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  • PartVIIPlumbing

    CHAPTER25
    PLUMBING ADMINISTRATION

    User note: Code change proposals to this chapter will be considered by the IRC – Plumbing and Mechanical Code Development Committee during the 2015 (Group A) Code Development Cycle. See explanation on page iv.

    SECTIONP2501
    GENERAL

    P2501.1 Scope.

    The provisions of this chapter shall establish the general administrative requirements applicable to plumbing systems and inspection requirements of this code.

    P2501.2 Application.

    In addition to the general administration requirements of Chapter 1, the administrative provisions of this chapter shall also apply to the plumbing requirements of Chapters 25 through 32.

    SECTIONP2502
    EXISTING PLUMBING SYSTEMS

    P2502.1 Existing building sewers and building drains.

    Where the entire sanitary drainage system of an existing building is replaced, existing building drains under concrete slabs and existing building sewers that will serve the new system shall be internally examined to verify that the piping is sloping in the correct direction, is not broken, is not obstructed and is sized for the drainage load of the new plumbing drainage system to be installed.

    P2502.2 Additions, alterations or repairs.

    Additions, alterations, renovations or repairs to any plumbing system shall conform to that required for a new plumbing system without requiring the existing plumbing system to comply with the requirements of this code. Additions, alterations or repairs shall not cause an existing system to become unsafe, insanitary or overloaded.

    Minor additions, alterations, renovations and repairs to existing plumbing systems shall be permitted in the same manner and arrangement as in the existing system, provided that such repairs or replacement are not hazardous and are approved.

    SECTIONP2503
    INSPECTION AND TESTS

    P2503.1 Inspection required.

    New plumbing work and parts of existing systems affected by new work or alterations shall be inspected by the building official to ensure compliance with the requirements of this code.

    P2503.2 Concealment.

    A plumbing or drainage system, or part thereof, shall not be covered, concealed or put into use until it has been tested, inspected and approved by the building official.

    P2503.3 Responsibility of permittee.

    Test equipment, materials and labor shall be furnished by the permittee.

    P2503.4 Building sewer testing.

    The building sewer shall be tested by insertion of a test plug at the point of connection with the public sewer, filling the building sewer with water and pressurizing the sewer to not less than 10-foot (3048 mm) head of water. The test pressure shall not decrease during a period of not less than 15 minutes. The building sewer shall be watertight at all points.

    A forced sewer test shall consist of pressurizing the piping to a pressure of not less than 5 psi (34.5 kPa) greater than the pump rating and maintaining such pressure for not less than 15 minutes. The forced sewer shall be water tight at all points.

    P2503.5 Drain, waste and vent systems testing.

    Rough-in and finished plumbing installations of drain, waste and vent systems shall be tested in accordance with Sections P2503.5.1 and P2503.5.2.

    P2503.5.1 Rough plumbing.

    DWV systems shall be tested on completion of the rough piping installation by water or, for piping systems other than plastic, by air, without evidence of leakage. Either test shall be applied to the drainage system in its entirety or in sections after rough-in piping has been installed, as follows:

    1. 1.Water test. Each section shall be filled with water to a point not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the highest fitting connection in that section, or to the highest point in the completed system. Water shall be held in the section under test for a period of 15 minutes. The system shall prove leak free by visual inspection.

    2. 2.Air test. The portion under test shall be maintained at a gauge pressure of 5 pounds per square inch (psi) (34 kPa) or 10 inches of mercury column (34 kPa). This pressure shall be held without introduction of additional air for a period of 15 minutes.

    P2503.5.2 Finished plumbing.

    After the plumbing fixtures have been set and their traps filled with water, their connections shall be tested and proved gas tight or water tight as follows:

    1. 1.Water tightness. Each fixture shall be filled and then drained. Traps and fixture connections shall be proven water tight by visual inspection.

    2. 2.Gas tightness. Where required by the local administrative authority, a final test for gas tightness of the DWV system shall be made by the smoke or peppermint test as follows:

      1. 2.1.Smoke test. Introduce a pungent, thick smoke into the system. When the smoke appears at vent terminals, such terminals shall be sealed and a pressure equivalent to a 1-inch water column (249 Pa) shall be applied and maintained for a test period of not less than 15 minutes.

      2. 2.2.Peppermint test. Introduce 2 ounces (59 mL) of oil of peppermint into the system. Add 10 quarts (9464 mL) of hot water and seal the vent terminals. The odor of peppermint shall not be detected at any trap or other point in the system.

    P2503.6 Shower liner test.

    Where shower floors and receptors are made water tight by the application of materials required by Section P2709.2, the completed liner installation shall be tested. The pipe from the shower drain shall be plugged water tight for the test. The floor and receptor area shall be filled with potable water to a depth of not less than 2 inches (51 mm) measured at the threshold. Where a threshold of not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in height does not exist, a temporary threshold shall be constructed to retain the test water in the lined floor or receptor area to a level not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in depth measured at the threshold. The water shall be retained for a test period of not less than 15 minutes and there shall not be evidence of leakage.

    P2503.7 Water-supply system testing.

    Upon completion of the water-supply system or a section of it, the system or portion completed shall be tested and proved tight under a water pressure of not less than the working pressure of the system or, for piping systems other than plastic, by an air test of not less than 50 psi (345 kPa). This pressure shall be held for not less than 15 minutes. The water used for tests shall be obtained from a potable water source.

    P2503.8 Inspection and testing of backflow prevention devices.

    Inspection and testing of backflow prevention devices shall comply with Sections P2503.8.1 and P2503.8.2.

    P2503.8.1 Inspections.

    Inspections shall be made of backflow prevention assemblies to determine whether they are operable.

    P2503.8.2 Testing.

    Reduced pressure principle, double check, double check detector and pressure vacuum breaker backflow preventer assemblies shall be tested at the time of installation, immediately after repairs or relocation and every year thereafter.

    P2503.9 Test gauges.

    Gauges used for testing shall be as follows:

    1. 1.Tests requiring a pressure of 10 psi or less shall utilize a testing gauge having increments of 0.10 psi (0.69 kPa) or less.

    2. 2.Tests requiring a pressure higher than 10 psi (0.69 kPa) but less than or equal to 100 psi (690 kPa) shall use a testing gauge having increments of 1 psi (6.9 kPa) or less.

    3. 3.Tests requiring a pressure higher than 100 psi (690 kPa) shall use a testing gauge having increments of 2 psi (14 kPa) or less.

    CHAPTER26
    GENERAL PLUMBING REQUIREMENTS

    User note: Code change proposals to this chapter will be considered by the IRC – Plumbing and Mechanical Code
    Development Committee during the 2015 (Group A) Code Development Cycle. See explanation on page iv.

    SECTIONP2601
    GENERAL

    P2601.1 Scope.

    The provisions of this chapter shall govern the installation of plumbing not specifically covered in other chapters applicable to plumbing systems. The installation of plumbing, appliances, equipment and systems not addressed by this code shall comply with the applicable provisions of the International Plumbing Code.

    P2601.2 Connections to drainage system.

    Plumbing fixtures, drains, appurtenances and appliances used to receive or discharge liquid wastes or sewage shall be directly connected to the sanitary drainage system of the building or premises, in accordance with the requirements of this code. This section shall not be construed to prevent indirect waste connections where required by the code.

    Exception: Bathtubs, showers, lavatories, clothes washers and laundry trays shall not be required to discharge to the sanitary drainage system where such fixtures discharge to systems complying with Sections P2910 and P2911.

    P2601.3 Flood hazard areas.

    In flood hazard areas as established by Table R301.2(1), plumbing fixtures, drains, and appliances shall be located or installed in accordance with Section R322.1.6.

    SECTIONP2602
    INDIVIDUAL WATER SUPPLY AND SEWAGE DISPOSAL

    P2602.1 General.

    The water-distribution and drainage system of any building or premises where plumbing fixtures are installed shall be connected to a public water supply or sewer system, respectively, if available. Where either a public water-supply or sewer system, or both, are not available, or connection to them is not feasible, an individual water supply or individual (private) sewage-disposal system, or both, shall be provided.

    P2602.2 Flood-resistant installation.

    In flood hazard areas as established by Table R301.2(1):

    1. 1.Water supply systems shall be designed and constructed to prevent infiltration of floodwaters.

    2. 2.Pipes for sewage disposal systems shall be designed and constructed to prevent infiltration of floodwaters into the systems and discharges from the systems into floodwaters.

    SECTIONP2603
    STRUCTURAL AND PIPING PROTECTION

    P2603.1 General.

    In the process of installing or repairing any part of a plumbing and drainage installation, the finished floors, walls, ceilings, tile work or any other part of the building or premises that must be changed or replaced shall be left in a safe structural condition in accordance with the requirements of the building portion of this code.

    P2603.2 Drilling and notching.

    Wood-framed structural members shall not be drilled, notched or altered in any manner except as provided in Sections R502.8, R602.6, R802.7 and R802.7.1. Holes in load-bearing members of cold-formed steel light-frame construction shall be made only in accordance with Sections R505.2.6, R603.2.6 and R804.2.6. In accordance with the provisions in Sections R505.3.5, R603.3.3 and R804.3.4, cutting and notching of flanges and lips of load-bearing members of cold-formed steel light-frame construction shall be prohibited. Structural insulated panels (SIPs) shall be drilled and notched or altered in accordance with the provisions of Section R613.7.

    P2603.2.1 Protection against physical damage.

    In concealed locations, where piping, other than cast-iron or galvanized steel, is installed through holes or notches in studs, joists, rafters or similar members less than 11/4 inches (31.8 mm) from the nearest edge of the member, the pipe shall be protected by steel shield plates. Such shield plates shall have a thickness of not less than 0.0575 inch (1.463 mm) (No. 16 Gage). Such plates shall cover the area of the pipe where the member is notched or bored, and shall extend not less than 2 inches (51 mm) above sole plates and below top plates.

    P2603.3 Protection against corrosion.

    Metallic piping, except for cast iron, ductile iron and galvanized steel, shall not be placed in direct contact with steel framing members, concrete or masonry. Metallic piping shall not be placed in direct contact with corrosive soil. Where sheathing is used to prevent direct contact, the sheathing material thickness shall be not less than 0.008 inch (8 mil) (0.203 mm) and shall be made of plastic. Where sheathing protects piping that penetrates concrete or masonry walls or floors, the sheathing shall be installed in a manner that allows movement of the piping within the sheathing.

    P2603.4 Pipes through foundation walls.

    A pipe that passes through a foundation wall shall be provided with a relieving arch, or a pipe sleeve shall be built into the foundation wall. The sleeve shall be two pipe sizes greater than the pipe passing through the wall.

    P2603.5 Freezing.

    In localities having a winter design temperature of 32°F (0°C) or lower as shown in Table R301.2(1) of this code, a water, soil or waste pipe shall not be installed outside of a building, in exterior walls, in attics or crawl spaces, or in any other place subjected to freezing temperature unless adequate provision is made to protect it from freezing by insulation or heat or both. Water service pipe shall be installed not less than 12 inches (305 mm) deep and not less than 6 inches (152 mm) below the frost line.

    P2603.5.1 Sewer depth.

    Building sewers that connect to private sewage disposal systems shall be a not less than [NUMBER] inches (mm) below finished grade at the point of septic tank connection. Building sewers shall be not less than [NUMBER] inches (mm) below grade.

    SECTIONP2604
    TRENCHING AND BACKFILLING

    P2604.1 Trenching and bedding.

    Where trenches are excavated such that the bottom of the trench forms the bed for the pipe, solid and continuous load-bearing support shall be provided between joints. Where over-excavated, the trench shall be backfilled to the proper grade with compacted earth, sand, fine gravel or similar granular material. Piping shall not be supported on rocks or blocks at any point. Rocky or unstable soil shall be over-excavated by two or more pipe diameters and brought to the proper grade with suitable compacted granular material.

    P2604.2 Water service and building sewer in same trench.

    Where the water service piping and building sewer piping is installed in same trench, the installation shall be in accordance with Section P2906.4.1.

    P2604.3 Backfilling.

    Backfill shall be free from discarded construction material and debris. Backfill shall be free from rocks, broken concrete and frozen chunks until the pipe is covered by not less than 12 inches (305 mm) of tamped earth. Backfill shall be placed evenly on both sides of the pipe and tamped to retain proper alignment. Loose earth shall be carefully placed in the trench in 6-inch (152 mm) layers and tamped in place.

    P2604.4 Protection of footings.

    Trenching installed parallel to footings and walls shall not extend into the bearing plane of a footing or wall. The upper boundary of the bearing plane is a line that extends downward, at an angle of 45 degrees from horizontal, from the outside bottom edge of the footing or wall.

    SECTIONP2605
    SUPPORT

    P2605.1 General.

    Piping shall be supported in accordance with the following:

    1. 1.Piping shall be supported to ensure alignment and prevent sagging, and allow movement associated with the expansion and contraction of the piping system.

    2. 2.Piping in the ground shall be laid on a firm bed for its entire length, except where support is otherwise provided.

    3. 3.Hangers and anchors shall be of sufficient strength to maintain their proportional share of the weight of pipe and contents and of sufficient width to prevent distortion to the pipe. Hangers and strapping shall be of approved material that will not promote galvanic action. Rigid support sway bracing shall be provided at changes in direction greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) for pipe sizes 4 inches (102 mm) and larger.

    4. 4.Piping shall be supported at distances not to exceed those indicated in Table P2605.1.

    TABLE P2605.1

    PIPING SUPPORT

    PIPING MATERIALMAXIMUM HORIZONTAL SPACING (feet)MAXIMUM VERTICAL SPACING (feet)
    ABS pipe410b
    Aluminum tubing1015
    Cast-iron pipe5a15
    Copper or copper alloy pipe1210
    Copper or copper alloy tubing (11/4 inches in diameter and smaller)610
    Copper or copper alloy tubing (11/2 inches in diameter and larger)1010
    Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipe, 1 inch and smaller2.67 (32 inches)10b
    Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipe, 11/4 inch and larger410b
    Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) pipe2.67 (32 inches)4b
    CPVC pipe or tubing (1 inch in diameter and smaller)310b
    CPVC pipe or tubing (11/4 inches in diameter and larger)410b
    Lead pipeContinuous4
    PB pipe or tubing2.67 (32 inches)4
    Polyethylene of raised temperature (PE-RT) pipe, 1 inch and smaller2.67 (32 inches)10b
    Polyethylene of raised temperature (PE-RT) pipe, 11/4 inch and larger410b
    Polypropylene (PP) pipe or tubing (1 inch and smaller)2.67 (32 inches)10b
    Polypropylene (PP) pipe or tubing (11/4 inches and larger)410b
    PVC pipe410b
    Stainless steel drainage systems1010b
    Steel pipe1215

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    1. a.The maximum horizontal spacing of cast-iron pipe hangers shall be increased to 10 feet where 10-foot lengths of pipe are installed.

    2. b.For sizes 2 inches and smaller, a guide shall be installed midway between required vertical supports. Such guides shall prevent pipe movement in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the pipe.

    SECTIONP2606
    PENETRATIONS

    P2606.1 Sealing of annular spaces.

    The annular space between the outside of a pipe and the inside of a pipe sleeve or between the outside of a pipe and an opening in a building envelope wall, floor, or ceiling assembly penetrated by a pipe shall be sealed with caulking material or foam sealant or closed with a gasketing system. The caulking material, foam sealant or gasketing system shall be designed for the conditions at the penetration location and shall be compatible with the pipe, sleeve and building materials in contact with the sealing materials. Annular spaces created by pipes penetrating fire-resistance-rated assemblies or membranes of such assemblies shall be sealed or closed in accordance with the building portion of this code.

    SECTIONP2607
    WATERPROOFING OF OPENINGS

    P2607.1 Pipes penetrating roofs.

    Where a pipe penetrates a roof, a flashing of lead, copper, galvanized steel or an approved elastomeric material shall be installed in manner that prevents water entry into the building. Counterflashing into the opening of pipe serving as a vent terminal shall not reduce the required internal cross-sectional area of the vent pipe to less than the internal cross-sectional area of one pipe size smaller.

    P2607.2 Pipes penetrating exterior walls.

    Where a pipe penetrates an exterior wall, a waterproof seal shall be made on the exterior of the wall by one of the following methods:

    1. 1.A waterproof sealant applied at the joint between the wall and the pipe.

    2. 2.A flashing of an approved elastomeric material.

    SECTIONP2608
    WORKMANSHIP

    P2608.1 General.

    Valves, pipes and fittings shall be installed in correct relationship to the direction of the flow. Burred ends shall be reamed to the full bore of the pipe.

    SECTIONP2609
    MATERIALS EVALUATION AND LISTING

    P2609.1 Identification.

    Each length of pipe and each pipe fitting, trap, fixture, material and device utilized in a plumbing system shall bear the identification of the manufacturer and any markings required by the applicable referenced standards. Nipples created from the cutting and threading of approved pipe shall not be required to be identified.

    Exception: Where the manufacturer identification cannot be marked on pipe fittings and pipe nipples because of the small size of such fittings, the identification shall be printed on the item packaging or on documentation provided with the item.

    P2609.2 Installation of materials.

    Materials used shall be installed in strict accordance with the standards under which the materials are accepted and approved. In the absence of such installation procedures, the manufacturer’s instructions shall be followed. Where the requirements of referenced standards or manufacturer’s instructions do not conform to the minimum provisions of this code, the provisions of this code shall apply.

    P2609.3 Plastic pipe, fittings and components.

    Plastic pipe, fittings and components shall be third-party certified as conforming to NSF 14.

    P2609.4 Third-party certification.

    Plumbing products and materials required by the code to be in compliance with a referenced standard shall be listed by a third-party certification agency as complying with the referenced standards. Products and materials shall be identified in accordance with Section P2609.1.

    P2609.5 Water supply systems.

    Water service pipes, water distribution pipes and the necessary connecting pipes, fittings, control valves, faucets and appurtenances used to dispense water intended for human ingestion shall be evaluated and listed as conforming to the requirements of NSF 61.

    CHAPTER27
    PLUMBING FIXTURES  

    User note: Code change proposals to this chapter will be considered by the IRC – Plumbing and Mechanical Code
    Development Committee during the 2015 (Group A) Code Development Cycle. See explanation on page iv.

    SECTIONP2701
    FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS

    P2701.1 Quality of fixtures.

    Plumbing fixtures, faucets and fixture fittings shall have smooth impervious surfaces, shall be free from defects, shall not have concealed fouling surfaces, and shall conform to the standards indicated in Table P2701.1 and elsewhere in this code.

    TABLE P2701.1

    PLUMBING FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS

    MATERIALSTANDARD
    Air gap fittings for use with plumbing fixtures, appliances and appurtenancesASME A 112.1.3
    Bathtub/whirlpool pressure-sealed doorsASME A 112.19.15
    Diverters for faucets with hose spray, anti-syphon type, residential applicationASTM A 112.18.1/CSA B125.1
    Enameled cast-iron plumbing fixturesASME A 112.19.1M/CSA B45.2
    Floor drainsASME A 112.6.3
    Floor-affixed supports for off-the-floor plumbing fixtures for public useASME A 112.6.1M
    Framing-affixed supports for off-the-floor water closets with concealed tanksASME A 112.6.2
    Hose connection vacuum breakerASSE 1052
    Hot water dispensers, household storage type, electricalASSE 1023
    Household disposersASSE 1008
    Hydraulic performance for water closets and urinalsASME A 112.19.2/CSA B45.1
    Individual automatic compensating valves for individual fixture fittingsASME A 112.18.1/CSA B125.1
    Individual shower control valves anti-scaldASSE 1016/ASME A 112.1016/CSA B125.16
    Macerating toilet systems and related componentsASME A 112.3.4/CSA B45.9
    Nonvitreous ceramic plumbing fixturesASME A 112.19.2/CSA B45.1
    Plastic bathtub unitsCSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124, ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1
    Plastic lavatoriesCSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124
    Plastic shower receptors and shower stallCSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124
    Plastic sinksCSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124
    Plastic water closet bowls and tanksCSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124
    Plumbing fixture fittingsASME A 112.18.1/CSA B125.1
    Plumbing fixture waste fittingsASME A 112.18.2/CSA B125.2, ASTM F 409
    Porcelain-enameled formed steel plumbing fixturesASME A 112.19.1/CSA B45.2
    Pressurized flushing devices for plumbing fixturesASSE 1037, CSA B125.3
    Specification for copper sheet and strip for building constructionASTM B 370
    Stainless steel plumbing fixturesASME A 112.19.3/CSA B45.4
    Suction fittings for use in whirlpool bathtub appliancesASME A 112.19.7 /CSA B45.10
    Temperature-actuated, flow reduction valves to individual fixture fittingsASSE 1062
    Thermoplastic accessible and replaceable plastic tube and tubular fittingsASTM F 409
    Trench drainsASME A 112.6.3
    Trim for water closet bowls, tanks and urinalsASME A 112.19.5/CSA B45.15
    Vacuum breaker wall hydrant-frost-resistant, automatic-draining typeASSE 1019
    Vitreous china plumbing fixturesASME A 112.19.2/CSA B45.1
    Wall-mounted and pedestal-mounted, adjustable and pivoting lavatory and sink carrier systemsASME A 112.19.12
    Water closet flush tank fill valvesASSE 1002, CSA B125.3
    Whirlpool bathtub appliancesASME A 112.19.7 /CSA B45.10

    SECTIONP2702
    FIXTURE ACCESSORIES

    P2702.1 Plumbing fixtures.

    Plumbing fixtures, other than water closets, shall be provided with approved strainers.

    Exception: Hub drains receiving only clear water waste and standpipes shall not require strainers.

    P2702.2 Waste fittings.

    Waste fittings shall conform to ASME A112.18.2/CSA B125.2, ASTM F 409 or shall be made from pipe and pipe fittings complying with any of the standards indicated in Tables P3002.1(1) and P3002.3.

    P2702.3 Plastic tubular fittings.

    Plastic tubular fittings shall conform to ASTM F 409 as indicated in Table P2701.1.

    P2702.4 Carriers for wall-hung water closets.

    Carriers for wall-hung water closets shall conform to ASME A112.6.1 or ASME A112.6.2.

    SECTIONP2703
    TAIL PIECES  

    P2703.1 Minimum size.

    Fixture tail pieces shall be not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) in diameter for sinks, dishwashers, laundry tubs, bathtubs and similar fixtures, and not less than 11/4 inches (32 mm) in diameter for bidets, lavatories and similar fixtures.

    SECTIONP2704
    ACCESS TO CONNECTIONS

    P2704.1 General.

    Slip joints shall be made with an approved elastomeric gasket and shall be installed only on the trap outlet, trap inlet and within the trap seal. Fixtures with concealed slip-joint connections shall be provided with an access panel or utility space not less than 12 inches (305 mm) in its smallest dimension or other approved arrangement so as to provide access to the slip connections for inspection and repair.

    SECTIONP2705
    INSTALLATION

    P2705.1 General.

    The installation of fixtures shall conform to the following:

    1. 1. Floor-outlet or floor-mounted fixtures shall be secured to the drainage connection and to the floor, where so designed, by screws, bolts, washers, nuts and similar fasteners of copper, copper alloy or other corrosion-resistant material.

    2. 2.Wall-hung fixtures shall be rigidly supported so that strain is not transmitted to the plumbing system.

    3. 3.Where fixtures come in contact with walls and floors, the contact area shall be water tight.

    4. 4.Plumbing fixtures shall be usable.

    5. 5.Water closets, lavatories and bidets. A water closet, lavatory or bidet shall not be set closer than 15 inches (381 mm) from its center to any side wall, partition or vanity or closer than 30 inches (762 mm) center-to-center between adjacent fixtures. There shall be a clearance of not less than 21 inches (533 mm) in front of a water closet, lavatory or bidet to any wall, fixture or door.

    6. 6.The location of piping, fixtures or equipment shall not interfere with the operation of windows or doors.

    7. 7.In flood hazard areas as established by Table R301.2(1), plumbing fixtures shall be located or installed in accordance with Section R322.1.6.

    8. 8.Integral fixture-fitting mounting surfaces on manufactured plumbing fixtures or plumbing fixtures constructed on site, shall meet the design requirements of ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1 or ASME A112.19.3/CSA B45.4.

    SECTIONP2706
    WASTE RECEPTORS  

    P2706.1 General.

    For other than hub drains that receive only clear-water waste and standpipes, a removable strainer or basket shall cover the waste outlet of waste receptors. Waste receptors shall not be installed in concealed spaces. Waste receptors shall not be installed in plenums, attics, crawl spaces or interstitial spaces above ceilings and below floors. Waste receptors shall be readily accessible.

    P2706.1.1 Hub drains.

    Hub drains shall be in the form of a hub or a pipe that extends not less than 1 inch (25 mm) above a water-impervious floor.

    P2706.1.2 Standpipes.

    Standpipes shall extend not less than 18 inches (457 mm) and not greater than 42 inches (1067 mm) above the trap weir.

    P2706.1.2.1Laundry tray connection to standpipe.

    Where a laundry tray waste line connects into a standpipe for an automatic clothes washer drain, the standpipe shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the standpipe trap weir and shall extend above the flood level rim of the laundry tray. The outlet of the laundry tray shall not be greater than 30 inches (762 mm) horizontally from the standpipe trap.

    P2706.2 Prohibited waste receptors.

    Plumbing fixtures that are used for washing or bathing shall not be used to receive the discharge of indirect waste piping.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.A kitchen sink trap is acceptable for use as a receptor for a dishwasher.

    2. 2.A laundry tray is acceptable for use as a receptor for a clothes washing machine.

    SECTIONP2707
    DIRECTIONAL FITTINGS

    P2707.1 Directional fitting required.

    Approved directional-type branch fittings shall be installed in fixture tailpieces receiving the discharge from food-waste disposer units or dishwashers.

    SECTIONP2708
    SHOWERS

    P2708.1 General.

    Shower compartments shall have not less than 900 square inches (0.6 m2) of interior cross-sectional area. Shower compartments shall be not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in minimum dimension measured from the finished interior dimension of the shower compartment, exclusive of fixture valves, shower heads, soap dishes, and safety grab bars or rails. The minimum required area and dimension shall be measured from the finished interior dimension at a height equal to the top of the threshold and at a point tangent to its centerline and shall be continued to a height of not less than 70 inches (1778 mm) above the shower drain outlet. Hinged shower doors shall open outward. The wall area above builtin tubs having installed shower heads and in shower compartments shall be constructed in accordance with Section R702.4. Such walls shall form a water-tight joint with each other and with either the tub, receptor or shower floor.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Fold-down seats shall be permitted in the shower, provided the required 900-square-inch (0.6 m2) dimension is maintained when the seat is in the folded-up position.

    2. 2.Shower compartments having not less than 25 inches (635 mm) in minimum dimension measured from the finished interior dimension of the compartment provided that the shower compartment has a cross-sectional area of not less than 1,300 square inches (0.838 m2).

    P2708.1.1 Access.

    The shower compartment access and egress opening shall have a clear and unobstructed finished width of not less than 22 inches (559 mm).

    P2708.2 Shower drain.

    Shower drains shall have an outlet size of not less than 11/2 inches [38 mm] in diameter.

    P2708.3 Water supply riser.

    Water supply risers from the shower valve to the shower head outlet, whether exposed or concealed, shall be attached to the structure using support devices designed for use with the specific piping material or fittings anchored with screws.

    P2708.4 Shower control valves.

    Individual shower and tub/shower combination valves shall be equipped with control valves of the pressure-balance, thermostatic-mixing or combination pressure-balance/thermostatic-mixing valve types with a high limit stop in accordance with ASSE 1016/ASME A112.1016/CSA B125.16. The high limit stop shall be set to limit the water temperature to not greater than 120°F (49°C). In-line thermostatic valves shall not be used for compliance with this section.

    P2708.5 Hand showers.

    Hand-held showers shall conform to ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1. Hand-held showers shall provide backflow protection in accordance with ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1 or shall be protected against backflow by a device complying with ASME A112.18.3.

    SECTIONP2709
    SHOWER RECEPTORS  

    P2709.1 Construction.

    Where a shower receptor has a finished curb threshold, it shall be not less than 1 inch (25 mm) below the sides and back of the receptor. The curb shall be not less than 2 inches (51 mm) and not more than 9 inches (229 mm) deep when measured from the top of the curb to the top of the drain. The finished floor shall slope uniformly toward the drain not less than 1/4 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) nor more than 1/2 unit vertical per 12 units horizontal (4-percent slope) and floor drains shall be flanged to provide a water-tight joint in the floor.

    P2709.2 Lining required.

    The adjoining walls and floor framing enclosing on-site built-up shower receptors shall be lined with one of the following materials:

    1. 1.Sheet lead.

    2. 2.Sheet copper.

    3. 3.Plastic liner material that complies with ASTM D 4068 or ASTM D 4551.

    4. 4.Hot mopping in accordance with Section P2709.2.3.

    5. 5.Sheet-applied load-bearing, bonded waterproof membranes that comply with ANSI A118.10.

    The lining material shall extend not less than 2 inches (51 mm) beyond or around the rough jambs and not less than 2 inches (51 mm) above finished thresholds. Sheet-applied load bearing, bonded waterproof membranes shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P2709.2.1 PVC sheets.

    Plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheet shall meet the requirements of ASTM D 4551. Sheets shall be joined by solvent welding in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P2709.2.2 Chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) sheets.

    Nonplasticized chlorinated polyethylene sheet shall meet the requirements of ASTM D 4068. The liner shall be joined in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P2709.2.3 Hot-mopping.

    Shower receptors lined by hot mopping shall be built-up with not less than three layers of standard grade Type 15 asphalt-impregnated roofing felt. The bottom layer shall be fitted to the formed subbase and each succeeding layer thoroughly hot-mopped to that below. Corners shall be carefully fitted and shall be made strong and water tight by folding or lapping, and each corner shall be reinforced with suitable webbing hot-mopped in place. Folds, laps and reinforcing webbing shall extend not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in all directions from the corner and webbing shall be of approved type and mesh, producing a tensile strength of not less than 50 pounds per inch (893 kg/m) in either direction.

    P2709.2.4 Liquid-type, trowel-applied, load-bearing, bonded waterproof materials.

    Liquid-type, trowel-applied, load-bearing, bonded waterproof materials shall meet the requirements of ANSI A118.10 and shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P2709.3 Installation.

    Lining materials shall be sloped one-fourth unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) to weep holes in the subdrain by means of a smooth, solidly formed subbase, shall be properly recessed and fastened to approved backing so as not to occupy the space required for the wall covering, and shall not be nailed or perforated at any point less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) above the finished threshold.

    P2709.3.1 Materials.

    Lead and copper linings shall be insulated from conducting substances other than the connecting drain by 15-pound (6.80 kg) asphalt felt or its equivalent. Sheet lead liners shall weigh not less than 4 pounds per square foot (19.5 kg/m2). Sheet copper liners shall weigh not less than 12 ounces per square foot (3.7 kg/m2). Joints in lead and copper pans or liners shall be burned or silver brazed, respectively. Joints in plastic liner materials shall be joined in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P2709.4 Receptor drains.

    An approved flanged drain shall be installed with shower subpans or linings. The flange shall be placed flush with the subbase and be equipped with a clamping ring or other device to make a water-tight connection between the lining and the drain. The flange shall have weep holes into the drain.

    SECTIONP2710
    SHOWER WALLS

    P2710.1 Bathtub and shower spaces.

    Walls in shower compartments and walls above bathtubs that have a wall-mounted showerhead shall be finished in accordance with Section R307.2.

    SECTIONP2711
    LAVATORIES

    P2711.1 Approval.

    Lavatories shall conform to ASME A112.19.1/CSA B45.2, ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1, ASME A112.19.3/CSA B45.4 or CSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124.

    P2711.2 Cultured marble lavatories.

    Cultured marble vanity tops with an integral lavatory shall conform to CSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124.

    P2711.3 Lavatory waste outlets.

    Lavatories shall have waste outlets not less than 11/4 inch (32 mm) in diameter. A strainer, pop-up stopper, crossbar or other device shall be provided to restrict the clear opening of the waste outlet.

    P2711.4 Movable lavatory systems.

    Movable lavatory systems shall comply with ASME A112.19.12.

    SECTIONP2712
    WATER CLOSETS  

    P2712.1 Approval.

    Water closets shall conform to the water consumption requirements of Section P2903.2 and shall conform to ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1, ASME A112.19.3/CSA B45.4 or CSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124. Water closets shall conform to the hydraulic performance requirements of ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1. Water closet tanks shall conform to ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1, ASME A112.19.3/CSA B45.4 or CSA B45.5/IAPMO Z124. Water closets that have an invisible seal and unventilated space or walls that are not thoroughly washed at each discharge shall be prohibited. Water closets that allow backflow of the contents of the bowl into the flush tank shall be prohibited. Water closets equipped with a dual flushing device shall comply with ASME A112.19.14.

    P2712.2 Flushing devices required.

    Water closets shall be provided with a flush tank, flushometer tank or flushometer valve designed and installed to supply water in sufficient quantity and flow to flush the contents of the fixture, to cleanse the fixture and refill the fixture trap in accordance with ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1.

    P2712.3 Water supply for flushing devices.

    An adequate quantity of water shall be provided to flush and clean the fixture served. The water supply to flushing devices equipped for manual flushing shall be controlled by a float valve or other automatic device designed to refill the tank after each discharge and to completely shut off the water flow to the tank when the tank is filled to operational capacity. Provision shall be made to automatically supply water to the fixture so as to refill the trap after each flushing.

    P2712.4 Flush valves in flush tanks.

    Flush valve seats in tanks for flushing water closets shall be not less than 1 inch (25 mm) above the flood-level rim of the bowl connected thereto, except an approved water closet and flush tank combination designed so that when the tank is flushed and the fixture is clogged or partially clogged, the flush valve will close tightly so that water will not spill continuously over the rim of the bowl or backflow from the bowl to the tank.

    P2712.5 Overflows in flush tanks.

    Flush tanks shall be provided with overflows discharging to the water closet connected thereto and such overflow shall be of sufficient size to prevent flooding the tank at the maximum rate at which the tanks are supplied with water according to the manufacturer’s design conditions.

    P2712.6 Access.

    Parts in a flush tank shall be accessible for repair and replacement.

    P2712.7 Water closet seats.

    Water closets shall be equipped with seats of smooth, nonabsorbent material and shall be properly sized for the water closet bowl type.

    P2712.8 Flush tank lining.

    Sheet copper used for flush tank linings shall have a weight of not less than 10 ounces per square foot (3 kg/m2).

    P2712.9 Electro-hydraulic water closets.

    Electro-hydraulic water closets shall conform to ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1.

    SECTIONP2713
    BATHTUBS  

    P2713.1 Bathtub waste outlets and overflows.

    Bathtubs shall be equipped with a waste outlet and an overflow outlet. The outlets shall be connected to waste tubing or piping not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) in diameter. The waste outlet shall be equipped with a water-tight stopper.

    P2713.2 Bathtub enclosures.

    Doors within a bathtub enclosure shall conform to ASME A112.19.15.

    P2713.3 Bathtub and whirlpool bathtub valves.

    Hot water supplied to bathtubs and whirlpool bathtubs shall be limited to a temperature of not greater than 120°F (49°C) by a water-temperature limiting device that conforms to ASSE 1070 or CSA B125.3, except where such protection is otherwise provided by a combination tub/shower valve in accordance with Section P2708.4.

    SECTIONP2714
    SINKS

    P2714.1 Sink waste outlets.

    Sinks shall be provided with waste outlets not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) in diameter. A strainer, crossbar or other device shall be provided to restrict the clear opening of the waste outlet.

    P2714.2 Movable sink systems.

    Movable sink systems shall comply with ASME A112.19.12.

    SECTIONP2715
    LAUNDRY TUBS

    P2715.1 Laundry tub waste outlet.

    Each compartment of a laundry tub shall be provided with a waste outlet not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) in diameter. A strainer or crossbar shall restrict the clear opening of the waste outlet.

    SECTIONP2716
    FOOD-WASTE DISPOSER

    P2716.1 Food-waste disposer waste outlets.

    Food-waste disposers shall be connected to a drain of not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) in diameter.

    P2716.2 Water supply required.

    A sink equipped with a food-waste disposer shall be provided with a faucet.

    SECTIONP2717
    DISHWASHING MACHINES

    P2717.1 Protection of water supply.

    The water supply to a dishwasher shall be protected against backflow by an air gap complying with ASME A112.1.3 or A112.1.2 that is installed integrally within the machine or a backflow preventer in accordance with Section P2902.

    P2717.2 Sink and dishwasher.

    The combined discharge from a dishwasher and a one- or two-compartment sink, with or without a food-waste disposer, shall be served by a trap of not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) in outside diameter. The dishwasher discharge pipe or tubing shall rise to the underside of the counter and be fastened or otherwise held in that position before connecting to the head of the food-waste disposer or to a wye fitting in the sink tailpiece.

    SECTIONP2718
    CLOTHES WASHING MACHINE

    P2718.1 Waste connection.

    The discharge from a clothes washing machine shall be through an air break.

    SECTIONP2719
    FLOOR DRAINS

    P2719.1 Floor drains.

    Floor drains shall have waste outlets not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in diameter and a removable strainer. Floor drains shall be constructed so that the drain can be cleaned. Access shall be provided to the drain inlet. Floor drains shall not be located under or have their access restricted by permanently installed appliances.

    SECTIONP2720
    WHIRLPOOL BATHTUBS

    P2720.1 Access to pump.

    Access shall be provided to circulation pumps in accordance with the fixture or pump manufacturer’s installation instructions. Where the manufacturer’s instructions do not specify the location and minimum size of field-fabricated access openings, an opening of not less than 12-inches by 12-inches (305 mm by 305 mm) shall be installed for access to the circulation pump. Where pumps are located more than 2 feet (610 mm) from the access opening, an opening of not less than 18 inches by 18 inches (457 mm by 457 mm) shall be installed. A door or panel shall be permitted to close the opening. The access opening shall be unobstructed and be of the size necessary to permit the removal and replacement of the circulation pump.

    P2720.2 Piping drainage.

    The circulation pump shall be accessibly located above the crown weir of the trap. The pump drain line shall be properly graded to ensure minimum water retention in the volute after fixture use. The circulation piping shall be installed to be self-draining.

    P2720.3 Leak testing.

    Leak testing and pump operation shall be performed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P2720.4 Manufacturer’s instructions.

    The product shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    SECTIONP2721
    BIDET INSTALLATIONS

    P2721.1 Water supply.

    The bidet shall be equipped with either an air-gap-type or vacuum-breaker-type fixture supply fitting.

    P2721.2 Bidet water temperature.

    The discharge water temperature from a bidet fitting shall be limited to not greater than 110°F (43°C) by a water-temperature-limiting device conforming to ASSE 1070 or CSA B125.3.

    SECTIONP2722
    FIXTURE FITTING  

    P2722.1 General.

    Fixture supply valves and faucets shall comply with ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1 as indicated in Table P2701.1. Faucets and fixture fittings that supply drinking water for human ingestion shall conform to the requirements of NSF 61, Section 9. Flexible water connectors shall conform to the requirements of Section P2905.7.

    P2722.2 Hot water.

    Fixture fittings supplied with both hot and cold water shall be installed and adjusted so that the left-hand side of the water temperature control represents the flow of hot water when facing the outlet.

    Exception: Shower and tub/shower mixing valves conforming to ASSE 1016/ASME A112.1016/CSA B125.16, where the water temperature control corresponds to the markings on the device.

    P2722.3 Hose-connected outlets.

    Faucets and fixture fittings with hose-connected outlets shall conform to ASME A112.18.3 or ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1.

    P2722.4 Individual pressure-balancing in-line valves for individual fixture fittings.

    Individual pressure-balancing inline valves for individual fixture fittings shall comply with ASSE 1066. Such valves shall be installed in an accessible location and shall not be used as a substitute for the balanced pressure, thermostatic or combination shower valves required in Section P2708.3.

    P2722.5 Water closet personal hygiene devices.

    Personal hygiene devices integral to water closets or water closet seats shall conform to ASME A112.4.2.

    SECTIONP2723
    MACERATING TOILET SYSTEMS

    P2723.1 General.

    Macerating toilet systems shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.

    P2723.2 Drain.

    The size of the drain from the macerating toilet system shall be not less than 3/4 inch (19 mm) in diameter.

    SECTIONP2724
    SPECIALTY TEMPERATURE CONTROL DEVICES AND VALVES

    P2724.1 Temperature-actuated mixing valves.

    Temperature-actuated mixing valves, which are installed to reduce water temperatures to defined limits, shall comply with ASSE 1017. Such valves shall be installed at the hot water source.

    P2724.2 Temperature-actuated, flow-reduction devices for individual fixtures.

    Temperature-actuated, flow-reduction devices, where installed for individual fixture fittings, shall conform to ASSE 1062. Such valves shall not be used as a substitute for the balanced pressure, thermostatic or combination shower valves required for showers in Section P2708.3.

    SECTIONP2725
    NONLIQUID SATURATED TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    P2725.1 General.

    Materials, design, construction and performance of nonliquid saturated treatment systems shall comply with NSF 41.

    CHAPTER28
    WATER HEATERS  

    User note: Code change proposals to this chapter will be considered by the IRC – Plumbing and Mechanical Code
    Development Committee during the 2015 (Group A) Code Development Cycle. See explanation on page iv.

    SECTIONP2801
    GENERAL  

    P2801.1 Required.

    Hot water shall be supplied to plumbing fixtures and plumbing appliances intended for bathing, washing or culinary purposes.

    P2801.2 Drain valves.

    Drain valves for emptying shall be installed at the bottom of each tank-type water heater and hot water storage tank. The drain valve inlet shall be not less than 3/4-inch (19.1 mm) nominal iron pipe size and the outlet shall be provided with a male hose thread.

    P2801.3 Installation.

    Water heaters shall be installed in accordance with this chapter and Chapters 20 and 24.

    P2801.4 Location.

    Water heaters and storage tanks shall be installed in accordance with Section M1305 and shall be located and connected to provide access for observation, maintenance, servicing and replacement.

    P2801.5 Prohibited locations.

    Water heaters shall be located in accordance with Chapter 20.

    P2801.6 Required pan.

    Where a storage tank-type water heater or a hot water storage tank is installed in a location where water leakage from the tank will cause damage, the tank shall be installed in a pan constructed of one of the following:

    1. 1.Galvanized steel or aluminum of not less than 0.0236 inch (0.6010 mm) in thickness.

    2. 2.Plastic not less than 0.036 inch (0.9 mm) in thickness.

    3. 3.Other approved materials.

    A plastic pan shall not be installed beneath a gas-fired water heater.

    P2801.6.1 Pan size and drain.

    The pan shall be not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) deep and shall be of sufficient size and shape to receive dripping or condensate from the tank or water heater. The pan shall be drained by an indirect waste pipe of not less than 3/4 inch (19 mm) diameter. Piping for safety pan drains shall be of those materials indicated in Table P2906.5. Where a pan drain was not previously installed, a pan drain shall not be required for a replacement water heater installation.

    P2801.6.2 Pan drain termination.

    The pan drain shall extend full-size and terminate over a suitably located indirect waste receptor or shall extend to the exterior of the building and terminate not less than 6 inches (152 mm) and not more than 24 inches (610 mm) above the adjacent ground surface.

    P2801.7 Water heaters installed in garages.

    Water heaters having an ignition source shall be elevated such that the source of ignition is not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the garage floor.

    Exception: Elevation of the ignition source is not required for appliances that are listed as flammable vapor ignition-resistant.

    P2801.8 Water heater seismic bracing.

    In Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 and townhouses in Seismic Design Category C, water heaters shall be anchored or strapped in the upper one-third and in the lower one-third of the appliance to resist a horizontal force equal to one-third of the operating weight of the water heater, acting in any horizontal direction, or in accordance with the appliance manufacturer’s recommendations.

    SECTIONP2802
    SOLAR WATER HEATING SYSTEMS

    P2802.1 Water temperature control.

    Where heated water is discharged from a solar thermal system to a hot water distribution system, a thermostatic mixing valve complying with ASSE 1017 shall be installed to temper the water to a temperature of not greater than 140°F (60°C). Solar thermal systems supplying hot water for both space heating and domestic uses shall comply with Section P2803.2. A temperature-indicating device shall be installed to indicate the temperature of the water discharged from the outlet of the mixing valve. The thermostatic mixing valve required by this section shall not be a substitute for water temperature limiting devices required by Chapter 27 for specific fixtures.

    P2802.2 Isolation valves.

    Isolation valves in accordance with P2903.9.2 shall be provided on the cold water feed to the water heater. Isolation valves and associated piping shall be provided to bypass solar storage tanks where the system contains multiple storage tanks.

    SECTIONP2803
    WATER HEATERS USED FOR SPACE HEATING

    P2803.1 Protection of potable water.

    Piping and components connected to a water heater for space heating applications shall be suitable for use with potable water in accordance with Chapter 29. Water heaters that will be used to supply potable water shall not be connected to a heating system or components previously used with nonpotable-water heating appliances. Chemicals for boiler treatment shall not be introduced into the water heater.

    P2803.2 Temperature control.

    Where a combination water heater-space heating system requires water for space heating at temperatures exceeding 140°F (60°C), a master thermostatic mixing valve complying with ASSE 1017 shall be installed to temper the water to a temperature of not greater than 140°F (60°C) for domestic uses.

    SECTIONP2804
    RELIEF VALVES

    P2804.1 Relief valves required.

    Appliances and equipment used for heating water or storing hot water shall be protected by one of the following:

    1. 1.A separate pressure-relief valve and a separate temperature-relief valve.

    2. 2.A combination pressure-and-temperature relief valve.

    P2804.2 Rating.

    Relief valves shall have a minimum rated capacity for the equipment served and shall conform to ANSI Z21.22.

    P2804.3 Pressure-relief valves.

    Pressure-relief valves shall have a relief rating adequate to meet the pressure conditions for the appliances or equipment protected. In tanks, they shall be installed directly into a tank tapping or in a water line close to the tank. They shall be set to open at not less than 25 psi (172 kPa) above the system pressure and not greater than 150 psi (1034 kPa). The relief-valve setting shall not exceed the rated working pressure of the tank.

    P2804.4 Temperature-relief valves.

    Temperature-relief valves shall have a relief rating compatible with the temperature conditions of the appliances or equipment protected. The valves shall be installed such that the temperature-sensing element monitors the water within the top 6 inches (152 mm) of the tank. The valve shall be set to open at a temperature of not greater than 210°F (99°C).

    P2804.5 Combination pressure-and-temperature relief valves.

    Combination pressure and temperature-relief valves shall comply with the requirements for separate pressure- and temperature-relief valves.

    P2804.6 Installation of relief valves.

    A check or shutoff valve shall not be installed in any of the following locations:

    1. 1.Between a relief valve and the termination point of the relief valve discharge pipe.

    2. 2.Between a relief valve and a tank.

    3. 3.Between a relief valve and heating appliances or equipment.

    P2804.6.1 Requirements for discharge pipe.

    The discharge piping serving a pressure-relief valve, temperature-relief valve or combination valve shall:

    1. 1.Not be directly connected to the drainage system.

    2. 2.Discharge through an air gap located in the same room as the water heater.

    3. 3.Not be smaller than the diameter of the outlet of the valve served and shall discharge full size to the air gap.

    4. 4.Serve a single relief device and shall not connect to piping serving any other relief device or equipment.

    5. 5.Discharge to the floor, to the pan serving the water heater or storage tank, to a waste receptor or to the outdoors.

    6. 6.Discharge in a manner that does not cause personal injury or structural damage.

    7. 7.Discharge to a termination point that is readily observable by the building occupants.

    8. 8.Not be trapped.

    9. 9.Be installed to flow by gravity.

    10. 10.Terminate not more than 6 inches (152 mm) and not less than two times the discharge pipe diameter above the floor or waste receptor flood level rim.

    11. 11.Not have a threaded connection at the end of the piping.

    12. 12.Not have valves or tee fittings.

    13. 13.Be constructed of those materials indicated in Section P2906.5 or materials tested, rated and approved for such use in accordance with ASME A112.4.1.

    14. 14.Be one nominal size larger than the size of the relief-valve outlet, where the relief-valve discharge piping is constructed of PEX or PE-RT tubing. The outlet end of such tubing shall be fastened in place.

    P2804.7 Vacuum-relief valve.

    Bottom fed tank-type water heaters and bottom fed tanks connected to water heaters shall have a vacuum-relief valve installed that complies with ANSI Z21.22.

    CHAPTER29
    WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION  

    User note: Code change proposals to this chapter will be considered by the IRC – Plumbing and Mechanical Code
    Development Committee during the 2015 (Group A) Code Development Cycle. See explanation on page iv.

    SECTIONP2901
    GENERAL  

    P2901.1 Potable water required.

    Potable water shall be supplied to plumbing fixtures and plumbing appliances except where treated rainwater, treated gray water or municipal reclaimed water is supplied to water closets, urinals and trap primers. The requirements of this section shall not be construed to require signage for water closets and urinals.

    P2901.2 Identification of nonpotable water systems.

    Where nonpotable water systems are installed, the piping conveying the nonpotable water shall be identified either by color marking, metal tags or tape in accordance with Sections P2901.2.1 through P2901.2.2.3.

    P2901.2.1 Signage required.

    Nonpotable water outlets such as hose connections, open-ended pipes and faucets shall be identified with signage that reads as follows: “Nonpotable water is utilized for [application name]. CAUTION: NONPOTABLE WATER. DO NOT DRINK.” The words shall be legibly and indelibly printed on a tag or sign constructed of corrosion-resistant water-proof material or shall be indelibly printed on the fixture. The letters of the words shall be not less than 0.5 inches (12.7 mm) in height and in colors in contrast to the background on which they are applied. In addition to the required wordage, the pictograph shown in Figure P2901.2.1 shall appear on the required signage.

    FIGURE P2901.2.1 PICTOGRAPH—DO NOT DRINK

    FIGURE P2901.2.1

    PICTOGRAPH—DO NOT DRINK

    P2901.2.2 Distribution pipe labeling and marking.

    Nonpotable distribution piping shall be purple in color and shall be embossed or integrally stamped or marked with the words: “CAUTION: NONPOTABLE WATER— DO NOT DRINK” or the piping shall be installed with a purple identification tape or wrap. Pipe identification shall include the contents of the piping system and an arrow indicating the direction of flow. Hazardous piping systems shall contain information addressing the nature of the hazard. Pipe identification shall be repeated at intervals not exceeding 25 feet (7620 mm) and at each point where the piping passes through a wall, floor or roof. Lettering shall be readily observable within the room or space where the piping is located.

    P2901.2.2.1Color.

    The color of the pipe identification shall be discernable and consistent throughout the building. The color purple shall be used to identify reclaimed, rain and gray water distribution systems.

    P2901.2.2.2Lettering size.

    The size of the background color field and lettering shall comply with Table P2901.2.2.2.

    TABLE P2901.2.2.2

    SIZE OF PIPE IDENTIFICATION

    PIPE DIAMETER (inches)LENGTH OF BACKGROUND COLOR FIELD (inches)SIZE OF LETTERS (inches)
    3/4 to 11/480.5
    11/2 to 280.75
    21/2 to 6121.25
    8 to 1022.5
    over 10323.5

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    P2901.2.2.3Identification Tape.

    Where used, identification tape shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) wide and have white or black lettering on a purple field stating “CAUTION: NONPOTABLE WATER—DO NOT DRINK.” Identification tape shall be installed on top of nonpotable rainwater distribution pipes and fastened not greater than every 10 feet (3048 mm) to each pipe length, and run continuously the entire length of the pipe.

    SECTIONP2902
    PROTECTION OF POTABLE WATER SUPPLY  

    P2902.1 General.

    A potable water supply system shall be designed and installed as to prevent contamination from nonpotable liquids, solids or gases being introduced into the potable water supply. Connections shall not be made to a potable water supply in a manner that could contaminate the water supply or provide a cross-connection between the supply and a source of contamination except where approved backflow prevention assemblies, backflow prevention devices or other means or methods are installed to protect the potable water supply. Cross-connections between an individual water supply and a potable public water supply shall be prohibited.

    P2902.2 Plumbing fixtures.

    The supply lines and fittings for every plumbing fixture shall be installed so as to prevent backflow. Plumbing fixture fittings shall provide backflow protection in accordance with ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1.

    P2902.3 Backflow protection.

    A means of protection against backflow shall be provided in accordance with Sections P2902.3.1 through P2902.3.6. Backflow prevention applications shall conform to Table P2902.3, except as specifically stated in Sections P2902.4 through P2902.5.5.

    TABLE P2902.3

    APPLICATION FOR BACKFLOW PREVENTERS

    DEVICEDEGREE OF HAZARDaAPPLICATIONbAPPLICABLE STANDARDS
    Backflow Prevention Assemblies
    Double check backflow prevention assembly and double check fire protection backflow prevention assemblyLow hazardBackpressure or backsiphonage Sizes 3/8″ – 16″ASSE 1015, AWWA C510,CSA B64.5, CSA B64.5.1
    Double check detector fire protection backflow prevention assembliesLow hazardBackpressure or backsiphonage Sizes 2″ – 16″ASSE 1048
    Pressure vacuum breaker assemblyHigh or low hazardBacksiphonage only Sizes 1/2″ – 2″ASSE 1020, CSA B64.1.2
    Reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly and reduced pressure principle fire protection backflow prevention assemblyHigh or low hazardBackpressure or backsiphonage Sizes 3/8″ – 16″ASSE 1013, AWWA C511,CSA B64.4, CSA B64.4.1
    Reduced pressure detector fire protection backflow prevention assembliesHigh or low hazardBacksiphonage or backpressure (Fire sprinkler systems)ASSE 1047
    Spill-resistant vacuum breakerHigh or low hazardBacksiphonage only Sizes 1/4″ – 2″ASSE 1056, CSA B64.1.3
    Backflow Preventer Plumbing Devices
    Antisiphon-type fill valves for gravity water closet flush tanksHigh hazardBacksiphonage onlyASSE 1002, CSA B125.3
    Backflow preventer with intermediate atmospheric ventsLow hazardBackpressure or backsiphonage Sizes 1/4″ – 3/8ASSE 1012, CSA B64.3
    Dual-check-valve-type backflow preventersLow hazardBackpressure or backsiphonage Sizes 1/4″ – 1″ASSE 1024, CSA B64.6
    Hose-connection backflow preventerHigh or low hazardLow head backpressure, rated working pressure backpressure or backsiphonage Sizes 1/2″ – 1″ASSE 1052, CSA B64.2.1.1
    Hose-connection vacuum breakerHigh or low hazardLow head backpressure or backsiphonage Sizes 1/2″, 3/4″, 1″ASSE 1011, CSA B64.2,B64.2.1
    Laboratory faucet backflow preventerHigh or low hazardLow head backpressure and backsiphonageASSE 1035, CSA B64.7
    Pipe-applied atmospheric-type vacuum breakerHigh or low hazardBacksiphonage only Sizes 1/4 – 4″ASSE 1001, CSA B64.1.1
    Vacuum breaker wall hydrants, frost-resistant, automatic-draining typeHigh or low hazardLow head backpressure or backsi-phonage Sizes 3/4″ – 1″ASSE 1019, CSA B64.2.2
    Other Means Or Methods
    Air gapHigh or low hazardBacksiphonage onlyASME A112.1.2
    Air gap fittings for use with plumbing fixtures, appliances and appurtenancesHigh or low hazardBacksiphonage or backpressureASME A112.1.3

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    1. a.Low hazard—See Pollution (Section R202). High hazard—See Contamination (Section R202).

    2. b.See Backpressure (Section R202). See Backpressure, Low Head (Section R202). See Backsiphonage (Section R202).

    P2902.3.1 Air gaps.

    Air gaps shall comply with ASME A112.1.2 and air gap fittings shall comply with ASME A112.1.3. An air gap shall be measured vertically from the lowest end of a water outlet to the flood level rim of the fixture or receptor into which the water outlets discharges to the floor. The required air gap shall be not less than twice the diameter of the effective opening of the outlet and not less than the values specified in Table P2902.3.1.

    TABLE P2902.3.1

    MINIMUM AIR GAPS

    FIXTUREMINIMUM AIR GAP
    Away from a walla (inches)Close to a wall (inches)
    Effective openings greater than 1 inchTwo times the diameter of the effective openingThree times the diameter of the effective opening
    Lavatories and other fixtures with effective opening not greater than 1/2 inch in diameter11.5
    Over-rim bath fillers and other fixtures with effective openings not greater than 1 inch in diameter23
    Sink, laundry trays, gooseneck back faucets and other fixtures with effective openings not greater than 3/4 inch in diameter1.52.5

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    1. a.Applicable where walls or obstructions are spaced from the nearest inside edge of the spout opening a distance greater than three times the diameter of the effective opening for a single wall, or a distance greater than four times the diameter of the effective opening for two intersecting walls.

    P2902.3.2 Atmospheric-type vacuum breakers.

    Atmospheric-type vacuum breakers shall conform to ASSE 1001 or CSA B64.1.1. Hose-connection vacuum breakers shall conform to ASSE 1011, ASSE 1019, ASSE 1035, ASSE 1052, CSA B64.2, CSA B64.2.1, CSA B64.2.1.1, CSA B64.2.2 or CSA B64.7. Both types of vacuum breakers shall be installed with the outlet continuously open to the atmosphere. The critical level of the atmospheric vacuum breaker shall be set at not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the highest elevation of downstream piping and the flood level rim of the fixture or device.

    P2902.3.3 Backflow preventer with intermediate atmospheric vent.

    Backflow preventers with intermediate atmospheric vents shall conform to ASSE 1012 or CSA B64.3. These devices shall be permitted to be installed where subject to continuous pressure conditions. These devices shall be prohibited as a means of protection where any hazardous chemical additives are introduced downstream of the device. The relief opening shall discharge by air gap and shall be prevented from being submerged.

    P2902.3.4 Pressure vacuum breaker assemblies.

    Pressure vacuum breaker assemblies shall conform to ASSE 1020 or CSA B64.1.2. Spill-resistant vacuum breaker assemblies shall comply with ASSE 1056. These assemblies are designed for installation under continuous pressure conditions where the critical level is installed at the required height. The critical level of a pressure vacuum breaker and a spill-resistant vacuum breaker assembly shall be set at not less than 12 inches (304 mm) above the highest elevation of downstream piping and the flood level rim of the fixture or device. Pressure vacuum breaker assemblies shall not be installed in locations where spillage could cause damage to the structure.

    P2902.3.5 Reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assemblies.

    Reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assemblies and reduced pressure principle fire protection backflow prevention assemblies shall conform to ASSE 1013, AWWA C511, CSA B64.4 or CSA B64.4.1. Reduced pressure detector fire protection backflow prevention assemblies shall conform to ASSE 1047. These devices shall be permitted to be installed where subject to continuous pressure conditions. The relief opening shall discharge by air gap and shall be prevented from being submerged.

    P2902.3.6 Double check backflow prevention assemblies.

    Double check backflow prevention assemblies shall conform to ASSE 1015, CSA B64.5, CSA B64.5.1 or AWWA C510. Double check detector fire protection backflow prevention assemblies shall conform to ASSE 1048. These assemblies shall be capable of operating under continuous pressure conditions.

    P2902.3.7 Dual check backflow preventer.

    Dual check backflow preventers shall conform with ASSE 1024 or CSA B64.6.

    P2902.4 Protection of potable water outlets.

    Potable water openings and outlets shall be protected by an air gap, a reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly, an atmospheric vent, an atmospheric-type vacuum breaker, a pressure-type vacuum breaker assembly or a hose connection backflow preventer.

    P2902.4.1 Fill valves.

    Flush tanks shall be equipped with an antisiphon fill valve conforming to ASSE 1002 or CSA B125.3. The critical level of the fill valve shall be located not less than 1 inch (25 mm) above the top of the flush tank overflow pipe.

    P2902.4.2 Deck-mounted and integral vacuum breakers.

    Approved deck-mounted or equipment-mounted vacuum breakers and faucets with integral atmospheric vacuum breakers or spill–resistant vacuum breaker assemblies shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and the requirements for labeling. The critical level of the breakers and assemblies shall be located at not less than 1 inch (25 mm) above the flood level rim.

    P2902.4.3 Hose connection.

    Sillcocks, hose bibbs, wall hydrants and other openings with a hose connection shall be protected by an atmospheric-type or pressure-type vacuum breaker, a pressure vacuum breaker assembly or a permanently attached hose connection vacuum breaker.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.This section shall not apply to water heater and boiler drain valves that are provided with hose connection threads and that are intended only for tank or vessel draining.

    2. 2.This section shall not apply to water supply valves intended for connection of clothes washing machines where backflow prevention is otherwise provided or is integral with the machine.

    P2902.5 Protection of potable water connections.

    Connections to the potable water shall conform to Sections P2902.5.1 through P2902.5.5.

    P2902.5.1 Connections to boilers.

    Where chemicals will not be introduced into a boiler, the potable water supply to the boiler shall be protected from the boiler by a backflow preventer with an intermediate atmospheric vent complying with ASSE 1012 or CSA B64.3. Where chemicals will be introduced into a boiler, the potable water supply to the boiler shall be protected from the boiler by an air gap or a reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly complying with ASSE 1013, CSA B64.4 or AWWA C511.

    P2902.5.2 Heat exchangers.

    Heat exchangers using an essentially toxic transfer fluid shall be separated from the potable water by double-wall construction. An air gap open to the atmosphere shall be provided between the two walls. Single-wall construction heat exchangers shall be used only where an essentially nontoxic transfer fluid is utilized.

    P2902.5.3 Lawn irrigation systems.

    The potable water supply to lawn irrigation systems shall be protected against backflow by an atmospheric vacuum breaker, a pressure vacuum breaker assembly or a reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly. Valves shall not be installed downstream from an atmospheric vacuum breaker. Where chemicals are introduced into the system, the potable water supply shall be protected against backflow by a reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly.

    P2902.5.4 Connections to automatic fire sprinkler systems.

    The potable water supply to automatic fire sprinkler systems shall be protected against backflow by a double check backflow prevention assembly, a double check fire protection backflow prevention assembly, a reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly or a reduced pressure principle fire protection backflow prevention assembly.

    Exception: Where systems are installed as a portion of the water distribution system in accordance with the requirements of this code and are not provided with a fire department connection, backflow protection for the water supply system shall not be required.

    P2902.5.4.1Additives or nonpotable source.

    Where systems contain chemical additives or antifreeze, or where systems are connected to a nonpotable secondary water supply, the potable water supply shall be protected against backflow by a reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly or a reduced pressure principle fire protection backflow prevention assembly. Where chemical additives or antifreeze is added to only a portion of an automatic fire sprinkler or standpipe system, the reduced pressure principle fire protection backflow preventer shall be permitted to be located so as to isolate that portion of the system.

    P2902.5.5 Solar thermal systems.

    Where a solar thermal system heats potable water to supply a potable hot water distribution or any other type of heating system, the solar thermal system shall be in accordance with Section P2902.5.5.1, P2902.5.5.2 or P2902.5.5.3 as applicable.

    P2902.5.5.1Indirect systems.

    Water supplies of any type shall not be connected to the solar heating loop of an indirect solar thermal hot water heating system. This requirement shall not prohibit the presence of inlets or outlets on the solar heating loop for the purposes of servicing the fluid in the solar heating loop.

    P2902.5.5.2Direct systems for potable water distribution systems.

    Where a solar thermal system directly heats potable water for a potable water distribution system, the pipe, fittings, valves and other components that are in contact with the potable water in the system shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 29.

    P2902.5.5.3Direct systems for other than potable water distribution systems.

    Where a solar thermal system directly heats water for a system other than a potable water distribution system, a potable water supply connected to such system shall be protected by a backflow preventer with an intermediate atmospheric vent complying with ASSE 1012. Where a solar thermal system directly heats chemically treated water for a system other than a potable water distribution system, a potable water supply connected to such system shall be protected by a reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assembly complying with ASSE 1013.

    P2902.6 Location of backflow preventers.

    Access shall be provided to backflow preventers as specified by the manufacturer’s installation instructions.

    P2902.6.1 Outdoor enclosures for backflow prevention devices.

    Outdoor enclosures for backflow prevention devices shall comply with ASSE 1060.

    P2902.6.2 Protection of backflow preventers.

    Backflow preventers shall not be located in areas subject to freezing except where they can be removed by means of unions, or are protected by heat, insulation or both.

    P2902.6.3 Relief port piping.

    The termination of the piping from the relief port or air gap fitting of the backflow preventer shall discharge to an approved indirect waste receptor or to the outdoors where it will not cause damage or create a nuisance.

    SECTIONP2903
    WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM  

    P2903.1 Water supply system design criteria.

    The water service and water distribution systems shall be designed and pipe sizes shall be selected such that under conditions of peak demand, the capacities at the point of outlet discharge shall not be less than shown in Table P2903.1.

    TABLE P2903.1

    REQUIRED CAPACITIES AT POINT OF OUTLET DISCHARGE

    FIXTURE SUPPLY OUTLET SERVINGFLOW RATE (gpm)FLOW PRESSURE (psi)
    Bathtub, balanced-pressure, thermostatic or combination balanced-pressure/thermostatic mixing valve420
    Bidet, thermostatic mixing valve220
    Dishwasher2.758
    Laundry tray48
    Lavatory0.88
    Shower, balanced-pressure, thermostatic or combination balanced-pressure/thermostatic mixing valve2.5a20
    Sillcock, hose bibb58
    Sink1.758
    Water closet, flushometer tank1.620
    Water closet, tank, close coupled320
    Water closet, tank, one-piece620

    For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m.

    1. a.Where the shower mixing valve manufacturer indicates a lower flow rating for the mixing valve, the lower value shall be applied.

    P2903.2 Maximum flow and water consumption.

    The maximum water consumption flow rates and quantities for plumbing fixtures and fixture fittings shall be in accordance with Table P2903.2.

    TABLE P2903.2

    MAXIMUM FLOW RATES AND CONSUMPTION FOR PLUMBING FIXTURES AND FIXTURE FITTINGSb

    PLUMBING FIXTURE OR FIXTURE FITTINGMAXIMUM FLOW RATE OR QUANTITY
    Lavatory faucet2.2 gpm at 60 psi
    Shower heada2.5 gpm at 80 psi
    Sink faucet2.2 gpm at 60 psi
    Water closet1.6 gallons per flushing cycle

    For SI: 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.

    1. a.A handheld shower spray shall be considered a shower head.

    2. b.Consumption tolerances shall be determined from referenced standards.

    P2903.3Minimum pressure.

    Where the water pressure supplied by the public water main or an individual water supply system is insufficient to provide for the minimum pressures and quantities for the plumbing fixtures in the building, the pressure shall be increased by means of an elevated water tank, a hydropnuematic pressure booster system or a water pressure booster pump.

    P2903.3.1 Maximum pressure.

    The static water pressure shall be not greater than 80 psi (551 kPa). Where the main pressure exceeds 80 psi (551 kPa), an approved pressure-reducing valve conforming to ASSE 1003 or CSA B356 shall be installed on the domestic water branch main or riser at the connection to the water service pipe.

    P2903.4 Thermal expansion control.

    A means for controlling increased pressure caused by thermal expansion shall be installed where required in accordance with Sections P2903.4.1 and P2903.4.2.

    P2903.4.1 Pressure-reducing valve.

    For water service system sizes up to and including 2 inches (51 mm), a device for controlling pressure shall be installed where, because of thermal expansion, the pressure on the downstream side of a pressure-reducing valve exceeds the pressure-reducing valve setting.

    P2903.4.2 Backflow prevention device or check valve.

    Where a backflow prevention device, check valve or other device is installed on a water supply system using storage water heating equipment such that thermal expansion causes an increase in pressure, a device for controlling pressure shall be installed.

    P2903.5 Water hammer.

    The flow velocity of the water distribution system shall be controlled to reduce the possibility of water hammer. Water-hammer arrestors shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Water-hammer arrestors shall conform to ASSE 1010.

    P2903.6 Determining water supply fixture units.

    Supply loads in the building water distribution system shall be determined by total load on the pipe being sized, in terms of water supply fixture units (w.s.f.u.), as shown in Table P2903.6, and gallon per minute (gpm) flow rates [see Table P2903.6(1)]. For fixtures not listed, choose a w.s.f.u. value of a fixture with similar flow characteristics.

    TABLE P2903.6

    WATER-SUPPLY FIXTURE-UNIT VALUES FOR VARIOUS PLUMBING FIXTURES AND FIXTURE GROUPS

    TYPE OF FIXTURES OR GROUP OF FIXTURESWATER-SUPPLY FIXTURE-UNIT VALUE (w.s.f.u.)
    HotColdCombined
    Bathtub (with/without overhead shower head)1.01.01.4
    Clothes washer1.01.01.4
    Dishwasher1.41.4
    Full-bath group with bathtub (with/without shower head) or shower stall1.52.73.6
    Half-bath group (water closet and lavatory)0.52.52.6
    Hose bibb (sillcock)a2.52.5
    Kitchen group (dishwasher and sink with or without food-waste disposer)1.91.02.5
    Kitchen sink1.01.01.4
    Laundry group (clothes washer standpipe and laundry tub)1.81.82.5
    Laundry tub1.01.01.4
    Lavatory0.50.50.7
    Shower stall1.01.01.4
    Water closet (tank type)2.22.2

    For SI: 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m.

    1. a.The fixture unit value 2.5 assumes a flow demand of 2.5 gpm, such as for an individual lawn sprinkler device. If a hose bibb or sill cock will be required to furnish a greater flow, the equivalent fixture-unit value may be obtained from this table or Table P2903.6(1).

    TABLE P2903.6(1)

    CONVERSIONS FROM WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE UNIT TO GALLON PER MINUTE FLOW RATES

    SUPPLY SYSTEMS PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSH TANKSSUPPLY SYSTEMS PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSHOMETER VALVES
    LoadDemandLoadDemand
    (Water supply fixture units)(Gallons per minute)(Cubic feet per minute)(Water supply fixture units)(Gallons per minute)(Cubic feet per minute)
    13.00.04104
    25.00.0684
    36.50.86892
    48.01.06944
    59.41.256592515.02.0052
    610.71.430376617.42.326032
    711.81.577424719.82.646364
    812.81.711104822.22.967696
    913.71.831416924.63.288528
    1014.61.9517281027.03.60936
    1115.42.0586721127.83.716304
    1216.02.138881228.63.823248
    1316.52.205721329.43.930192
    1417.02.272561430.24.037136
    1517.52.33941531.04.14408
    1618.02.906241631.84.241024
    1718.42.4597121732.64.357968
    1818.82.5131841833.44.464912
    1919.22.5666561934.24.571856
    2019.62.6201282035.04.6788
    2521.52.874122538.05.07984
    3023.33.1147443042.05.61356
    3524.93.3286323544.05.88192
    4026.33.5157844046.06.14928
    4527.73.7029364548.06.41664
    5029.13.8900885050.06.684

    For SI: 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 cubic foot per minute = 0.4719 L/s.

    P2903.7 Size of water-service mains, branch mains and risers.

    The size of the water service pipe shall be not less than

    3/4 inch (19 mm) diameter. The size of water service mains, branch mains and risers shall be determined from the water supply demand [gpm (L/m)], available water pressure [psi (kPa)] and friction loss caused by the water meter and developed length of pipe [feet (m)], including equivalent length of fittings. The size of each water distribution system shall be determined according to design methods conforming to acceptable engineering practice, such as those methods in Appendix P and shall be approved by the code official.

    P2903.8Gridded and parallel water distribution systems.

    Hot water and cold water manifolds installed with parallel-connected individual distribution lines and cold water manifolds installed with gridded distribution lines to each fixture or fixture fitting shall be designed in accordance with Sections P2903.8.1 through P2903.8.5. Gridded systems for hot water distribution systems shall be prohibited.

    P2903.8.1 Sizing of manifolds.

    Manifolds shall be sized in accordance with Table P2903.8.1. Total gallons per minute is the demand for all outlets.

    TABLE P2903.8.1

    MANIFOLD SIZING

    PLASTICMETALLIC
    Nominal Size ID (inches)Maximuma gpmNominal Size ID (inches)Maximuma gpm
    3/4173/411
    129120
    11/44611/431
    11/26611/244

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 foot per second = 0.3048 m/s.

    Note: See Table P2903.6(1) for w.s.f.u and Table 2903.6(1) for gallon-per-minute (gpm) flow rates.

    1. a.Based on velocity limitation: plastic-12 fps; metal-8 fps.

    P2903.8.2 Minimum size.

    Where the developed length of the distribution line is 60 feet (18 288 mm) or less, and the available pressure at the meter is not less than 40 pounds per square inch (276 kPa), the size of individual distribution lines shall be not less than 3/8 inch (10 mm) diameter. Certain fixtures such as one-piece water closets and whirlpool bathtubs shall require a larger size where specified by the manufacturer. If a water heater is fed from the end of a cold water manifold, the manifold shall be one size larger than the water heater feed.

    P2903.8.3 Support and protection.

    Plastic piping bundles shall be secured in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and supported in accordance with Section P2605. Bundles that have a change in direction equal to or greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) shall be protected from chafing at the point of contact with framing members by sleeving or wrapping.

    P2903.8.4 Valving.

    Fixture valves, when installed, shall be located either at the fixture or at the manifold. Valves installed at the manifold shall be labeled indicating the fixture served.

    P2903.8.5 Hose bibb bleed.

    A readily accessible air bleed shall be installed in hose bibb supplies at the manifold or at the hose bibb exit point.

    P2903.9 Valves.

    Valves shall be installed in accordance with Sections P2903.9.1 through P2903.9.5.

    P2903.9.1 Service valve.

    Each dwelling unit shall be provided with an accessible main shutoff valve near the entrance of the water service. The valve shall be of a full-open type having nominal restriction to flow, with provision for drainage such as a bleed orifice or installation of a separate drain valve. Additionally, the water service shall be valved at the curb or lot line in accordance with local requirements.

    P2903.9.2 Water heater valve.

    A readily accessible full-open valve shall be installed in the cold-water supply pipe to each water heater at or near the water heater.

    P2903.9.3 Fixture valves and access.

    Shutoff valves shall be required on each fixture supply pipe to each plumbing appliance and to each plumbing fixture other than bathtubs and showers. Valves serving individual plumbing fixtures, plumbing appliances, risers and branches shall be accessible.

    P2903.9.4 Valve requirements.

    Valves shall be compatible with the type of piping material installed in the system. Valves shall conform to one of the standards listed in

    Table P2903.9.4 or shall be approved. Valves intended to supply drinking water shall meet the requirements of NSF 61.

    TABLE P2903.9.4

    VALVES

    MATERIALSTANDARD
    Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plasticASME A112.4.14, ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1,ASTM F 1970, CSA B125.3
    Copper or copper alloyASME A112.4.14, ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1,ASME B16.34, CSA B125.3, MSS SP-67, MSS SP-80, MSS SP-110
    Gray and ductile ironASTM A126, AWWA C500, AWWA C504, AWWA C507,MSS SP-42, MSS SP-67, MSS SP-70, MSS SP-71, MSS SP-72,MSS SP-78
    Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plasticASME A112.4.14, ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1, CSA B125.3,NSF 359
    Polypropylene (PP) plasticASME A112.4.14, ASTM F 2389
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plasticASME A112.4.14, ASTM F 1970

    P2903.9.5 Valves and outlets prohibited below grade.

    Potable water outlets and combination stop-and-waste valves shall not be installed underground or below grade. Freezeproof yard hydrants that drain the riser into the ground are considered to be stop-and-waste valves.

    Exception: Installation of freezeproof yard hydrants that drain the riser into the ground shall be permitted if the potable water supply to such hydrants is protected upstream of the hydrants in accordance with Section P2902 and the hydrants are permanently identified as nonpotable outlets by approved signage that reads as follows: “Caution, Nonpotable Water. Do Not Drink.”

    P2903.10 Hose bibb.

    Hose bibbs subject to freezing, including the “frostproof” type, shall be equipped with an accessible stop-and-waste-type valve inside the building so that they can be controlled and drained during cold periods.

    Exception: Frostproof hose bibbs installed such that the stem extends through the building insulation into an open heated or semiconditioned space need not be separately valved (see Figure P2903.10).

    FIGURE P2903.10 TYPICAL FROSTPROOF HOSE BIBB INSTALLATION NOT REQUIRING SEPARATE VALUE

    FIGURE P2903.10

    TYPICAL FROSTPROOF HOSE BIBB INSTALLATION NOT REQUIRING SEPARATE VALUE

    P2903.11 Drain water heat recovery units.

    Drain water heat recovery units shall be in accordance with Section N1103.5.4.

    SECTIONP2904
    DWELLING UNIT FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEMS

    P2904.1 General.

    The design and installation of residential fire sprinkler systems shall be in accordance with NFPA 13D or Section P2904, which shall be considered equivalent to NFPA 13D. Partial residential sprinkler systems shall be permitted to be installed only in buildings not required to be equipped with a residential sprinkler system. Section P2904 shall apply to stand-alone and multipurpose wet-pipe sprinkler systems that do not include the use of antifreeze. A multipurpose fire sprinkler system shall provide domestic water to both fire sprinklers and plumbing fixtures. A stand-alone sprinkler system shall be separate and independent from the water distribution system. A backflow preventer shall not be required to separate a stand-alone sprinkler system from the water distribution system.

    P2904.1.1 Required sprinkler locations.

    Sprinklers shall be installed to protect all areas of a dwelling unit.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Attics, crawl spaces and normally unoccupied concealed spaces that do not contain fuel-fired appliances do not require sprinklers. In attics, crawl spaces and normally unoccupied concealed spaces that contain fuel-fired equipment, a sprinkler shall be installed above the equipment; however, sprinklers shall not be required in the remainder of the space.

    2. 2.Clothes closets, linen closets and pantries not exceeding 24 square feet (2.2 m2) in area, with the smallest dimension not greater than 3 feet (915 mm) and having wall and ceiling surfaces of gypsum board.

    3. 3.Bathrooms not more than 55 square feet (5.1 m2) in area.

    4. 4.Garages; carports; exterior porches; unheated entry areas, such as mud rooms, that are adjacent to an exterior door; and similar areas.

    P2904.2 Sprinklers.

    Sprinklers shall be new listed residential sprinklers and shall be installed in accordance with the sprinkler manufacturer’s instructions.

    P2904.2.1 Temperature rating and separation from heat sources.

    Except as provided for in Section P2904.2.2, sprinklers shall have a temperature rating of not less than 135°F (57°C) and not more than 170°F (77°C). Sprinklers shall be separated from heat sources as required by the sprinkler manufacturer’s installation instructions.

    P2904.2.2 Intermediate temperature sprinklers.

    Sprinklers shall have an intermediate temperature rating not less than 175°F (79°C) and not more than 225°F (107°C) where installed in the following locations:

    1. 1.Directly under skylights, where the sprinkler is exposed to direct sunlight.

    2. 2.In attics.

    3. 3.In concealed spaces located directly beneath a roof.

    4. 4.Within the distance to a heat source as specified in Table P2904.2.2.

    TABLE P2904.2.2

    LOCATIONS WHERE INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SPRINKLERS ARE REQUIRED

    HEAT SOURCERANGE OF DISTANCE FROM HEAT SOURCE WITHIN WHICH INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SPRINKLERS ARE REQUIREDa, b (inches)
    Fireplace, side of open or recessed fireplace12 to 36
    Fireplace, front of recessed fireplace36 to 60
    Coal and wood burning stove12 to 42
    Kitchen range top9 to 18
    Oven9 to 18
    Vent connector or chimney connector9 to 18
    Heating duct, not insulated9 to 18
    Hot water pipe, not insulated6 to 12
    Side of ceiling or wall warm air register12 to 24
    Front of wall mounted warm air register18 to 36
    Water heater, furnace or boiler3 to 6
    Luminaire up to 250 watts3 to 6
    Luminaire 250 watts up to 499 watts6 to 12

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    1. a.Sprinklers shall not be located at distances less than the minimum table distance unless the sprinkler listing allows a lesser distance.

    2. b.Distances shall be measured in a straight line from the nearest edge of the heat source to the nearest edge of the sprinkler.

    P2904.2.3 Freezing areas.

    Piping shall be protected from freezing as required by Section P2603.6. Where sprinklers are required in areas that are subject to freezing, dry-side-wall or dry-pendent sprinklers extending from a nonfreezing area into a freezing area shall be installed.

    P2904.2.4 Sprinkler coverage.

    Sprinkler coverage requirements and sprinkler obstruction requirements shall be in accordance with Sections P2904.2.4.1 and P2904.2.4.2.

    P2904.2.4.1Coverage area limit.

    The area of coverage of a single sprinkler shall not exceed 400 square feet (37 m2) and shall be based on the sprinkler listing and the sprinkler manufacturer’s installation instructions.

    P2904.2.4.2Obstructions to coverage.

    Sprinkler discharge shall not be blocked by obstructions unless additional sprinklers are installed to protect the obstructed area. Additional sprinklers shall not be required where the sprinkler separation from obstructions complies with either the minimum distance indicated in Figure P2904.2.4.2 or the minimum distances specified in the sprinkler manufacturer’s instructions where the manufacturer’s instructions permit a lesser distance.

    FIGURE P2904.2.4.2 MINIMUM ALLOWABLE DISTANCE BETWEEN SPRINKLER AND OBSTRUCTION

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    FIGURE P2904.2.4.2

    MINIMUM ALLOWABLE DISTANCE BETWEEN SPRINKLER AND OBSTRUCTION

    P2904.2.4.2.1Additional requirements for pendent sprinklers.

    Pendent sprinklers within 3 feet (915 mm) of the center of a ceiling fan, surface-mounted ceiling luminaire or similar object shall be considered to be obstructed, and additional sprinklers shall be installed.

    P2904.2.4.2.2Additional requirements for side-wall sprinklers.

    Sidewall sprinklers within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the center of a ceiling fan, surface-mounted ceiling luminaire or similar object shall be considered to be obstructed, and additional sprinklers shall be installed.

    P2904.2.5 Sprinkler installation on systems assembled with solvent cement.

    The solvent cementing of threaded adapter fittings shall be completed and threaded adapters for sprinklers shall be verified as being clear of excess cement prior to the installation of sprinklers on systems assembled with solvent cement.

    P2904.2.6 Sprinkler modifications prohibited.

    Painting, caulking or modifying of sprinklers shall be prohibited. Sprinklers that have been painted, caulked, modified or damaged shall be replaced with new sprinklers.

    P2904.3 Sprinkler piping system.

    Sprinkler piping shall be supported in accordance with requirements for cold water distribution piping. Sprinkler piping shall comply with the requirements for cold water distribution piping. For multipurpose piping systems, the sprinkler piping shall connect to and be a part of the cold water distribution piping system.

    Exception: For plastic piping, it shall be permissible to follow the manufacturer’s installation instructions.

    P2904.3.1 Nonmetallic pipe and tubing.

    Nonmetallic pipe and tubing, such as CPVC, PEX, and PE-RT shall be listed for use in residential fire sprinkler systems.

    P2904.3.1.1Nonmetallic pipe protection.

    Nonmetallic pipe and tubing systems shall be protected from exposure to the living space by a layer of not less than 3/8-inch-thick (9.5 mm) gypsum wallboard, 1/2-inch-thick (13 mm) plywood, or other material having a 15-minute fire rating.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Pipe protection shall not be required in areas that do not require protection with sprinklers as specified in Section P2904.1.1.

    2. 2.Pipe protection shall not be required where exposed piping is permitted by the pipe listing.

    P2904.3.2 Shutoff valves prohibited.

    With the exception of shutoff valves for the entire water distribution system, valves shall not be installed in any location where the valve would isolate piping serving one or more sprinklers.

    P2904.3.3 Single dwelling limit.

    Piping beyond the service valve located at the beginning of the water distribution system shall not serve more than one dwelling.

    P2904.3.4 Drain.

    A means to drain the sprinkler system shall be provided on the system side of the water distribution shutoff valve.

    P2904.4 Determining system design flow.

    The flow for sizing the sprinkler piping system shall be based on the flow rating of each sprinkler in accordance with Section P2904.4.1 and the calculation in accordance with Section P2904.4.2.

    P2904.4.1 Determining required flow rate for each sprinkler.

    The minimum required flow for each sprinkler shall be determined using the sprinkler manufacturer’s published data for the specific sprinkler model based on all of the following:

    1. 1.The area of coverage.

    2. 2.The ceiling configuration.

    3. 3.The temperature rating.

    4. 4.Any additional conditions specified by the sprinkler manufacturer.

    P2904.4.2 System design flow rate.

    The design flow rate for the system shall be based on the following:

    1. 1.The design flow rate for a room having only one sprinkler shall be the flow rate required for that sprinkler, as determined by Section P2904.4.1.

    2. 2.The design flow rate for a room having two or more sprinklers a shall be determined by identifying the sprinkler in that room with the highest required flow rate, based on Section P2904.4.1, and multiplying that flow rate by 2.

    3. 3.Where the sprinkler manufacturer specifies different criteria for ceiling configurations that are not smooth, flat and horizontal, the required flow rate for that room shall comply with the sprinkler manufacturer’s instructions.

    4. 4.The design flow rate for the sprinkler system shall be the flow required by the room with the largest flow rate, based on Items 1, 2 and 3.

    5. 5.For the purpose of this section, it shall be permissible to reduce the design flow rate for a room by subdividing the space into two or more rooms, where each room is evaluated separately with respect to the required design flow rate. Each room shall be bounded by walls and a ceiling. Openings in walls shall have a lintel not less than 8 inches (203 mm) in depth and each lintel shall form a solid barrier between the ceiling and the top of the opening.

    P2904.5 Water supply.

    The water supply shall provide not less than the required design flow rate for sprinklers in accordance with Section P2904.4.2 at a pressure not less than that used to comply with Section P2904.6.

    P2904.5.1 Water supply from individual sources.

    Where a dwelling unit water supply is from a tank system, a private well system or a combination of these, the available water supply shall be based on the minimum pressure control setting for the pump.

    P2904.5.2 Required capacity.

    The water supply shall have the capacity to provide the required design flow rate for sprinklers for a period of time as follows:

    1. 1.Seven minutes for dwelling units one story in height and less than 2,000 square feet (186 m2) in area.

    2. 2.Ten minutes for dwelling units two or more stories in height or equal to or greater than 2,000 square feet (186 m2) in area.

    Where a well system, a water supply tank system or a combination thereof is used, any combination of well capacity and tank storage shall be permitted to meet the capacity requirement.

    P2904.6 Pipe sizing.

    The piping to sprinklers shall be sized for the flow required by Section P2904.4.2. The flow required to supply the plumbing fixtures shall not be required to be added to the sprinkler design flow.

    P2904.6.1 Method of sizing pipe.

    Piping supplying sprinklers shall be sized using the prescriptive method in Section P2904.6.2 or by hydraulic calculation in accordance with NFPA 13D. The minimum pipe size from the water supply source to any sprinkler shall be 3/4 inch (19 mm) nominal. Threaded adapter fittings at the point where sprinklers are attached to the piping shall be not less than 1/2 inch (13 mm) nominal.

    P2904.6.2 Prescriptive pipe sizing method.

    Pipe shall be sized by determining the available pressure to offset friction loss in piping and identifying a piping material, diameter and length using the equation in Section P2904.6.2.1 and the procedure in Section P2904.6.2.2.

    TABLE P2904.6.2(1)

    WATER SERVICE PRESSURE LOSS (PLsvc)a, b

    FLOW RATEc (gpm)3/4-INCH WATER SERVICE PRESSURE LOSS (psi)1-INCH WATER SERVICE PRESSURE LOSS (psi)11/4 -INCH WATER SERVICE PRESSURE LOSS (psi)
    Length of water service pipe (feet)Length of water service pipe (feet)Length of water service pipe (feet)
    40 or less41 to 7576 to 100101 to 15040 or less41 to 7576 to 100101 to 15040 or less41 to 7576 to 100101 to 150
    85.18.711.817.41.52.53.45.10.61.01.31.9
    107.713.117.826.32.33.85.27.70.81.42.02.9
    1210.818.424.9NP3.25.47.310.71.22.02.74.0
    1414.424.5NPNP4.27.19.614.31.62.73.65.4
    1618.4NPNPNP5.49.112.418.32.03.44.76.9
    1822.9NPNPNP6.711.415.422.72.54.35.88.6
    2027.8NPNPNP8.113.818.727.63.15.27.010.4
    22NPNPNPNP9.716.522.3NP3.76.28.412.4
    24NPNPNPNP11.419.326.2NP4.37.39.914.6
    26NPNPNPNP13.222.4NPNP5.08.511.416.9
    28NPNPNPNP15.125.7NPNP5.79.713.119.4
    30NPNPNPNP17.2NPNPNP6.511.014.922.0
    32NPNPNPNP19.4NPNPNP7.312.416.824.8
    34NPNPNPNP21.7NPNPNP8.213.918.8NP
    36NPNPNPNP24.1NPNPNP9.115.420.9NP

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 0.063 L/s, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.

    NP = Not permitted. Pressure loss exceeds reasonable limits.

    1. a.Values are applicable for underground piping materials listed in Table P2905.4 and are based on an SDR of 11 and a Hazen Williams C Factor of 150.

    2. b.Values include the following length allowances for fittings: 25% length increase for actual lengths up to 100 feet and 15% length increase for actual lengths over 100 feet.

    3. c.Flow rate from Section P2904.4.2. Add 5 gpm to the flow rate required by Section P2904.4.2 where the water-service pipe supplies more than one dwelling.

    TABLE P2904.6.2(2)

    MINIMUM WATER METER PRESSURE LOSS (PLm)a

    FLOW RATE(gallons per minute, gpm)b5/8-INCH METER PRESSURE LOSS (pounds per square inch, psi)3/4-INCH METER PRESSURE LESS(pounds per square inch, psi)1-INCH METER PRESSURE LOSS (pounds per square inch, psi)
    8211
    10311
    12411
    14521
    16731
    18941
    201142
    22NP52
    24NP52
    26NP62
    28NP62
    30NP72
    32NP73
    34NP83
    36NP83

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.063 L/s.

    NP—Not permitted unless the actual water meter pressure loss is known.

    1. a.Table P2904.6.2(2) establishes conservative values for water meter pressure loss or installations where the water meter loss is unknown. Where the actual water meter pressure loss is known, Pm shall be the actual loss.

    2. b.Flow rate from Section P2904.4.2. Add 5 gpm to the flow rate required by Section P2904.4.2 where the water-service pipe supplies more than one dwelling.

    TABLE P2904.6.2(3)

    ELEVATION LOSS (PLe)

    ELEVATION (feet)PRESSURE LOSS (psi)
    52.2
    104.4
    156.5
    208.7
    2510.9
    3013
    3515.2
    4017.4

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.

    TABLE P2904.6.2(4)

    ALLOWABLE PIPE LENGTH FOR 3/4-INCH TYPE M COPPER WATER TUBING

    SPRINKLER FLOW RATEa (gpm)WATER DISTRIBUTION SIZE (inch)AVAILABLE PRESSURE—Pt (psi)
    15202530354045505560
    Allowable length of pipe from service valve to farthest sprinkler (feet)
    83/4217289361434506578650723795867
    93/4174232291349407465523581639697
    103/4143191239287335383430478526574
    113/4120160200241281321361401441481
    123/4102137171205239273307341375410
    133/488118147177206235265294324353
    143/477103128154180205231257282308
    153/46890113136158181203226248271
    163/46080100120140160180200220241
    173/4547290108125143161179197215
    183/448648197113129145161177193
    193/444587388102117131146160175
    203/44053668093106119133146159
    213/4364861738597109121133145
    223/4334456677889100111122133
    233/431415161728292102113123
    243/42838475766768595104114
    253/4263544536170798897105
    263/424334149576573829098
    273/423303846536169768491
    283/421283643505764717885
    293/420273340475360677380
    303/419253138445056636975
    313/418242935414753596571
    323/417222833394450566167
    333/416212632374247535863
    343/4NP202530354045505560
    353/4NP192428333842475257
    363/4NP182227313640454954
    373/4NP172126303438434751
    383/4NP162024283236404549
    393/4NP151923273135394246
    403/4NPNP1822262933374044

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.963 L/s.

    NP—Not permitted.

    1. a.Flow rate from Section P2904.4.2.

    TABLE P2904.6.2(5)

    ALLOWABLE PIPE LENGTH FOR 1-INCH TYPE M COPPER WATER TUBING

    SPRINKLER FLOW RATEa (gpm)WATER DISTRIBUTION SIZE (inch)AVAILABLE PRESSURE—Pt (psi)
    15202530354045505560
    Allowable length of pipe from service valve to farthest sprinkler (feet)
    81806107513431612188121492418268729553224
    9164886410801296151217281945216123772593
    1015337118891067124514221600177819562134
    111447586745894104311921341149116401789
    12138150863476188810151142126913961523
    131328438547657766875985109412041313
    14128638247757266876385995410491145
    1512523364205045886727568409241008
    161224298373447522596671745820894
    171200266333400466533600666733799
    181180240300360420479539599659719
    191163217271325380434488542597651
    201148197247296345395444493543592
    211135180225270315360406451496541
    221124165207248289331372413455496
    231114152190228267305343381419457
    241106141176211246282317352387422
    25198131163196228261294326359392
    26191121152182212243273304334364
    27185113142170198226255283311340
    28179106132159185212238265291318
    2917499124149174198223248273298
    3017093116140163186210233256280
    3116688110132153175197219241263
    3216283103124145165186207227248
    331597898117137156176195215234
    341557492111129148166185203222
    351537088105123140158175193210
    361506683100116133150166183199
    37147637995111126142158174190
    38145607590105120135150165181
    39143577286100115129143158172
    4014155688296109123137150164

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.963 L/s.

    1. a.Flow rate from Section P2904.4.2.

    TABLE P2904.6.2(6)

    ALLOWABLE PIPE LENGTH FOR 3/4-INCH CPVC PIPE

    SPRINKLER FLOW RATEa (gpm)WATER DISTRIBUTION SIZE (inch)AVAILABLE PRESSURE—Pt (psi)
    15202530354045505560
    Allowable length of pipe from service valve to farthest sprinkler (feet)
    83/43484655816978139291045116112781394
    93/428037446756065474784193410271121
    103/4231307384461538615692769845922
    113/4193258322387451515580644709773
    123/4165219274329384439494549603658
    133/4142189237284331378426473520568
    143/4124165206247289330371412454495
    153/4109145182218254290327363399436
    163/497129161193226258290322354387
    173/486115144173202230259288317346
    183/478104130155181207233259285311
    193/47094117141164188211234258281
    203/46485107128149171192213235256
    213/4587897117136156175195214234
    223/4547189107125143161179197214
    233/449668299115132148165181198
    243/446617691107122137152167183
    253/44256718599113127141155169
    263/43952667992105118131144157
    273/4374961738698110122135147
    283/4344657698092103114126137
    293/432435464758696107118129
    303/430405060708191101111121
    313/42838475766768595104114
    323/4273645546371808998107
    333/4253442515968768493101
    343/424324048566472808896
    353/423303845536168768391
    363/422293643505765727986
    373/420273441485561687582
    383/420263339465259657278
    393/419253137435056626874
    403/418243035414753596571

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.963 L/s.

    1. a.Flow rate from Section P2904.4.2.

    TABLE P2904.6.2(7)

    ALLOWABLE PIPE LENGTH FOR 1-INCH CPVC PIPE

    SPRINKLER FLOW RATEa (gpm)WATER DISTRIBUTION SIZE (inch)AVAILABLE PRESSURE—Pt (psi)
    15202530354045505560
    Allowable length of pipe from service valve to farthest sprinkler (feet)
    811049139817482098244727973146349638454195
    91843112514061687196822492530281130933374
    10169492511571388161918512082231425452776
    1115827769701164135815521746194021332327
    121495660826991115613211486165118161981
    13142757071285499711391281142415661709
    1413724976217458699931117124113661490
    151328437546656765874983109312021311
    16129138848558267977687397010671164
    1712603474335206076937808679541040
    181234312390468546624702780858936
    191212282353423494565635706776847
    201193257321385449513578642706770
    211176235293352410469528586645704
    221161215269323377430484538592646
    231149198248297347396446496545595
    241137183229275321366412458504550
    251127170212255297340382425467510
    261118158197237276316355395434474
    271111147184221258295332368405442
    281103138172207241275310344379413
    29197129161194226258290323355387
    30191121152182212242273303333364
    31186114143171200228257285314342
    32181108134161188215242269296323
    33176102127152178203229254280305
    3417296120144168192216240265289
    3516891114137160182205228251273
    3616587108130151173195216238260
    3716282103123144165185206226247
    381597898117137157176196215235
    391567593112131149168187205224
    401537189107125142160178196214

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.963 L/s.

    1. a.Flow rate from Section P2904.4.2.

    TABLE P2904.6.2(8)

    ALLOWABLE PIPE LENGTH FOR 3/4-INCH PEX AND PE-RT TUBING

    SPRINKLER FLOW RATEa (gpm)WATER DISTRIBUTION SIZE (inch)AVAILABLE PRESSURE—Pt (psi)
    15202530354045505560
    Allowable length of pipe from service valve to farthest sprinkler (feet)
    83/493123154185216247278309339370
    93/47499124149174199223248273298
    103/46182102123143163184204225245
    113/4516886103120137154171188205
    123/444587387102117131146160175
    133/43850637588101113126138151
    143/433445566778899110121132
    153/42939485868778796106116
    163/4263443516068778694103
    173/423313846546169778492
    183/421283441485562697683
    193/419253137445056626975
    203/417232834404551576268
    213/416212631364147525762
    223/4NP192428333843475257
    233/4NP172226313539444852
    243/4NP162024283236404449
    253/4NPNP1922263034374145
    263/4NPNP1721242831353842
    273/4NPNP1620232629333639
    283/4NPNP1518212427303336
    293/4NPNPNP17202326283134
    303/4NPNPNP16192124272932
    313/4NPNPNP15182023252830
    323/4NPNPNPNP171921242628
    333/4NPNPNPNP161820222527
    343/4NPNPNPNPNP1719212325
    353/4NPNPNPNPNP1618202224
    363/4NPNPNPNPNP1517192123
    373/4NPNPNPNPNPNP16182022
    383/4NPNPNPNPNPNP16171921
    393/4NPNPNPNPNPNPNP161820
    403/4NPNPNPNPNPNPNP161719

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.963 L/s.

    NP—Not permitted.

    1. a.Flow rate from Section P2904.4.2.

    TABLE P2904.6.2(9)

    ALLOWABLE PIPE LENGTH FOR 1-INCH PEX AND PE-RT TUBING

    SPRINKLER FLOW RATEa (gpm)WATER DISTRIBUTION SIZE (inch)AVAILABLE PRESSURE—Pt (psi)
    15202530354045505560
    Allowable length of pipe from service valve to farthest sprinkler (feet)
    81314418523628732837941104611511255
    912523364215055896737578419251009
    101208277346415485554623692761831
    111174232290348406464522580638696
    121148198247296346395445494543593
    131128170213256298341383426469511
    141111149186223260297334371409446
    15198131163196229262294327360392
    16187116145174203232261290319348
    17178104130156182208233259285311
    1817093117140163187210233257280
    1916384106127148169190211232253
    201587796115134154173192211230
    211537088105123140158175193211
    22148648097113129145161177193
    23144597489104119133148163178
    2414155698296110123137151164
    2513851647689102114127140152
    261354759718395106118130142
    27133445566778899110121132
    28131415262728293103113124
    2912939485868778797106116
    3012736455463738291100109
    311263443516068778594102
    32124324048566472808997
    33123303846536168768491
    34122293643505865727986
    35120273441485561687582
    36119263239455258657178
    37118253137434955626874
    38118232935414753596470
    39117222833394550566167
    40116212732374348535964

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 0.963 L/s.

    1. a.Flow rate from Section P2904.4.2.

    P2904.6.2.1Available pressure equation.

    The pressure available to offset friction loss in the interior piping system (Pt) shall be determined in accordance with the Equation 29-1.

    //cdn-codes.iccsafe.org/bundles/document/new_document_images/553/Eq0008.jpg(Equation 29-1)

    where:

    Pt=Pressure used in applying Tables P2904.6.2(4) through P2904.6.2(9).
    Psup=Pressure available from the water supply source.
    PLsvc=Pressure loss in the water-service pipe.
    PLm=Pressure loss in the water meter.
    PLd=Pressure loss from devices other than the water meter.
    PLe=Pressure loss associated with changes in elevation.
    Psp=Maximum pressure required by a sprinkler.

    P2904.6.2.2Calculation procedure.

    Determination of the required size for water distribution piping shall be in accordance with the following procedure:

    Step 1—DeterminePsup

    Obtain the static supply pressure that will be available from the water main from the water purveyor, or for an individual source, the available supply pressure shall be in accordance with Section P2904.5.1.

    Step 2—DeterminePLsvc

    Use Table P2904.6.2(1) to determine the pressure loss in the water service pipe based on the selected size of the water service.

    Step 3—DeterminePLm

    Use Table P2904.6.2(2) to determine the pressure loss from the water meter, based on the selected water meter size.

    Step 4—DeterminePLd

    Determine the pressure loss from devices other than the water meter installed in the piping system supplying sprinklers, such as pressure-reducing valves, backflow preventers, water softeners or water filters. Device pressure losses shall be based on the device manufacturer’s specifications. The flow rate used to determine pressure loss shall be the rate from Section P2904.4.2, except that 5 gpm (0.3 L/s) shall be added where the device is installed in a water-service pipe that supplies more than one dwelling. As an alternative to deducting pressure loss for a device, an automatic bypass valve shall be installed to divert flow around the device when a sprinkler activates.

    Step 5—DeterminePLe

    Use Table P2904.6.2(3) to determine the pressure loss associated with changes in elevation. The elevation used in applying the table shall be the difference between the elevation where the water source pressure was measured and the elevation of the highest sprinkler.

    Step 6—DeterminePsp

    Determine the maximum pressure required by any individual sprinkler based on the flow rate from Section P2904.4.1. The required pressure is provided in the sprinkler manufacturer’s published data for the specific sprinkler model based on the selected flow rate.

    Step 7—CalculatePt

    Using Equation 29-1, calculate the pressure available to offset friction loss in water-distribution piping between the service valve and the sprinklers.

    Step 8—Determine the maximum allowable pipe length

    Use Tables P2904.6.2(4) through P2904.6.2(9) to select a material and size for water distribution piping. The piping material and size shall be acceptable if the developed length of pipe between the service valve and the most remote sprinkler does not exceed the maximum allowable length specified by the applicable table. Interpolation of Pt between the tabular values shall be permitted.

    The maximum allowable length of piping in Tables P2904.6.2(4) through P2904.6.2(9) incorporates an adjustment for pipe fittings. Additional consideration of friction losses associated with pipe fittings shall not be required.

    P2904.7 Instructions and signs.

    An owner’s manual for the fire sprinkler system shall be provided to the owner. A sign or valve tag shall be installed at the main shutoff valve to the water distribution system stating the following: “Warning, the water system for this home supplies fire sprinklers that require certain flows and pressures to fight a fire. Devices that restrict the flow or decrease the pressure or automatically shut off the water to the fire sprinkler system, such as water softeners, filtration systems and automatic shutoff valves, shall not be added to this system without a review of the fire sprinkler system by a fire protection specialist. Do not remove this sign.”

    P2904.8 Inspections.

    The water distribution system shall be inspected in accordance with Sections P2904.8.1 and P2904.8.2.

    P2904.8.1 Preconcealment inspection.

    The following items shall be verified prior to the concealment of any sprinkler system piping:

    1. 1.Sprinklers are installed in all areas as required by Section P2904.1.1.

    2. 2.Where sprinkler water spray patterns are obstructed by construction features, luminaires or ceiling fans, additional sprinklers are installed as required by Section P2904.2.4.2.

    3. 3.Sprinklers are the correct temperature rating and are installed at or beyond the required separation distances from heat sources as required by Sections P2904.2.1 and P2904.2.2.

    4. 4.The pipe size equals or exceeds the size used in applying Tables P2904.6.2(4) through P2904.6.2(9) or, if the piping system was hydraulically calculated in accordance with Section P2904.6.1, the size used in the hydraulic calculation.

    5. 5.The pipe length does not exceed the length permitted by Tables P2904.6.2(4) through P2904.6.2(9) or, if the piping system was hydraulically calculated in accordance with Section P2904.6.1, pipe lengths and fittings do not exceed those used in the hydraulic calculation.

    6. 6.Nonmetallic piping that conveys water to sprinklers is listed for use with fire sprinklers.

    7. 7.Piping is supported in accordance with the pipe manufacturer’s and sprinkler manufacturer’s installation instructions.

    8. 8.The piping system is tested in accordance with Section P2503.7.

    P2904.8.2 Final inspection.

    The following items shall be verified upon completion of the system:

    1. 1.Sprinkler are not painted, damaged or otherwise hindered from operation.

    2. 2.Where a pump is required to provide water to the system, the pump starts automatically upon system water demand.

    3. 3.Pressure-reducing valves, water softeners, water filters or other impairments to water flow that were not part of the original design have not been installed.

    4. 4.The sign or valve tag required by Section P2904.7 is installed and the owner’s manual for the system is present.

    SECTIONP2905
    HEATED WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

    P2905.1 Heated water circulation systems and heat trace systems.

    Circulation systems and heat trace systems that are installed to bring heated water in close proximity to one or more fixtures shall meet the requirements of Section N1103.5.1.

    P2905.2 Demand recirculation systems.

    Demand recirculation water systems shall be in accordance with Section N1103.5.2.

    SECTIONP2906
    MATERIALS, JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS  

    P2906.1 Soil and groundwater.

    The installation of water service pipe, water distribution pipe, fittings, valves, appurtenances and gaskets shall be prohibited in soil and groundwater that is contaminated with solvents, fuels, organic compounds or other detrimental materials that cause permeation, corrosion, degradation or structural failure of the water service or water distribution piping material.

    P2906.1.1 Investigation required.

    Where detrimental conditions are suspected by or brought to the attention of the building official, a chemical analysis of the soil and groundwater conditions shall be required to ascertain the acceptability of the water service material for the specific installation.

    P2906.1.2 Detrimental condition.

    Where a detrimental condition exists, approved alternate materials or alternate routing shall be required.

    P2906.2 Lead content.

    The lead content in pipe and fittings used in the water supply system shall be not greater than 8 percent.

    P2906.2.1 Lead content of drinking water pipe and fittings.

    Pipe, pipe fittings, joints, valves, faucets and fixture fittings utilized to supply water for drinking or cooking purposes shall comply with NSF 372 and shall have a weighted average lead content of 0.25 percent lead or less.

    P2906.3 Polyethylene plastic piping installation.

    Polyethylene pipe shall be cut square using a cutter designed for plastic pipe. Except where joined by heat fusion, pipe ends shall be chamfered to remove sharp edges. Pipe that has been kinked shall not be installed. For bends, the installed radius of pipe curvature shall be greater than 30 pipe diameters or the coil radius where bending with the coil. Coiled pipe shall not be bent beyond straight. Bends within 10 pipe diameters of any fitting or valve shall be prohibited. Joints between polyethylene plastic pipe and fittings shall comply with Section P2906.3.1 or P2906.3.2.

    P2906.3.1 Heat-fusion joints.

    Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. Joint surfaces shall be heated to melting temperature and joined. The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 2657.

    P2906.3.2 Mechanical joints.

    Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P2906.4 Water service pipe.

    Water service pipe shall conform to NSF 61 and shall conform to one of the standards indicated in Table P2906.4. Water service pipe or tubing, installed underground and outside of the structure, shall have a working pressure rating of not less than 160 pounds per square inch at 73°F (1103 kPa at 23°C). Where the water pressure exceeds 160 pounds per square inch (1103 kPa), piping material shall have a rated working pressure equal to or greater than the highest available pressure. Water service piping materials not third-party certified for water distribution shall terminate at or before the full open valve located at the entrance to the structure. Ductile iron water service piping shall be cement mortar lined in accordance with AWWA C104/A21.4.

    TABLE P2906.4

    WATER SERVICE PIPE

    MATERIALSTANDARD
    Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipeASTM D 1527; ASTM D 2282
    Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic pipeASTM D 2846; ASTM F 441; ASTM F 442; CSA B137.6
    Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride/aluminum/chlorinated poly vinyl chloride (CPVC/AL/CPVC) plastic pipeASTM F 2855
    Copper or copper-alloy pipeASTM B 42; ASTM B 43; ASTM B 302
    Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K, WK, L, WL, M or WM)ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251; ASTM B 447
    Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) pipeASTM F 1281; ASTM F 2262; CSA B137.10
    Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/high-density polyethylene (PEX-AL-HDPE) pipeASTM F 1986
    Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic tubingASTM F 876; ASTM F 877; CSA B137.5
    Ductile iron water pipeAWWA C115/A21.15; AWWA C151/A21.51
    Galvanized steel pipeASTM A 53
    Polyethylene/aluminum/polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) pipeASTM F 1282; CSA B137.9
    Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipeASTM D 2104; ASTM D 2239; AWWA C901; CSA B137.1
    Polyethylene (PE) plastic tubingASTM D 2737; AWWA C901; CSA B137.1
    Polyethylene of raised temperature (PE-RT) plastic tubingASTM F 2769
    Polypropylene (PP) plastic tubingASTM F 2389; CSA B137.11
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipeASTM D 1785; ASTM D 2241; ASTM D 2672; CSA B137.3
    Stainless steel (Type 304/304L) pipeASTM A 312; ASTM A 778
    Stainless steel (Type 316/316L) pipeASTM A 312; ASTM A 778

    P2906.4.1 Separation of water service and building sewer.

    Trenching, pipe installation and backfilling shall be in accordance with Section P2604. Where water service piping is located in the same trench with the building sewer, such sewer shall be constructed of materials listed in Table P3002.1(2). Where the building sewer piping is not constructed of materials indicated in Table P3002.1(2), the water service pipe and the building sewer shall be horizontally separated by not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) of undisturbed or compacted earth. The required separation distance shall not apply where a water service pipe crosses a sewer pipe, provided the water service is sleeved to a point not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally from the sewer pipe centerline on both sides of such crossing. The sleeve shall be of pipe materials indicated in Table P2906.4, P3002.1(2) or P3002.2. The required separation distance shall not apply where the bottom of the water service pipe that is located within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the sewer is not less than 12 inches (305 mm) above the highest point of the top of the building sewer.

    P2906.5 Water-distribution pipe.

    Water-distribution piping within dwelling units shall conform to NSF 61 and shall conform to one of the standards indicated in Table P2906.5. Hot-water-distribution pipe and tubing shall have a pressure rating of not less than 100 psi at 180°F (689 kPa at 82°C).

    TABLE P2906.5

    WATER DISTRIBUTION PIPE

    MATERIALSTANDARD
    Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic pipe and tubingASTM D 2846; ASTM F 441; ASTM F 442;CSA B137.6
    Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride/aluminum/chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC/AL/CPVC) plastic pipeASTM F 2855
    Copper or copper-alloy pipeASTM B 42; ASTM B 43; ASTM B 302
    Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K, WK, L, WL, M or WM)ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251;ASTM B 447
    Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic tubingASTM F 876; ASTM F 877; CSA B137.5
    Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) pipeASTM F 1281; ASTM F 2262; CSA B137.10
    Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/high-density polyethylene (PEX-AL-HDPE) pipeASTM F 1986
    Galvanized steel pipeASTM A 53
    Polyethylene/aluminum/polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) composite pipeASTM F 1282
    Polyethylene of raised temperature (PE-RT) plastic tubingASTM F 2769
    Polypropylene (PP) plastic pipe or tubingASTM F 2389; CSA B137.11
    Stainless steel (Type 304/304L) pipeASTM A 312; ASTM A 778

    P2906.6 Fittings.

    Pipe fittings shall be approved for installation with the piping material installed and shall comply with the applicable standards indicated in Table P2906.6. Pipe fittings used in water supply systems shall comply with NSF 61.

    TABLE P2906.6

    PIPE FITTINGS

    MATERIALSTANDARD
    Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plasticASTM D 2468
    Cast-ironASME B16.4
    Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plasticASSE 1061; ASTM D 2846; ASTM F 437; ASTM F 438;ASTM F 439; CSA B137.6
    Copper or copper alloyASSE 1061; ASME B16.15; ASME B16.18; ASME B16.22;ASME B16.26; ASME B16.51
    Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/high-density polyethylene (PEX-AL-HDPE)ASTM F 1986
    Fittings for cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic tubingASSE 1061; ASTM F 877; ASTM F 1807; ASTM F 1960;ASTM F 2080; ASTM F 2098; ASTM F 2159; ASTM F 2434;ASTM F 2735; CSA B137.5
    Gray iron and ductile ironAWWA C110/A21.10; AWWA C153/A21.53
    Malleable ironASME B16.3
    Insert fittings for Polyethylene/aluminum/polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) and cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX)ASTM F 1974; ASTM F 1281; ASTM F 1282; CSA B137.9;CSA B137.10
    Polyethylene (PE) plasticASTM D 2609; CSA B137.1
    Fittings for polyethylene of raised temperature (PE-RT) plastic tubingASTM F 1807; ASTM F2098; ASTM F 2159; ASTM F 2735; ASTM F 2769
    Polypropylene (PP) plastic pipe or tubingASTM F 2389; CSA B137.11
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plasticASTM D 2464; ASTM D 2466; ASTM D 2467; CSA B137.2;CSA B137.3
    Stainless steel (Type 304/304L) pipeASTM A 312; ASTM A 778
    Stainless steel (Type 316/316L) pipeASTM A 312; ASTM A 778
    SteelASME B16.9; ASME B16.11; ASME B16.28

    P2906.7 Flexible water connectors.

    Flexible water connectors, exposed to continuous pressure, shall conform to ASME A112.18.6/CSA B125.6. Access shall be provided to flexible water connectors.

    P2906.8 Joint and connection tightness.

    Joints and connections in the plumbing system shall be gas tight and water tight for the intended use or required test pressure.

    P2906.9 Plastic pipe joints.

    Joints in plastic piping shall be made with approved fittings by solvent cementing, heat fusion, corrosion-resistant metal clamps with insert fittings or compression connections. Flared joints for polyethylene pipe shall be permitted in accordance with Section P2906.3.

    P2906.9.1 Solvent cementing.

    Solvent-cemented joints shall comply with Sections P2906.9.1.1 through P2906.9.1.4.

    P2906.9.1.1ABS plastic pipe.

    Solvent cement for ABS plastic pipe conforming to ASTM D 2235 shall be applied to all joint surfaces.

    P2906.9.1.2CPVC plastic pipe.

    Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. Joints shall be made in accordance with the pipe, fitting or solvent cement manufacturer’s installation instructions. Where such instructions require a primer to be used, an approved primer shall be applied, and a solvent cement, orange in color and conforming to ASTM F 493, shall be applied to joint surfaces. Where such instructions allow for a one-step solvent cement, yellow or red in color and conforming to ASTM F 493, to be used, the joint surfaces shall not require application of a primer before the solvent cement is applied. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet, and in accordance with ASTM D 2846 or ASTM F 493. Solvent cement joints shall be permitted above or below ground.

    P2906.9.1.3CPVC/AL/CPVC pipe.

    Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture, and an approved primer shall be applied. Solvent cement, orange in color and conforming to ASTM F 493, shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet, and in accordance with ASTM D 2846 or ASTM F 493. Solvent-cement joints shall be installed above or below ground.

    Exception: A primer shall not be required where all of the following conditions apply:

    1. 1.The solvent cement used is third-party certified as conforming to ASTM F 493.

    2. 2.The solvent cement used is yellow in color.

    3. 3.The solvent cement is used only for joining 1/2-inch (12.7 mm) through 1-inch (25 mm) diameter CPVC/AL/CPVC pipe and CPVC fittings.

    4. 4.The CPVC fittings are manufactured in accordance with ASTM D 2846.

    P2906.9.1.4PVC plastic pipe.

    A purple primer that conforms to ASTM F 656 shall be applied to PVC solvent-cemented joints. Solvent cement for PVC plastic pipe conforming to ASTM D 2564 shall be applied to all joint surfaces.

    P2906.9.1.5Cross-linked polyethylene plastic (PEX).

    Joints between cross-linked polyethylene plastic tubing or fittings shall comply with Section P2906.9.1.5.1 or Section P2906.9.1.5.2.

    P2906.9.1.5.1Flared joints.

    Flared pipe ends shall be made by a tool designed for that operation.

    P2906.9.1.5.2Mechanical joints.

    Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Fittings for cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic tubing shall comply with the applicable standards indicated in Table P2906.6 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. PEX tubing shall be factory marked with the applicable standards for the fittings that the PEX manufacturer specifies for use with the tubing.

    P2906.10 Polypropylene (PP) plastic.

    Joints between polypropylene plastic pipe and fittings shall comply with Section P2906.10.1 or P2906.10.2.

    P2906.10.1 Heat-fusion joints.

    Heat fusion joints for polypropylene pipe and tubing joints shall be installed with socket-type heat-fused polypropylene fittings, butt-fusion polypropylene fittings or electrofusion polypropylene fittings. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM F 2389.

    P2906.10.2 Mechanical and compression sleeve joints.

    Mechanical and compression sleeve joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P2906.11 Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene.

    Joints between polyethylene/aluminum/polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) and cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) pipe and fittings shall comply with Section P2906.11.1.

    P2906.11.1 Mechanical joints.

    Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Fittings for PE-AL-PE and PEX-AL-PEX as described in ASTM F 1974, ASTM F 1281, ASTM F 1282, CSA B137.9 and CSA B137.10 shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P2906.12 Stainless steel.

    Joints between stainless steel pipe and fittings shall comply with Section P2906.12.1 or P2906.12.2.

    P2906.12.1 Mechanical joints.

    Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P2906.12.2 Welded joints.

    Joint surfaces shall be cleaned. The joint shall be welded autogenously or with an approved filler metal in accordance with ASTM A 312.

    P2906.13 Threaded pipe joints.

    Threaded joints shall conform to American National Taper Pipe Thread specifications. Pipe ends shall be deburred and chips removed. Pipe joint compound shall be used only on male threads.

    P2906.14 Soldered and brazed joints.

    Soldered joints in copper and copper alloy tubing shall be made with fittings approved for water piping and shall conform to ASTM B 828. Surfaces to be soldered shall be cleaned bright. Fluxes for soldering shall be in accordance with ASTM B 813. Brazing fluxes shall be in accordance with AWS A5.31M/A5.31. Solders and fluxes used in potable water-supply systems shall have a lead content of not greater than 0.2 percent.

    P2906.15 Flared joints.

    Flared joints in water tubing shall be made with approved fittings. The tubing shall be reamed and then expanded with a flaring tool.

    P2906.16 Above-ground joints.

    Joints within the building between copper pipe or CPVC tubing, in any combination with compatible outside diameters, shall be permitted to be made with the use of approved push-in mechanical fittings of a pressure-lock design.

    P2906.17 Joints between different materials.

    Joints between different piping materials shall be made in accordance with Section P2906.17.1, P2906.17.2 or P2906.17.3, or with a mechanical joint of the compression or mechanical sealing type having an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM D 1869 or ASTM F 477. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P2906.17.1 Copper or copper-alloy tubing to galvanized steel pipe.

    Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing and galvanized steel pipe shall be made with a copper alloy fitting or dielectric fitting. The copper tubing shall be joined to the fitting in an approved manner, and the fitting shall be screwed to the threaded pipe.

    P2906.17.2 Plastic pipe or tubing to other piping material.

    Joints between different types of plastic pipe or between plastic pipe and other piping material shall be made with an approved adapter fitting.

    P2906.17.3 Stainless steel.

    Joints between stainless steel and different piping materials shall be made with a mechanical joint of the compression or mechanical-sealing type or a dielectric fitting.

    P2906.18 Press-connect joints.

    Press-connect joints shall conform to one of the standards indicated in Table P2906.6. Press-type mechanical joints in copper tubing shall be made in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Cut tube ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube end. Joint surfaces shall be cleaned. The tube shall be fully inserted into the press connect fitting. Press-connect joints shall be pressed with a tool certified by the manufacturer.

    P2906.19 Polyethylene of raised temperature plastic.

    Joints between polyethylene of raised temperature plastic tubing and fittings shall be in accordance with Section P2906.19.1.

    P2906.19.1 Mechanical joints.

    Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Fittings for polyethylene of raised temperature plastic tubing shall comply with the applicable standards listed in Table P2906.6 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Polyethylene of raised temperature plastic tubing shall be factory marked with the applicable standards for the fittings that the manufacturer of the tubing specifies for use with the tubing.

    SECTIONP2907
    CHANGES IN DIRECTION

    P2907.1 Bends.

    Changes in direction in copper tubing shall be permitted to be made with bends having a radius of not less than four diameters of the tube, provided that such bends are made by use of forming equipment that does not deform or create loss in cross-sectional area of the tube.

    SECTIONP2908
    SUPPORT

    P2908.1 General.

    Pipe and tubing support shall conform to Section P2605.

    SECTIONP2909
    DRINKING WATER TREATMENT UNITS

    P2909.1 Design.

    Drinking water treatment units shall meet the requirements of NSF42, NSF 44, NSF 53, NSF 60 or CSA B483.1.

    P2909.2 Reverse osmosis drinking water treatment units.

    Point-of-use reverse osmosis drinking water treatment units, designed for residential use, shall meet the requirements of NSF 58 or CSA B483.1. Waste or discharge from reverse osmosis drinking water treatment units shall enter the drainage system through an air gap or an air gap device that meets the requirements of NSF 58.

    P2909.3 Connection tubing.

    The tubing to and from drinking water treatment units shall be of a size and material as recommended by the manufacturer. The tubing shall comply with NSF 14, NSF 42, NSF 44, NSF 53, NSF 58 or NSF 61.

    SECTIONP2910
    NONPOTABLE WATER SYSTEMS

    P2910.1 Scope.

    The provisions of this section shall govern the materials, design, construction and installation of systems for the collection, storage, treatment and distribution of nonpotable water. The use and application of nonpotable water shall comply with laws, rules and ordinances applicable in the jurisdiction.

    P2910.2 Water quality.

    Nonpotable water for each end use application shall meet the minimum water quality requirements as established for the intended application by the laws, rules and ordinances applicable in the jurisdiction. Where nonpotable water from different sources is combined in a system, the system shall comply with the most stringent requirements of this code applicable to such sources.

    P2910.2.1 Residual disinfectants.

    Where chlorine is used for disinfection, the nonpotable water shall contain not more than 4 ppm (4 mg/L) of chloramines or free chlorine. Where ozone is used for disinfection, the nonpotable water shall not contain gas bubbles having elevated levels of ozone at the point of use.

    Exception: Reclaimed water sources shall not be required to comply with the requirements of this section.

    P2910.2.2 Filtration required.

    Nonpotable water utilized for water closet and urinal flushing applications shall be filtered by a 100 micron or finer filter.

    Exception: Reclaimed water sources shall not be required to comply with the requirements of this section.

    P2910.3 Signage required.

    Nonpotable water outlets such as hose connections, open-ended pipes and faucets shall be identified at the point of use for each outlet with signage that reads as follows: “Nonpotable water is utilized for [application name]. CAUTION: NONPOTABLE WATER. DO NOT DRINK.” The words shall be legibly and indelibly printed on a tag or sign constructed of corrosion-resistant, waterproof material or shall be indelibly printed on the fixture. The letters of the words shall be not less than 0.5 inches (12.7 mm) in height and in colors contrasting the background on which they are applied. In addition to the required wordage, the pictograph shown in Figure P2910.3 shall appear on the signage required by this section.

    FIGURE P2910.3 PICTOGRAPH—DO NOT DRINK

    FIGURE P2910.3

    PICTOGRAPH—DO NOT DRINK

    P2910.4 Permits.

    Permits shall be required for the construction, installation, alteration and repair of nonpotable water systems. Construction documents, engineering calculations, diagrams and other such data pertaining to the nonpotable water system shall be submitted with each permit application.

    P2910.5 Potable water connections.

    Where a potable system is connected to a nonpotable water system, the potable water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance with Section P2902.

    P2910.6 Approved components and materials.

    Piping, plumbing components and materials used in collection and conveyance systems shall be manufactured of material approved for the intended application and compatible with any disinfection and treatment systems used.

    P2910.7 Insect and vermin control.

    The system shall be protected to prevent the entrance of insects and vermin into storage tanks and piping systems. Screen materials shall be compatible with contacting system components and shall not accelerate the corrosion of system components.

    P2910.8 Freeze protection.

    Where sustained freezing temperatures occur, provisions shall be made to keep storage tanks and the related piping from freezing.

    P2909.9 Nonpotable water storage tanks.

    Nonpotable water storage tanks shall comply with Sections P2910.9.1 through P2910.9.11.

    P2910.9.1 Sizing.

    The holding capacity of the storage tank shall be sized in accordance with the anticipated demand.

    P2910.9.2 Location.

    Storage tanks shall be installed above or below grade. Above-grade storage tanks shall be protected from direct sunlight and shall be constructed using opaque, UV-resistant materials such as, but not limited to, heavily tinted plastic, lined metal, concrete and wood; or painted to prevent algae growth; or shall have specially constructed sun barriers including, but not limited to, installation in garages, crawlspaces or sheds. Storage tanks and their manholes shall not be located directly under any soil piping, waste piping or any source of contamination.

    P2910.9.3 Materials.

    Where collected on site, water shall be collected in an approved tank constructed of durable, nonabsorbent and corrosion-resistant materials. The storage tank shall be constructed of materials compatible with any disinfection systems used to treat water upstream of the tank and with any systems used to maintain water quality within the tank. Wooden storage tanks that are not equipped with a makeup water source shall be provided with a flexible liner.

    P2910.9.4 Foundation and supports.

    Storage tanks shall be supported on a firm base capable of withstanding the weight of the storage tank when filled to capacity. Storage tanks shall be supported in accordance with this code.

    P2910.9.4.1Ballast.

    Where the soil can become saturated, an underground storage tank shall be ballasted or otherwise secured to prevent the tank from floating out of the ground when empty. The combined weight of the tank and hold-down ballast shall meet or exceed the buoyancy force of the tank. Where the installation requires a foundation, the foundation shall be flat and shall be designed to support the storage tank weight when full, consistent with the bearing capability of adjacent soil.

    P2910.9.4.2Structural support.

    Where installed below grade, storage tank installations shall be designed to withstand earth and surface structural loads without damage and with minimal deformation when empty or filled with water.

    P2910.9.5 Makeup water.

    Where an uninterrupted nonpotable water supply is required for the intended application, potable or reclaimed water shall be provided as a source of makeup water for the storage tank. The makeup water supply shall be protected against backflow by means of an air gap not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above the overflow or an approved backflow device in accordance with Section P2902. A full-open valve located on the makeup water supply line to the storage tank shall be provided. Inlets to the storage tank shall be controlled by fill valves or other automatic supply valves installed to prevent the tank from overflowing and to prevent the water level from dropping below a predetermined point. Where makeup water is provided, the water level shall be prohibited from dropping below the source water inlet or the intake of any attached pump.

    P2910.9.5.1Inlet control valve alarm.

    Makeup water systems shall be fitted with a warning mechanism that alerts the user to a failure of the inlet control valve to close correctly. The alarm shall activate before the water within the storage tank begins to discharge into the overflow system.

    P2910.9.6 Overflow.

    The storage tank shall be equipped with an overflow pipe having a diameter not less than that shown in Table P2910.9.6. The overflow outlet shall discharge at a point not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the roof or roof drain; floor or floor drain; or over an open water-supplied fixture. The overflow outlet shall be covered with a corrosion-resistant screen of not less than 16 by 20 mesh per inch (630 by 787 mesh per m) and by 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) hardware cloth or shall terminate in a horizontal angle seat check valve. Drainage from overflow pipes shall be directed to prevent freezing on roof walks. The overflow drain shall not be equipped with a shutoff valve. Not less than one cleanout shall be provided on each overflow pipe in accordance with Section P3005.2.

    TABLE P2910.9.6

    SIZE OF DRAIN PIPES FOR WATER TANKS

    TANK CAPACITY (gallons)DRAIN PIPE (inches)
    Up to 7501
    751 to 150011/2
    1501 to 30002
    3001 to 500021/2
    5001 to 75003
    Over 75004

    For SI: 1 gallon = 3.875 liters, 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    P2910.9.7 Access.

    Not less than one access opening shall be provided to allow inspection and cleaning of the tank interior. Access openings shall have an approved locking device or other approved method of securing access. Below-grade storage tanks, located outside of the building, shall be provided with a manhole either not less than 24 inches (610 mm) square or with an inside diameter not less than 24 inches (610 mm). Manholes shall extend not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above ground or shall be designed to prevent water infiltration. Finished grade shall be sloped away from the manhole to divert surface water. Manhole covers shall be secured to prevent unauthorized access. Service ports in manhole covers shall be not less than 8 inches (203 mm) in diameter and shall be not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above the finished grade level. The service port shall be secured to prevent unauthorized access.

    Exception: Storage tanks under 800 gallons (3028 L) in volume installed below grade shall not be required to be equipped with a manhole, but shall have a service port not less than 8 inches (203 mm) in diameter.

    P2910.9.8 Venting.

    Storage tanks shall be provided with a vent sized in accordance with Chapter 31 and based on the aggregate diameter of all tank influent pipes. The reservoir vent shall not be connected to sanitary drainage system vents. Vents shall be protected from contamination by means of an approved cap or a U-bend installed with the opening directed downward. Vent outlets shall extend not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above grade, or as necessary to prevent surface water from entering the storage tank. Vent openings shall be protected against the entrance of vermin and insects in accordance with the requirements of Section P2902.7.

    P2910.9.9 Drain.

    A drain shall be located at the lowest point of the storage tank. The tank drain pipe shall discharge as required for overflow pipes and shall not be smaller in size than specified in Table P2910.9.6. Not less than one cleanout shall be provided on each drain pipe in accordance with Section P3005.2.

    P2910.10 Marking and signage.

    Each nonpotable water storage tank shall be labeled with its rated capacity. The contents of storage tanks shall be identified with the words “CAUTION: NONPOTABLE WATER—DO NOT DRINK.” Where an opening is provided that could allow the entry of personnel, the opening shall be marked with the words, “DANGER—CONFINED SPACE.” Markings shall be indelibly printed on the tank, or on a tag or sign constructed of corrosion-resistant waterproof material that is mounted on the tank. The letters of the words shall be not less than 0.5 inches (12.7 mm) in height and shall be of a color in contrast with the background on which they are applied.

    P2910.11 Storage tank tests.

    Storage tanks shall be tested in accordance with the following:

    1. 1.Storage tanks shall be filled with water to the overflow line prior to and during inspection. Seams and joints shall be left exposed and the tank shall remain water tight without leakage for a period of 24 hours.

    2. 2.After 24 hours, supplemental water shall be introduced for a period of 15 minutes to verify proper drainage of the overflow system and leaks do not exist.

    3. 3.Following a successful test of the overflow, the water level in the tank shall be reduced to a level that is 2 inches (51 mm) below the makeup water trigger point by using the tank drain. The tank drain shall be observed for proper operation. The makeup water system shall be observed for proper operation, and successful automatic shutoff of the system at the refill threshold shall be verified. Water shall not be drained from the overflow at any time during the refill test.

    P2910.12 System abandonment.

    If the owner of an on-site nonpotable water reuse system or rainwater collection and conveyance system elects to cease use of or fails to properly maintain such system, the system shall be abandoned and shall comply with the following:

    1. 1.System piping connecting to a utility-provided water system shall be removed or disabled.

    2. 2.The distribution piping system shall be replaced with an approved potable water supply piping system. Where an existing potable water pipe system is already in place, the fixtures shall be connected to the existing system.

    3. 3.The storage tank shall be secured from accidental access by sealing or locking tank inlets and access points, or filled with sand or equivalent.

    P2910.13 Separation requirements for nonpotable water piping.

    Nonpotable water collection and distribution piping and reclaimed water piping shall be separated from the building sewer and potable water piping underground by 5 feet (1524 mm) of undisturbed or compacted earth. Nonpotable water collection and distribution piping shall not be located in, under or above cesspools, septic tanks, septic tank drainage fields or seepage pits. Buried nonpotable water piping shall comply with the requirements of Section P2604.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.The required separation distance shall not apply where the bottom of the nonpotable water pipe within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the sewer is not less than 12 inches (305 mm) above the top of the highest point of the sewer and the pipe materials conforms to Table P3002.2.

    2. 2.The required separation distance shall not apply where the bottom of the potable water service pipe within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the nonpotable water pipe is not less than 12 inches (305 mm) above the top of the highest point of the nonpotable water pipe and the pipe materials comply with the requirements of Table P2906.5.

    3. 3.The required separation distance shall not apply where a nonpotable water pipe is located in the same trench with a building sewer that is constructed of materials that comply with the requirements of Table P3002.2.

    4. 4.The required separation distance shall not apply where a nonpotable water pipe crosses a sewer pipe provided that the nonpotable water pipe is sleeved to not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally from the sewer pipe centerline on both sides of such crossing, with pipe materials that comply with Table P3002.2.

    5. 5.The required separation distance shall not apply where a potable water service pipe crosses a nonpotable water pipe, provided that the potable water service pipe is sleeved for a distance of not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally from the centerline of the nonpotable pipe on both sides of such crossing, with pipe materials that comply with Table P3002.2.

    6. 6.The required separation distance shall not apply to irrigation piping located outside of a building and downstream of the backflow preventer where nonpotable water is used for outdoor applications.

    P2910.14 Outdoor outlet access.

    Sillcocks, hose bibs, wall hydrants, yard hydrants and other outdoor outlets supplied by nonpotable water shall be located in a locked vault or shall be operable only by means of a removable key.

    SECTIONP2911
    ON-SITE NONPOTABLE WATER REUSE SYSTEMS

    P2911.1 General.

    The provisions of this section shall govern the construction, installation, alteration and repair of on-site nonpotable water reuse systems for the collection, storage, treatment and distribution of on-site sources of nonpotable water as permitted by the jurisdiction.

    P2911.2 Sources.

    On-site nonpotable water reuse systems shall collect waste discharge only from the following sources: bathtubs, showers, lavatories, clothes washers and laundry trays. Water from other approved nonpotable sources including swimming pool backwash operations, air conditioner condensate, rainwater, foundation drain water, fluid cooler discharge water and fire pump test water shall be permitted to be collected for reuse by on-site nonpotable water reuse systems, as approved by the building official and as appropriate for the intended application.

    P2911.2.1 Prohibited sources.

    Reverse osmosis system reject water, water softener backwash water, kitchen sink wastewater, dishwasher wastewater and wastewater containing urine or fecal matter shall not be collected for reuse within an on- site nonpotable water reuse system.

    P2911.3 Traps.

    Traps serving fixtures and devices discharging waste water to on-site nonpotable water reuse systems shall comply with the Section P3201.2.

    P2911.4 Collection pipe.

    On-site nonpotable water reuse systems shall utilize drainage piping approved for use within plumbing drainage systems to collect and convey untreated water for reuse. Vent piping approved for use within plumbing venting systems shall be utilized for vents within the gray-water system. Collection and vent piping materials shall comply with Section P3002.

    P2911.4.1 Installation.

    Collection piping conveying untreated water for reuse shall be installed in accordance with Section P3005.

    P2911.4.2 Joints.

    Collection piping conveying untreated water for reuse shall utilize joints approved for use with the distribution piping and appropriate for the intended applications as specified in Section P3002.

    P2911.4.3 Size.

    Collection piping conveying untreated water for reuse shall be sized in accordance with drainage sizing requirements specified in Section P3005.4.

    P2911.4.4 Marking.

    Additional marking of collection piping conveying untreated water for reuse shall not be required beyond that required for sanitary drainage, waste and vent piping by the Chapter 30.

    P2911.5 Filtration.

    Untreated water collected for reuse shall be filtered as required for the intended end use. Filters shall be accessible for inspection and maintenance. Filters shall utilize a pressure gauge or other approved method to provide indication when a filter requires servicing or replacement. Filters shall be installed with shutoff valves immediately upstream and downstream to allow for isolation during maintenance.

    P2911.6 Disinfection.

    Nonpotable water collected on site for reuse shall be disinfected, treated or both to provide the quality of water needed for the intended end-use application. Where the intended end-use application does not have requirements for the quality of water, disinfection and treatment of water collected on site for reuse shall not be required. Nonpotable water collected on site containing untreated gray water shall be retained in collection reservoirs for not more than 24 hours.

    P2911.6.1 Gray water used for fixture flushing.

    Gray water used for flushing water closets and urinals shall be disinfected and treated by an on-site water reuse treatment system complying with NSF 350.

    P2911.7 Storage tanks.

    Storage tanks utilized in on-site nonpotable water reuse systems shall comply with Section P2910.9 and Sections P2911.7.1 through P2911.7.3.

    P2911.7.1 Location.

    Storage tanks shall be located with a minimum horizontal distance between various elements as indicated in Table P2911.7.1.

    TABLE P2911.7.1

    LOCATION OF NONPOTABLE WATER REUSE STORAGE TANKS

    ELEMENTMINIMUM HORIZONTAL DISTANCE FROM STORAGE TANK (feet)
    Critical root zone (CRZ) of protected trees2
    Lot line adjoining private lots5
    Seepage pits5
    Septic tanks5
    Water wells50
    Streams and lakes50
    Water service5
    Public water main10

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm

    P2911.7.2 Inlets.

    Storage tank inlets shall be designed to introduce water into the tank with minimum turbulence, and shall be located and designed to avoid agitating the contents of the storage tank.

    P2911.7.3 Outlets.

    Outlets shall be located not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above the bottom of the storage tank, and shall not skim water from the surface.

    P2911.8 Valves.

    Valves shall be supplied on on-site nonpotable water reuse systems in accordance with Sections P2911.8.1 and P2911.8.2.

    P2911.8.1 Bypass valve.

    One three-way diverter valve certified to NSF 50 or other approved device shall be installed on collection piping upstream of each storage tank, or drainfield, as applicable, to divert untreated on-site reuse sources to the sanitary sewer to allow servicing and inspection of the system. Bypass valves shall be installed downstream of fixture traps and vent connections. Bypass valves shall be labeled to indicate the direction of flow, connection and storage tank or drainfield connection. Bypass valves shall be installed in accessible locations. Two shutoff valves shall not be installed to serve as a bypass valve.

    P2911.8.2 Backwater valve.

    Backwater valves shall be installed on each overflow and tank drain pipe. Backwater valves shall be in accordance with Section P3008.

    P2911.9 Pumping and control system.

    Mechanical equipment including pumps, valves and filters shall be accessible and removable in order to perform repair, maintenance and cleaning. The minimum flow rate and flow pressure delivered by the pumping system shall be appropriate for the application and in accordance with Section P2903.

    P2911.10 Water-pressure-reducing valve or regulator.

    Where the water pressure supplied by the pumping system exceeds 80 psi (552 kPa) static, a pressure-reducing valve shall be installed to reduce the pressure in the nonpotable water distribution system piping to 80 psi (552 kPa) static or less. Pressure-reducing valves shall be specified and installed in accordance with Section P2903.3.1.

    P2911.11 Distribution pipe.

    Distribution piping utilized in on-site nonpotable water reuse systems shall comply with Sections P2911.11.1 through P2911.11.3.

    Exception: Irrigation piping located outside of the building and downstream of a backflow preventer.

    P2910.11.1 Materials, joints and connections.

    Distribution piping shall conform to the standards and requirements specified in Section P2906 for nonpotable water.

    P2911.11.2 Design.

    On-site nonpotable water reuse distribution piping systems shall be designed and sized in accordance with Section P2903 for the intended application.

    P2911.11.3 Marking.

    On-site nonpotable water distribution piping labeling and marking shall comply with Section P2901.2

    P2911.12 Tests and inspections.

    Tests and inspections shall be performed in accordance with Sections P2911.12.1 through P2911.12.6.

    P2911.12.1 Collection pipe and vent test.

    Drain, waste and vent piping used for on-site water reuse systems shall be tested in accordance with Section P2503.

    P2911.12.2 Storage tank test.

    Storage tanks shall be tested in accordance with Section P2910.11.

    P2911.12.3 Water supply system test.

    The testing of makeup water supply piping and distribution piping shall be conducted in accordance with Section P2503.7.

    P2911.12.4 Inspection and testing of backflow prevention assemblies.

    The testing of backflow preventers and backwater valves shall be conducted in accordance with Section P2503.8.

    P2911.12.5 Inspection of vermin and insect protection.

    Inlets and vents to the system shall be inspected to verify that each is protected to prevent the entrance of insects and vermin into the storage tank and piping systems in accordance with Section P2910.7.

    P2911.12.6 Water quality test.

    The quality of the water for the intended application shall be verified at the point of use in accordance with the requirements of the jurisdiction.

    P2911.13 Operation and maintenance manuals.

    Operation and maintenance materials shall be supplied with nonpotable on-site water reuse systems in accordance with Sections P2910.13.1 through P2910.13.4.

    P2911.13.1 Manual.

    A detailed operations and maintenance manual shall be supplied in hard-copy form for each system.

    P2911.13.2 Schematics.

    The manual shall include a detailed system schematic, the location of system components and a list of system components that includes the manufacturers and model numbers of the components.

    P2911.13.3 Maintenance procedures.

    The manual shall provide a schedule and procedures for system components requiring periodic maintenance. Consumable parts including filters shall be noted along with part numbers.

    P2911.13.4 Operations procedures.

    The manual shall include system startup and shutdown procedures. The manual shall include detailed operating procedures for the system.

    SECTIONP2912
    NONPOTABLE RAINWATER COLLECTION AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    P2912.1 General.

    The provisions of this section shall govern the construction, installation, alteration, and repair of rainwater collection and conveyance systems for the collection, storage, treatment and distribution of rainwater for nonpotable applications, as permitted by the jurisdiction.

    P2912.2 Collection surface.

    Rainwater shall be collected only from above-ground impervious roofing surfaces constructed from approved materials. Collection of water from vehicular parking or pedestrian walkway surfaces shall be prohibited except where the water is used exclusively for landscape irrigation. Overflow and bleed-off pipes from roof-mounted appliances including, but not limited to, evaporative coolers, water heaters and solar water heaters shall not discharge onto rainwater collection surfaces.

    P2912.3 Debris excluders.

    Downspouts and leaders shall be connected to a roof washer and shall be equipped with a debris excluder or equivalent device to prevent the contamination of collected rainwater with leaves, sticks, pine needles and similar material. Debris excluders and equivalent devices shall be self-cleaning.

    P2912.4 Roof washer.

    An amount of rainwater shall be diverted at the beginning of each rain event, and not allowed to enter the storage tank, to wash accumulated debris from the collection surface. The amount of rainfall to be diverted shall be field adjustable as necessary to minimize storage tank water contamination. The roof washer shall not rely on manually operated valves or devices, and shall operate automatically. Diverted rainwater shall not be drained to the roof surface, and shall be discharged in a manner consistent with the storm water runoff requirements of the jurisdiction. Roof washers shall be accessible for maintenance and service.

    P2912.5 Roof gutters and downspouts.

    Gutters and downspouts shall be constructed of materials that are compatible with the collection surface and the rainwater quality for the desired end use. Joints shall be watertight.

    P2912.5.1 Slope.

    Roof gutters, leaders and rainwater collection piping shall slope continuously toward collection inlets and shall be free of leaks. Gutters and downspouts shall have a slope of not less than 1/8 inch per foot (10.4 mm/m) along their entire length. Gutters and downspouts shall be installed so that water does not pool at any point.

    P2912.5.2 Cleanouts.

    Cleanouts shall be provided in the water conveyance system to allow access to filters, flushes, pipes and downspouts.

    P2912.6 Drainage.

    Water drained from the roof washer or debris excluder shall not be drained to the sanitary sewer. Such water shall be diverted from the storage tank and shall discharge to a location that will not cause erosion or damage to property. Roof washers and debris excluders shall be provided with an automatic means of self-draining between rain events and shall not drain onto roof surfaces.

    P2912.7 Collection pipe.

    Rainwater collection and conveyance systems shall utilize drainage piping approved for use within plumbing drainage systems to collect and convey captured rainwater. Vent piping approved for use within plumbing venting systems shall be utilized for vents within the rainwater system. Collection and vent piping materials shall comply with Section P3002.

    P2912.7.1 Installation.

    Collection piping conveying captured rainwater shall be installed in accordance with Section P3005.3.

    P2912.7.2 Joints.

    Collection piping conveying captured rainwater shall utilize joints approved for use with the distribution piping and appropriate for the intended applications as specified in Section P3003.

    P2912.7.3 Size.

    Collection piping conveying captured rainwater shall be sized in accordance with drainage-sizing requirements specified in Section P3005.4.

    P2912.7.4 Marking.

    Additional marking of collection piping conveying captured rainwater for reuse shall not be required beyond that required for sanitary drainage, waste, and vent piping by Chapter 30.

    P2912.8 Filtration.

    Collected rainwater shall be filtered as required for the intended end use. Filters shall be accessible for inspection and maintenance. Filters shall utilize a pressure gauge or other approved method to provide indication when a filter requires servicing or replacement. Filters shall be installed with shutoff valves installed immediately upstream and downstream to allow for isolation during maintenance.

    P2912.9 Disinfection.

    Where the intended application for rainwater requires disinfection or other treatment or both, it shall be disinfected as needed to ensure that the required water quality is delivered at the point of use.

    P2912.10 Storage tanks.

    Storage tanks utilized in nonpotable rainwater collection and conveyance systems shall comply with Section P2910.9 and Sections P2912.10.1 through P2912.10.3.

    P2912.10.1 Location.

    Storage tanks shall be located with a minimum horizontal distance between various elements as indicated in Table P2912.10.1.

    TABLE P2912.10.1

    LOCATION OF RAINWATER STORAGE TANKS

    ELEMENTMINIMUM HORIZONTAL DISTANCE FROM STORAGE TANK (feet)
    Critical root zone (CRZ) of protected trees2
    Lot line adjoining private lots5
    Seepage pits5
    Septic tanks5

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm

    P2912.10.2 Inlets.

    Storage tank inlets shall be designed to introduce collected rainwater into the tank with minimum turbulence, and shall be located and designed to avoid agitating the contents of the storage tank.

    P2912.10.3 Outlets.

    Outlets shall be located not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above the bottom of the storage tank and shall not skim water from the surface.

    P2912.11 Valves.

    Valves shall be supplied on rainwater collection and conveyance systems in accordance with Sections P2912.11.1 and P2912.11.2.

    P2912.11.1 Influent diversion.

    A means shall be provided to divert storage tank influent to allow for maintenance and repair of the storage tank system.

    P2912.11.2 Backwater valve.

    Backwater valves shall be installed on each overflow and tank drain pipe. Backwater valves shall be in accordance with Section P3008.

    P2912.12 Pumping and control system.

    Mechanical equipment including pumps, valves and filters shall be easily accessible and removable in order to perform repair, maintenance and cleaning. The minimum flow rate and flow pressure delivered by the pumping system shall appropriate for the application and in accordance with Section P2903.

    P2912.13 Water-pressure-reducing valve or regulator.

    Where the water pressure supplied by the pumping system exceeds 80 psi (552 kPa) static, a pressure-reducing valve shall be installed to reduce the pressure in the rainwater distribution system piping to 80 psi (552 kPa) static or less. Pressure-reducing valves shall be specified and installed in accordance with Section P2903.3.1.

    P2912.14 Distribution pipe.

    Distribution piping utilized in rainwater collection and conveyance systems shall comply with Sections P2912.14.1 through P2912.14.3.

    Exception: Irrigation piping located outside of the building and downstream of a backflow preventer.

    P2912.14.1 Materials, joints and connections.

    Distribution piping shall conform to the standards and requirements specified in Section P2906 for nonpotable water.

    P2912.14.2 Design.

    Distribution piping systems shall be designed and sized in accordance with the Section P2903 for the intended application.

    P2912.14.3 Labeling and marking.

    Nonpotable rainwater distribution piping labeling and marking shall comply with Section P2901.2.

    P2912.15 Tests and inspections.

    Tests and inspections shall be performed in accordance with Sections P2912.15.1 through P2912.15.8.

    P2912.15.1 Roof gutter inspection and test.

    Roof gutters shall be inspected to verify that the installation and slope is in accordance with Section P2912.5.1. Gutters shall be tested by pouring not less than one gallon of water (3.8 L) into the end of the gutter opposite the collection point. The gutter being tested shall not leak and shall not retain standing water.

    P2912.15.2 Roofwasher test.

    Roofwashers shall be tested by introducing water into the gutters. Proper diversion of the first quantity of water in accordance with the requirements of Section P2912.4 shall be verified.

    P2912.15.3 Collection pipe and vent test.

    Drain, waste and vent piping used for rainwater collection and conveyance systems shall be tested in accordance with Section P2503.

    P2912.15.4 Storage tank test.

    Storage tanks shall be tested in accordance with the Section P2910.11.

    P2912.15.5 Water supply system test.

    The testing of makeup water supply piping and distribution piping shall be conducted in accordance with Section P2503.7.

    P2912.15.6 Inspection and testing of backflow prevention assemblies.

    The testing of backflow preventers and backwater valves shall be conducted in accordance with Section P2503.8.

    P2912.15.7 Inspection of vermin and insect protection.

    Inlets and vents to the system shall be inspected to verify that each is protected to prevent the entrance of insects and vermin into the storage tank and piping systems in accordance with Section P2910.7.

    P2912.15.8 Water quality test.

    The quality of the water for the intended application shall be verified at the point of use in accordance with the requirements of the jurisdiction.

    P2912.16 Operation and maintenance manuals.

    Operation and maintenance manuals shall be supplied with rainwater collection and conveyance systems in accordance with Sections P2912.16.1 through P2912.16.4.

    P2912.16.1 Manual.

    A detailed operations and maintenance manual shall be supplied in hard-copy form for each system.

    P2912.16.2 Schematics.

    The manual shall include a detailed system schematic, the location of system components and a list of system components that includes the manufacturers and model numbers of the components.

    P2912.16.3 Maintenance procedures.

    The manual shall provide a maintenance schedule and procedures for system components requiring periodic maintenance. Consumable parts, including filters, shall be noted along with part numbers.

    P2912.16.4 Operations procedures.

    The manual shall include system startup and shutdown procedures, and detailed operating procedures.

    SECTIONP2913
    RECLAIMED WATER SYSTEMS

    P2913.1 General.

    The provisions of this section shall govern the construction, installation, alteration and repair of systems supplying nonpotable reclaimed water.

    P2913.2 Water-pressure-reducing valve or regulator.

    Where the reclaimed water pressure supplied to the building exceeds 80 psi (552 kPa) static, a pressure-reducing valve shall be installed to reduce the pressure in the reclaimed water distribution system piping to 80 psi (552 kPa) static or less. Pressure-reducing valves shall be specified and installed in accordance with Section P2903.3.1

    P2913.3 Reclaimed water systems.

    The design of the reclaimed water systems shall conform to accepted engineering practice.

    P2913.3.1 Distribution pipe.

    Distribution piping shall comply with Sections P2913.3.1.1 through P2913.3.1.3.

    Exception: Irrigation piping located outside of the building and downstream of a backflow preventer.

    P2913.3.1.1Materials, joints and connections.

    Distribution piping conveying reclaimed water shall conform to standards and requirements specified in Section P2905 for nonpotable water.

    P2913.3.1.2Design.

    Distribution piping systems shall be designed and sized in accordance with Section P2903 for the intended application.

    P2913.3.1.3Labeling and marking.

    Nonpotable rainwater distribution piping labeling and marking shall comply with Section P2901.2.

    P2913.4 Tests and inspections.

    Tests and inspections shall be performed in accordance with Sections P2913.4.1 and P2913.4.2.

    P2913.4.1 Water supply system test.

    The testing of makeup water supply piping and reclaimed water distribution piping shall be conducted in accordance with Section P2503.7.

    P2913.4.2 Inspection and testing of backflow prevention assemblies.

    The testing of backflow preventers shall be conducted in accordance with Section P2503.8.

    CHAPTER30
    SANITARY DRAINAGE  

    User note: Code change proposals to this chapter will be considered by the IRC – Plumbing and Mechanical Code
    Development Committee during the 2015 (Group A) Code Development Cycle. See explanation on page iv.

    SECTIONP3001
    GENERAL

    P3001.1Scope.

    The provisions of this chapter shall govern the materials, design, construction and installation of sanitary drainage systems. Plumbing materials shall conform to the requirements of this chapter. The drainage, waste and vent (DWV) system shall consist of piping for conveying wastes from plumbing fixtures, appliances and appurtenances, including fixture traps; above-grade drainage piping; below-grade drains within the building (building drain); below- and above-grade venting systems; and piping to the public sewer or private septic system.

    P3001.2Protection from freezing.

    No portion of the above-grade DWV system, other than vent terminals, shall be located outside of a building, in attics or crawl spaces, concealed in outside walls, or in any other place subjected to freezing temperatures unless adequate provision is made to protect them from freezing by insulation or heat or both, except in localities having a winter design temperature greater than 32°F (0°C) (ASHRAE 97.5 percent column, winter, see Chapter 3).

    P3001.3Flood-resistant installation.

    In flood hazard areas as established by Table R301.2(1), drainage, waste and vent systems shall be located and installed to prevent infiltration of floodwaters into the systems and discharges from the systems into floodwaters.

    SECTIONP3002
    MATERIALS  

    P3002.1Piping within buildings.

    Drain, waste and vent (DWV) piping in buildings shall be as indicated in Tables P3002.1(1) and P3002.1(2) except that galvanized wrought-iron or galvanized steel pipe shall not be used underground and shall be maintained not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above ground. Allowance shall be made for the thermal expansion and contraction of plastic piping.

    TABLE P3002.1(1)

    ABOVE-GROUND DRAINAGE AND VENT PIPE

    MATERIALSTANDARD
    Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe in IPS diameters, including schedule 40, DR 22 (PS 200) and DR 24 (PS 140); with a solid, cellular core or composite wallASTM D 2661; ASTM F 628; ASTM F 1488; CSA B181.1
    Cast-iron pipeASTM A 74; CISPI 301; ASTM A 888
    Copper or copper-alloy pipeASTM B 42; ASTM B 43; ASTM B 302
    Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K, L, M or DWV)ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251; ASTM B 306
    Galvanized steel pipeASTM A 53
    Polyolefin pipeCSA B181.3
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe in IPS diameters, including schedule 40, DR 22 (PS 200) and DR 24 (PS 140); with a solid, cellular core or composite wallASTM D 2665; ASTM F 891; CSA B181.2; ASTM F 1488
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe with a 3.25 inch O.D. and a solid, cellular core or composite wallASTM D 2949; ASTM F 1488
    Stainless steel drainage systems, Types 304 and 316LASME A 112.3.1

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    TABLE P3002.1(2)

    UNDERGROUND BUILDING DRAINAGE AND VENT PIPE

    PIPESTANDARD
    Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe in IPS diameters, including schedule 40, DR 22 (PS 200) and DR 24 (PS 140); with a solid, cellular core or composite wallASTM D 2661; ASTM F 628; ASTM F 1488; CSA B181.1
    Cast-iron pipeASTM A 74; CISPI 301; ASTM A 888
    Copper or copper alloy tubing (Type K, L, M or DWV)ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251; ASTM B 306
    Polyolefin pipeASTM F 1412; CSA B181.3
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe in IPS diameters, including schedule 40, DR 22 (PS 200) and DR 24 (PS 140); with a solid, cellular core or com-posite wallASTM D 2665; ASTM F 891; ASTM F 1488; CSA B181.2
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe with a 3.25 inch O.D. and a solid, cellu-lar core or composite wallASTM D 2949; ASTM F 1488
    Stainless steel drainage systems, Type 316LASME A 112.3.1

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    P3002.2Building sewer.

    Building sewer piping shall be as shown in Table P3002.2. Forced main sewer piping shall conform to one of the standards for ABS plastic pipe, copper or copper-alloy tubing, PVC plastic pipe or pressure-rated pipe indicated in Table P3002.2.

    TABLE P3002.2

    BUILDING SEWER PIPE

    MATERIALSTANDARD
    Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe in IPS diameters, including schedule 40, DR 22 (PS 200) and DR 24 (PS 140); with a solid, cellular core or composite wallASTM D 2661; ASTM F 628; ASTM F 1488
    Cast-iron pipeASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; CISPI 301
    Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe in sewer and drain diameters, including SDR 42 (PS 20), PS35, SDR 35 (PS 45), PS50, PS100, PS140, SDR 23.5 (PS 150) and PS200; with a solid, cellular core or composite wallASTM F 1488; ASTM D 2751
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe in sewer and drain diameters, including PS 25, SDR 41 (PS 28), PS 35, SDR 35 (PS 46), PS 50, PS 100, SDR 26 (PS 115), PS140 and PS 200; with a solid, cellular core or composite wallASTM F 891; ASTM F 1488; ASTM D 3034; CSA B182.2;CSA B182.4
    Concrete pipeASTM C 14; ASTM C 76; CSA A257.1M; CSA A257.2M
    Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K or L)ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251
    Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipe (SDR-PR)ASTM F 714
    Polyolefin pipeASTM F 1412; CSA B181.3
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe in IPS diameters, including schedule 40, DR 22 (PS 200) and DR 24 (PS 140); with solid, cellular core or composite wallASTM D 2665; ASTM D 2949; ASTM D 3034;ASTM F 1412; CSA B182.2; CSA B182.4
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe with a 3.25 inch O.D. and a solid, cellular core or composite wallASTM D 2949, ASTM F 1488
    Stainless steel drainage systems, Types 304 and 316LASME A 112.3.1
    Vitrified clay pipeASTM C 425; ASTM C 700

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    P3002.2.1Building sewer pipe near the water service.

    The proximity of a building sewer to a water service shall comply with Section P2905.4.2.

    P3002.3Fittings.

    Pipe fittings shall be approved for installation with the piping material installed and shall comply with the applicable standards indicated in Table P3002.3.

    TABLE P3002.3

    PIPE FITTINGS

    PIPE MATERIALFITTING STANDARD
    Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe in IPS diametersASTM D 2661; ASTM D 3311; ASTM F 628; CSA B181.1
    Cast-ironASME B 16.4; ASME B 16.12; ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; CISPI 301
    Acrylonotrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe in sewer and drain diametersASTM D 2751
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe in sewer and drain diametersASTM D 3034
    Copper or copper alloyASME B 16.15; ASME B 16.18; ASME B 16.22;ASME B 16.23; ASME B 16.26; ASME B 16.29
    Gray iron and ductile ironAWWA C 110/A21.10
    PolyolefinASTM F 1412; CSA B181.3
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic in IPS diametersASTM D 2665; ASTM D 3311; ASTM F 1866
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe with a 3.25 inch O.D.ASTM D 2949
    PVC fabricated fittingsASTM F 1866
    Stainless steel drainage systems, Types 304 and 316LASME A 112.3.1
    Vitrified clayASTM C 700

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    P3002.3.1Drainage.

    Drainage fittings shall have a smooth interior waterway of the same diameter as the piping served. Fittings shall conform to the type of pipe used. Drainage fittings shall not have ledges, shoulders or reductions that can retard or obstruct drainage flow in the piping. Threaded drainage pipe fittings shall be of the recessed drainage type, black or galvanized. Drainage fittings shall be designed to maintain one-fourth unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) grade. This section shall not be applicable to tubular waste fittings used to convey vertical flow upstream of the trap seal liquid level of a fixture trap.

    P3002.4Other materials.

    Sheet lead, lead bends, lead traps and sheet copper shall comply with Sections P3002.4.1 through P3002.4.3.

    P3002.4.1Sheet lead.

    Sheet lead shall weigh not less than indicated for the following applications:

    1. 1.Flashing of vent terminals, 3 psf (15 kg/m2).

    2. 2.Prefabricated flashing for vent pipes, 21/2 psf (12 kg/m2).

    P3002.4.2Lead bends and traps.

    Lead bends and lead traps shall be not less than 1/8-inch (3 mm) wall thickness.

    P3002.4.3Sheet copper.

    Sheet copper shall weigh not less than indicated for the following applications:

    1. 1.General use, 12 ounces per square feet (4 kg/m2).

    2. 2.Flashing for vent pipes, 8 ounces per square feet (2.5 kg/m2).

    SECTIONP3003
    JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS  

    P3003.1Tightness.

    Joints and connections in the DWV system shall be gas tight and water tight for the intended use or pressure required by test.

    P3003.1.1Threaded joints, general.

    Pipe and fitting threads shall be tapered.

    P3003.2Prohibited joints.

    Running threads and bands shall not be used in the drainage system. Drainage and vent piping shall not be drilled, tapped, burned or welded.

    The following types of joints and connections shall be prohibited:

    1. 1.Cement or concrete.

    2. 2.Mastic or hot-pour bituminous joints.

    3. 3.Joints made with fittings not approved for the specific installation.

    4. 4.Joints between different diameter pipes made with elastomeric rolling O-rings.

    5. 5.Solvent-cement joints between different types of plastic pipe.

    6. 6.Saddle-type fittings.

    P3003.3ABS plastic.

    Joints between ABS plastic pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.3.1 through P3003.3.3.

    P3003.3.1Mechanical joints.

    Mechanical joints on drainage pipes shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 1173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA B602. Mechanical joints shall be installed only in underground systems unless otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P3003.3.2Solvent cementing.

    Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. Solvent cement that conforms to ASTM D 2235 or CSA B181.1 shall be applied to joint surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 2235, ASTM D 2661, ASTM F 628 or CSA B181.1. Solvent-cement joints shall be permitted above or below ground.

    P3003.3.3Threaded joints.

    Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be permitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for plastic pipe. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.

    P3003.4Cast iron.

    Joints between cast-iron pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.4.1 through P3003.4.3.

    P3003.4.1Caulked joints.

    Joints for hub and spigot pipe shall be firmly packed with oakum or hemp. Molten lead shall be poured in one operation to a depth of not less than 1 inch (25 mm). The lead shall not recede more than 1/8 inch (3 mm) below the rim of the hub and shall be caulked tight. Paint, varnish or other coatings shall not be permitted on the jointing material until after the joint has been tested and approved. Lead shall be run in one pouring and shall be caulked tight.

    P3003.4.2Compression gasket joints.

    Compression gaskets for hub and spigot pipe and fittings shall conform to ASTM C 564. Gaskets shall be compressed when the pipe is fully inserted.

    P3003.4.3Mechanical joint coupling.

    Mechanical joint couplings for hubless pipe and fittings shall consist of an elastomeric sealing sleeve and a metallic shield that comply with CISPI 310, ASTM C 1277 or ASTM C 1540. The elastomeric sealing sleeve shall conform to ASTM C 564 or CSA B602 and shall have a center stop. Mechanical joint couplings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P3003.5Concrete joints.

    Joints between concrete pipe and fittings shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 443, ASTM C 1173, CSA A257.3M or CSA B602.

    P3003.6Copper and copper-alloy pipe and tubing.

    Joints between copper or copper-alloy pipe tubing or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.6.1 through P3003.6.4.

    P3003.6.1Brazed joints.

    All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. An approved flux shall be applied where required. Brazing materials shall have a melting point in excess of 1,000ºF (538ºC). Brazing alloys filler metal shall be in accordance with AWS A5.8.

    P3003.6.2Mechanical joints.

    Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P3003.6.3Soldered joints.

    Copper and copper-alloy joints shall be soldered in accordance with ASTM B 828. Cut tube ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. Fluxes for soldering shall be in accordance with ASTM B 813 and shall become noncorrosive and nontoxic after soldering. The joint shall be soldered with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32.

    P3003.6.4Threaded joints.

    Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.

    P3003.7Steel.

    Joints between galvanized steel pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.7.1 and P3003.7.2.

    P3003.7.1Threaded joints.

    Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.

    P3003.7.2Mechanical joints.

    Joints shall be made with an approved elastomeric seal. Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P3003.8Lead.

    Joints between lead pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.8.1 and P3003.8.2.

    P3003.8.1Burned.

    Burned joints shall be uniformly fused together into one continuous piece. The thickness of the joint shall be not less than the thickness of the lead being joined. The filler metal shall be of the same material as the pipe.

    P3003.8.2Wiped.

    Joints shall be fully wiped, with an exposed surface on each side of the joint not less than 3/4 inch (19 mm). The joint shall be not less than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) thick at the thickest point.

    P3003.9PVC plastic.

    Joints between PVC plastic pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.9.1 through P3003.9.3.

    P3003.9.1Mechanical joints.

    Mechanical joints on drainage pipe shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 1173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA B602. Mechanical joints shall not be installed in above-ground systems, unless otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P3003.9.2Solvent cementing.

    Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. A purple primer that conforms to ASTM F 656 shall be applied. Solvent cement not purple in color and conforming to ASTM D 2564, CSA B137.3 or CSA B181.2 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet, and shall be in accordance with ASTM D 2855. Solvent-cement joints shall be installed above or below ground.

    Exception: A primer shall not be required where all of the following conditions apply:

    1. 1.The solvent cement used is third-party certified as conforming to ASTM D 2564.

    2. 2.The solvent cement is used only for joining PVC drain, waste and vent pipe and fittings in non-pressure applications in sizes up to and including 4 inches (102 mm) in diameter

    P3003.9.3Threaded joints.

    Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be permitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for plastic pipe. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.

    P3003.10Vitrified clay.

    Joints between vitrified clay pipe or fittings shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 425, ASTM C 1173 or CSA B602.

    P3003.11Polyolefin plastic.

    Joints between polyolefin plastic pipe and fittings shall comply with Sections P3003.11.1 and P3003.11.2.

    P3003.11.1Heat-fusion joints.

    Heat-fusion joints for polyolefin pipe and tubing joints shall be installed with socket-type heat-fused polyolefin fittings or electrofusion polyolefin fittings. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM F 1412 or CSA B181.3.

    P3003.11.2Mechanical and compression sleeve joints.

    Mechanical and compression sleeve joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P3003.12Polyethylene plastic pipe.

    Joints between polyethylene plastic pipe and fittings shall be underground and shall comply with Section P3003.12.1 or P3003.12.2.

    P3003.12.1Heat fusion joints.

    Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. Joint surfaces shall be cut, heated to melting temperature and joined using tools specifically designed for the operation. Joints shall be undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 2657 and the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P3003.12.2Mechanical joints.

    Mechanical joints in drainage piping shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 1173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA B602. Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P3003.13Joints between different materials.

    Joints between different piping materials shall be made with a mechanical joint of the compression or mechanical-sealing type conforming to ASTM C 1173, ASTM C 1460 or ASTM C 1461. Connectors and adapters shall be approved for the application and such joints shall have an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM C 425, ASTM C 443, ASTM C 564, ASTM C 1440, ASTM D 1869, ASTM F 477, CSA A257.3M or CSA B602, or as required in Sections P3003.13.1 through P3003.13.6. Joints between glass pipe and other types of materials shall be made with adapters having a TFE seal. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P3003.13.1Copper or copper-alloy tubing to cast-iron hub pipe.

    Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing and cast-iron hub pipe shall be made with a copper-alloy ferrule or compression joint. The copper or copper-alloy tubing shall be soldered to the ferrule in an approved manner, and the ferrule shall be joined to the cast-iron hub by a caulked joint or a mechanical compression joint.

    P3003.13.2Copper or copper-alloy tubing to galvanized steel pipe.

    Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing and galvanized steel pipe shall be made with a copper-alloy fitting or dielectric fitting. The copper tubing shall be soldered to the fitting in an approved manner, and the fitting shall be screwed to the threaded pipe.

    P3003.13.3Cast-iron pipe to galvanized steel or brass pipe.

    Joints between cast-iron and galvanized steel or copper-alloy pipe shall be made by either caulked or threaded joints or with an approved adapter fitting.

    P3003.13.4Plastic pipe or tubing to other piping material.

    Joints between different types of plastic pipe or between plastic pipe and other piping material shall be made with an approved adapter fitting. Joints between plastic pipe and cast-iron hub pipe shall be made by a caulked joint or a mechanical compression joint.

    P3003.13.5Lead pipe to other piping material.

    Joints between lead pipe and other piping material shall be made by a wiped joint to a caulking ferrule, soldering nipple, or bushing or shall be made with an approved adapter fitting.

    P3003.13.6Stainless steel drainage systems to other materials.

    Joints between stainless steel drainage systems and other piping materials shall be made with approved mechanical couplings.

    P3003.14Joints between drainage piping and water closets.

    Joints between drainage piping and water closets or similar fixtures shall be made by means of a closet flange or a waste connector and sealing gasket compatible with the drainage system material, securely fastened to a structurally firm base. The joint shall be bolted, with an approved gasket flange to fixture connection complying with ASME A112.4.3 or setting compound between the fixture and the closet flange or waste connector and sealing gasket. The waste connector and sealing gasket joint shall comply with the joint-tightness test of ASME A112.4.3 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    SECTIONP3004
    DETERMINING DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS

    P3004.1DWV system load.

    The load on DWV-system piping shall be computed in terms of drainage fixture unit (d.f.u.) values in accordance with Table P3004.1.

    TABLE P3004.1

    DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT (d.f.u.) VALUES FOR VARIOUS PLUMBING FIXTURES

    TYPE OF FIXTURE OR GROUP OF FIXTURESDRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT VALUE (d.f.u.)a
    Bar sink1
    Bathtub (with or without a shower head or whirlpool attachments)2
    Bidet1
    Clothes washer standpipe2
    Dishwasher2
    Floor drainb0
    Kitchen sink2
    Lavatory1
    Laundry tub2
    Shower stall2
    Water closet (1.6 gallons per flush)3
    Water closet (greater than 1.6 gallons per flush)4
    Full-bath group with bathtub (with 1.6 gallon per flush water closet, and with or without shower head and/or whirlpool attachment on the bathtub or shower stall)5
    Full-bath group with bathtub (water closet greater than 1.6 gallon per flush, and with or without shower head and/or whirlpool attachment on the bathtub or shower stall)6
    Half-bath group (1.6 gallon per flush water closet plus lavatory)4
    Half-bath group (water closet greater than 1.6 gallon per flush plus lavatory)5
    Kitchen group (dishwasher and sink with or without food-waste disposer)2
    Laundry group (clothes washer standpipe and laundry tub)3
    Multiple-bath groupsc:1.5 baths 2 baths 2.5 baths 3 baths 3.5 baths7891011

    For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

    1. a.For a continuous or semicontinuous flow into a drainage system, such as from a pump or similar device, 1.5 fixture units shall be allowed per gpm of flow. For a fixture not listed, use the highest d.f.u. value for a similar listed fixture.

    2. b.A floor drain itself does not add hydraulic load. Where used as a receptor, the fixture unit value of the fixture discharging into the receptor shall be applicable.

    3. c.Add 2 d.f.u. for each additional full bath.

    SECTIONP3005
    DRAINAGE SYSTEM

    P3005.1Drainage fittings and connections.

    Changes in direction in drainage piping shall be made by the appropriate use of sanitary tees, wyes, sweeps, bends or by a combination of these drainage fittings in accordance with Table P3005.1. Change in direction by combination fittings, heel or side inlets or increasers shall be installed in accordance with Table P3005.1 and Sections P3005.1.1 through P3005.1.4. based on the pattern of flow created by the fitting.

    TABLE P3005.1

    FITTINGS FOR CHANGE IN DIRECTION

    TYPE OF FITTING PATTERNCHANGE IN DIRECTION
    Horizontal to verticalcVertical to horizontalHorizontal to horizontal
    Sixteenth bendXXX
    Eighth bendXXX
    Sixth bendXXX
    Quarter bendXXaXa
    Short sweepXXa,bXa
    Long sweepXXX
    Sanitary teeXc
    WyeXXX
    Combination wye and eighth bendXXX

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    1. a.The fittings shall only be permitted for a 2-inch or smaller fixture drain.

    2. b.Three inches and larger.

    3. c.For a limitation on multiple connection fittings, see Section P3005.1.1.

    P3005.1.1Horizontal to vertical (multiple connection fittings).

    Double fittings such as double sanitary tees and tee-wyes or approved multiple connection fittings and back-to-back fixture arrangements that connect two or more branches at the same level shall be permitted as long as directly opposing connections are the same size and the discharge into directly opposing connections is from similar fixture types or fixture groups. Double sanitary tee patterns shall not receive the discharge of back-to-back water closets and fixtures or appliances with pumping action discharge.

    Exception: Back-to-back water closet connections to double sanitary tee patterns shall be permitted where the horizontal developed length between the outlet of the water closet and the connection to the double sanitary tee is 18 inches (457 mm) or greater.

    P3005.1.2Heel- or side-inlet quarter bends, drainage.

    Heel-inlet quarter bends shall be an acceptable means of connection, except where the quarter bends serves a water closet. A low-heel inlet shall not be used as a wet-vented connection. Side-inlet quarter bends shall be an acceptable means of connection for both drainage, wet venting and stack venting arrangements.

    P3005.1.3Heel- or side-inlet quarter bends, venting.

    Heel-inlet or side-inlet quarter bends, or any arrangement of pipe and fittings producing a similar effect, shall be acceptable as a dry vent where the inlet is placed in a vertical position. The inlet is permitted to be placed in a horizontal position only where the entire fitting is part of a dry vent arrangement.

    P3005.1.4Water closet connection between flange and pipe.

    One-quarter bends 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter shall be acceptable for water closet or similar connections, provided that a 4-inch by 3-inch (102 mm by 76 mm) flange is installed to receive the closet fixture horn. Alternately, a 4-inch by 3-inch (102 mm by 76 mm) elbow shall be acceptable with a 4-inch (102 mm) flange.

    P3005.1.5Provisions for future fixtures.

    Where drainage has been roughed-in for future fixtures, the drainage unit values of the future fixtures shall be considered in determining the required drain sizes. Such future installations shall be terminated with an accessible permanent plug or cap fitting.

    P3005.1.6Change in size.

    The size of the drainage piping shall not be reduced in size in the direction of the flow. A 4-inch by 3-inch (102 mm by 76 mm) water closet connection shall not be considered as a reduction in size.

    P3005.2Cleanouts required.

    Cleanouts shall be provided for drainage piping in accordance with Sections P3005.2.1 through P3005.2.11.

    P3005.2.1Horizontal drains and building drains.

    Horizontal drainage pipes in buildings shall have cleanouts located at intervals of not more than 100 feet (30 480 mm). Building drains shall have cleanouts located at intervals of not more than 100 feet (30 480 mm) except where manholes are used instead of cleanouts, the manholes shall be located at intervals of not more than 400 feet (122 m). The interval length shall be measured from the cleanout or manhole opening, along the developed length of the piping to the next drainage fitting providing access for cleaning, the end of the horizontal drain or the end of the building drain.

    Exception: Horizontal fixture drain piping serving a nonremovable trap shall not be required to have a cleanout for the section of piping between the trap and the vent connection for such trap.

    P3005.2.2Building sewers.

    Building sewers smaller than 8 inches (203 mm) shall have cleanouts located at intervals of not more than 100 feet (30 480 mm). Building sewers 8 inches (203 mm) and larger shall have a manhole located not more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from the junction of the building drain and building sewer and at intervals of not more than 400 feet (122 m). The interval length shall be measured from the cleanout or manhole opening, along the developed length of the piping to the next drainage fitting providing access for cleaning, a manhole or the end of the building sewer.

    P3005.2.3Building drain and building sewer junction.

    The junction of the building drain and the building sewer shall be served by a cleanout that is located at the junction or within 10 feet (3048 mm) developed length of piping upstream of the junction. For the requirements of this section, removal of a water closet shall not be required to provide cleanout access.

    P3005.2.4Changes of direction.

    Where a horizontal drainage pipe, a building drain or a building sewer has a change of horizontal direction greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad), a cleanout shall be installed at the change of direction. Where more than one change of horizontal direction greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) occurs within 40 feet (12 192 mm) of developed length of piping, the cleanout installed for the first change of direction shall serve as the cleanout for all changes in direction within that 40 feet (12 192 mm) of developed length of piping.

    P3005.2.5Cleanout size.

    Cleanouts shall be the same size as the piping served by the cleanout, except cleanouts for piping larger than 4 inches (102 mm) need not be larger than 4 inches (102 mm).

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.A removable P-trap with slip or ground joint connections can serve as a cleanout for drain piping that is one size larger than the P-trap size.

    2. 2.Cleanouts located on stacks can be one size smaller than the stack size.

    3. 3.The size of cleanouts for cast-iron piping can be in accordance with the referenced standards for cast iron fittings as indicated in Table P3002.3.

    P3005.2.6Cleanout plugs.

    Cleanout plugs shall be copper alloy, plastic or other approved materials. Cleanout plugs for borosilicate glass piping systems shall be of borosilicate glass. Brass cleanout plugs shall conform to ASTM A 74 and shall be limited for use only on metallic piping systems. Plastic cleanout plugs shall conform to the referenced standards for plastic pipe fittings as indicated in Table P3002.3. Cleanout plugs shall have a raised square head, a countersunk square head or a countersunk slot head. Where a cleanout plug will have a trim cover screw installed into the plug, the plug shall be manufactured with a blind end threaded hole for such purpose.

    P3005.2.7Manholes.

    Manholes and manhole covers shall be of an approved type. Manholes located inside of a building shall have gas-tight covers that require tools for removal.

    P3005.2.8Installation arrangement.

    The installation arrangement of a cleanout shall enable cleaning of drainage piping only in the direction of drainage flow.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Test tees serving as cleanouts.

    2. 2.A two-way cleanout installation that is approved for meeting the requirements of Section P3005.2.3.

    P3005.2.9Required clearance.

    Cleanouts for 6-inch (153 mm) and smaller piping shall be provided with a clearance of not less than 18 inches (457 mm) from, and perpendicular to, the face of the opening to any obstruction. Cleanouts for 8-inch (203 mm) and larger piping shall be provided with a clearance of not less than 36 inches (914 mm) from, and perpendicular to, the face of the opening to any obstruction.

    P3005.2.10Cleanout access.

    Required cleanouts shall not be installed in concealed locations. For the purposes of this section, concealed locations include, but are not limited to, the inside of plenums, within walls, within floor/ceiling assemblies, below grade and in crawl spaces where the height from the crawl space floor to the nearest obstruction along the path from the crawl space opening to the cleanout location is less than 24 inches (610 mm). Cleanouts with openings at a finished wall shall have the face of the opening located within 11/2 inches (38 mm) of the finished wall surface. Cleanouts located below grade shall be extended to grade level so that the top of the cleanout plug is at or above grade. A cleanout installed in a floor or walkway that will not have a trim cover installed shall have a counter-sunk plug installed so the top surface of the plug is flush with the finished surface of the floor or walkway.

    P3005.2.10.1Cleanout plug trim covers.

    Trim covers and access doors for cleanout plugs shall be designed for such purposes. Trim cover fasteners that thread into cleanout plugs shall be corrosion resistant. Cleanout plugs shall not be covered with mortar, plaster or any other permanent material.

    P3005.2.10.2Floor cleanout assemblies.

    Where it is necessary to protect a cleanout plug from the loads of vehicular traffic, cleanout assemblies in accordance with ASME A112.36.2M shall be installed.

    P3005.2.11Prohibited use.

    The use of a threaded cleanout opening to add a fixture or extend piping shall be prohibited except where another cleanout of equal size is installed with the required access and clearance.

    P3005.3Horizontal drainage piping slope.

    Horizontal drainage piping shall be installed in uniform alignment at uniform slopes not less than 1/4 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) for 21/2 inch (64 mm) diameter and less, and not less than 1/8 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (1-percent slope) for diameters of 3 inches (76 mm) or more.

    P3005.4Drain pipe sizing.

    Drain pipes shall be sized according to drainage fixture unit (d.f.u.) loads. The size of the drainage piping shall not be reduced in size in the direction of flow. The following general procedure is permitted to be used:

    1. 1.Draw an isometric layout or riser diagram denoting fixtures on the layout.

    2. 2.Assign d.f.u. values to each fixture group plus individual fixtures using Table P3004.1.

    3. 3.Starting with the top floor or most remote fixtures, work downstream toward the building drain accumulating d.f.u. values for fixture groups plus individual fixtures for each branch. Where multiple bath groups are being added, use the reduced d.f.u. values in Table P3004.1, which take into account probability factors of simultaneous use.

    4. 4.Size branches and stacks by equating the assigned d.f.u. values to pipe sizes shown in Table P3005.4.1.

    5. 5.Determine the pipe diameter and slope of the building drain and building sewer based on the accumulated d.f.u. values, using Table P3005.4.2.

    P3005.4.1Branch and stack sizing.

    Branches and stacks shall be sized in accordance with Table P3005.4.1. Below grade drain pipes shall be not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) in diameter. Drain stacks shall be not smaller than the largest horizontal branch connected.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.A 4-inch by 3-inch (102 mm by 76 mm) closet bend or flange.

    2. 2.A 4-inch (102 mm) closet bend connected to a 3-inch (76 mm) stack tee shall not be prohibited.

    TABLE P3005.4.1

    MAXIMUM FIXTURE UNITS ALLOWED TO BE CONNECTED TO BRANCHES AND STACKS

    NOMINAL PIPE SIZE (inches)ANY HORIZONTAL FIXTURE BRANCHANY ONE VERTICAL STACK OR DRAIN
    11/4a
    11/2b34
    2b610
    21/2b1220
    32048
    4160240
    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
    1. a.11/4-inch pipe size limited to a single-fixture drain or trap arm. See Table P3201.7.

    2. b.No water closets.

    P3005.4.2Building drain and sewer size and slope.

    Pipe sizes and slope shall be determined from Table P3005.4.2 on the basis of drainage load in fixture units (d.f.u.) computed from Table P3004.1.

    TABLE P3005.4.2

    MAXIMUM NUMBER OF FIXTURE UNITS ALLOWED TO BE CONNECTED TO THE BUILDING DRAIN, BUILDING DRAIN BRANCHES OR THE BUILDING SEWER

    DIAMETER OF PIPE (inches)SLOPE PER FOOT
    1/8 inch1/4 inch1/2 inch
    11/2a, bNote aNote a
    2b2127
    21/2b2431
    3364250
    4180216250
    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
    1. a.11/2-inch pipe size limited to a building drain branch serving not more than two waste fixtures, or not more than one waste fixture if serving a pumped discharge fixture or food waste disposer discharge.

    2. b.No water closets.

    P3005.5Connections to offsets and bases of stacks.

    Horizontal branches shall connect to the bases of stacks at a point located not less than 10 times the diameter of the drainage stack downstream from the stack. Horizontal branches shall connect to horizontal stack offsets at a point located not less than 10 times the diameter of the drainage stack downstream from the upper stack.

    SECTIONP3006
    SIZING OF DRAIN PIPE OFFSETS

    P3006.1Vertical offsets.

    An offset in a vertical drain, with a change of direction of 45 degrees (0.79 rad) or less from the vertical, shall be sized as a straight vertical drain.

    P3006.2Horizontal offsets above the lowest branch.

    A stack with an offset of more than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the vertical shall be sized as follows:

    1. 1.The portion of the stack above the offset shall be sized as for a regular stack based on the total number of fixture units above the offset.

    2. 2.The offset shall be sized as for a building drain in accordance with Table P3005.4.2.

    3. 3.The portion of the stack below the offset shall be sized as for the offset or based on the total number of fixture units on the entire stack, whichever is larger.

    P3006.3Horizontal offsets below the lowest branch.

    In soil or waste stacks below the lowest horizontal branch, a change in diameter shall not be required if the offset is made at an angle not greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the vertical. If an offset greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the vertical is made, the offset and stack below it shall be sized as a building drain (see Table P3005.4.2).

    SECTIONP3007
    SUMPS AND EJECTORS

    P3007.1Building subdrains.

    Building subdrains that cannot be discharged to the sewer by gravity flow shall be discharged into a tightly covered and vented sump from which the liquid shall be lifted and discharged into the building gravity drainage system by automatic pumping equipment or other approved method. In other than existing structures, the sump shall not receive drainage from any piping within the building capable of being discharged by gravity to the building sewer.

    P3007.2Valves required.

    A check valve and a full open valve located on the discharge side of the check valve shall be installed in the pump or ejector discharge piping between the pump or ejector and the gravity drainage system. Access shall be provided to such valves. Such valves shall be located above the sump cover required by Section P3007.3.2 or, where the discharge pipe from the ejector is below grade, the valves shall be accessibly located outside the sump below grade in an access pit with a removable access cover.

    P3007.3Sump design.

    The sump pump, pit and discharge piping shall conform to the requirements of Sections P3007.3.1 through P3007.3.5.

    P3007.3.1Sump pump.

    The sump pump capacity and head shall be appropriate to anticipated use requirements.

    P3007.3.2Sump pit.

    The sump pit shall be not less than 18 inches (457 mm) in diameter and 24 inches (610 mm) deep, unless otherwise approved. The pit shall be accessible and located so that drainage flows into the pit by gravity. The sump pit shall be constructed of tile, concrete, steel, plastic or other approved materials. The pit bottom shall be solid and provide permanent support for the pump. The sump pit shall be fitted with a gas-tight removable cover that is installed above grade level or floor level, or not more than 2 inches (51 mm) below grade or floor level. The cover shall be adequate to support anticipated loads in the area of use. The sump pit shall be vented in accordance with Chapter 31.

    P3007.3.3Discharge pipe and fittings.

    Discharge pipe and fittings serving sump pumps and ejectors shall be constructed of materials in accordance with Sections P3007.3.3.1 and P3007.3.3.2 and shall be approved.

    P3007.3.3.1Materials.

    Pipe and fitting materials shall be constructed of copper alloy, copper, CPVC, ductile iron, PE, or PVC.

    P3007.3.3.2Ratings.

    Pipe and fittings shall be rated for the maximum system operating pressure and temperature. Pipe fitting materials shall be compatible with the pipe material. Where pipe and fittings are buried in the earth, they shall be suitable for burial.

    P3007.3.4Maximum effluent level.

    The effluent level control shall be adjusted and maintained to at all times prevent the effluent in the sump from rising to within 2 inches (51 mm) of the invert of the gravity drain inlet into the sump.

    P3007.3.5Ejector connection to the drainage system.

    Pumps connected to the drainage system shall connect to a building sewer, building drain, soil stack, waste stack or horizontal branch drain. Where the discharge line connects into horizontal drainage piping, the connection shall be made through a wye fitting into the top of the drainage piping and such wye fitting shall be located not less than 10 pipe diameters from the base of any soil stack, waste stack or fixture drain.

    P3007.4Sewage pumps and sewage ejectors.

    A sewage pump or sewage ejector shall automatically discharge the contents of the sump to the building drainage system.

    P3007.5Macerating toilet systems and pumped waste systems.

    Macerating toilet systems and pumped waste systems shall comply with ASME A112.3.4/CSA B45.9 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    P3007.6Capacity.

    Sewage pumps and sewage ejectors shall have the capacity and head for the application requirements. Pumps and ejectors that receive the discharge of water closets shall be capable of handling spherical solids with a diameter of up to and including 2 inches (51 mm). Other pumps or ejectors shall be capable of handling spherical solids with a diameter of up to and including 1 inch (25.4 mm). The minimum capacity of a pump or ejector based on the diameter of the discharge pipe shall be in accordance with Table 3007.6.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Grinder pumps or grinder ejectors that receive the discharge of water closets shall have a discharge opening of not less than 11/4 inches (32 mm).

    2. 2.Macerating toilet assemblies that serve single water closets shall have a discharge opening of not less than 3/4 inch (19 mm).

    TABLE 3007.6

    MINIMUM CAPACITY OF SEWAGE PUMP OR SEWAGE EJECTOR

    DIAMETER OF THE DISCHARGE PIPE (inches)CAPACITY OF PUMP OR EJECTOR (gpm)
    221
    21/230
    346

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m.

    SECTIONP3008
    BACKWATER VALVES  

    P3008.1Sewage backflow.

    Where the flood level rims of plumbing fixtures are below the elevation of the manhole cover of the next upstream manhole in the public sewer, the fixtures shall be protected by a backwater valve installed in the building drain, branch of the building drain or horizontal branch serving such fixtures. Plumbing fixtures having flood level rims above the elevation of the manhole cover of the next upstream manhole in the public sewer shall not discharge through a backwater valve.

    Exception: In existing buildings, fixtures above the elevation of the manhole cover of the next upstream manhole in the public sewer shall not be prohibited from discharging through a backwater valve.

    P3008.2Material.

    Bearing parts of backwater valves shall be of corrosion-resistant material. Backwater valves shall comply with ASME A112.14.1, CSA B181.1 or CSA B181.2.

    P3008.3Seal.

    Backwater valves shall be constructed to provide a mechanical seal against backflow.

    P3008.4Diameter.

    Backwater valves, when fully opened, shall have a capacity not less than that of the pipes in which they are installed.

    P3008.5Location.

    Backwater valves shall be installed so that the working parts are accessible for service and repair.

    SECTIONP3009
    SUBSURFACE LANDSCAPE IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

    P3009.1Scope.

    The provisions of this section shall govern the materials, design, construction and installation of subsurface landscape irrigation systems connected to nonpotable water from on-site water reuse systems.

    P3009.2Materials.

    Above-ground drain, waste and vent piping for subsurface landscape irrigation systems shall conform to one of the standards indicated in Table P3002.2(1). Subsurface landscape irrigation, underground building drainage and vent pipe shall conform to one of the standards indicated in Table P3002.1(2).

    P3009.3Tests.

    Drain, waste and vent piping for subsurface landscape irrigation systems shall be tested in accordance with Section P2503.

    P3009.4Inspections.

    Subsurface landscape irrigation systems shall be inspected in accordance with Section R109.

    P3009.5Disinfection.

    Disinfection shall not be required for on-site nonpotable reuse water for subsurface landscape irrigation systems.

    P3009.6Coloring.

    On-site nonpotable reuse water used for subsurface landscape irrigation systems shall not be required to be dyed.

    P3009.7Sizing.

    The system shall be sized in accordance with the sum of the output of all water sources connected to the subsurface irrigation system. Where gray-water collection piping is connected to subsurface landscape irrigation systems, gray-water output shall be calculated according to the gallons-per-day-per-occupant (liters per day per occupant) number based on the type of fixtures connected. The gray-water discharge shall be calculated by the following equation:

    //cdn-codes.iccsafe.org/bundles/document/new_document_images/553/Eq0009.jpg(Equation 30-1)

    where:

    A=Number of occupants:
    Number of occupants shall be determined by the actual number of occupants, but not less than two occupants for one bedroom and one occupant for each additional bedroom
    B=Estimated flow demands for each occupant:
    25 gallons (94.6 L) per day per occupant for showers, bathtubs and lavatories and 15 gallons (56.7 L) per day per occupant for clothes washers or laundry trays
    C=Estimated gray-water discharge based on the total number of occupants.

    P3009.8Percolation tests.

    The permeability of the soil in the proposed absorption system shall be determined by percolation tests or permeability evaluation.

    P3009.8.1Percolation tests and procedures.

    Not less than three percolation tests in each system area shall be conducted. The holes shall be spaced uniformly in relation to the bottom depth of the proposed absorption system. More percolation tests shall be made where necessary, depending on system design.

    P3009.8.1.1Percolation test hole.

    The test hole shall be dug or bored. The test hole shall have vertical sides and a horizontal dimension of 4 inches to 8 inches (102 mm to 203 mm). The bottom and sides of the hole shall be scratched with a sharp-pointed instrument to expose the natural soil. Loose material shall be removed from the hole and the bottom shall be covered with 2 inches (51 mm) of gravel or coarse sand.

    P3009.8.1.2Test procedure, sandy soils.

    The hole shall be filled with clear water to not less than 12 inches (305 mm) above the bottom of the hole for tests in sandy soils. The time for this amount of water to seep away shall be determined, and this procedure shall be repeated if the water from the second filling of the hole seeps away in 10 minutes or less. The test shall proceed as follows: Water shall be added to a point not more than 6 inches (152 mm) above the gravel or coarse sand. Thereupon, from a fixed reference point, water levels shall be measured at 10-minute intervals for a period of 1 hour. Where 6 inches (152 mm) of water seeps away in less than 10 minutes, a shorter interval between measurements shall be used. The water depth shall not exceed 6 inches (152 mm). Where 6 inches (152 mm) of water seeps away in less than 2 minutes, the test shall be stopped and a rate of less than 3 minutes per inch (7.2 s/mm) shall be reported. The final water level drop shall be used to calculate the percolation rate. Soils not meeting these requirements shall be tested in accordance with Section P3009.8.1.3.

    P3009.8.1.3Test procedure, other soils.

    The hole shall be filled with clear water, and a minimum water depth of 12 inches (305 mm) shall be maintained above the bottom of the hole for a 4-hour period by refilling whenever necessary or by use of an automatic siphon. Water remaining in the hole after 4 hours shall not be removed. Thereafter, the soil shall be allowed to swell not less than 16 hours or more than 30 hours. Immediately after the soil swelling period, the measurements for determining the percolation rate shall be made as follows: any soil sloughed into the hole shall be removed and the water level shall be adjusted to 6 inches (152 mm) above the gravel or coarse sand. Thereupon, from a fixed reference point, the water level shall be measured at 30-minute intervals for a period of 4 hours, unless two successive water level drops do not vary by more than 1/16 inch (1.59 mm). Not less than three water level drops shall be observed and recorded. The hole shall be filled with clear water to a point not more than 6 inches (152 mm) above the gravel or coarse sand whenever it becomes nearly empty. Adjustments of the water level shall not be made during the three measurement periods except to the limits of the last measured water level drop. When the first 6 inches (152 mm) of water seeps away in less than 30 minutes, the time interval between measurements shall be 10 minutes and the test run for 1 hour. The water depth shall not exceed 5 inches (127 mm) at any time during the measurement period. The drop that occurs during the final measurement period shall be used in calculating the percolation rate.

    P3009.8.1.4Mechanical test equipment.

    Mechanical percolation test equipment shall be of an approved type.

    P3009.8.2Permeability evaluation.

    Soil shall be evaluated for estimated percolation based on structure and texture in accordance with accepted soil evaluation practices. Borings shall be made in accordance with Section P3009.8.1.1 for evaluating the soil.

    P3009.9Subsurface landscape irrigation site location.

    The surface grade of soil absorption systems shall be located at a point lower than the surface grade of any water well or reservoir on the same or adjoining lot. Where this is not possible, the site shall be located so surface water drainage from the site is not directed toward a well or reservoir. The soil absorption system shall be located with a minimum horizontal distance between various elements as indicated in Table P3009.9. Private sewage disposal systems in compacted areas, such as parking lots and driveways, are prohibited. Surface water shall be diverted away from any soil absorption site on the same or neighboring lots.

    TABLE P3009.9

    LOCATION OF SUBSURFACE IRRIGATION SYSTEM

    ELEMENTMINIMUM HORIZONTAL DISTANCE
    STORAGE TANK (feet)IRRIGATION DISPOSAL FIELD (feet)
    Buildings52
    Lot line adjoining private property55
    Water wells50100
    Streams and lakes5050
    Seepage pits55
    Septic tanks05
    Water service55
    Public water main1010

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    P3009.10Installation.

    Absorption systems shall be installed in accordance with Sections P3009.10.1 through P30091.10.5 to provide landscape irrigation without surfacing of water.