)1

    For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m.

    TABLE B105.1(2)

    REFERENCE TABLE FOR TABLES B105.1(1) AND B105.2

    FIRE-FLOW CALCULATION AREA (square feet)FIRE-FLOW (gallons per minute)bFLOW DURATION (hours)
    Type IA and IBaType IIA and IIIAaType IV and V-AaType IIB and IIIBaType V-Ba
    0-22,7000-12,7000-8,2000-5,9000-3,6001,5002
    22,701-30,20012,701-17,0008,201-10,9005,901-7,9003,601-4,8001,750
    30,201-38,70017,001-21,80010,901-12,9007,901-9,8004,801-6,2002,000
    38,701-48,30021,801-24,20012,901-17,4009,801-12,6006,201-7,7002,250
    48,301-59,00024,201-33,20017,401-21,30012,601-15,4007,701-9,4002,500
    59,001-70,90033,201-39,70021,301-25,50015,401-18,4009,401-11,3002,750
    70,901-83,70039,701-47,10025,501-30,10018,401-21,80011,301-13,4003,0003
    83,701-97,70047,101-54,90030,101-35,20021,801-25,90013,401-15,6003,250
    97,701-112,70054,901-63,40035,201-40,60025,901-29,30015,601-18,0003,500
    112,701-128,70063,401-72,40040,601-46,40029,301-33,50018,001-20,6003,750
    128,701-145,90072,401-82,10046,401-52,50033,501-37,90020,601-23,3004,0004
    145,901-164,20082,101-92,40052,501-59,10037,901-42,70023,301-26,3004,250
    164,201-183,40092,401-103,10059,101-66,00042,701-47,70026,301-29,3004,500
    183,401-203,700103,101-114,60066,001-73,30047,701-53,00029,301-32,6004,750
    203,701-225,200114,601-126,70073,301-81,10053,001-58,60032,601-36,0005,000
    225,201-247,700126,701-139,40081,101-89,20058,601-65,40036,001-39,6005,250
    247,701-271,200139,401-152,60089,201-97,70065,401-70,60039,601-43,4005,500
    271,201-295,900152,601-166,50097,701-106,50070,601-77,00043,401-47,4005,750
    295,901-Greater166,501-Greater106,501-115,80077,001-83,70047,401-51,5006,000
    115,801-125,50083,701-90,60051,501-55,7006,250
    125,501-135,50090,601-97,90055,701-60,2006,500
    135,501-145,80097,901-106,80060,201-64,8006,750
    145,801-156,700106,801-113,20064,801-69,6007,000
    156,701-167,900113,201-121,30069,601-74,6007,250
    167,901-179,400121,301-129,60074,601-79,8007,500
    179,401-191,400129,601-138,30079,801-85,1007,750
    191,401-Greater138,301-Greater85,101-Greater8,000

    For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.

    1. a.Types of construction are based on the International Building Code.

    2. b.Measured at 20 psi residual pressure.

    B105.2 Buildings other than one- and two-family dwellings, Group R-3 and R-4 buildings and townhouses.

    The minimum fire-flow and flow duration for buildings other than one- and two-family dwellings, Group R-3 and R-4 buildings and townhouses shall be as specified in Tables B105.2 and B105.1(2).

    TABLE B105.2

    REQUIRED FIRE-FLOW FOR BUILDINGS OTHER THAN ONE- AND TWO-FAMILY DWELLINGS, GROUP R-3 AND R-4 BUILDINGS AND TOWNHOUSES

    AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM(Design Standard)MINIMUM FIRE-FLOW(gallons per minute)FLOW DURATION (hours)
    No automatic sprinkler systemValue in Table B105.1(2)Duration in Table B105.1(2)
    Section 903.3.1.1 of the International Fire Code25% of the value in Table B105.1(2)aDuration in Table B105.1(2) at the reduced flow rate
    Section 903.3.1.2 of the International Fire Code25% of the value in Table B105.1(2)bDuration in Table B105.1(2) at the reduced flow rate

    For SI: 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m.

    1. a.The reduced fire-flow shall be not less than 1,000 gallons per minute.

    2. b.The reduced fire-flow shall be not less than 1,500 gallons per minute.

    B105.3 Water supply for buildings equipped with an automatic sprinkler system.

    For buildings equipped with an approved automatic sprinkler system, the water supply shall be capable of providing the greater of:

    1. 1.The automatic sprinkler system demand, including hose stream allowance.

    2. 2.The required fire-flow.

    SECTIONB106
    REFERENCED STANDARDS

    ICC IFC—15

    International Fire Code

    Tables B105.1(1) and B105.2

    NFPA 1142—12

    Standard on Water Supplies for Suburban and Rural Fire Fighting

    B103.3

    APPENDIXC
    FIRE HYDRANT LOCATIONS AND DISTRIBUTION

    The provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance.

    SECTIONC101
    GENERAL

    C101.1 Scope.

    In addition to the requirements of Section 507.5.1 of the International Fire Code, fire hydrants shall be provided in accordance with this appendix for the protection of buildings, or portions of buildings, hereafter constructed or moved into the jurisdiction.

    SECTIONC102
    NUMBER OF FIRE HYDRANTS

    C102.1 Minimum number of fire hydrants for a building.

    The number of fire hydrants available to a building shall be not less than the minimum specified in Table C102.1.

    TABLE C102.1

    REQUIRED NUMBER AND SPACING OF FIRE HYDRANTS

    FIRE-FLOW REQUIREMENT (gpm)MINIMUM NUMBER OF HYDRANTSAVERAGE SPACING BETWEEN HYDRANTSa, b, c, f, g(feet)MAXIMUM DISTANCE FROM ANY POINT ON STREET OR ROAD FRONTAGE TO A HYDRANTd, f, g
    1,750 or less1500250
    2,000-2,2502450225
    2,5003450225
    3,0003400225
    3,500-4,0004350210
    4,500-5,0005300180
    5,5006300180
    6,0006250150
    6,500-7,0007250150
    7,500 or more8 or moree200120

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m.

    1. a.Reduce by 100 feet for dead-end streets or roads.

    2. b.Where streets are provided with median dividers that cannot be crossed by fire fighters pulling hose lines, or where arterial streets are provided with four or more traffic lanes and have a traffic count of more than 30,000 vehicles per day, hydrant spacing shall average 500 feet on each side of the street and be arranged on an alternating basis.

    3. c.Where new water mains are extended along streets where hydrants are not needed for protection of structures or similar fire problems, fire hydrants shall be provided at spacing not to exceed 1,000 feet to provide for transportation hazards.

    4. d.Reduce by 50 feet for dead-end streets or roads.

    5. e.One hydrant for each 1,000 gallons per minute or fraction thereof.

    6. f.A 50-percent spacing increase shall be permitted where the building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 of the International Fire Code.

    7. g.A 25-percent spacing increase shall be permitted where the building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3 of the International Fire Code or Section P2904 of the International Residential Code.

    SECTIONC103
    FIRE HYDRANT SPACING

    C103.1 Hydrant spacing.

    Fire apparatus access roads and public streets providing required access to buildings in accordance with Section 503 of the International Fire Code shall be provided with one or more fire hydrants, as determined by Section C102.1. Where more than one fire hydrant is required, the distance between required fire hydrants shall be in accordance with Sections C103.2 and C103.3.

    C103.2 Average spacing.

    The average spacing between fire hydrants shall be in accordance with Table C102.1.

    Exception: The average spacing shall be permitted to be increased by 10 percent where existing fire hydrants provide all or a portion of the required number of fire hydrants.

    C103.3 Maximum spacing.

    The maximum spacing between fire hydrants shall be in accordance with Table C102.1.

    SECTIONC104
    CONSIDERATION OF EXISTING FIRE HYDRANTS

    C104.1 Existing fire hydrants.

    Existing fire hydrants on public streets are allowed to be considered as available to meet the requirements of Sections C102 and C103. Existing fire hydrants on adjacent properties are allowed to be considered as available to meet the requirements of Sections C102 and C103 provided that a fire apparatus access road extends between properties and that an easement is established to prevent obstruction of such roads.

    SECTIONC105
    REFERENCED STANDARDS

    ICC IFC—15

    International Fire Code

    C101.1C103.1Table C102.1

    APPENDIXD
    FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROADS

    The provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance.

    SECTIOND101
    GENERAL

    D101.1 Scope.

    Fire apparatus access roads shall be in accordance with this appendix and all other applicable requirements of the International Fire Code.

    SECTIOND102
    REQUIRED ACCESS

    D102.1 Access and loading.

    Facilities, buildings or portions of buildings hereafter constructed shall be accessible to fire department apparatus by way of an approved fire apparatus access road with an asphalt, concrete or other approved driving surface capable of supporting the imposed load of fire apparatus weighing at least 75,000 pounds (34 050 kg).

    SECTIOND103
    MINIMUM SPECIFICATIONS

    D103.1 Access road width with a hydrant.

    Where a fire hydrant is located on a fire apparatus access road, the minimum road width shall be 26 feet (7925 mm), exclusive of shoulders (see Figure D103.1).

    FIGURE D103.1 DEAD-END FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD TURNAROUND

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    FIGURE D103.1

    DEAD-END FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD TURNAROUND

    D103.2 Grade.

    Fire apparatus access roads shall not exceed 10 percent in grade.

    Exception: Grades steeper than 10 percent as approved by the fire chief.

    D103.3 Turning radius.

    The minimum turning radius shall be determined by the fire code official.

    D103.4 Dead ends.

    Dead-end fire apparatus access roads in excess of 150 feet (45 720 mm) shall be provided with width and turnaround provisions in accordance with Table D103.4.

    TABLE D103.4

    REQUIREMENTS FOR DEAD-END FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROADS

    LENGTH (feet)WIDTH (feet)TURNAROUNDS REQUIRED
    0-15020None required
    151-50020120-foot Hammerhead, 60-foot “Y” or 96-foot diameter cul-de-sac in accordancewith Figure D103.1
    501-75026120-foot Hammerhead, 60-foot “Y” or 96-foot diameter cul-de-sac in accordancewith Figure D103.1
    Over 750Special approval required

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    D103.5 Fire apparatus access road gates.

    Gates securing the fire apparatus access roads shall comply with all of the following criteria:

    1. 1.Where a single gate is provided, the gate width shall be not less than 20 feet (6096 mm). Where a fire apparatus road consists of a divided roadway, the gate width shall be not less than 12 feet (3658 mm).

    2. 2.Gates shall be of the swinging or sliding type.

    3. 3.Construction of gates shall be of materials that allow manual operation by one person.

    4. 4.Gate components shall be maintained in an operative condition at all times and replaced or repaired when defective.

    5. 5.Electric gates shall be equipped with a means of opening the gate by fire department personnel for emergency access. Emergency opening devices shall be approved by the fire code official.

    6. 6. Methods of locking shall be submitted for approval by the fire code official.

    7. 7.Electric gate operators, where provided, shall be listed in accordance with UL 325.

    8. 8.Gates intended for automatic operation shall be designed, constructed and installed to comply with the requirements of ASTM F 2200.

    D103.6 Signs.

    Where required by the fire code official, fire apparatus access roads shall be marked with permanent NO PARKING—FIRE LANE signs complying with Figure D103.6. Signs shall have a minimum dimension of 12 inches (305 mm) wide by 18 inches (457 mm) high and have red letters on a white reflective background. Signs shall be posted on one or both sides of the fire apparatus road as required by Section D103.6.1 or D103.6.2.

    FIGURE D103.6 FIRE LANE SIGNS

    FIGURE D103.6

    FIRE LANE SIGNS

    D103.6.1 Roads 20 to 26 feet in width.

    Fire lane signs as specified in Section D103.6 shall be posted on both sides of fire apparatus access roads that are 20 to 26 feet wide (6096 to 7925 mm).

    D103.6.2 Roads more than 26 feet in width.

    Fire lane signs as specified in Section D103.6 shall be posted on one side of fire apparatus access roads more than 26 feet wide (7925 mm) and less than 32 feet wide (9754 mm).

    SECTIOND104
    COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENTS

    D104.1 Buildings exceeding three stories or 30 feet in height.

    Buildings or facilities exceeding 30 feet (9144 mm) or three stories in height shall have at least two means of fire apparatus access for each structure.

    D104.2 Buildings exceeding 62,000 square feet in area.

    Buildings or facilities having a gross building area of more than 62,000 square feet (5760 m2) shall be provided with two separate and approved fire apparatus access roads.

    Exception: Projects having a gross building area of up to 124,000 square feet (11 520 m2) that have a single approved fire apparatus access road when all buildings are equipped throughout with approved automatic sprinkler systems.

    D104.3 Remoteness.

    Where two fire apparatus access roads are required, they shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the lot or area to be served, measured in a straight line between accesses.

    SECTIOND105
    AERIAL FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROADS

    D105.1 Where required.

    Where the vertical distance between the grade plane and the highest roof surface exceeds 30 feet (9144 mm), approved aerial fire apparatus access roads shall be provided. For purposes of this section, the highest roof surface shall be determined by measurement to the eave of a pitched roof, the intersection of the roof to the exterior wall, or the top of parapet walls, whichever is greater.

    D105.2 Width.

    Aerial fire apparatus access roads shall have a minimum unobstructed width of 26 feet (7925 mm), exclusive of shoulders, in the immediate vicinity of the building or portion thereof.

    D105.3 Proximity to building.

    At least one of the required access routes meeting this condition shall be located within a minimum of 15 feet (4572 mm) and a maximum of 30 feet (9144 mm) from the building, and shall be positioned parallel to one entire side of the building. The side of the building on which the aerial fire apparatus access road is positioned shall be approved by the fire code official.

    D105.4 Obstructions.

    Overhead utility and power lines shall not be located over the aerial fire apparatus access road or between the aerial fire apparatus road and the building. Other obstructions shall be permitted to be placed with the approval of the fire code official.

    SECTIOND106
    MULTIPLE-FAMILY RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS

    D106.1 Projects having more than 100 dwelling units.

    Multiple-family residential projects having more than 100 dwelling units shall be equipped throughout with two separate and approved fire apparatus access roads.

    Exception: Projects having up to 200 dwelling units may have a single approved fire apparatus access road when all buildings, including nonresidential occupancies, are equipped throughout with approved automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

    D106.2 Projects having more than 200 dwelling units.

    Multiple-family residential projects having more than 200 dwelling units shall be provided with two separate and approved fire apparatus access roads regardless of whether they are equipped with an approved automatic sprinkler system.

    D106.3 Remoteness.

    Where two fire apparatus access roads are required, they shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the property or area to be served, measured in a straight line between accesses.

    SECTIOND107
    ONE- OR TWO-FAMILY RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS

    D107.1 One- or two-family dwelling residential developments.

    Developments of one- or two-family dwellings where the number of dwelling units exceeds 30 shall be provided with two separate and approved fire apparatus access roads.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Where there are more than 30 dwelling units on a single public or private fire apparatus access road and all dwelling units are equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3 of the International Fire Code, access from two directions shall not be required.

    2. 2.The number of dwelling units on a single fire apparatus access road shall not be increased unless fire apparatus access roads will connect with future development, as determined by the fire code official.

    D107.2 Remoteness.

    Where two fire apparatus access roads are required, they shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the property or area to be served, measured in a straight line between accesses.

    SECTIOND108
    REFERENCED STANDARDS

    ICC IFC—15

    International Fire Code

    D101.1D107.1

    APPENDIXE
    HAZARD CATEGORIES

    This appendix is for information purposes and is not intended for adoption.

    SECTIONE101
    GENERAL

    E101.1 Scope.

    This appendix provides information, explanations and examples to illustrate and clarify the hazard categories contained in Chapter 50 of the International Fire Code. The hazard categories are based upon the DOL 29 CFR. Where numerical classifications are included, they are in accordance with nationally recognized standards.

    This appendix should not be used as the sole means of hazardous materials classification.

    SECTIONE102
    HAZARD CATEGORIES

    E102.1 Physical hazards.

    Materials classified in this section pose a physical hazard.

    E102.1.1 Explosives and blasting agents.

    The current UN/DOT classification system recognized by international authorities, the Department of Defense and others classifies all explosives as Class 1 materials. They are then divided into six separate divisions to indicate their relative hazard. There is not a direct correlation between the designations used by the old DOT system and those used by the current system nor is there correlation with the system (high and low) established by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATF). Table 5604.3 of the International Fire Code provides some guidance with regard to the current categories and their relationship to the old categories. Some items may appear in more than one division, depending on factors such as the degree of confinement or separation, by type of packaging, storage configuration or state of assembly.

    In order to determine the level of hazard presented by explosive materials, testing to establish quantitatively their explosive nature is required. There are numerous test methods that have been used to establish the character of an explosive material. Standardized tests, required for finished goods containing explosives or explosive materials in a packaged form suitable for shipment or storage, have been established by UN/DOT and BATF. However, these tests do not consider key elements that should be examined in a manufacturing situation. In manufacturing operations, the condition and/or the state of a material may vary within the process. The in-process material classification and classification requirements for materials used in the manufacturing process may be different from the classification of the same material where found in finished goods depending on the stage of the process in which the material is found. A classification methodology must be used that recognizes the hazards commensurate with the application to the variable physical conditions as well as potential variations of physical character and type of explosive under consideration.

    Test methods or guidelines for hazard classification of energetic materials used for in-process operations shall be approved by the fire code official. Test methods used shall be DOD, BATF, UN/DOT or other approved criteria. The results of such testing shall become a portion of the files of the jurisdiction and be included as an independent section of any Hazardous Materials Management Plan (HMMP) required by Section 5605.2.1 of the International Fire Code. Also see Section 104.7.2 of the International Fire Code.

    Examples of materials in various Divisions are as follows:

    1. 1.Division 1.1 (High Explosives). Consists of explosives that have a mass explosion hazard. A mass explosion is one that affects almost the entire pile of material instantaneously. Includes substances that, where tested in accordance with approved methods, can be caused to detonate by means of a blasting cap where unconfined or will transition from deflagration to a detonation where confined or unconfined. Examples: dynamite, TNT, nitroglycerine, C-3, HMX, RDX, encased explosives, military ammunition.

    2. 2.Division 1.2 (Low Explosives). Consists of explosives that have a projection hazard, but not a mass explosion hazard. Examples: nondetonating encased explosives, military ammunition and the like.

    3. 3.Division 1.3 (Low Explosives). Consists of explosives that have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard. The major hazard is radiant heat or violent burning, or both. Can be deflagrated where confined. Examples: smokeless powder, propellant explosives, display fireworks.

    4. 4.Division 1.4. Consists of explosives that pose a minor explosion hazard. The explosive effects are largely confined to the package and no projection of fragments of appreciable size or range is expected. An internal fire must not cause virtually instantaneous explosion of almost the entire contents of the package. Examples: squibs (nondetonating igniters), explosive actuators, explosive trains (low-level detonating cord).

    5. 5.Division 1.5 (Blasting Agents). Consists of very insensitive explosives. This division comprises substances that have a mass explosion hazard, but are so insensitive that there is very little probability of initiation or of transition from burning to detonation under normal conditions of transport. Materials are not cap sensitive; however, they are mass detonating where provided with sufficient input. Examples: oxidizer and liquid fuel slurry mixtures and gels, ammonium nitrate combined with fuel oil.

    6. 6.Division 1.6. Consists of extremely insensitive articles that do not have a mass explosive hazard. This division comprises articles that contain only extremely insensitive detonating substances and that demonstrate a negligible probability of accidental initiation or propagation. Although this category of materials has been defined, the primary application is currently limited to military uses. Examples: Low vulnerability military weapons.

    Explosives in each division are assigned a compatibility group letter by the Associate Administrator for Hazardous Materials Safety (DOT) based on criteria specified by DOTn 49 CFR. Compatibility group letters are used to specify the controls for the transportation and storage related to various materials to prevent an increase in hazard that might result if certain types of explosives were stored or transported together. Altogether, there are 35 possible classification codes for explosives, e.g., 1.1A, 1.3C, 1.4S, etc.

    E102.1.2 Compressed gases.

    Examples include:

    1. 1.Flammable: acetylene, carbon monoxide, ethane, ethylene, hydrogen, methane. Ammonia will ignite and burn although its flammable range is too narrow for it to fit the definition of “Flammable gas.”

    2. For binary mixtures where the hazardous component is diluted with a nonflammable gas, the mixture shall be categorized in accordance with CGA P-23.

    3. 2.Oxidizing: oxygen, ozone, oxides of nitrogen, chlorine and fluorine. Chlorine and fluorine do not contain oxygen but reaction with flammables is similar to that of oxygen.

    4. 3.Corrosive: ammonia, hydrogen chloride, fluorine.

    5. 4.Highly toxic: arsine, cyanogen, fluorine, germane, hydrogen cyanide, nitric oxide, phosphine, hydrogen selenide, stibine.

    6. 5.Toxic: chlorine, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, silicon tetrafluoride.

    7. 6.Inert (chemically unreactive): argon, helium, krypton, neon, nitrogen, xenon.

    8. 7.Pyrophoric: diborane, dichloroborane, phosphine, silane.

    9. 8.Unstable (reactive): butadiene (unstabilized), ethylene oxide, vinyl chloride.

    E102.1.3 Flammable and combustible liquids.

    Examples include:

    1. 1.Flammable liquids.

    2. Class IA liquids shall include those having flash points below 73°F (23°C) and having a boiling point at or below 100°F (38°C).

      Class IB liquids shall include those having flash points below 73°F (23°C) and having a boiling point at or above 100°F (38°C).

      Class IC liquids shall include those having flash points at or above 73°F (23°C) and below 100°F (38°C).

    3. 2.Combustible liquids.

      Class II liquids shall include those having flash points at or above 100°F (38°C) and below 140°F (60°C).

      Class IIIA liquids shall include those having flash points at or above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C).

      Class IIIB liquids shall include those liquids having flash points at or above 200°F (93°C).

    E102.1.4 Flammable solids.

    Examples include:

    1. 1.Organic solids: camphor, cellulose nitrate, naphthalene.

    2. 2.Inorganic solids: decaborane, lithium amide, phosphorous heptasulfide, phosphorous sesquisulfide, potassium sulfide, anhydrous sodium sulfide, sulfur.

    3. 3.Combustible metals (except dusts and powders): cesium, magnesium, zirconium.

    E102.1.5 Combustible dusts and powders.

    Finely divided solids that could be dispersed in air as a dust cloud: wood sawdust, plastics, coal, flour, powdered metals (few exceptions).

    E102.1.6 Combustible fibers.

    See Section 5202.1.

    E102.1.7 Oxidizers.

    Examples include:

    1. 1.Gases: oxygen, ozone, oxides of nitrogen, fluorine and chlorine (reaction with flammables is similar to that of oxygen).

    2. 2.Liquids: bromine, hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, perchloric acid, sulfuric acid.

    3. 3.Solids: chlorates, chromates, chromic acid, iodine, nitrates, nitrites, perchlorates, peroxides.

    E102.1.7.1 Examples of liquid and solid oxidizers according to hazard.

    Class 4: ammonium perchlorate (particle size greater than 15 microns), ammonium permanganate, guanidine nitrate, hydrogen peroxide solutions more than 91 percent by weight, perchloric acid solutions more than 72.5 percent by weight, potassium superoxide, tetranitromethane.

    Class 3: ammonium dichromate, calcium hypochlorite (over 50 percent by weight), chloric acid (10 percent maximum concentration), hydrogen peroxide solutions (greater than 52 percent up to 91 percent), mono-(trichloro)-tetra-(monopotassium dichloro)-penta-s-triazinetrione, nitric acid, (fuming -more than 86 percent concentration), perchloric acid solutions (60 percent to 72 percent by weight), potassium bromate, potassium chlorate, potassium dichloro-s-triazinetrione (potassium dichloro-isocyanurate), potassium perchlorate (99 percent), potassium permanganate (greater than 97.5 percent), sodium bromate, sodium chlorate, sodium chlorite (over 40 percent by weight) and sodium dichloro-striazinetrione anhydrous (sodium dichloro-isocyanurate anhydrous).

    Class 2: barium bromate, barium chlorate, barium hypochlorite, barium perchlorate, barium permanganate, 1-bromo-3-chloro-5, 5-dimethylhydantoin, calcium chlorate, calcium chlorite, calcium hypochlorite (50 percent or less by weight), calcium perchlorate, calcium permanganate, calcium peroxide (75 percent), chromium trioxide (chromic acid), copper chlorate, halane (1, 3-di-chloro-5, 5-dimethylhydantoin), hydrogen peroxide (greater than 27.5 percent up to 52 percent), lead perchlorate, lithium chlorate, lithium hypochlorite (more than 39 percent available chlorine), lithium perchlorate, magnesium bromate, magnesium chlorate, magnesium perchlorate, mercurous chlorate, nitric acid (more than 40 percent but less than 86 percent), perchloric acid solutions (more than 50 percent but less than 60 percent), potassium peroxide, potassium superoxide, silver peroxide, sodium chlorite (40 percent or less by weight), sodium perchlorate, sodium perchlorate monohydrate, sodium permanganate, sodium peroxide, sodium persulfate (99 percent), strontium chlorate, strontium perchlorate, thallium chlorate, urea hydrogen peroxide, zinc bromate, zinc chlorate and zinc permanganate.

    Class 1: all inorganic nitrates (unless otherwise classified), all inorganic nitrites (unless otherwise classified), ammonium persulfate, barium peroxide, hydrogen peroxide solutions (greater than 8 percent up to 27.5 percent), lead dioxide, lithium hypochlorite (39 percent or less available chlorine), lithium peroxide, magnesium peroxide, manganese dioxide, nitric acid (40 percent concentration or less), perchloric acid solutions (less than 50 percent by weight), potassium dichromate, potassium monopersulfate (45 percent KHSO5 or 90 percent triple salt), potassium percarbonate, potassium persulfate, sodium carbonate peroxide, sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrione dihydrate, sodium dichromate, sodium perborate (anhydrous), sodium perborate monohydrate, sodium perborate tetra-hydrate, sodium per-carbonate, strontium peroxide, trichloro-striazinetrione (trichloroisocyanuric acid) and zinc peroxide.

    E102.1.8 Organic peroxides.

    Organic peroxides contain the double oxygen or peroxy (-o-o) group. Some are flammable compounds and subject to explosive decomposition. They are available as:

    1. 1.Liquids.

    2. 2.Pastes.

    3. 3.Solids (usually finely divided powders).

    E102.1.8.1 Classification of organic peroxides according to hazard.

    Unclassified: Unclassified organic peroxides are capable of detonation and are regulated in accordance with Chapter 56 of the International Fire Code.

    Class I: acetyl cyclohexane sulfonyl 60-65 percent concentration by weight, fulfonyl peroxide, benzoyl peroxide over 98 percent concentration, t-butyl hydroperoxide 90 percent, t-butyl peroxyacetate 75 percent, t-butyl peroxyisopropylcarbonate 92 percent, diisopropyl peroxydicarbonate 100 percent, din-propyl peroxydicarbonate 98 percent, and di-npropyl peroxydicarbonate 85 percent.

    Class II: acetyl peroxide 25 percent, t-butyl hydroperoxide 70 percent (with DTBP and t-BuOH diluents), t-butyl peroxybenzoate 98 percent, t-butyl peroxy-2-ethylhexanoate 97 percent, t-butyl peroxyisobutyrate 75 percent, t-butyl peroxyisopropyl-carbonate 75 percent, t-butyl peroxypivalate 75 percent, dybenzoyl peroxydicarbonate 85 percent, di-sec-butyl peroxydicarbonate 98 percent, di-sec-butyl peroxydicarbonate 75 percent, 1,1-di-(t-butylperoxy)-3,5,5-trimethyecyclohexane 95 percent, di-(2-ethythexyl) peroxydicarbonate 97 percent, 2,5-dymethyl-2-5 di (benzoylperoxy) hexane 92 percent, and peroxyacetic acid 43 percent.

    Class III: acetyl cyclohexane sulfonal peroxide 29 percent, benzoyl peroxide 78 percent, benzoyl peroxide paste 55 percent, benzoyl peroxide paste 50 percent peroxide/50 percent butylbenzylphthalate diluent, cumene hydroperoxide 86 percent, di-(4-butylcyclohexyl) peroxydicarbonate 98 percent, t-butyl peroxy-2-ethylhexanoate 97 percent, t-butyl peroxyneodecanoate 75 percent, decanoyl peroxide 98.5 percent, di-t-butyl peroxide 99 percent, 1,1-di-(t-butylperoxy)3,5,5-trimethylcyclohexane 75 percent, 2,4-dichlorobenzoyl peroxide 50 percent, diisopropyl peroxydicarbonate 30 percent, 2,-5-dimethyl-2,5-di-(2-ethylhexanolyperoxy)-hexane 90 percent, 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-di-(t-butylperoxy) hexane 90 percent and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide 9 percent active oxygen diluted in dimethyl phthalate.

    Class IV: benzoyl peroxide 70 percent, benzoyl peroxide paste 50 percent peroxide/15 percent water/35 percent butylphthalate diluent, benzoyl peroxide slurry 40 percent, benzoyl peroxide powder 35 percent, t-butyl hydroperoxide 70 percent, (with water diluent), t-butyl peroxy-2-ethylhexanoate 50 percent, decumyl peroxide 98 percent, di-(2-ethylhexal) peroxydicarbonate 40 percent, laurel peroxide 98 percent, p-methane hydroperoxide 52.5 percent, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide 5.5 percent active oxygen and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide 9 percent active oxygen diluted in water and glycols.

    Class V: benzoyl peroxide 35 percent, 1,1-di-t-butyl peroxy 3,5,5-trimethylcyclohexane 40 percent, 2,5-di-(t-butyl peroxy) hexane 47 percent and 2,4-pentanedione peroxide 4 percent active oxygen.

    E102.1.9 Pyrophoric materials.

    Examples include:

    1. 1.Gases: diborane, phosphine, silane.

    2. 2.Liquids: diethylaluminum chloride, di-ethylberyllium, diethylphosphine, diethylzinc, dimethylarsine, triethylaluminum etherate, tri-ethylbismuthine, triethylboron, trimethylaluminum, trimethylgallium.

    3. 3.Solids: cesium, hafnium, lithium, white or yellow phosphorous, plutonium, potassium, rubidium, sodium, thorium.

    E102.1.10 Unstable (reactive) materials.

    Examples include:

    Class 4: acetyl peroxide, dibutyl peroxide, dinitrobenzene, ethyl nitrate, peroxyacetic acid and picric acid (dry) trinitrobenzene.

    Class 3: hydrogen peroxide (greater than 52 percent), hydroxylamine, nitromethane, paranitroaniline, perchloric acid and tetrafluoroethylene monomer.

    Class 2: acrolein, acrylic acid, hydrazine, methacrylic acid, sodium perchlorate, styrene and vinyl acetate.

    Class 1: acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide 35 percent to 52 percent, paraldehyde and tetrahydrofuran.

    E102.1.11 Water-reactive materials.

    Examples include:

    Class 3: aluminum alkyls such as triethylaluminum, isobutylaluminum and trimethylaluminum; bromine pentafluoride, bromine trifluoride, chlorodiethylaluminium and diethylzinc.

    Class 2: calcium carbide, calcium metal, cyanogen bromide, lithium hydride, methyldichlorosilane, potassium metal, potassium peroxide, sodium metal, sodium peroxide, sulfuric acid and trichlorosilane.

    Class 1: acetic anhydride, sodium hydroxide, sulfur monochloride and titanium tetrachloride.

    E102.1.12 Cryogenic fluids.

    The cryogenics listed will exist as compressed gases where they are stored at ambient temperatures.

    1. 1.Flammable: carbon monoxide, deuterium (heavy hydrogen), ethylene, hydrogen, methane.

    2. 2.Oxidizing: fluorine, nitric oxide, oxygen.

    3. 3.Corrosive: fluorine, nitric oxide.

    4. 4.Inert (chemically unreactive): argon, helium, krypton, neon, nitrogen, xenon.

    5. 5.Highly toxic: fluorine, nitric oxide.

    E102.2 Health hazards.

    Materials classified in this section pose a health hazard.

    E102.2.1 Highly toxic materials.

    Examples include:

    1. 1.Gases: arsine, cyanogen, diborane, fluorine, germane, hydrogen cyanide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, phosphine, hydrogen selenide, stibine.

    2. 2.Liquids: acrolein, acrylic acid, 2-chloroethanol (ethylene chlorohydrin), hydrazine, hydrocyanic acid, 2-methylaziridine (propylenimine), 2-methyl-acetonitrile (acetone cyanohydrin), methyl ester isocyanic acid (methyl isocyanate), nicotine, tetranitromethane and tetraethylstannane (tetraethyltin).

    3. 3.Solids: (aceto) phenylmercury (phenyl mercuric acetate), 4-aminopyridine, arsenic pentoxide, arsenic trioxide, calcium cyanide, 2-chloroacetophenone, aflatoxin B, decaborane(14), mercury (II) bromide (mercuric bromide), mercury (II) chloride (corrosive mercury chloride), pentachlorophenol, methyl parathion, phosphorus (white) and sodium azide.

    E102.2.2 Toxic materials.

    Examples include:

    1. 1.Gases: boron trichloride, boron trifluoride, chlorine, chlorine trifluoride, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen sulfide, phosgene, silicon tetrafluoride.

    2. 2.Liquids: acrylonitrile, allyl alcohol, alpha-chlorotoluene, aniline, 1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane, chloroformic acid (allyl ester), 3-chloropropene (allyl chloride), o-cresol, crotonaldehyde, dibromomethane, diisopropylamine, diethyl ester sulfuric acid, dimethyl ester sulfuric acid, 2-furaldehyde (furfural), furfural alcohol, phosphorus chloride, phosphoryl chloride (phosphorus oxychloride) and thionyl chloride.

    3. 3.Solids: acrylamide, barium chloride, barium (II) nitrate, benzidine, p-benzoquinone, beryllium chloride, cadmium chloride, cadmium oxide, chloroacetic acid, chlorophenylmercury (phenyl mercuric chloride), chromium (VI) oxide (chromic acid, solid), 2,4-dinitrotoluene, hydroquinone, mercury chloride (calomel), mercury (II) sulfate (mercuric sulfate), osmium tetroxide, oxalic acid, phenol, P-phenylenediamine, phenylhydrazine, 4-phenylmorpholine, phosphorus sulfide, potassium fluoride, potassium hydroxide, selenium (IV) disulfide and sodium fluoride.

    E102.2.3 Corrosives.

    Examples include:

    1. 1.Acids: Examples: chromic, formic, hydrochloric (muriatic) greater than 15 percent, hydrofluoric, nitric (greater than 6 percent, perchloric, sulfuric (4 percent or more).

    2. 2.Bases (alkalis): hydroxides-ammonium (greater than 10 percent), calcium, potassium (greater than 1 percent), sodium (greater than 1 percent); certain carbonates-potassium.

    3. 3.Other corrosives: bromine, chlorine, fluorine, iodine, ammonia.

    Note: Corrosives that are oxidizers, e.g., nitric acid, chlorine, fluorine; or are compressed gases, e.g., ammonia, chlorine, fluorine; or are water-reactive, e.g., concentrated sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, are physical hazards in addition to being health hazards.

    SECTIONE103
    EVALUATION OF HAZARDS

    E103.1 Degree of hazard.

    The degree of hazard present depends on many variables that should be considered individually and in combination. Some of these variables are as shown in Sections E103.1.1 through E103.1.5.

    E103.1.1 Chemical properties of the material.

    Chemical properties of the material determine self reactions and reactions that could occur with other materials. Generally, materials within subdivisions of hazard categories will exhibit similar chemical properties. However, materials with similar chemical properties could pose very different hazards. Each individual material should be researched to determine its hazardous properties and then considered in relation to other materials that it might contact and the surrounding environment.

    E103.1.2 Physical properties of the material.

    Physical properties, such as whether a material is a solid, liquid or gas at ordinary temperatures and pressures, considered along with chemical properties will determine requirements for containment of the material. Specific gravity (weight of a liquid compared to water) and vapor density (weight of a gas compared to air) are both physical properties that are important in evaluating the hazards of a material.

    E103.1.3 Amount and concentration of the material.

    The amount of material present and its concentration must be considered along with physical and chemical properties to determine the magnitude of the hazard. Hydrogen peroxide, for example, is used as an antiseptic and a hair bleach in low concentrations (approximately 8 percent in water solution). Over 8 percent, hydrogen peroxide is classed as an oxidizer and is toxic. Above 90 percent, it is a Class 4 oxidizer “that can undergo an explosive reaction when catalyzed or exposed to heat, shock or friction,” a definition that incidentally also places hydrogen peroxide over 90-percent concentration in the unstable (reactive) category. Small amounts at high concentrations could present a greater hazard than large amounts at low concentrations.

    E103.1.3.1 Mixtures.

    Gases—toxic and highly toxic gases include those gases that have an LC50 of 2,000 parts per million (ppm) or less when rats are exposed for a period of 1 hour or less. To maintain consistency with the definitions for these materials, exposure data for periods other than 1 hour must be normalized to 1 hour. To classify mixtures of compressed gases that contain one or more toxic or highly toxic components, the LC50 of the mixture must be determined. Mixtures that contain only two components are binary mixtures. Those that contain more than two components are multicomponent mixtures. Where two or more hazardous substances (components) having an LC50 below 2,000 ppm are present in a mixture, their combined effect, rather than that of the individual substance components, must be considered. In the absence of information to the contrary, the effects of the hazards present must be considered as additive. Exceptions to the above rule could be made when there is a good reason to believe that the principal effects of the different harmful substances (components) are not additive.

    For binary mixtures where the hazardous component is diluted with a nontoxic gas such as an inert gas, the LC50 of the mixture is estimated by use of the methodology contained in CGA P-20. The hazard zones specified in CGA P-20 are applicable for DOTn purposes and shall not be used for hazard classification.

    E103.1.4 Actual use, activity or process involving the material.

    The definition of handling, storage and use in closed systems refers to materials in packages or containers. Dispensing and use in open containers or systems describes situations where a material is exposed to ambient conditions or vapors are liberated to the atmosphere. Dispensing and use in open systems, then, are generally more hazardous situations than handling, storage or use in closed systems. The actual use or process could include heating, electric or other sparks, catalytic or reactive materials and many other factors that could affect the hazard and must therefore be thoroughly analyzed.

    E103.1.5 Surrounding conditions.

    Conditions such as other materials or processes in the area, type of construction of the structure, fire protection features (e.g., fire walls, sprinkler systems, alarms, etc.), occupancy (use) of adjoining areas, normal temperatures, exposure to weather, etc., must be taken into account in evaluating the hazard.

    E103.2 Evaluation questions.

    The following are sample evaluation questions:

    1. 1.What is the material? Correct identification is important; exact spelling is vital. Check labels, MSDS, ask responsible persons, etc.

    2. 2.What are the concentration and strength?

    3. 3.What is the physical form of the material? Liquids, gases and finely divided solids have differing requirements for spill and leak control and containment.

    4. 4.How much material is present? Consider in relation to permit amounts, maximum allowable quantity per control area (from Group H occupancy requirements), amounts that require detached storage and overall magnitude of the hazard.

    5. 5.What other materials (including furniture, equipment and building components) are close enough to interact with the material?

    6. 6.What are the likely reactions?

    7. 7.What is the activity involving the material?

    8. 8.How does the activity impact the hazardous characteristics of the material? Consider vapors released or hazards otherwise exposed.

    9. 9.What must the material be protected from? Consider other materials, temperature, shock, pressure, etc.

    10. 10.What effects of the material must people and the environment be protected from?

    11. 11.How can protection be accomplished? Consider:

      1. 11.1. Proper containers and equipment.

      2. 11.2. Separation by distance or construction.

      3. 11.3. Enclosure in cabinets or rooms.

      4. 11.4. Spill control, drainage and containment.

      5. 11.5. Control systems-ventilation, special electrical, detection and alarm, extinguishment, explosion venting, limit controls, exhaust scrubbers and excess flow control.

      6. 11.6. Administrative (operational) controls-signs, ignition source control, security, personnel training, established procedures, storage plans and emergency plans.

    Evaluation of the hazard is a strongly subjective process; therefore, the person charged with this responsibility must gather as much relevant data as possible so that the decision will be objective and within the limits prescribed in laws, policies and standards.

    It could be necessary to cause the responsible persons in charge to have tests made by qualified persons or testing laboratories to support contentions that a particular material or process is or is not hazardous. See Section 104.7.2 of the International Fire Code.

    SECTIONE104
    REFERENCED STANDARDS

    CGA P-20—(2009)

    Standard for Classification of Toxic Mixtures

    E103.1.3.1

    CGA P-23—(2008)

    Standard for Categorizing Gas Mixtures Containing Flammable and Nonflammable Components

    E102.1.2

    ICC IFC—15

    International Fire Code

    E101.1E102.1.1E102.1.8.1E103.2

    APPENDIXF
    HAZARD RANKING

    The provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance.

    SECTIONF101
    GENERAL

    F101.1 Scope.

    Assignment of levels of hazards to be applied to specific hazard classes as required by NFPA 704 shall be in accordance with this appendix. The appendix is based on application of the degrees of hazard as defined in NFPA 704 arranged by hazard class as for specific categories defined in Chapter 2 of the International Fire Code and used throughout.

    F101.2 General.

    The hazard rankings shown in Table F101.2 have been established by using guidelines found within NFPA 704. As noted in Section 4.2 of NFPA 704, there could be specific reasons to alter the degree of hazard assigned to a specific material; for example, ignition temperature, flammable range or susceptibility of a container to rupture by an internal combustion explosion or to metal failure while under pressure or because of heat from external fire. As a result, the degree of hazard assigned for the same material can vary when assessed by different people of equal competence.

    The hazard rankings assigned to each class represent reasonable minimum hazard levels for a given class based on the use of criteria established by NFPA 704. Specific cases of use or storage may dictate the use of higher degrees of hazard in certain cases.

    TABLE F101.2

    FIRE FIGHTER WARNING PLACARD DESIGNATIONS BASED ON HAZARD CLASSIFICATION CATEGORIES

    HAZARD CATEGORYDESIGNATION
    Combustible liquid IIF2
    Combustible liquid IIIAF2
    Combustible liquid IIIBF1
    Combustible dustF4
    Combustible fiberF3
    Cryogenic flammableF4, H3
    Cryogenic oxidizingOX, H3
    ExplosiveR4
    Flammable solidF2
    Flammable gas (gaseous)F4
    Flammable gas (liquefied)F4
    Flammable liquid IAF4
    Flammable liquid IBF3
    Flammable liquid ICF3
    Organic peroxide, UDR4
    Organic peroxide IF4, R3
    Organic peroxide IIF3, R3
    Organic peroxide IIIF2, R2
    Organic peroxide IVF1, R1
    Organic peroxide VNone
    Oxidizing gas (gaseous)OX
    Oxidizing gas (liquefied)OX
    Oxidizer 4OX4
    Oxidizer 3OX3
    Oxidizer 2OX2
    Oxidizer 1OX1
    Pyrophoric gasesF4
    Pyrophoric solids, liquidsF3
    Unstable reactive 4DR4
    Unstable reactive 3DR4
    Unstable reactive 3NR2
    Unstable reactive 2R2
    Unstable reactive 1None
    Water reactive 3W3
    Water reactive 2W2
    CorrosiveH3, COR
    ToxicH3
    Highly toxicH4
    F—Flammable category.COR—Corrosive.
    R—Reactive category.UD—Unclassified detonable material.
    H—Health category.4D—Class 4 detonable material.
    W—Special hazard: water reactive.3D—Class 3 detonable material.
    OX—Special hazard: oxidizing properties.3N—Class 3 nondetonable material.

    SECTIONF102
    REFERENCED STANDARDS

    ICC IFC—15

    International Fire Code

    F101.1

    APPENDIXG
    CRYOGENIC FLUIDS—WEIGHT AND VOLUME EQUIVALENTS

    This appendix is for information purposes and is not intended for adoption.

    SECTIONG101
    GENERAL

    G101.1 Scope.

    This appendix is used to convert from liquid to gas for cryogenic fluids.

    G101.2 Conversion.

    Table G101.2 shall be used to determine the equivalent amounts of cryogenic fluids in either the liquid or gas phase.

    TABLE G101.2

    WEIGHT AND VOLUME EQUIVALENTS FOR COMMON CRYOGENIC FLUIDS

    CRYOGENIC FLUIDWEIGHT OF LIQUID OR GASVOLUME OF LIQUID AT NORMAL BOILING POINTVOLUME OF GAS AT NTP
    PoundsKilogramsLitersGallonsCubic feetCubic meters
    Argon1.0000.4540.3260.0869.670.274
    2.2051.0000.7180.19021.320.604
    3.0721.3931.0000.26429.710.841
    11.6285.2743.7851.000112.453.184
    10.3404.6903.3660.889100.002.832
    3.6521.6561.1890.31435.311.000
    Helium1.0000.4543.6310.95996.722.739
    2.2051.0008.0062.115213.236.038
    0.2750.1251.0000.26426.630.754
    1.0420.4733.7851.000100.822.855
    1.0340.4693.7540.992100.002.832
    0.3650.1661.3260.35035.311.000
    Hydrogen1.0000.4546.4091.693191.965.436
    2.2051.00014.1303.733423.2011.984
    0.1560.0711.0000.26429.950.848
    0.5910.2683.7851.000113.373.210
    0.5210.2363.3390.882100.002.832
    0.1840.0831.1790.31135.311.000
    Oxygen1.0000.4540.3970.10512.000.342
    2.2051.0000.8760.23126.620.754
    2.5171.1421.0000.26430.390.861
    9.5274.3213.7851.000115.053.250
    8.2813.7563.2900.869100.002.832
    2.9241.3271.1620.30735.311.000
    Nitrogen1.0000.4540.5610.14813.800.391
    2.2051.0001.2370.32730.430.862
    1.7820.8081.0000.26424.600.697
    6.7463.0603.7851.00093.112.637
    7.2453.2864.0651.074100.002.832
    2.5581.1601.4360.37935.311.000
    LNGa1.0000.4541.0520.27822.9680.650
    2.2051.0002.3200.61350.6461.434
    0.9510.4311.0000.26421.8120.618
    3.6001.6333.7851.00082.622.340
    4.3561.9764.5801.210100.002.832
    11.5015.2171.6160.42735.311.000

    For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, °C = [(°F)-32]/1.8, 1 pound per square inch atmosphere = 6.895 kPa.

    1. a.The values listed for liquefied natural gas (LNG) are “typical” values. LNG is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases, and no two LNG streams have exactly the same composition.

    G101.2.1 Use of the table.

    To use Table G101.2, read horizontally across the line of interest. For example, to determine the number of cubic feet of gas contained in 1.0 gallon (3.785 L) of liquid argon, find 1.000 in the column entitled “Volume of Liquid at Normal Boiling Point.” Reading across the line under the column entitled “Volume of Gas at NTP” (70°F and 1 atmosphere/14.7 psia), the value of 112.45 cubic feet (3.184 m3) is found.

    G101.2.2 Other quantities.

    If other quantities are of interest, the numbers obtained can be multiplied or divided to obtain the quantity of interest. For example, to determine the number of cubic feet of argon gas contained in a volume of 1,000 gallons (3785 L) of liquid argon at its normal boiling point, multiply 112.45 by 1,000 to obtain 112,450 cubic feet (3184 m3).

    APPENDIXH
    HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT PLAN (HMMP)
    AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INVENTORY STATEMENT (HMIS)
    INSTRUCTIONS

    The provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance.

    SECTIONH101
    HMMP

    H101.1 Part A

    (See Example Format in Figure 1).

    1. 1.Fill out items and sign the declaration.

    2. 2.Part A of this section is required to be updated and submitted annually, or within 30 days of a process or management change.

    H101.2 Part B–General Facility Description/Site Plan

    (See Example Format in Figure 2).

    1. 1.Provide a site plan on 81/2 by 11 inch (215 mm by 279 mm) paper, showing the locations of all buildings, structures, outdoor chemical control or storage and use areas, parking lots, internal roads, storm and sanitary sewers, wells and adjacent property uses. Indicate the approximate scale, northern direction and date the drawing was completed.

    H101.3 Part C–Facility Storage Map–Confidential Information

    (See Example Format in Figure 3).

    1. 1.Provide a floor plan of each building identified on the site plan as containing hazardous materials on 81/2-inch by 11-inch (215 mm by 279 mm) paper, identifying the northern direction, and showing the location of each storage and use area.

    2. 2.Identify storage and use areas, including hazard waste storage areas.

    3. 3.Show the following:

      1. 3.1. Accesses to each storage and use area.

      2. 3.2. Location of emergency equipment.

      3. 3.3. Location where liaison will meet emergency responders.

      4. 3.4. Facility evacuation meeting point locations.

      5. 3.5. The general purpose of other areas within the building.

      6. 3.6. Location of all aboveground and underground tanks to include sumps, vaults, below-grade treatment systems, piping, etc.

      7. 3.7. Show hazard classes in each area.

      8. 3.8. Show locations of all Group H occupancies, control areas, and exterior storage and use areas.

      9. 3.9.Show emergency exits.

    SECTIONH102
    HMIS

    H102.1 Inventory statement contents.

    1. 1.HMIS Summary Report (see Example Format in Figure 4).

      1. 1.1. Complete a summary report for each control area and Group H occupancy.

      2. 1.2. The storage summary report includes the HMIS Inventory Report amounts in storage, use-closed and use-open conditions.

      3. 1.3. Provide separate summary reports for storage, use-closed and use-open conditions.

      4. 1.4. IBC/IFC Hazard Class.

      5. 1.5. Inventory Amount. [Solid (lb), Liquid (gal), Gas (cu ft, gal or lbs)].

      6. 1.6. IBC/IFC Maximum Allowable Quantity per control area (MAQ). (If applicable, double MAQ for sprinkler protection and/or storage in cabinets. For wholesale and retail sales occupancies, go to Tables 5003.11.1 and 5704.3.4.1 of the International Fire Code for MAQs.).

    2. 2.HMIS Inventory Report (see Example Format in Figure 5).

      1. 2.1. Complete an inventory report by listing products by location.

      2. 2.2. Product Name.

      3. 2.3. Components. (For mixtures specify percentages of major components if available.)

      4. 2.4. Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) Number. (For mixtures list CAS Numbers of major components if available.)

      5. 2.5. Location. (Identify the control area or, if it is a Group H occupancy, provide the classification, such as H-2, H-3, etc.)

      6. 2.6. Container with a capacity of greater than 55 gallons (208 L). (If product container, vessel or tank could exceed 55 gallons, indicate yes in column.)

      7. 2.7. Hazard Classification. (List applicable classifications for each product.)

      8. 2.8. Stored. (Amount of product in storage conditions.)

      9. 2.9. Closed. (Amount of product in use-closed systems.)

      10. 2.10. Open. (Amount of product in use-open systems.)

    Facilities that have prepared, filed and submitted a Tier II Inventory Report required by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or required by a state that has secured USEPA approval for a similar form shall be deemed to have complied with this section.

    SECTIONH103
    EMERGENCY PLAN

    1. 1.Emergency Notification. (See Example Format in Figure 6.)

    2. 2.Where OSHA or state regulations require a facility to have either an Emergency Action Plan (EAP) or an Emergency Response Plan (ERP), the EAP or ERP shall be included as part of the HMMP.

    SECTIONH104
    REFERENCED STANDARDS

    ICC IFC—15

    International Fire Code

    H102.1

    FIGURE 1

    HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT PLAN SECTION I: FACILITY DESCRIPTION

    FIGURE 1

    FIGURE 2

    HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT PLAN SECTION I: FACILITY DESCRIPTION

    FIGURE 2

    FIGURE 3

    HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT PLAN SECTION I: FACILITY DESCRIPTION PART C—FACILITY MAP

    FIGURE 3

    FIGURE 4

    SECTION II—HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INVENTORY STATEMENT (HMIS) HMIS SUMMARY REPORTa (Storageb Conditions)c

    FIGURE 4

    1. a.Complete a summary report for each control area and Group H occupancy.

    2. b.Storage = storage + use-closed + use-open systems.

    3. c.Separate reports are required for use-closed and use-open systems.

    4. d.Include increases for sprinklefrs or storage in cabinets, if applicable.

      (This is an example; add additional hazard classes as needed.)

    FIGURE 5

    SECTION II — HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INVENTORY STATEMENT (HMIS) HMIS INVENTORY REPORT(Sort Products Alphabetically by Location of Product and then Alphabetically by Product Name)

    FIGURE 5

    1. a.Identify the control area or, if it is a Group H occupancy, provide the classification, such as H-2, H-3, etc.

    2. b.If the product container, vessel or tank could exceed 55 gallons, indicate yes in the column.

    3. c.Specify percentages of main components if available.

    4. d.In cubic feet, gallons or pounds.

      (This is an example; add additional hazard classes as needed.)

    FIGURE 6

    HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT PLAN SECTION III: EMERGENCY PLAN

    FIGURE 6

    APPENDIXI
    FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS—NONCOMPLIANT CONDITIONS

    The provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance.

    SECTIONI101
    NONCOMPLIANT CONDITIONS

    I101.1 General.

    This appendix is intended to identify conditions that can occur where fire protection systems are not properly maintained or components have been damaged. This appendix is not intended to provide comprehensive inspection, testing and maintenance requirements, which are found in NFPA 10, 25 and 72. Rather, its intent is to identify problems that are readily observable during fire inspections.

    I101.2 Noncompliant conditions requiring component replacement.

    The following conditions shall be deemed noncompliant and shall cause the related component(s) to be replaced to comply with the provisions of this code:

    1. 1.Sprinkler heads having any of the following conditions:

      1. 1.1. Signs of leakage.

      2. 1.2. Paint or other ornamentation that is not factory applied.

      3. 1.3. Evidence of corrosion including, but not limited to, discoloration or rust.

      4. 1.4. Deformation or damage of any part.

      5. 1.5. Improper orientation of sprinkler head.

      6. 1.6. Empty glass bulb.

      7. 1.7. Sprinkler heads manufactured prior to 1920.

      8. 1.8. Replacement sprinkler heads that do not match existing sprinkler heads in orifice size, K-factor temperature rating, coating or deflector type.

      9. 1.9. Sprinkler heads for the protection of cooking equipment that have not been replaced within one year.

    2. 2.Water pressure and air pressure gauges that have been installed for more than 5 years and have not been tested to within 3 percent accuracy.

    I101.3 Noncompliant conditions requiring component repair or replacement.

    The following shall be deemed noncompliant conditions and shall cause the related component(s) to be repaired or replaced to comply with the provisions of this code:

    1. 1.Sprinkler and standpipe system piping and fittings having any of the following conditions:

      1. 1.1. Signs of leakage.

      2. 1.2. Evidence of corrosion.

      3. 1.3. Misalignment.

      4. 1.4. Mechanical damage.

    2. 2.Sprinkler piping support having any of the following conditions:

      1. 2.1. Materials resting on or hung from sprinkler piping.

      2. 2.2. Damaged or loose hangers or braces.

    3. 3.Class II and Class III standpipe systems having any of the following conditions:

      1. 3.1. No hose or nozzle, where required.

      2. 3.2. Hose threads incompatible with fire department hose threads.

      3. 3.3. Hose connection cap missing.

      4. 3.4. Mildew, cuts, abrasions and deterioration evident.

      5. 3.5. Coupling damaged.

      6. 3.6. Gaskets missing or deteriorated.

      7. 3.7. Nozzle missing or obstructed.

    4. 4.Hose racks and cabinets having any of the following conditions:

      1. 4.1. Difficult to operate or damaged.

      2. 4.2. Hose improperly racked or rolled.

      3. 4.3. Inability of rack to swing 90 degrees (1.57 rad) out of the cabinet.

      4. 4.4. Cabinet locked, except as permitted by this code.

      5. 4.5. Cabinet door will not fully open.

      6. 4.6. Door glazing cracked or broken.

    5. 5.Portable fire extinguishers having any of the following conditions:

      1. 5.1. Broken seal or tamper indicator.

      2. 5.2. Expired maintenance tag.

      3. 5.3. Pressure gauge indicator in “red.”

      4. 5.4. Signs of leakage or corrosion.

      5. 5.5. Mechanical damage, denting or abrasion of tank.

      6. 5.6. Presence of repairs such as welding, soldering or brazing.

      7. 5.7. Damaged threads.

      8. 5.8. Damaged hose assembly, couplings or swivel joints.

    6. 6.Fire alarm and detection control equipment, initiating devices and notification appliances having any of the following conditions:

      1. 6.1. Corroded or leaking batteries or terminals.

      2. 6.2. Smoke detectors having paint or other ornamentation that is not factory-applied.

      3. 6.3. Mechanical damage to heat or smoke detectors.

      4. 6.4. Tripped fuses.

    7. 7.Fire department connections having any of the following conditions:

      1. 7.1. Fire department connections are not visible or accessible from the fire apparatus access road.

      2. 7.2. Couplings or swivels are damaged.

      3. 7.3. Plugs and caps are missing or damaged.

      4. 7.4. Gaskets are deteriorated.

      5. 7.5. Check valve is leaking.

      6. 7.6. Identification signs are missing.

    8. 8.Fire pumps having any of the following conditions:

      1. 8.1. Pump room temperature is less than 40°F (4.4°C).

      2. 8.2. Ventilating louvers are not freely operable.

      3. 8.3. Corroded or leaking system piping.

      4. 8.4. Diesel fuel tank is less than two-thirds full.

      5. 8.5. Battery readings, lubrication oil or cooling water levels are abnormal.

    SECTIONI102
    REFERENCED STANDARDS

    APPENDIXJ
    BUILDING INFORMATION SIGN

    The provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance.

    SECTIONJ101
    GENERAL

    J101.1 Scope.

    New buildings shall have a building information sign(s) that shall comply with Sections J101.1.1 through J101.7. Existing buildings shall be brought into conformance with Sections J101.1 through J101.9 when one of the following occurs:

    1. 1.The fire department conducts an annual inspection intended to verify compliance with this section, or any required inspection.

    2. 2.When a change in use or occupancy has occurred.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Group U occupancies.

    2. 2.One- and two-family dwellings.

    J101.1.1 Sign location.

    The building information sign shall be placed at one of the following locations:

    1. 1.Upon the entry door or sidelight at a minimum height of 42 inches (1067 mm) above the walking surface on the address side of the building or structure.

    2. 2.Upon the exterior surface of the building or structure on either side of the entry door, not more than 3 feet (76 mm) from the entrance door, at a minimum height of 42 inches (1067 mm) above the walking surface on the address side of the building or structure.

    3. 3.Conspicuously placed inside an enclosed entrance lobby, on any vertical surface within 10 feet (254 mm) of the entrance door at a minimum height of 42 inches (1067 mm) above the walking surface.

    4. 4.Inside the building’s fire command center.

    5. 5.On the exterior of the fire alarm control unit or on the wall immediately adjacent to the fire alarm control unit door where the alarm panel is located in the enclosed main lobby.

    J101.1.2 Sign features.

    The building information sign shall consist of all of the following:

    1. 1.White reflective background with red letters.

    2. 2.Durable material.

    3. 3.Numerals shall be Roman or Latin numerals, as required, or alphabet letters.

    4. 4.Permanently affixed to the building or structure in an approved manner.

    J101.1.3 Sign shape.

    The building information sign shall be a Maltese cross as shown in Figure J101.1.3.

    FIGURE J101.1.3 EXAMPLE OF COMPLETED BUILDING INFORMATION SIGN

    FIGURE J101.1.3

    EXAMPLE OF COMPLETED BUILDING INFORMATION SIGN

    J101.1.4 Sign size and lettering.

    The minimum size of the building information sign and lettering shall be in accordance with the following:

    1. 1.The width and height shall be 6 inches by 6 inches (152 mm by 152 mm).

    2. 2.The height or width of each Maltese cross wing area shall be 11/8 inches (29 mm) and have a stroke width of 1/2 inch (13 mm).

    3. 3.The center of the Maltese cross, a circle or oval, shall be 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter and have a stroke width of 1/2 inch (6 mm).

    4. 4.All Roman numerals and alphabetic designations, shall be 11/4 inch (32 mm) height and have a stroke width of 1/4 inch (6 mm).

    J101.2 Sign designations.

    Designations shall be made based upon the construction type, content, hazard, fire protection systems, life safety and occupancy. Where multiple designations occur within a classification category, the designation used shall be based on the greatest potential risk.

    J101.3 Construction type (top wing).

    The construction types shall be designated by assigning the appropriate Roman numeral, and letter, placed inside the top wing of the Maltese cross. The hourly rating provided is for the structural framing in accordance with Table 601 of the International Building Code,

    CONSTRUCTION TYPEFIRE-RESISTANCE RATING
    IA—Noncombustible3 Hours
    IB—Noncombustible2 Hours
    IIA—Noncombustible1 Hour
    IIB—Noncombustible0 Hours
    IIIA—Noncombustible/combustible1 Hour
    IIIB—Noncombustible/combustible0 Hours
    IV—Heavy timber (HT)HT
    VA—Combustible1 Hour
    VB—Combustible0 Hours

    J101.4 Fire protection systems (right wing).

    The fire protection system shall be designated by determining its level of protection and assigning the appropriate designation to the right wing of the Maltese cross. Where multiple systems are provided, all shall be listed:

    ASAutomatic sprinkler system installed throughout
    DSDry sprinkler system and designated areas
    FAFire alarm system
    FPFire pump
    FWFire wall and designated areas
    PASPre-action sprinkler system and designated floor
    PSPartial automatic sprinkler system, and designate floor
    CESChemical extinguishing system and designated area
    CSCombination sprinkler and standpipe system
    SStandpipe system
    NSNo system installed

    J101.5 Occupancy type (bottom wing).

    The occupancy of a building or structure shall be designated in accordance with the occupancy classification found in Section 302.1 of the International Building Code and the corresponding designation shall be placed in the bottom wing of the Maltese cross. Where a building or structure contains a mixture of uses and occupancies; all uses and occupancies shall be identified.

    AAssembly
    BBusiness
    EEducational
    FFactory or Industrial
    HHigh Hazard
    IInstitutional
    MMercantile
    RResidential

    J101.6 Hazards of content (left wing).

    The hazards of building contents shall be designated by one of the following classifications as defined in NFPA 13 and the appropriate designation shall be placed inside the left wing of the Maltese cross:

    LHLight hazard
    MHModerate hazard
    HHHigh hazard

    J101.7 Tactical considerations (center circle).

    The center circle shall include the name of the local fire service and when required the letters TC for tactical considerations. Where fire fighters conduct preplan operations, a unique situation(s) for tactical considerations shall be identified and the information provided to the fire dispatch communications center to further assist fire fighters in identifying that there is special consideration(s) for this occupancy. Special consideration designations include, but are not limited to:

    1. 1.Impact-resistant drywall.

    2. 2.Impact-resistant glazing, such as blast or hurricane-type glass.

    3. 3.All types of roof and floor structural members including but not limited to post-tension concrete, bar joists, solid wood joists, rafters, trusses, cold-formed galvanized steel, I-joists and I-beams; green roof with vegetation, soil and plants.

    4. 4.Hazardous materials (explosives, chemicals, plastics, etc.).

    5. 5.Solar panels and DC electrical energy.

    6. 6.HVAC system; and smoke management system for pressurization and exhaust methods.

    7. 7.Other unique characteristic(s) within the building that are ranked according to a potential risk to occupants and fire fighters.

    J101.8 Sign classification maintenance, building information.

    Sign maintenance shall comply with each of the following:

    1. 1.Fire departments in the jurisdiction shall define the designations to be placed within the sign.

    2. 2.Fire departments in the jurisdiction shall conduct annual inspections to verify compliance with this section of the code and shall notify the owner, or the owner’s agent, of any required updates to the sign in accordance with fire department designations and the owner, or the owner’s agent, shall comply within 30 days.

    3. 3.The owner of a building shall be responsible for the maintenance and updates to the sign in accordance with fire department designations.

    J101.9 Training.

    Jurisdictions shall train fire department personnel on Sections J101.1 through J101.9.

    SECTIONJ102
    REFERENCED STANDARDS

    APPENDIXK
    CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR
    EXISTING AMBULATORY CARE FACILITIES

    The provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance.

    SECTIONK101
    GENERAL

    K101.1 Scope.

    The provisions of this chapter shall apply to existing buildings containing ambulatory care facilities in addition to the requirements of Chapter 11 of the International Fire Code. Where the provisions of this chapter conflict with either the construction requirements in Chapter 11 of the International Fire Code or the construction requirements that applied at the time of construction, the most restrictive provision shall apply.

    K101.2 Intent.

    The intent of this appendix is to provide a minimum degree of fire and life safety to persons occupying and existing buildings containing ambulatory care facilities where such buildings do not comply with the minimum requirements of the International Building Code.

    SECTIONK102
    FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOREXISTING AMBULATORY CARE FACILITIES

    K102.1 Separation.

    Ambulatory care facilities where the potential exists for four or more care recipients to be incapable of self-preservation at any time, whether rendered incapable by staff or staff has accepted responsibility for a care recipient already incapable, shall be separated from adjacent spaces, corridors or tenants with a fire partition installed in accordance with Section 708 of the International Building Code.

    K102.2 Smoke compartments.

    Where the aggregate area of one or more ambulatory care facilities is greater than 10,000 square feet (929 m2) on one story, the story shall be provided with a smoke barrier to subdivide the story into no fewer than two smoke compartments. The area of any one such smoke compartment shall be not greater than 22,500 square feet (2092 m2). The travel distance from any point in a smoke compartment to a smoke barrier door shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm). The smoke barrier shall be installed in accordance with Section 709 of the International Building Code with the exception that smoke barriers shall be continuous from an outside wall to an outside wall, a floor to a floor, or from a smoke barrier to a smoke barrier or a combination thereof.

    K102.2.1 Refuge area.

    Not less than 30 net square feet (2.8 m2) for each nonambulatory care recipient shall be provided within the aggregate area of corridors, care recipient rooms, treatment rooms, lounge or dining areas and other low-hazard areas within each smoke compartment. Each occupant of an ambulatory care facility shall be provided with access to a refuge area without passing through or utilizing adjacent tenant spaces.

    K102.2.2 Independent egress.

    A means of egress shall be provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke barriers without having to return through the smoke compartment from which means of egress originated.

    K102.3 Automatic sprinkler systems.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout the entire floor containing an ambulatory care facility in Type IIB, IIIB and VB construction where either of the following conditions exist at any time:

    1. 1.Four or more care recipients are incapable of self-preservation, whether rendered incapable by staff or staff has accepted responsibility for care recipients already incapable.

    2. 2.One or more care recipients that are incapable of self-preservation are located at other than the level of exit discharge serving such a facility.

    In buildings where ambulatory care is provided on levels other than the level of exit discharge, an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire floor where such care is provided and all floors below, and all floors between the level of ambulatory care and the nearest level of exit discharge, including the level of exit discharge.

    K102.4 Automatic fire alarm system.

    Fire areas containing ambulatory care facilities shall be provided with an electronically supervised automatic smoke detection system installed within the ambulatory care facility and in public use areas outside of tenant spaces, including public corridors and elevator lobbies.

    Exception: Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 of the International Fire Code, provided the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler waterflow.

    SECTIONK103
    INCIDENTAL USES IN EXISTINGAMBULATORY CARE FACILITIES

    K103.1 General.

    Incidental uses associated with and located within existing ambulatory care facilities required to be separated by Section 422 in the International Building Code, and that generally pose a greater level of risk to such occupancies, shall comply with the provisions of Sections K103.2 through K103.4.2.1. Incidental uses in ambulatory care facilities required to be separated by Section 422 of the International Building Code are limited to those listed in Table K103.1.

    TABLE K103.1

    INCIDENTAL USES IN EXISTING AMBULATORY CARE FACILITIES

    ROOM OR AREASEPARATION AND/OR PROTECTION
    Furnace room where any piece of equipment is over 400,000 Btu per hour input1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system
    Rooms with boilers where the largest piece of equipment is over 15 psi and 10 horsepower1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system
    Refrigerant machinery room1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system
    Hydrogen fuel gas rooms, not classified as Group H1 hour in ambulatory care facilities
    Incinerator rooms2 hours and provide automatic sprinkler system
    Laboratories not classified as Group H1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system
    Laundry rooms over 100 square feet1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system
    Waste and linen collection rooms with containers with total volume of 10 cubic feet or greater1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system
    Storage rooms greater than 100 square feet1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system
    Stationary storage battery systems having a liquid electrolyte capacity of more than 50 gal-lons for flooded lead-acid, nickel cadmium or VRLA, or more than 1,000 pounds for lithium-ion and lithium metal polymer used for facility standby power, emergency power or uninterruptible power supplies1 hour in ambulatory care facilities

    For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 pound per square inch (psi) = 6.9 kPa, 1 British thermal unit (Btu) per hour = 0.293 watts,1 horsepower = 746 watts, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

    K103.2 Occupancy classification.

    Incidental uses shall not be individually classified in accordance with Section 302.1 of the International Building Code. Incidental uses shall be included in the building occupancies in which they are located.

    K103.3 Area limitations.

    Incidental uses shall not occupy more than 10 percent of the building area of the story in which they are located.

    K103.4 Separation and protection.

    The incidental uses listed in Table K103.1 shall be separated from the remainder of the building or equipped with an automatic sprinkler system, or both, in accordance with the provisions of that table.

    K103.4.1 Separation.

    Where Table K103.1 specifies a fire-resistance-rated separation, the incidental uses shall be separated from the remainder of the building in accordance with Section 509.4.1 of the International Building Code.

    K103.4.2 Protection.

    Where Table K103.1 permits an automatic sprinkler system without a fire-resistance-rated separation, the incidental uses shall be separated from the remainder of the building by construction capable of resisting the passage of smoke in accordance with Section 509.4.2 of the International Building Code.

    K103.4.2.1 Protection limitation.

    Except as otherwise specified in Table K103.1 for certain incidental uses, where an automatic sprinkler system is provided in accordance with Table K103.1, only the space occupied by the incidental use need be equipped with such a system.

    SECTIONK104
    MEANS OF EGRESS REQUIREMENTS FOREXISTING AMBULATORY CARE FACILITIES

    K104.1 Size of doors.

    The minimum width of each door opening shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and shall provide a clear width of not less than 28 inches (711 mm). Where this section requires a minimum clear width of 28 inches (711 mm) and a door opening includes two door leaves without a mullion, one leaf shall provide a clear opening width of 28 inches (711 mm). In ambulatory care facilities, doors serving as means of egress from patient treatment rooms shall provide a clear width of not less than 32 inches (813 mm). The maximum width of a swinging door leaf shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) nominal. The height of doors openings shall be not less than 80 inches (2032 mm).

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Door openings to storage closets less than 10 square feet (0.93 m2) in area shall not be limited by the minimum width.

    2. 2.Width of door leaves in revolving doors that comply with Section 1010.1.4.1 shall not be limited.

    3. 3.Exit access doors serving a room not larger than 70 square feet (6.5 m2) shall be not less than 24 inches (610 mm) in door width.

    4. 4.Door closers and door stops shall be permitted to be 78 inches (1980 mm) minimum above the floor.

    K104.2 Corridor and aisle width.

    Corridor width shall be as determined in Section 1005.1 of the International Fire Code and this section. The minimum width of corridors and aisles that serve gurney traffic in areas where patients receive care that causes them to be incapable of self-preservation shall be not less than 72 inches (1829 mm).

    K104.3 Existing elevators.

    Existing elevators, escalators, dumbwaiters and moving walks shall comply with the requirements of Sections K104. 3.1 and K104.3.2.

    K104.3.1 Elevators, escalators, dumbwaiters and moving walks.

    Existing elevators, escalators, dumbwaiters and moving walks in ambulatory care facilities required to be separated by Section 422 of the International Building Code shall comply with ASME A17.3.

    K104.3.2 Elevator emergency operation.

    Existing elevators with a travel distance of 25 feet (7620 mm) or more above or below the main floor or other level of a building and intended to serve the needs of emergency personnel for fire-fighting or rescue purposes shall be provided with emergency operation in accordance with ASME A17.3.

    SECTIONK105
    REFERENCED STANDARDS

    ICC IFC—15

    International Fire Code

    K101.1K102.4K104.2

    APPENDIXL
    REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE FIGHTER AIR REPLENISHMENT SYSTEMS

    The provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance.

    SECTIONL101
    GENERAL

    L101.1 Scope.

    Fire fighter air replenishment systems (FARS) shall be provided in accordance with this appendix. The adopting ordinance shall specify building characteristics or special hazards that establish thresholds triggering a requirement for the installation of a FARS. The requirement shall be based upon the fire department’s capability of replenishing fire fighter breathing air during sustained emergency operations. Considerations shall include:

    1. 1.Building characteristics, such as number of stories above or below grade plane, floor area, type of construction and fire-resistance of the primary structural frame to allow sustained fire-fighting operations based on a rating of not less than 2 hours.

    2. 2.Special hazards, other than buildings, that require unique accommodations to allow the fire department to replenish fire fighter breathing air.

    3. 3.Fire department staffing level.

    4. 4.Availability of a fire department breathing air replenishment vehicle.

    SECTIONL102
    DEFINITIONS

    L102.1 Definitions.

    For the purpose of this appendix, certain terms are defined as follows:

    FIRE FIGHTER AIR REPLENISHMENT SYSTEM (FARS). A permanently installed arrangement of piping, valves, fittings and equipment to facilitate the replenishment of breathing air in self contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) for fire fighters engaged in emergency operations.

    SECTIONL103
    PERMITS

    L103.1 Permits.

    Permits shall be required to install and maintain a FARS. Permits shall be in accordance with Sections L103.2 and L103.3.

    L103.2 Construction permit.

    A construction permit is required for installation of or modification to a FARS. The construction permit application shall include documentation of an acceptance and testing plan as specified in Section L105.

    L103.3 Operational permit.

    An operational permit is required to maintain a FARS.

    SECTIONL104
    DESIGN AND INSTALLATION

    L104.1 Design and installation.

    A FARS shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections L104.2 through L104.15.

    L104.2 Standards.

    Fire fighter air replenishment systems shall be in accordance with Sections L104.2.1 and L104.2.2.

    L104.2.1 Pressurized system components.

    Pressurized system components shall be designed and installed in accordance with ASME B31.3.

    L104.2.2 Air quality.

    The system shall be designed to convey breathing air complying with NFPA 1989.

    L104.3 Design and operating pressure.

    The minimum design pressure shall be 110 percent of the fire department’s normal SCBA fill pressure. The system design pressure shall be marked in an approved manner at the supply connections, and adjacent to pressure gauges on any fixed air supply components. Pressure shall be maintained in the system within 5 percent of the design pressure.

    L104.4 Cylinder refill rate.

    The FARS shall be capable of refilling breathing air cylinders of a size and pressure used by the fire department at a rate of not less than two empty cylinders in 2 minutes.

    L104.5 Breathing air supply.

    Where a fire department mobile air unit is available, the FARS shall be supplied by an external mobile air connection in accordance with Section L104.14. Where a fire department mobile air unit is not available, a stored pressure air supply shall be provided in accordance with Section L104.5.1. A stored pressure air supply shall be permitted to be added to a system supplied by an external mobile air connection provided that a means to bypass the stored pressure air supply is located at the external mobile air connection.

    L104.5.1. Stored pressure air supply.

    A stored pressure air supply shall be designed based on Chapter 24 of NFPA 1901 except that provisions applicable only to mobile apparatus or not applicable to system design shall not apply. A stored pressure air supply shall be capable of refilling not less than 50 empty breathing air cylinders of a size and pressure used by the fire department.

    L104.5.2. Retrofit of external mobile air connection.

    A FARS not initially provided with an external mobile air connection due to the lack of a mobile air unit shall be retrofitted with an external mobile air connection where a mobile air unit becomes available. Where an external mobile air connection is provided, a means to bypass the stored pressure air supply shall be located at the external mobile air connection. The retrofit shall be completed not more than 12 months after notification by the fire code official.

    L104.6 Isolation valves.

    System isolation valves that are accessible to the fire department shall be installed on the system riser to allow piping beyond any air cylinder refill panel to be blocked.

    L104.7 Pressure relief valve.

    Pressure relief valves shall be installed at each point of supply and at the top or end of every riser. The relief valve shall meet the requirements of CGA S-1.3 and shall not be field adjustable. Pressure relief valves shall discharge in a manner that does not endanger personnel who are in the area. Valves, plugs or caps shall not be installed in the discharge of a pressure relief valve. Where discharge piping is used the end shall not be threaded.

    L104.8 Materials and equipment.

    Pressurized system components shall be listed or approved for their intended use and rated for the maximum allowable design pressure in the system. Piping and fittings shall be stainless steel.

    L104.9 Welded connections.

    Piping connections that are concealed shall be welded.

    L104.10 Protection of piping.

    System piping shall be protected from physical damage in an approved manner.

    L104.11 Compatibility.

    Fittings and connections intended to be used by the fire department shall be compatible with the fire department’s equipment.

    L104.12 Security.

    Connections to a FARS shall be safeguarded from unauthorized access in an approved manner.

    L104.13 Fill stations.

    Fire fighter air replenishment fill stations shall comply with Section L104.13.1 through L104.13.3.

    L104.13.1 Location.

    Fill stations for refilling breathing air cylinders shall be located as follows:

    1. 1.Fill stations shall be provided at the fifth floor above and below the ground level floor and every third floor level thereafter.

    2. 2.On floor levels requiring fill stations, one fill station shall be provided adjacent to a required exit stair at a location designated by the fire code official. In buildings required to have three or more exit stairs, additional fill stations shall be provided at a ratio of one fill station for every three stairways.

    L104.13.2 Design.

    Fill stations for breathing air cylinders shall be designed to meet the following requirements:

    1. 1.A pressure gauge and pressure-regulating devices and controls shall be provided to allow the operator to control the fill pressure and fill rate on each cylinder fill hose.

    2. 2.Valves controlling cylinder fill hoses shall be slow-operating valves.

    3. 3.A separate flow restriction device shall be provided on each fill hose.

    4. 4.A method shall be provided to bleed each cylinder fill hose.

    5. 5.The fill station shall be designed to provide a containment area that fully encloses any cylinder being filled and flexible cylinder fill hoses, and directs the energy from a failure away from personnel. Fill stations shall be designed to prohibit filling of cylinders that are not enclosed within the containment area.

      Exception: Where required or approved by the fire chief, fill stations providing for the direct refilling of the fire fighters’ breathing air cylinders using Rapid Intervention Crew/Company Universal Air Connection (RIC/UAC) fittings shall be used in lieu of cylinder fill stations that utilize containment areas.

    L104.13.3 Cylinder refill rate.

    Fill stations shall be capable of simultaneously filling two or more empty breathing air cylinders equivalent to those used by the fire department to the cylinders’ design pressure within 2 minutes.

    L104.14 External mobile air connection.

    An external mobile air connection shall be provided for fire department mobile air apparatus where required by Section L104.5 to supply the system with breathing air.

    L104.14.1 Location.

    The location of the external mobile air connection shall be accessible to mobile air apparatus and approved by the fire chief.

    L104.14.2 Protection from vehicles.

    A means of vehicle impact protection in accordance with Section 312 shall be provided to protect mobile air connections that are subject to vehicular impact.

    L104.14.3 Clear space around connections.

    A working space of not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in width, 36 inches (914 mm) in depth and 78 inches (1981 mm) in height shall be provided and maintained in front of and to the sides of external mobile air connections.

    L104.15 Air monitoring system.

    An approved air monitoring system shall be provided. The system shall automatically monitor air quality, moisture and pressure on a continual basis. The air monitoring system shall be equipped with not less than two content analyzers capable of detecting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, moisture and hydrocarbons.

    L104.15.1 Alarm conditions.

    The air monitoring system shall transmit a supervisory signal when any of the following levels are detected:

    1. 1.Carbon monoxide exceeds 5 ppm.

    2. 2.Carbon dioxide exceeds 1,000 ppm.

    3. 3.An oxygen level below 19.5 percent or above 23.5 percent.

    4. 4.A nitrogen level below 75 percent or above 81 percent.

    5. 5.Hydrocarbon (condensed) content exceeds 5 milligrams per cubic meter of air.

    6. 6.The moisture concentration exceeds 24 ppm by volume.

    7. 7.The pressure falls below 90 percent of the maintenance pressure specified in Section L104.3.

    L104.15.2 Alarm supervision, monitoring and notification.

    The air monitoring system shall be electrically supervised and monitored by an approved supervising station, or where approved, shall initiate audible and visual supervisory signals at a constantly attended location.

    L104.15.3 Air quality status display.

    Air quality status shall be visually displayed at the external mobile air connection required by Section L104.14.

    SECTIONL105
    ACCEPTANCE TESTS

    L105.1 Acceptance tests.

    Upon completion of the installation, a FARS shall be acceptance tested to verify compliance with equipment manufacturers’ instructions and design documents. Oversight of the acceptance tests shall be provided by a registered design professional. Acceptance testing shall include all of the following:

    1. 1.A pneumatic test in accordance with ASME B31.3 of the complete system at a minimum test pressure of 110 percent of the system design pressure using oil free dry air, nitrogen or argon shall be conducted. Test pressure shall be maintained for not less than 24 hours. During this test, all fittings, joints and system components shall be inspected for leaks. Defects in the system or leaks detected shall be documented and repaired.

    2. 2.A cylinder-filling performance test shall be conducted to verify compliance with the required breathing air cylinder refill rate from the exterior mobile air connection and, where provided, a stored air pressure supply system.

    3. 3.The air quality monitoring system shall be tested to verify both of the following conditions:

      1. 3.1. Visual indicators required by Section L104.15.1 function properly.

      2. 3.2. Supervisory signals are transmitted as required by Section L104.15.2 for each sensor based on a sensor function test.

    4. 4.Connections intended for fire department use shall be confirmed as compatible with the fire department’s mobile air unit, SCBA cylinders and, where provided, RIC/UAC connections.

    5. 5.Air samples shall be taken from not less than two fill stations and submitted to an approved gas analysis laboratory to verify compliance with NFPA 1989. The FARS shall not be placed into service until a written report verifying compliance with NFPA 1989 has been provided to the fire code official.

    SECTIONL106
    INSPECTION, TESTING AND MAINTENANCE

    L106.1 Periodic inspection, testing and maintenance.

    A FARS shall be continuously maintained in an operative condition and shall be inspected not less than annually. Not less than quarterly, an air sample shall be taken from the system and tested to verify compliance with NFPA 1989. The laboratory test results shall be maintained on site and readily available for review by the fire code official.

    SECTIONL107
    REFERENCED STANDARDS

    CGA S-1.3—2008

    Pressure Relief Device Standards – Part 3 Stationary Storage Containers for Compressed Gases

    L104.7

    NFPA 1901—09

    Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus

    L104.5.1,

    NFPA 1989—13

    Breathing Air Quality for Fire Emergency Services Respiratory Protection

    L104.2.2L105.1L106.1

    APPENDIXM
    HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS—RETROACTIVE
    AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER REQUIREMENT

    The provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance.

    SECTIONM101
    SCOPE

    M101.1 Scope.

    An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in all existing high-rise buildings in accordance with the requirements and compliance schedule of this appendix.

    SECTIONM102
    WHERE REQUIRED

    M102.1 High-rise buildings.

    An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 of the International Fire Code shall be provided throughout existing high-rise buildings.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Airport traffic control towers.

    2. 2.Open parking structures.

    3. 3.Group U occupancies.

    4. 4.Occupancies in Group F-2.

    SECTIONM103
    COMPLIANCE

    M103.1 Compliance schedule.

    Building owners shall file a compliance schedule with the fire code official not later than 365 days after the first effective date of this code. The compliance schedule shall not exceed 12 years for an automatic sprinkler system retrofit.

    SECTIONM104
    REFERENCED STANDARDS

    ICC IFC—15

    International Fire Code

    M102.1