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  • PartVIIIElectrical

    CHAPTER34
    GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

    This Electrical Part (Chapters 34 through 43) is produced and copyrighted by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and is based on the 2014 National Electrical Code® (NEC®) (NFPA 70®-2014), copyright 2013, National Fire Protection Association, all rights reserved. Use of the Electrical Part is pursuant to license with the NFPA.

    The title National Electrical Code®, the acronym NEC® and the document number NFPA 70® are registered trademarks of the National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, Massachusetts. The section numbers appearing in parentheses or brackets after IRC text are the section numbers of the corresponding text in the National Electrical Code (NFPA 70).

    IMPORTANT NOTICE AND DISCLAIMER CONCERNING THE NEC AND THIS ELECTRICAL PART.

    This Electrical Part is a compilation of provisions extracted from the 2014 edition of the NEC. The NEC, like all NFPA codes and standards, is developed through a consensus standards development process approved by the American National Standards Institute. This process brings together volunteers representing varied viewpoints and interests to achieve consensus on fire and other safety issues. While the NFPA administers the process and establishes rules to promote fairness in the development of consensus, it does not independently test, evaluate or verify the accuracy of any information or the soundness of any judgments contained in its codes and standards.

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    SECTIONE3401
    GENERAL

    E3401.1 Applicability.

    The provisions of Chapters 34 through 43 shall establish the general scope of the electrical system and equipment requirements of this code. Chapters 34 through 43 cover those wiring methods and materials most commonly encountered in the construction of one- and two-family dwellings and structures regulated by this code. Other wiring methods, materials and subject matter covered in NFPA 70 are also allowed by this code.

    E3401.2 Scope.

    Chapters 34 through 43 shall cover the installation of electrical systems, equipment and components indoors and outdoors that are within the scope of this code, including services, power distribution systems, fixtures, appliances, devices and appurtenances. Services within the scope of this code shall be limited to 120/240-volt, 0- to 400-ampere, single-phase systems. These chapters specifically cover the equipment, fixtures, appliances, wiring methods and materials that are most commonly used in the construction or alteration of one- and two-family dwellings and accessory structures regulated by this code. The omission from these chapters of any material or method of construction provided for in the referenced standard NFPA 70 shall not be construed as prohibiting the use of such material or method of construction. Electrical systems, equipment or components not specifically covered in these chapters shall comply with the applicable provisions of NFPA 70.

    E3401.3 Not covered.

    Chapters 34 through 43 do not cover the following:

    1. 1.Installations, including associated lighting, under the exclusive control of communications utilities and electric utilities.

    2. 2.Services over 400 amperes.

    E3401.4 Additions and alterations.

    Any addition or alteration to an existing electrical system shall be made in conformity to the provisions of Chapters 34 through 43. Where additions subject portions of existing systems to loads exceeding those permitted herein, such portions shall be made to comply with Chapters 34 through 43.

    SECTIONE3402
    BUILDING STRUCTURE PROTECTION

    E3402.1 Drilling and notching.

    Wood-framed structural members shall not be drilled, notched or altered in any manner except as provided for in this code.

    E3402.2 Penetrations of fire-resistance-rated assemblies.

    Electrical installations in hollow spaces, vertical shafts and ventilation or air-handling ducts shall be made so that the possible spread of fire or products of combustion will not be substantially increased. Electrical penetrations into or through fire-resistance-rated walls, partitions, floors or ceilings shall be protected by approved methods to maintain the fire-resistance rating of the element penetrated. Penetrations of fire-resistance-rated walls shall be limited as specified in Section R302.4. (300.21)

    E3402.3 Penetrations of firestops and draftstops.

    Penetrations through fire blocking and draftstopping shall be protected in an approved manner to maintain the integrity of the element penetrated.

    SECTIONE3403
    INSPECTION AND APPROVAL

    E3403.1 Approval.

    Electrical materials, components and equipment shall be approved. (110.2)

    E3403.2 Inspection required.

    New electrical work and parts of existing systems affected by new work or alterations shall be inspected by the building official to ensure compliance with the requirements of Chapters 34 through 43.

    E3403.3 Listing and labeling.

    Electrical materials, components, devices, fixtures and equipment shall be listed for the application, shall bear the label of an approved agency and shall be installed, and used, or both, in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions. [110.3(B)]

    SECTIONE3404
    GENERAL EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS

    E3404.1 Voltages.

    Throughout Chapters 34 through 43, the voltage considered shall be that at which the circuit operates. (110.4)

    E3404.2 Interrupting rating.

    Equipment intended to interrupt current at fault levels shall have a minimum interrupting rating of 10,000 amperes. Equipment intended to interrupt current at levels other than fault levels shall have an interrupting rating at nominal circuit voltage of not less than the current that must be interrupted. (110.9)

    E3404.3 Circuit characteristics.

    The overcurrent protective devices, total impedance, equipment short-circuit current ratings and other characteristics of the circuit to be protected shall be so selected and coordinated as to permit the circuit protective devices that are used to clear a fault to do so without extensive damage to the electrical equipment of the circuit. This fault shall be assumed to be either between two or more of the circuit conductors or between any circuit conductor and the equipment grounding conductors permitted in Section E3908.8. Listed equipment applied in accordance with its listing shall be considered to meet the requirements of this section. (110.10)

    E3404.4 Enclosure types.

    Enclosures, other than surrounding fences or walls, of panelboards, meter sockets, enclosed switches, transfer switches, circuit breakers, pullout switches and motor controllers, rated not over 600 volts nominal and intended for such locations, shall be marked with an enclosure-type number as shown in Table E3404.4.

    Table E3404.4 shall be used for selecting these enclosures for use in specific locations other than hazardous (classified) locations. The enclosures are not intended to protect against conditions such as condensation, icing, corrosion, or contamination that might occur within the enclosure or enter through the conduit or unsealed openings. (110.28)

    TABLE E3404.4 (Table 110.28)

    ENCLOSURE SELECTION

    PROVIDES A DEGREE OF PROTECTION AGAINST THE FOLLOWING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONSFOR OUTDOOR USE
    Enclosure-type Number
    33R3S3X3RX3SX44X66P
    Incidental contact with the enclosed equipmentXXXXXXXXXX
    Rain, snow and sleetXXXXXXXXXX
    SleetaXX
    Windblown dustXXXXXXXX
    HosedownXXXX
    Corrosive agentsXXXXX
    Temporary submersionXX
    Prolonged submersionX
    PROVIDES A DEGREE OF PROTECTION AGAINST THE FOLLOWING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONSFOR INDOOR USE
    Enclosure-type Number
    1244X566P1212K13
    Incidental contact with the enclosed equipmentXXXXXXXXXX
    Falling dirtXXXXXXXXXX
    Falling liquids and light splashingXXXXXXXXX
    Circulating dust, lint, fibers and flyingsXXXXXXX
    Settling airborne dust, lint, fibers and flingsXXXXXXXX
    Hosedown and splashing waterXXXX
    Oil and coolant seepageXXX
    Oil or coolant spraying and splashingX
    Corrosive agentsXX
    Temporary submersionXX
    Prolonged submersionX
    1. a.Mechanism shall be operable when ice covered.

    Note 1: The term raintight is typically used in conjunction with Enclosure Types 3, 3S, 3SX, 3X, 4, 4X, 6 and 6P. The term rainproof is typically used in conjunction with Enclosure Types 3R and 3RX. The term watertight is typically used in conjunction with Enclosure Types 4, 4X, 6 and 6P. The term driptight is typically used in conjunction with Enclosure Types 2, 5, 12, 12K and 13. The term dusttight is typically used in conjunction with Enclosure Types 3, 3S, 3SX, 3X, 5, 12, 12K and 13.

    Note 2: Ingress protection (IP) ratings are found in ANSI/NEMA 60529, Degrees of Protection Provided by Enclosures. IP ratings are not a substitute for enclosure-type ratings.

    E3404.5 Protection of equipment.

    Equipment not identified for outdoor use and equipment identified only for indoor use, such as “dry locations,” “indoor use only” “damp locations,” or enclosure Type 1, 2, 5, 12, 12K and/or 13, shall be protected against damage from the weather during construction. (110.11)

    E3404.6 Unused openings.

    Unused openings, other than those intended for the operation of equipment, those intended for mounting purposes, and those permitted as part of the design for listed equipment, shall be closed to afford protection substantially equivalent to the wall of the equipment. Where metallic plugs or plates are used with nonmetallic enclosures they shall be recessed at least 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) from the outer surface of the enclosure. [110.12(A)]

    E3404.7 Integrity of electrical equipment.

    Internal parts of electrical equipment, including busbars, wiring terminals, insulators and other surfaces, shall not be damaged or contaminated by foreign materials such as paint, plaster, cleaners or abrasives, and corrosive residues. There shall not be any damaged parts that might adversely affect safe operation or mechanical strength of the equipment such as parts that are broken; bent; cut; deteriorated by corrosion, chemical action, or overheating. Foreign debris shall be removed from equipment. [110.12(B)]

    E3404.8 Mounting.

    Electrical equipment shall be firmly secured to the surface on which it is mounted. Wooden plugs driven into masonry, concrete, plaster, or similar materials shall not be used. [110.13(A)]

    E3404.9 Energized parts guarded against accidental contact.

    Approved enclosures shall guard energized parts that are operating at 50 volts or more against accidental contact. [110.27(A)]

    E3404.10 Prevent physical damage.

    In locations where electrical equipment is likely to be exposed to physical damage, enclosures or guards shall be so arranged and of such strength as to prevent such damage. [110.27(B)]

    E3404.11 Equipment identification.

    The manufacturer’s name, trademark or other descriptive marking by which the organization responsible for the product can be identified shall be placed on all electric equipment. Other markings shall be provided that indicate voltage, current, wattage or other ratings as specified elsewhere in Chapters 34 through 43. The marking shall have the durability to withstand the environment involved. [110.21(A)]

    E3404.12 Field-applied hazard markings.

    Where caution, warning, or danger signs or labels are required by this code, the labels shall meet the following requirements:

    1. 1.The marking shall adequately warn of the hazard using effective words, colors, or symbols or combinations of such.

    2. 2.Labels shall be permanently affixed to the equipment or wiring method.

    3. 3.Labels shall not be hand written except for portions of labels or markings that are variable, or that could be subject to changes. Labels shall be legible.

    4. 4.Labels shall be of sufficient durability to withstand the environment involved. [110.21(B)]

    E3404.13 Identification of disconnecting means.

    Each disconnecting means shall be legibly marked to indicate its purpose, except where located and arranged so that the purpose is evident. The marking shall have the durability to withstand the environment involved. [110.22(A)]

    SECTIONE3405
    EQUIPMENT LOCATION AND CLEARANCES

    E3405.1Working space and clearances.

    Access and working space shall be provided and maintained around all electrical equipment to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance of such equipment in accordance with this section and Figure E3405.1. (110.26)

    FIGURE E3405.1 WORKING SPACE AND CLEARANCES

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    1. a.Equipment, piping and ducts foreign to the electrical installation shall not be placed in the shaded areas extending from the floor to a height of 6 feet above the panelboard enclosure, or to the structural ceiling, whichever is lower.

    2. b.The working space shall be clear and unobstructed from the floor to a height of 6.5 feet or the height of the equipment, whichever is greater.

    3. c.The working space shall not be designated for storage.

    4. d.Panelboards, service equipment and similar enclosures shall not be located in bathrooms, toilet rooms, clothes closets or over the steps of a stairway.

    5. e.Such work spaces shall be provided with artificial lighting where located indoors and shall not be controlled by automatic means only.

    FIGURE E3405.1a, b, c, d, e

    WORKING SPACE AND CLEARANCES

    E3405.2 Working clearances for energized equipment and panelboards.

    Except as otherwise specified in Chapters 34 through 43, the dimension of the working space in the direction of access to panelboards and live parts of other equipment likely to require examination, adjustment, servicing or maintenance while energized shall be not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in depth. Distances shall be measured from the energized parts where such parts are exposed or from the enclosure front or opening where such parts are enclosed. In addition to the 36-inch dimension (914 mm), the work space shall not be less than 30 inches (762 mm) wide in front of the electrical equipment and not less than the width of such equipment. The work space shall be clear and shall extend from the floor or platform to a height of 6.5 feet (1981 mm) or the height of the equipment, whichever is greater. In all cases, the work space shall allow at least a 90-degree (1.57 rad) opening of equipment doors or hinged panels. Equipment associated with the electrical installation located above or below the electrical equipment shall be permitted to extend not more than 6 inches (152 mm) beyond the front of the electrical equipment. [110.26(A) (1), (2), (3)]

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.In existing dwelling units, service equipment and panelboards that are not rated in excess of 200 amperes shall be permitted in spaces where the height of the working space is less than 6.5 feet (1981 mm). [110.26(A)(3) Exception No. 1]

    2. 2.Meters that are installed in meter sockets shall be permitted to extend beyond the other equipment. Meter sockets shall not be exempt from the requirements of this section. [110.26(A)(3) Exception No. 2]

    E3405.3Indoor dedicated panelboard space.

    The indoor space equal to the width and depth of the panelboard and extending from the floor to a height of 6 feet (1829 mm) above the panelboard, or to the structural ceiling, whichever is lower, shall be dedicated to the electrical installation. Piping, ducts, leak protection apparatus and other equipment foreign to the electrical installation shall not be installed in such dedicated space. The area above the dedicated space shall be permitted to contain foreign systems, provided that protection is installed to avoid damage to the electrical equipment from condensation, leaks and breaks in such foreign systems (see Figure E3405.1).

    Exception: Suspended ceilings with removable panels shall be permitted within the 6-foot (1829 mm) dedicated space.

    E3405.4 Outdoor dedicated panelboard space.

    The outdoor space equal to the width and depth of the panelboard, and extending from grade to a height of 6 feet (1.8 m) above the panelboard, shall be dedicated to the electrical installation. Piping and other equipment foreign to the electrical installation shall not be located in this zone.

    E3405.5 Location of working spaces and equipment.

    Required working space shall not be designated for storage. Panelboards and overcurrent protection devices shall not be located in clothes closets, in bathrooms, or over the steps of a stairway. [110.26(B), 240.24(D), (E), (F)]

    E3405.6 Access and entrance to working space.

    Access shall be provided to the required working space. [110.26(C)(1)]

    E3405.7 Illumination.

    Artificial illumination shall be provided for all working spaces for service equipment and panelboards installed indoors and shall not be controlled by automatic means only. Additional lighting outlets shall not be required where the work space is illuminated by an adjacent light source or as permitted by Exception 1 of Section E3903.2 for switched receptacles. [110.26(D)]

    SECTIONE3406
    ELECTRICAL CONDUCTORS AND CONNECTIONS

    E3406.1 General.

    This section provides general requirements for conductors, connections and splices. These requirements do not apply to conductors that form an integral part of equipment, such as motors, appliances and similar equipment, or to conductors specifically provided for elsewhere in Chapters 34 through 43. (310.1)

    E3406.2 Conductor material.

    Conductors used to conduct current shall be of copper except as otherwise provided in Chapters 34 through 43. Where the conductor material is not specified, the material and the sizes given in these chapters shall apply to copper conductors. Where other materials are used, the conductor sizes shall be changed accordingly. (110.5)

    E3406.3 Minimum size of conductors.

    The minimum size of conductors for feeders and branch circuits shall be 14 AWG copper and 12 AWG aluminum. The minimum size of service conductors shall be as specified in Chapter 36. The minimum size of Class 2 remote control, signaling and power-limited circuits conductors shall be as specified in Chapter 43. [310.106(A)]

    E3406.4 Stranded conductors.

    Where installed in raceways, conductors 8 AWG and larger shall be stranded. A solid 8 AWG conductor shall be permitted to be installed in a raceway only to meet the requirements of Sections E3610.2 and E4204. [310.106(C)]

    E3406.5 Individual conductor insulation.

    Except where otherwise permitted in Sections E3605.1 and E3908.9, and E4303, current-carrying conductors shall be insulated. Insulated conductors shall have insulation types identified as RHH, RHW, RHW-2, THHN, THHW, THW, THW-2, THWN, THWN-2, TW, UF, USE, USE-2, XHHW or XHHW-2. Insulation types shall be approved for the application. [310.106(C), 310.104]

    E3406.6 Conductors in parallel.

    Circuit conductors that are connected in parallel shall be limited to sizes 1/0 AWG and larger. Conductors in parallel shall: be of the same length; consist of the same conductor material; be the same circular mil area and have the same insulation type. Conductors in parallel shall be terminated in the same manner. Where run in separate raceways or cables, the raceway or cables shall have the same physical characteristics. Where conductors are in separate raceways or cables, the same number of conductors shall be used in each raceway or cable. [310.10(H)]

    E3406.7 Conductors of the same circuit.

    All conductors of the same circuit and, where used, the grounded conductor and all equipment grounding conductors and bonding conductors shall be contained within the same raceway, cable or cord. [300.3(B)]

    E3406.8 Aluminum and copper connections.

    Terminals and splicing connectors shall be identified for the material of the conductors joined. Conductors of dissimilar metals shall not be joined in a terminal or splicing connector where physical contact occurs between dissimilar conductors such as copper and aluminum, copper and copper-clad aluminum, or aluminum and copper-clad aluminum, except where the device is listed for the purpose and conditions of application. Materials such as inhibitors and compounds shall be suitable for the application and shall be of a type that will not adversely affect the conductors, installation or equipment. (110.14)

    E3406.9 Fine stranded conductors.

    Connectors and terminals for conductors that are more finely stranded than Class B and Class C stranding as shown in Table E3406.9, shall be identified for the specific conductor class or classes. (110.14)

    TABLE E3406.9 (Chapter 9, Table 10)

    CONDUCTOR STRANDINGc

    CONDUCTOR SIZENUMBER OF STRANDS
    CopperAluminum
    AWG or kcmilmm2Class BClass CClass B
    24-300.20-0.05a
    220.327
    200.5210
    180.8216
    161.326
    14-22.1-33.67197b
    1-4/042.4-107193719
    250-500127-253376137
    600-1000304-508619161
    1250-1500635-7599112791
    1750-2000886-1016127271127
    1. a.Number of strands vary.

    2. b.Aluminum 14 AWG (2.1 mm2) is not available.

    3. c.With the permission of Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., this material is reproduced from UL Standard 486A-B, Wire Connectors, which is copyrighted by Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., Northbrook, Illinois. While use of this material has been authorized, UL shall not be responsible for the manner in which the information is presented, nor for any interpretations thereof.

    E3406.10 Terminals.

    Connection of conductors to terminal parts shall be made without damaging the conductors and shall be made by means of pressure connectors, including set-screw type, by means of splices to flexible leads, or for conductor sizes of 10 AWG and smaller, by means of wire binding screws or studs and nuts having upturned lugs or the equivalent. Terminals for more than one conductor and terminals for connecting aluminum conductors shall be identified for the application. [110.14(A)]

    E3406.11 Splices.

    Conductors shall be spliced or joined with splicing devices listed for the purpose. Splices and joints and the free ends of conductors shall be covered with an insulation equivalent to that of the conductors or with an insulating device listed for the purpose. Wire connectors or splicing means installed on conductors for direct burial shall be listed for such use. [110.14(B)]

    E3406.11.1 Continuity.

    Conductors in raceways shall be continuous between outlets, boxes, and devices and shall be without splices or taps in the raceway.

    Exception: Splices shall be permitted within surface-mounted raceways that have a removable cover. [300.13(A)]

    E3406.11.2 Device connections.

    The continuity of a grounded conductor in multiwire branch circuits shall not be dependent on connection to devices such as receptacles and lampholders. The arrangement of grounding connections shall be such that the disconnection or the removal of a receptacle, luminaire or other device fed from the box does not interfere with or interrupt the grounding continuity. [300.13(B)]

    E3406.11.3 Length of conductor for splice or termination.

    Where conductors are to be spliced, terminated or connected to fixtures or devices, a minimum length of 6 inches (152 mm) of free conductor shall be provided at each outlet, junction or switch point. The required length shall be measured from the point in the box where the conductor emerges from its raceway or cable sheath. Where the opening to an outlet, junction or switch point is less than 8 inches (200 mm) in any dimension, each conductor shall be long enough to extend at least 3 inches (75 mm) outside of such opening. (300.14)

    E3406.12 Grounded conductor continuity.

    The continuity of a grounded conductor shall not depend on connection to a metallic enclosure, raceway or cable armor. [200.2(B)]

    E3406.13 Connection of grounding and bonding equipment.

    The connection of equipment grounding conductors, grounding electrode conductors and bonding jumpers shall be in accordance with Sections E3406.13.1 and E3406.13.2.

    E3406.13.1 Permitted methods.

    Equipment grounding conductors, grounding electrode conductors, and bonding jumpers shall be connected by one or more of the following means:

    1. 1.Listed pressure connectors.

    2. 2.Terminal bars.

    3. 3.Pressure connectors listed as grounding and bonding equipment.

    4. 4.Exothermic welding process.

    5. 5.Machine screw-type fasteners that engage not less than two threads or are secured with a nut.

    6. 6.Thread-forming machine screws that engage not less than two threads in the enclosure.

    7. 7.Connections that are part of a listed assembly.

    8. 8.Other listed means. [250.8 (A)]

    E3406.13.2 Methods not permitted.

    Connection devices or fittings that depend solely on solder shall not be used. [250.8 (B)]

    SECTIONE3407
    CONDUCTOR AND TERMINAL IDENTIFICATION

    E3407.1 Grounded conductors.

    Insulated grounded conductors of sizes 6 AWG or smaller shall be identified by a continuous white or gray outer finish or by three continuous white or gray stripes on other than green insulation along the entire length of the conductors. Conductors of sizes 4 AWG or larger shall be identified either by a continuous white or gray outer finish or by three continuous white or gray stripes on other than green insulation along its entire length or at the time of installation by a distinctive white or gray marking at its terminations. This marking shall encircle the conductor or insulation. [200.6(A) & (B)]

    E3407.2 Equipment grounding conductors.

    Equipment grounding conductors of sizes 6 AWG and smaller shall be identified by a continuous green color or a continuous green color with one or more yellow stripes on the insulation or covering, except where bare. Conductors with insulation or individual covering that is green, green with one or more yellow stripes, or otherwise identified as permitted by this section shall not be used for ungrounded or grounded circuit conductors. (250.119)

    Equipment grounding conductors 4 AWG and larger AWG that are not identified as required for conductors of sizes 6 AWG and smaller shall, at the time of installation, be permanently identified as an equipment grounding conductor at each end and at every point where the conductor is accessible, except where such conductors are bare.

    The required identification for conductors 4 AWG and larger shall encircle the conductor and shall be accomplished by one of the following:

    1. 1.Stripping the insulation or covering from the entire exposed length.

    2. 2.Coloring the exposed insulation or covering green at the termination.

    3. 3.Marking the exposed insulation or covering with green tape or green adhesive labels at the termination. [250.119(A)]

    Exceptions:

    1. 1. Conductors 4 AWG and larger shall not be required to be identified in conduit bodies that do not contain splices or unused hubs. [250.119(A)(1) Exception]

    2. 2.Power-limited, Class 2 or Class 3 circuit cables containing only circuits operating at less than 50 volts shall be permitted to use a conductor with green insulation for other than equipment grounding purposes. [250.119 Exception No. 1]

    E3407.3 Ungrounded conductors.

    Insulation on the ungrounded conductors shall be a continuous color other than white, gray and green. [310.110(C)]

    Exception: An insulated conductor that is part of a cable or flexible cord assembly and that has a white or gray finish or a finish marking with three continuous white or gray stripes shall be permitted to be used as an ungrounded conductor where it is permanently reidentified to indicate its use as an ungrounded conductor by marking tape, painting, or other effective means at all terminations and at each location where the conductor is visible and accessible. Identification shall encircle the insulation and shall be a color other than white, gray, and green. [200.7(C)(1)]

    Where used for single-pole, 3-way or 4-way switch loops, the reidentified conductor with white or gray insulation or three continuous white or gray stripes shall be used only for the supply to the switch, not as a return conductor from the switch to the outlet. [200.7(C)(2)]

    E3407.4 Identification of terminals.

    Terminals for attachment to conductors shall be identified in accordance with Sections E3407.4.1 and E3407.4.2.

    E3407.4.1 Device terminals.

    All devices excluding panelboards, provided with terminals for the attachment of conductors and intended for connection to more than one side of the circuit shall have terminals properly marked for identification, except where the terminal intended to be connected to the grounded conductor is clearly evident. [200.10(A)]

    Exception: Terminal identification shall not be required for devices that have a normal current rating of over 30 amperes, other than polarized attachment caps and polarized receptacles for attachment caps as required in Section E3407.4.2. [200.10(A) Exception]

    E3407.4.2 Receptacles, plugs and connectors.

    Receptacles, polarized attachment plugs and cord connectors for plugs and polarized plugs shall have the terminal intended for connection to the grounded (white) conductor identified. Identification shall be by a metal or metal coating substantially white in color or by the word “white” or the letter “W” located adjacent to the identified terminal. Where the terminal is not visible, the conductor entrance hole for the connection shall be colored white or marked with the word “white” or the letter “W.” [200.10(B)]

    CHAPTER35
    ELECTRICAL DEFINITIONS

    SECTIONE3501
    GENERAL

    E3501.1Scope.

    This chapter contains definitions that shall apply only to the electrical requirements of Chapters 34 through 43. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following terms shall, for the purpose of this code, have the meanings indicated in this chapter. Words used in the present tense include the future; the singular number includes the plural and the plural the singular. Where terms are not defined in this section and are defined in Section R202 of this code, such terms shall have the meanings ascribed to them in that section. Where terms are not defined in these sections, they shall have their ordinarily accepted meanings or such as the context implies.

    ACCESSIBLE. (As applied to equipment.) Admitting close approach; not guarded by locked doors, elevation or other effective means.

    ACCESSIBLE. (As applied to wiring methods.) Capable of being removed or exposed without damaging the building structure or finish, or not permanently closed in by the structure or finish of the building.

    ACCESSIBLE, READILY. Capable of being reached quickly for operation, renewal or inspections, without requiring those to whom ready access is requisite to take actions such as to use tools, to climb over or remove obstacles or to resort to portable ladders, etc.

    AMPACITY. The maximum current in amperes that a conductor can carry continuously under the conditions of use without exceeding its temperature rating.

    APPLIANCE. Utilization equipment, normally built in standardized sizes or types, that is installed or connected as a unit to perform one or more functions such as clothes washing, air conditioning, food mixing, deep frying, etc.

    APPROVED. Acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction.

    ARC-FAULT CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER. A device intended to provide protection from the effects of arc-faults by recognizing characteristics unique to arcing and by functioning to de-energize the circuit when an arc-fault is detected.

    ATTACHMENT PLUG (PLUG CAP) (PLUG). A device that, by insertion into a receptacle, establishes connection between the conductors of the attached flexible cord and the conductors connected permanently to the receptacle.

    AUTOMATIC. Performing a function without the necessity of human intervention.

    BATHROOM. An area, including a basin, with one or more of the following: a toilet, a urinal, a tub, a shower, a bidet, or similar plumbing fixture.

    BONDED (BONDING). Connected to establish electrical continuity and conductivity.

    BONDING CONDUCTOR OR JUMPER. A reliable conductor to ensure the required electrical conductivity between metal parts required to be electrically connected.

    BONDING JUMPER (EQUIPMENT). The connection between two or more portions of the equipment grounding conductor.

    BONDING JUMPER, MAIN. The connection between the grounded circuit conductor and the equipment grounding conductor at the service.

    BONDING JUMPER, SUPPLY-SIDE. A conductor installed on the supply side of a service or within a service equipment enclosure(s) that ensures the required electrical conductivity between metal parts required to be electrically connected.

    BRANCH CIRCUIT. The circuit conductors between the final overcurrent device protecting the circuit and the outlet(s).

    BRANCH CIRCUIT, APPLIANCE. A branch circuit that supplies energy to one or more outlets to which appliances are to be connected, and that has no permanently connected luminaires that are not a part of an appliance.

    BRANCH CIRCUIT, GENERAL PURPOSE. A branch circuit that supplies two or more receptacle outlets or outlets for lighting and appliances.

    BRANCH CIRCUIT, INDIVIDUAL. A branch circuit that supplies only one utilization equipment.

    BRANCH CIRCUIT, MULTIWIRE. A branch circuit consisting of two or more ungrounded conductors having voltage difference between them, and a grounded conductor having equal voltage difference between it and each ungrounded conductor of the circuit, and that is connected to the neutral or grounded conductor of the system.

    CABINET. An enclosure designed either for surface or flush mounting and provided with a frame, mat or trim in which a swinging door or doors are or may be hung.

    CIRCUIT BREAKER. A device designed to open and close a circuit by nonautomatic means and to open the circuit automatically on a predetermined overcurrent without damage to itself when properly applied within its rating.

    CLOTHES CLOSET. A nonhabitable room or space intended primarily for storage of garments and apparel.

    CONCEALED. Rendered inaccessible by the structure or finish of the building.

    CONDUCTOR.

    Bare. A conductor having no covering or electrical insulation whatsoever.

    Covered. A conductor encased within material of composition or thickness that is not recognized by this code as electrical insulation.

    Insulated. A conductor encased within material of composition and thickness that is recognized by this code as electrical insulation.

    CONDUIT BODY. A separate portion of a conduit or tubing system that provides access through a removable cover(s) to the interior of the system at a junction of two or more sections of the system or at a terminal point of the system. Boxes such as FS and FD or larger cast or sheet metal boxes are not classified as conduit bodies.

    CONNECTOR, PRESSURE (SOLDERLESS). A device that establishes a connection between two or more conductors or between one or more conductors and a terminal by means of mechanical pressure and without the use of solder.

    CONTINUOUS LOAD. A load where the maximum current is expected to continue for 3 hours or more.

    COOKING UNIT, COUNTER-MOUNTED. A cooking appliance designed for mounting in or on a counter and consisting of one or more heating elements, internal wiring and built-in or separately mountable controls.

    COPPER-CLAD ALUMINUM CONDUCTORS. Conductors drawn from a copper-clad aluminum rod with the copper metallurgically bonded to an aluminum core. The copper forms a minimum of 10 percent of the cross-sectional area of a solid conductor or each strand of a stranded conductor.

    CUTOUT BOX. An enclosure designed for surface mounting and having swinging doors or covers secured directly to and telescoping with the walls of the box proper (see “Cabinet”).

    DEAD FRONT. Without live parts exposed to a person on the operating side of the equipment.

    DEMAND FACTOR. The ratio of the maximum demand of a system, or part of a system, to the total connected load of a system or the part of the system under consideration.

    DEVICE. A unit of an electrical system that carries or controls electrical energy as it principal function.

    DISCONNECTING MEANS. A device, or group of devices, or other means by which the conductors of a circuit can be disconnected from their source of supply.

    DWELLING.

    Dwelling unit. A single unit, providing complete and independent living facilities for one or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, cooking and sanitation.

    One-family dwelling. A building consisting solely of one dwelling unit.

    Two-family dwelling. A building consisting solely of two dwelling units.

    EFFECTIVE GROUND-FAULT CURRENT PATH. An intentionally constructed, low-impedance electrically conductive path designed and intended to carry current under ground-fault conditions from the point of a ground fault on a wiring system to the electrical supply source and that facilitates the operation of the overcurrent protective device or ground-fault detectors.

    ENCLOSED. Surrounded by a case, housing, fence or walls that will prevent persons from accidentally contacting energized parts.

    ENCLOSURE. The case or housing of apparatus, or the fence or walls surrounding an installation, to prevent personnel from accidentally contacting energized parts or to protect the equipment from physical damage.

    ENERGIZED. Electrically connected to, or is, a source of voltage.

    EQUIPMENT. A general term including material, fittings, devices, appliances, luminaires, apparatus, machinery and the like used as a part of, or in connection with, an electrical installation.

    EXPOSED. (As applied to live parts.) Capable of being inadvertently touched or approached nearer than a safe distance by a person.

    EXPOSED. (As applied to wiring methods.) On or attached to the surface or behind panels designed to allow access.

    EXTERNALLY OPERABLE. Capable of being operated without exposing the operator to contact with live parts.

    FEEDER. All circuit conductors between the service equipment, or the source of a separately derived system, or other power supply source and the final branch-circuit overcurrent device.

    FITTING. An accessory such as a locknut, bushing or other part of a wiring system that is intended primarily to perform a mechanical rather than an electrical function.

    GROUND. The earth.

    GROUNDED (GROUNDING). Connected (connecting) to ground or to a conductive body that extends the ground connection.

    GROUNDED, EFFECTIVELY. Intentionally connected to earth through a ground connection or connections of sufficiently low impedance and having sufficient current-carrying capacity to prevent the buildup of voltages that may result in undue hazards to connected equipment or to persons.

    GROUNDED CONDUCTOR. A system or circuit conductor that is intentionally grounded.

    GROUNDING CONDUCTOR, EQUIPMENT (EGC). The conductive path(s) that provides a ground-fault current path and connects normally noncurrent-carrying metal parts of equipment together and, to the system grounded conductor, the grounding electrode conductor or both.

    GROUNDING ELECTRODE. A conducting object through which a direct connection to earth is established.

    GROUNDING ELECTRODE CONDUCTOR. A conductor used to connect the system grounded conductor or the equipment to a grounding electrode or to a point on the grounding electrode system.

    GROUND-FAULT CIRCUIT-INTERRUPTER. A device intended for the protection of personnel that functions to de-energize a circuit or portion thereof within an established period of time when a current to ground exceeds the value for a Class A device.

    GROUND-FAULT CURRENT PATH. An electrically conductive path from the point of a ground fault on a wiring system through normally non-current-carrying conductors, equipment, or the earth to the electrical supply source.

    Examples of ground-fault current paths are any combination of equipment grounding conductors, metallic raceways, metallic cable sheaths, electrical equipment, and any other electrically conductive material such as metal, water, and gas piping; steel framing members; stucco mesh; metal ducting; reinforcing steel; shields of communications cables; and the earth itself.

    GUARDED. Covered, shielded, fenced, enclosed or otherwise protected by means of suitable covers, casings, barriers, rails, screens, mats or platforms to remove the likelihood of approach or contact by persons or objects to a point of danger.

    IDENTIFIED. (As applied to equipment.) Recognizable as suitable for the specific purpose, function, use, environment, application, etc., where described in a particular code requirement.

    INTERRUPTING RATING. The highest current at rated voltage that a device is identified to interrupt under standard test conditions.

    INTERSYSTEM BONDING TERMINATION. A device that provides a means for connecting intersystem bonding conductors for communications systems to the grounding electrode system.

    ISOLATED. (As applied to location.) Not readily accessible to persons unless special means for access are used.

    KITCHEN. An area with a sink and permanent provisions for food preparation and cooking.

    LABELED. Equipment or materials to which has been attached a label, symbol or other identifying mark of an organization acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction and concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of production of labeled equipment or materials and by whose labeling the manufacturer indicates compliance with appropriate standards or performance in a specified manner.

    LIGHTING OUTLET. An outlet intended for the direct connection of a lampholder or luminaire.

    LIGHTING TRACK (Track Lighting). A manufactured assembly designed to support and energize luminaires that are capable of being readily repositioned on the track. Its length can be altered by the addition or subtraction of sections of track.

    LISTED. Equipment, materials or services included in a list published by an organization that is acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction and concerned with evaluation of products or services, that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services, and whose listing states either that the equipment, material or services meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.

    LIVE PARTS. Energized conductive components.

    LOCATION, DAMP. Location protected from weather and not subject to saturation with water or other liquids but subject to moderate degrees of moisture.

    LOCATION, DRY. A location not normally subject to dampness or wetness. A location classified as dry may be temporarily subject to dampness or wetness, as in the case of a building under construction.

    LOCATION, WET. Installations underground or in concrete slabs or masonry in direct contact with the earth and locations subject to saturation with water or other liquids, such as vehicle-washing areas, and locations exposed to weather.

    LUMINAIRE. A complete lighting unit consisting of a light source such as a lamp or lamps together with the parts designed to position the light source and connect it to the power supply. A luminaire can include parts to protect the light source or the ballast or to distribute the light. A lampholder itself is not a luminaire.

    MULTIOUTLET ASSEMBLY. A type of surface, or flush, or freestanding raceway; designed to hold conductors and receptacles, assembled in the field or at the factory.

    NEUTRAL CONDUCTOR. The conductor connected to the neutral point of a system that is intended to carry current under normal conditions.

    NEUTRAL POINT. The common point on a wye-connection in a polyphase system or midpoint on a single-phase, 3-wire system, or midpoint of a single-phase portion of a 3-phase delta system, or a midpoint of a 3-wire, direct-current system.

    OUTLET. A point on the wiring system at which current is taken to supply utilization equipment.

    OVERCURRENT. Any current in excess of the rated current of equipment or the ampacity of a conductor. Such current might result from overload, short circuit or ground fault.

    OVERLOAD. Operation of equipment in excess of normal, full-load rating, or of a conductor in excess of rated ampacity that, when it persists for a sufficient length of time, would cause damage or dangerous overheating. A fault, such as a short circuit or ground fault, is not an overload.

    PANELBOARD. A single panel or group of panel units designed for assembly in the form of a single panel, including buses and automatic overcurrent devices, and equipped with or without switches for the control of light, heat or power circuits, designed to be placed in a cabinet or cutout box placed in or against a wall, partition or other support and accessible only from the front.

    PLENUM. A compartment or chamber to which one or more air ducts are connected and that forms part of the air distribution system.

    POWER OUTLET. An enclosed assembly that may include receptacles, circuit breakers, fuseholders, fused switches, buses and watt-hour meter mounting means, intended to supply and control power to mobile homes, recreational vehicles or boats, or to serve as a means for distributing power required to operate mobile or temporarily installed equipment.

    PREMISES WIRING (SYSTEM). Interior and exterior wiring, including power, lighting, control and signal circuit wiring together with all of their associated hardware, fittings and wiring devices, both permanently and temporarily installed. This includes wiring from the service point or power source to the outlets and wiring from and including the power source to the outlets where there is no service point. Such wiring does not include wiring internal to appliances, luminaires, motors, controllers, and similar equipment.

    QUALIFIED PERSON. One who has the skills and knowledge related to the construction and operation of the electrical equipment and installations and has received safety training to recognize and avoid the hazards involved.

    RACEWAY. An enclosed channel of metallic or nonmetallic materials designed expressly for holding wires, cables, or busbars, with additional functions as permitted in this code.

    RAINPROOF. Constructed, protected or treated so as to prevent rain from interfering with the successful operation of the apparatus under specified test conditions.

    RAIN TIGHT. Constructed or protected so that exposure to a beating rain will not result in the entrance of water under specified test conditions.

    RECEPTACLE. A receptacle is a contact device installed at the outlet for the connection of an attachment plug. A single receptacle is a single contact device with no other contact device on the same yoke. A multiple receptacle is two or more contact devices on the same yoke.

    RECEPTACLE OUTLET. An outlet where one or more receptacles are installed.

    SERVICE. The conductors and equipment for delivering energy from the serving utility to the wiring system of the premises served.

    SERVICE CABLE. Service conductors made up in the form of a cable.

    SERVICE CONDUCTORS. The conductors from the service point to the service disconnecting means.

    SERVICE CONDUCTORS, OVERHEAD. The overhead conductors between the service point and the first point of connection to the service-entrance conductors at the building or other structure.

    SERVICE CONDUCTORS, UNDERGROUND. The underground conductors between the service point and the first point of connection to the service-entrance conductors in a terminal box, meter, or other enclosure, inside or outside of the building wall.

    SERVICE DROP. The overhead service conductors between the utility electric supply system and the service point.

    SERVICE-ENTRANCE CONDUCTORS, OVERHEAD SYSTEM. The service conductors between the terminals of the service equipment and a point usually outside of the building, clear of building walls, where joined by tap or splice to the service drop or overhead service conductors.

    SERVICE-ENTRANCE CONDUCTORS, UNDERGROUND SYSTEM. The service conductors between the terminals of the service equipment and the point of connection to the service lateral or underground service conductors.

    SERVICE EQUIPMENT. The necessary equipment, usually consisting of a circuit breaker(s) or switch(es) and fuse(s), and their accessories, connected to the load end of the service conductors to a building or other structure, or an otherwise designated area, and intended to constitute the main control and cutoff of the supply.

    SERVICE LATERAL. The underground service conductors between the electric utility supply system and the service point.

    SERVICE POINT. The point of connection between the facilities of the serving utility and the premises wiring.

    STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed.

    SWITCHES.

    General-use switch. A switch intended for use in general distribution and branch circuits. It is rated in amperes and is capable of interrupting its rated current at its rated voltage.

    General-use snap switch. A form of general-use switch constructed so that it can be installed in device boxes or on box covers or otherwise used in conjunction with wiring systems recognized by this code.

    Isolating switch. A switch intended for isolating an electric circuit from the source of power. It has no interrupting rating and is intended to be operated only after the circuit has been opened by some other means.

    Motor-circuit switch. A switch, rated in horsepower that is capable of interrupting the maximum operating overload current of a motor of the same horsepower rating as the switch at the rated voltage.

    UNGROUNDED. Not connected to ground or to a conductive body that extends the ground connection.

    UTILIZATION EQUIPMENT. Equipment that utilizes electric energy for electronic, electromechanical, chemical, heating, lighting or similar purposes.

    VENTILATED. Provided with a means to permit circulation of air sufficient to remove an excess of heat, fumes or vapors.

    VOLTAGE (OF A CIRCUIT). The greatest root-mean-square (rms) (effective) difference of potential between any two conductors of the circuit concerned.

    VOLTAGE, NOMINAL. A nominal value assigned to a circuit or system for the purpose of conveniently designating its voltage class (e.g., 120/240). The actual voltage at which a circuit operates can vary from the nominal within a range that permits satisfactory operation of equipment.

    VOLTAGE TO GROUND. For grounded circuits, the voltage between the given conductor and that point or conductor of the circuit that is grounded. For ungrounded circuits, the greatest voltage between the given conductor and any other conductor of the circuit.

    WATERTIGHT. Constructed so that moisture will not enter the enclosure under specified test conditions.

    WEATHERPROOF. Constructed or protected so that exposure to the weather will not interfere with successful operation.

    CHAPTER36
    SERVICES

    SECTIONE3601
    GENERAL SERVICES

    E3601.1 Scope.

    This chapter covers service conductors and equipment for the control and protection of services and their installation requirements. (230.1)

    E3601.2 Number of services.

    One- and two-family dwellings shall be supplied by only one service. (230.2)

    E3601.3 One building or other structure not to be supplied through another.

    Service conductors supplying a building or other structure shall not pass through the interior of another building or other structure. (230.3)

    E3601.4 Other conductors in raceway or cable.

    Conductors other than service conductors shall not be installed in the same service raceway or service cable. (230.7)

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Grounding electrode conductors and equipment bonding jumpers or conductors.

    2. 2.Load management control conductors having over-current protection.

    E3601.5 Raceway seal.

    Where a service raceway enters from an underground distribution system, it shall be sealed in accordance with Section E3803.6. (230.8)

    E3601.6 Service disconnect required.

    Means shall be provided to disconnect all conductors in a building or other structure from the service entrance conductors. (230.70)

    E3601.6.1 Marking of service equipment and disconnects.

    Service disconnects shall be permanently marked as a service disconnect. [230.70(B)]

    E3601.6.2 Service disconnect location.

    The service disconnecting means shall be installed at a readily accessible location either outside of a building or inside nearest the point of entrance of the service conductors. Service disconnecting means shall not be installed in bathrooms. Each occupant shall have access to the disconnect serving the dwelling unit in which they reside. [230.70(A)(1), 230.72(C)]

    E3601.7 Maximum number of disconnects.

    The service disconnecting means shall consist of not more than six switches or six circuit breakers mounted in a single enclosure or in a group of separate enclosures. [230.71(A)]

    SECTIONE3602
    SERVICE SIZE AND RATING

    E3602.1 Ampacity of ungrounded conductors.

    Ungrounded service conductors shall have an ampacity of not less than the load served. For one-family dwellings, the ampacity of the ungrounded conductors shall be not less than 100 amperes, 3 wire. For all other installations, the ampacity of the ungrounded conductors shall be not less than 60 amperes. [230.42(B), 230.79(C) & (D)]

    E3602.2 Service load.

    The minimum load for ungrounded service conductors and service devices that serve 100 percent of the dwelling unit load shall be computed in accordance with Table E3602.2. Ungrounded service conductors and service devices that serve less than 100 percent of the dwelling unit load shall be computed as required for feeders in accordance with Chapter 37. [220.82(A)]

    TABLE E3602.2

    MINIMUM SERVICE LOAD CALCULATION [220.82(B) & (C)]

    LOADS AND PROCEDURE
    3 volt-amperes per square foot of floor area for general lighting and general use receptacle outlets.
    Plus
    1,500 volt-amperes multiplied by total number of 20-ampere-rated small appliance and laundry circuits.
    Plus
    The nameplate volt-ampere rating of all fastened-in-place, permanently connected or dedicated circuit-supplied appliances such as ranges, ovens, cooking units, clothes dryers not connected to the laundry branch circuit and water heaters.
    Apply the following demand factors to the above subtotal:
    The minimum subtotal for the loads above shall be 100 percent of the first 10,000 volt-amperes of the sum of the above loads plus 40 percent of any portion of the sum that is in excess of 10,000 voltamperes.
    Plus the largest of the following:
    One-hundred percent of the nameplate rating(s) of the air-conditioning and cooling equipment.
    One hundred percent of the nameplate rating(s) of the heat pump where a heat pump is used without any supplemental electric heating.
    One-hundred percent of the nameplate rating of the electric thermal storage and other heating systems where the usual load is expected to be continuous at the full nameplate value. Systems qualifying under this selection shall not be figured under any other category in this table.
    One-hundred percent of nameplate rating of the heat pump compressor and sixty-five percent of the supplemental electric heating load for central electric space-heating systems. If the heat pump compressor is prevented from operating at the same time as the supplementary heat, the compressor load does not need to be added to the supplementary heat load for the total central electric spaceheating load.
    Sixty-five percent of nameplate rating(s) of electric space-heating units if less than four separately controlled units.
    Forty percent of nameplate rating(s) of electric space-heating units of four or more separately controlled units.
    The minimum total load in amperes shall be the volt-ampere sum calculated above divided by 240 volts.

    E3602.2.1 Services under 100 amperes.

    Services that are not required to be 100 amperes shall be sized in accordance with Chapter 37. [230.42(A), (B), and (C)].

    E3602.3 Rating of service disconnect.

    The combined rating of all individual service disconnects serving a single dwelling unit shall be not less than the load determined from Table E3602.2 and shall be not less than as specified in Section E3602.1. (230.79 & 230.80)

    E3602.4 Voltage rating.

    Systems shall be three-wire, 120/240-volt, single-phase with a grounded neutral. [220.82(A)]

    SECTIONE3603
    SERVICE, FEEDER AND GROUNDING ELECTRODE CONDUCTOR SIZING

    E3603.1 Grounded and ungrounded service conductor size.

    Service and feeder conductors supplied by a single-phase, 120/240-volt system shall be sized in accordance with Sections E3603.1.1 through E3603.1.4 and Table 3705.1.

    E3603.1.1 Ungrounded service conductors.

    For a service rated at 100 through 400 amperes, the service conductors supplying the entire load associated with a one-family dwelling, or the service conductors supplying the entire load associated with an individual dwelling unit in a two-family dwelling, shall have an ampacity of not less than 83 percent of the service rating.

    E3603.1.2 Ungrounded feeder conductors.

    For a feeder rated at 100 through 400 amperes, the feeder conductors supplying the entire load associated with a one-family dwelling, or the feeder conductors supplying the entire load associated with an individual dwelling unit in a two-family dwelling, shall have an ampacity of not less than 83 percent of the feeder rating.

    E3603.1.3 Feeder size relative to service size.

    A feeder for an individual dwelling unit shall not be required to have an ampacity greater than that specified in Sections E3603.1.1 and E3603.1.2.

    E3603.1.4 Grounded conductors.

    The grounded conductor ampacity shall be not less than the maximum unbalance of the load and the size of the grounded conductor shall be not smaller than the required minimum grounding electrode conductor size specified in Table E3603.4. [310.15(B)(7)]

    E3603.2 Ungrounded service conductors for accessory buildings and structures.

    Ungrounded conductors for other than dwelling units shall have an ampacity of not less than 60 amperes and shall be sized as required for feeders in Chapter 37. [230.79(D)]

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.For limited loads of a single branch circuit, the service conductors shall have an ampacity of not less than 15 amperes. [230.79(A)]

    2. 2.For loads consisting of not more than two two-wire branch circuits, the service conductors shall have an ampacity of not less than 30 amperes. [230.79(C)]

    E3603.3 Overload protection.

    Each ungrounded service conductor shall have overload protection. (230.90)

    E3603.3.1 Ungrounded conductor.

    Overload protection shall be provided by an overcurrent device installed in series with each ungrounded service conductor. The over-current device shall have a rating or setting not higher than the allowable service or feeder rating specified in Section E3603.1. A set of fuses shall be considered to be all of the fuses required to protect all of the ungrounded conductors of a circuit. Single pole circuit breakers, grouped in accordance with Section E3601.7, shall be considered as one protective device. [230.90(A)]

    Exception: Two to six circuit breakers or sets of fuses shall be permitted as the overcurrent device to provide the overload protection. The sum of the ratings of the circuit breakers or fuses shall be permitted to exceed the ampacity of the service conductors, provided that the calculated load does not exceed the ampacity of the service conductors. [230.90(A) Exception No. 3]

    E3603.3.2 Not in grounded conductor.

    Overcurrent devices shall not be connected in series with a grounded service conductor except where a circuit breaker is used that simultaneously opens all conductors of the circuit. [230.90(B)]

    E3603.3.3 Location.

    The service overcurrent device shall be an integral part of the service disconnecting means or shall be located immediately adjacent thereto. (230.91)

    E3603.4 Grounding electrode conductor size.

    The grounding electrode conductors shall be sized based on the size of the service entrance conductors as required in Table E3603.4. (250.66)

    TABLE E3603.4

    GROUNDING ELECTRODE CONDUCTOR SIZEa, b, c, d, e, f

    SIZE OF LARGEST UNGROUNDED SERVICE-ENTRANCE CONDUCTOR OR EQUIVALENT AREA FOR PARALLEL CONDUCTORS (AWG/kcmil)SIZE OF GROUNDING ELECTRODE CONDUCTOR (AWG/kcmil)
    CopperAluminum or copper-clad aluminumCopperAluminum or copper-clad aluminum
    2 or smaller1/0 or smaller86
    1 or 1/02/0 or 3/064
    2/0 or 3/04/0 or 25042
    Over 3/0through 350Over 250through 50021/0
    Over 350through 600Over 500through 9001/03/0
    1. a.If multiple sets of service-entrance conductors connect directly to a service drop, set of overhead service conductors, set of underground service conductors, or service lateral, the equivalent size of the largest service-entrance conductor shall be determined by the largest sum of the areas of the corresponding conductors of each set.

    2. b.Where there are no service-entrance conductors, the grounding electrode conductor size shall be determined by the equivalent size of the largest service-entrance conductor required for the load to be served.

    3. c.Where protected by a ferrous metal raceway, grounding electrode conductors shall be electrically bonded to the ferrous metal raceway at both ends. [250.64(E)(1)]

    4. d.An 8 AWG grounding electrode conductor shall be protected with rigid metal conduit, intermediate metal conduit, rigid polyvinyl chloride (Type PVC) nonmetallic conduit, rigid thermosetting resin (Type RTRC) nonmetallic conduit, electrical metallic tubing or cable armor. [250.64(B)]

    5. e.Where not protected, 6 AWG grounding electrode conductor shall closely follow a structural surface for physical protection. The supports shall be spaced not more than 24 inches on center and shall be within 12 inches of any enclosure or termination. [250.64(B)]

    6. f.Where the sole grounding electrode system is a ground rod or pipe as covered in Section E3608.3, the grounding electrode conductor shall not be required to be larger than 6 AWG copper or 4 AWG aluminum. Where the sole grounding electrode system is the footing steel as covered in Section E3608.1.2, the grounding electrode conductor shall not be required to be larger than 4 AWG copper conductor. [250.66(A) and (B)]

    E3603.5 Temperature limitations.

    Except where the equipment is marked otherwise, conductor ampacities used in determining equipment termination provisions shall be based on Table E3705.1. [110.14(C)(1)]

    SECTIONE3604
    OVERHEAD SERVICE AND SERVICE-
    ENTRANCE CONDUCTOR INSTALLATION

    E3604.1 Clearances on buildings.

    Open conductors and multiconductor cables without an overall outer jacket shall have a clearance of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) from the sides of doors, porches, decks, stairs, ladders, fire escapes and balconies, and from the sides and bottom of windows that open. See Figure E3604.1. [230.9(A)]

    FIGURE E3604.1 CLEARANCES FROM BUILDING OPENINGS

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    FIGURE E3604.1

    CLEARANCES FROM BUILDING OPENINGS

    E3604.2 Vertical clearances.

    Overhead service conductors shall not have ready access and shall comply with Sections E3604.2.1 and E3604.2.2. (230.24)

    E3604.2.1 Above roofs.

    Conductors shall have a vertical clearance of not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) above the roof surface. The vertical clearance above the roof level shall be maintained for a distance of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) in all directions from the edge of the roof. See Figure E3604.2.1. [230.24(A)]

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Conductors above a roof surface subject to pedestrian traffic shall have a vertical clearance from the roof surface in accordance with Section E3604.2.2. [230.24(A) Exception No. 1]

    2. 2.Where the roof has a slope of 4 inches (102 mm) in 12 inches (305 mm), or greater, the minimum clearance shall be 3 feet (914 mm). [230.24(A) Exception No. 2]

    3. 3.The minimum clearance above only the overhanging portion of the roof shall not be less than 18 inches (457 mm) where not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) of overhead service conductor length passes over 4 feet (1219 mm) or less of roof surface measured horizontally and such conductors are terminated at a through-the-roof raceway or approved support. [230.24(A) Exception No. 3]

    4. 4.The requirement for maintaining the vertical clearance for a distance of 3 feet (914 mm) from the edge of the roof shall not apply to the final conductor span where the service drop is attached to the side of a building. [230.24(A) Exception No. 4]

    5. 5.Where the voltage between conductors does not exceed 300 and the roof area is guarded or isolated, a reduction in clearance to 3 feet (914 mm) shall be permitted. [230.24(A) Exception No. 5]

    FIGURE E3604.2.1 CLEARANCES FROM ROOFS

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    FIGURE E3604.2.1

    CLEARANCES FROM ROOFS

    E3604.2.2 Vertical clearance from grade.

    Overhead service conductors shall have the following minimum clearances from final grade:

    1. 1.For conductors supported on and cabled together with a grounded bare messenger wire, the minimum vertical clearance shall be 10 feet (3048 mm) at the electric service entrance to buildings, at the lowest point of the drip loop of the building electric entrance, and above areas or sidewalks accessed by pedestrians only. Such clearance shall be measured from final grade or other accessible surfaces.

    2. 2.Twelve feet (3658 mm)—over residential property and driveways.

    3. 3.Eighteen feet (5486 mm)—over public streets, alleys, roads or parking areas subject to truck traffic. [(230.24(B)(1), (2), and (4)]

    E3604.3 Point of attachment.

    The point of attachment of the overhead service conductors to a building or other structure shall provide the minimum clearances as specified in Sections E3604.1 through E3604.2.2. The point of attachment shall be not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) above finished grade. (230.26)

    E3604.4 Means of attachment.

    Multiconductor cables used for overhead service conductors shall be attached to buildings or other structures by fittings approved for the purpose. (230.27)

    E3604.5 Service masts as supports.

    A service mast used for the support of service-drop or overhead service conductors shall comply with Sections E3604.5.1 and E3604.5.2. Only power service drop or overhead service conductors shall be attached to a service mast.

    E3504.5.1 Strength.

    The service mast shall be of adequate strength or shall be supported by braces or guys to safely withstand the strain imposed by the service-drop or overhead service conductors. Hubs intended for use with a conduit that serves as a service mast shall be identified for use with service-entrance equipment.

    E3604.5.2 Attachment.

    Service-drop or overhead service conductors shall not be attached to a service mast at a point between a coupling and a weatherhead or the end of the conduit, where the coupling is located above the last point of securement of the building or other structure or is located above the building or other structure. [230.28(A) & (B)]

    E3604.6 Supports over buildings.

    Service conductors passing over a roof shall be securely supported. Where practicable, such supports shall be independent of the building. (230.29)

    SECTIONE3605
    SERVICE-ENTRANCE CONDUCTORS

    E3605.1 Insulation of service-entrance conductors.

    Service-entrance conductors entering or on the exterior of buildings or other structures shall be insulated in accordance with Section E3406.5. (230.41)

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.A copper grounded conductor shall not be required to be insulated where it is:

      1. 1.1.In a raceway or part of a service cable assembly,

      2. 1.2.Directly buried in soil of suitable condition, or

      3. 1.3.Part of a cable assembly listed for direct burial without regard to soil conditions.

    2. 2.An aluminum or copper-clad aluminum grounded conductor shall not be required to be insulated where part of a cable or where identified for direct burial or utilization in underground raceways. (230.41 Exception)

    E3605.2 Wiring methods for services.

    Service-entrance wiring methods shall be installed in accordance with the applicable requirements in Chapter 38. (230.43)

    E3605.3 Spliced conductors.

    Service-entrance conductors shall be permitted to be spliced or tapped. Splices shall be made in enclosures or, if directly buried, with listed underground splice kits. Conductor splices shall be made in accordance with Chapters 34, 37, 38 and 39. (230.33, 230.46)

    E3605.4 Protection of underground service entrance conductors.

    Underground service-entrance conductors shall be protected against physical damage in accordance with Chapter 38. (230.32)

    E3605.5 Protection of all other service cables.

    Aboveground service-entrance cables, where subject to physical damage, shall be protected by one or more of the following: rigid metal conduit, intermediate metal conduit, Schedule 80 PVC conduit, electrical metallic tubing or other approved means. [230.50(1)]

    E3605.6 Locations exposed to direct sunlight.

    Insulated conductors and cables used where exposed to direct rays of the sun shall comply with one of the following:

    1. 1.The conductors and cables shall be listed, or listed and marked, as being sunlight resistant.

    2. 2.The conductors and cables are covered with insulating material, such as tape or sleeving, that is listed, or listed and marked, as being sunlight resistant. [310.10(D)]

    E3605.7 Mounting supports.

    Service-entrance cables shall be supported by straps or other approved means within 12 inches (305 mm) of every service head, gooseneck or connection to a raceway or enclosure and at intervals not exceeding 30 inches (762 mm). [230.51(A)]

    E3605.8 Raceways to drain.

    Where exposed to the weather, raceways enclosing service-entrance conductors shall be suitable for use in wet locations and arranged to drain. Where embedded in masonry, raceways shall be arranged to drain. (230.53)

    E3605.9 Overhead service locations.

    Connections at service heads shall be in accordance with Sections E3605.9.1 through E3605.9.7. (230.54)

    E3605.9.1 Rain-tight service head.

    Service raceways shall be equipped with a service head at the point of connection to service-drop or overhead conductors. The service head shall be listed for use in wet locations. [230.54(A)]

    E3605.9.2 Service cable, service head or gooseneck.

    Service-entrance cable shall be equipped with a service head or shall be formed into a gooseneck in an approved manner. The service head shall be listed for use in wet locations. [230.54(B)]

    E3605.9.3 Service-head location.

    Service heads, and goosenecks in service-entrance cables, shall be located above the point of attachment of the service-drop or overhead service conductors to the building or other structure. [230.54(C)]

    Exception: Where it is impracticable to locate the service head or gooseneck above the point of attachment, the service head or gooseneck location shall be not more than 24 inches (610 mm) from the point of attachment. [230.54(C) Exception]

    E3605.9.4 Separately bushed openings.

    Service heads shall have conductors of different potential brought out through separately bushed openings. [230.54(E)]

    E3605.9.5 Drip loops.

    Drip loops shall be formed on individual conductors. To prevent the entrance of moisture, service-entrance conductors shall be connected to the service-drop or overhead conductors either below the level of the service head or below the level of the termination of the service-entrance cable sheath. [230.54(F)]

    E3605.9.6 Conductor arrangement.

    Service-entrance and overhead service conductors shall be arranged so that water will not enter service raceways or equipment. [230.54(G)]

    E3605.9.7 Secured.

    Service-entrance cables shall be held securely in place. [230.54(D)]

    SECTIONE3606
    SERVICE EQUIPMENT—GENERAL

    E3606.1 Service equipment enclosures.

    Energized parts of service equipment shall be enclosed. (230.62)

    E3606.2 Working space.

    The working space in the vicinity of service equipment shall be not less than that specified in Chapter 34. (110.26)

    E3606.3 Available short-circuit current.

    Service equipment shall be suitable for the maximum fault current available at its supply terminals, but not less than 10,000 amperes. (110.9)

    E3606.4 Marking.

    Service equipment shall be marked to identify it as being suitable for use as service equipment. Service equipment shall be listed. Individual meter socket enclosures shall not be considered as service equipment. (230.66)

    SECTIONE3607
    SYSTEM GROUNDING

    E3607.1 System service ground.

    The premises wiring system shall be grounded at the service with a grounding electrode conductor connected to a grounding electrode system as required by this code. Grounding electrode conductors shall be sized in accordance with Table E3603.4. [250.20(B)(1) and 250.24(A)]

    E3607.2 Location of grounding electrode conductor connection.

    The grounding electrode conductor shall be connected to the grounded service conductor at any accessible point from the load end of the overhead service conductors, service drop, underground service conductors, or service lateral to and including the terminal or bus to which the grounded service conductor is connected at the service disconnecting means. A grounding connection shall not be made to any grounded circuit conductor on the load side of the service disconnecting means, except as provided in Section E3607.3.2. [250.24(A)(1) and (A)(5)]

    E3607.3 Buildings or structures supplied by feeder(s) or branch circuit(s).

    Buildings or structures supplied by feeder(s) or branch circuit(s) shall have a grounding electrode or grounding electrode system installed in accordance with Section E3608. The grounding electrode conductor(s) shall be connected in a manner specified in Section E3607.3.1 or, for existing premises wiring systems only, Section E3607.3.2. Where there is no existing grounding electrode, the grounding electrode(s) required in Section E3608 shall be installed. [250.32(A)]

    Exception: A grounding electrode shall not be required where only one branch circuit, including a multiwire branch circuit, supplies the building or structure and the branch circuit includes an equipment grounding conductor for grounding the noncurrent-carrying parts of all equipment. For the purposes of this section, a multiwire branch circuit shall be considered as a single branch circuit. [250.32(A) Exception]

    E3607.3.1 Equipment grounding conductor.

    An equipment grounding conductor as described in Section E3908 shall be run with the supply conductors and connected to the building or structure disconnecting means and to the grounding electrode(s). The equipment grounding conductor shall be used for grounding or bonding of equipment, structures or frames required to be grounded or bonded. The equipment grounding conductor shall be sized in accordance with Section E3908.12. Any installed grounded conductor shall not be connected to the equipment grounding conductor or to the grounding electrode(s). [250.32(B) and Table 250.122]

    E3607.3.2 Grounded conductor, existing premises.

    For installations made in compliance with previous editions of this code that permitted such connection and where an equipment grounding conductor is not run with the supply conductors to the building or structure, there are no continuous metallic paths bonded to the grounding system in both buildings or structures involved, and ground-fault protection of equipment has not been installed on the supply side of the feeder(s), the grounded conductor run with the supply to the buildings or structure shall be connected to the building or structure disconnecting means and to the grounding electrode(s) and shall be used for grounding or bonding of equipment, structures, or frames required to be grounded or bonded. Where used for grounding in accordance with this provision, the grounded conductor shall be not smaller than the larger of:

    1. 1.That required by Section E3704.3.

    2. 2.That required by Section E3908.12. [250.32(B)(1) Exception]

    E3607.4 Grounding electrode conductor.

    A grounding electrode conductor shall be used to connect the equipment grounding conductors, the service equipment enclosures, and the grounded service conductor to the grounding electrode(s). This conductor shall be sized in accordance with Table E3603.4. [250.24(D)]

    E3607.5 Main bonding jumper.

    An unspliced main bonding jumper shall be used to connect the equipment grounding conductor(s) and the service-disconnect enclosure to the grounded conductor of the system within the enclosure for each service disconnect. [250.24(B)]

    E3607.6 Common grounding electrode.

    Where an ac system is connected to a grounding electrode in or at a building or structure, the same electrode shall be used to ground conductor enclosures and equipment in or on that building or structure. Where separate services, feeders or branch circuits supply a building and are required to be connected to a grounding electrode(s), the same grounding electrode(s) shall be used. Two or more grounding electrodes that are effectively bonded together shall be considered as a single grounding electrode system. (250.58)

    SECTIONE3608
    GROUNDING ELECTRODE SYSTEM

    E3608.1 Grounding electrode system.

    All electrodes specified in Sections E3608.1.1, E3608.1.2, E3608.1.3, E3608.1.4 E3608.1.5 and E3608.1.6 that are present at each building or structure served shall be bonded together to form the grounding electrode system. Where none of these electrodes are present, one or more of the electrodes specified in Sections E3608.1.3, E3608.1.4, E3608.1.5 and E3608.1.6 shall be installed and used. (250.50)

    Exception: Concrete-encased electrodes of existing buildings or structures shall not be required to be part of the grounding electrode system where the steel reinforcing bars or rods are not accessible for use without disturbing the concrete. (250.50 Exception)

    E3608.1.1 Metal underground water pipe.

    A metal underground water pipe that is in direct contact with the earth for 10 feet (3048 mm) or more, including any well casing effectively bonded to the pipe and that is electrically continuous, or made electrically continuous by bonding around insulating joints or insulating pipe to the points of connection of the grounding electrode conductor and the bonding conductors, shall be considered as a grounding electrode (see Section E3608.1). [250.52(A)(1)]

    E3608.1.1.1 Interior metal water piping.

    Interior metal water piping located more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the entrance to the building shall not be used as a conductor to interconnect electrodes that are part of the grounding electrode system. [250.68(C)(1)]

    E3608.1.1.2 Installation.

    Continuity of the grounding path or the bonding connection to interior piping shall not rely on water meters, filtering devices and similar equipment. A metal underground water pipe shall be supplemented by an additional electrode of a type specified in Sections E3608.1.2 through E3608.1.6. The supplemental electrode shall be bonded to the grounding electrode conductor, the grounded service-entrance conductor, a nonflexible grounded service raceway, any grounded service enclosure or to the equipment grounding conductor provided in accordance with Section E3607.3.1. Where the supplemental electrode is a rod, pipe or plate electrode in accordance with Section E3608.1.4 or E3608.1.5, it shall comply with Section E3608.4.

    Where the supplemental electrode is a rod, pipe or plate electrode in accordance with Section E3608.1.4 or E3608.1.5, that portion of the bonding jumper that is the sole connection to the supplemental grounding electrode shall not be required to be larger than 6 AWG copper or 4 AWG aluminum wire. [250.53(D) and (E)]

    E3608.1.2 Concrete-encased electrode.

    A concrete-encased electrode consisting of at least 20 feet (6096 mm) of either of the following shall be considered as a grounding electrode:

    1. 1.One or more bare or zinc galvanized or other electrically conductive coated steel reinforcing bars or rods not less than 1/2 inch (13 mm) in diameter, installed in one continuous 20-foot (6096 mm) length, or if in multiple pieces connected together by the usual steel tie wires, exothermic welding, welding, or other effective means to create a 20-foot (6096 mm) or greater length.

    2. 2.A bare copper conductor not smaller than 4 AWG.

    Metallic components shall be encased by at least 2 inches (51 mm) of concrete and shall be located horizontally within that portion of a concrete foundation or footing that is in direct contact with the earth or within vertical foundations or structural components or members that are in direct contact with the earth.

    Where multiple concrete-encased electrodes are present at a building or structure, only one shall be required to be bonded into the grounding electrode system. [250.52(A)(3)]

    E3608.1.3 Ground rings.

    A ground ring encircling the building or structure, in direct contact with the earth at a depth below the earth’s surface of not less than 30 inches (762 mm), consisting of at least 20 feet (6096 mm) of bare copper conductor not smaller than 2 AWG shall be considered as a grounding electrode. [250.52(A)(4)]

    E3608.1.4 Rod and pipe electrodes.

    Rod and pipe electrodes not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) in length and consisting of the following materials shall be considered as a grounding electrode:

    1. 1.Grounding electrodes of pipe or conduit shall not be smaller than trade size 3/4 (metric designator 21) and, where of iron or steel, shall have the outer surface galvanized or otherwise metal-coated for corrosion protection.

    2. 2.Rod-type grounding electrodes of stainless steel and copper or zinc-coated steel shall be at least 5/8 inch (15.9 mm) in diameter unless listed. [250.52(A)(5)]

    E3608.1.4.1 Installation.

    The rod and pipe electrodes shall be installed such that at least 8 feet (2438 mm) of length is in contact with the soil. They shall be driven to a depth of not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) except that, where rock bottom is encountered, electrodes shall be driven at an oblique angle not to exceed 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the vertical or shall be buried in a trench that is at least 30 inches (762 mm) deep. The upper end of the electrodes shall be flush with or below ground level except where the aboveground end and the grounding electrode conductor attachment are protected against physical damage. (250.53(G)]

    E3608.1.5 Plate electrodes.

    A plate electrode that exposes not less than 2 square feet (0.186 m2) of surface to exterior soil shall be considered as a grounding electrode. Electrodes of bare or conductively coated iron or steel plates shall be at least 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) in thickness. Solid, uncoated electrodes of nonferrous metal shall be at least 0.06 inch (1.5 mm) in thickness. Plate electrodes shall be installed not less than 30 inches (762 mm) below the surface of the earth. [250.52(A)(7)]

    E3608.1.6 Other electrodes.

    In addition to the grounding electrodes specified in Sections E3608.1.1 through E3608.1.5, other listed grounding electrodes shall be permitted. [250.52(A)(6)]

    E3608.2 Bonding jumper.

    The bonding jumper(s) used to connect the grounding electrodes together to form the grounding electrode system shall be installed in accordance with Sections E3610.2, and E3610.3, shall be sized in accordance with Section E3603.4, and shall be connected in the manner specified in Section E3611.1. [250.53(C)]

    E3608.3 Rod, pipe and plate electrode requirements.

    Where practicable, rod, pipe and plate electrodes shall be embedded below permanent moisture level. Such electrodes shall be free from nonconductive coatings such as paint or enamel. Where more than one such electrode is used, each electrode of one grounding system shall be not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) from any other electrode of another grounding system. Two or more grounding electrodes that are effectively bonded together shall be considered as a single grounding electrode system. That portion of a bonding jumper that is the sole connection to a rod, pipe or plate electrode shall not be required to be larger than 6 AWG copper or 4 AWG aluminum wire. [250.53(A)(1), 250.53(B), 250.53(C)]

    E3608.4 Supplemental electrode required.

    A single rod, pipe, or plate electrode shall be supplemented by an additional electrode of a type specified in Sections E3608.1.2 through E3608.1.6. The supplemental electrode shall be bonded to one of the following:

    1. 1.A rod, pipe, or plate electrode.

    2. 2.A grounding electrode conductor.

    3. 3.A grounded service-entrance conductor.

    4. 4.A nonflexible grounded service raceway.

    5. 5.A grounded service enclosure.

    Where multiple rod, pipe, or plate electrodes are installed to meet the requirements of this section, they shall not be less than 6 feet (1829 mm) apart. [250.53(A)(2) and (A)(3)]

    Exception: Where a single rod, pipe, or plate grounding electrode has a resistance to earth of 25 ohms or less, the supplemental electrode shall not be required. [250.53(A)(2) Exception]

    E3608.5 Aluminum electrodes.

    Aluminum electrodes shall not be permitted. [250.52(B)(2)]

    E3608.6 Metal underground gas piping system.

    A metal underground gas piping system shall not be used as a grounding electrode. [250.52(B)(1)]

    SECTIONE3609
    BONDING

    E3609.1 General.

    Bonding shall be provided where necessary to ensure electrical continuity and the capacity to conduct safely any fault current likely to be imposed. (250.90)

    E3609.2 Bonding of equipment for services.

    The noncurrent-carrying metal parts of the following equipment shall be effectively bonded together:

    1. 1.Raceways or service cable armor or sheath that enclose, contain, or support service conductors.

    2. 2.Service enclosures containing service conductors, including meter fittings, and boxes, interposed in the service raceway or armor. [250.92(A)]

    E3609.3 Bonding for other systems.

    An intersystem bonding termination for connecting intersystem bonding conductors required for other systems shall be provided external to enclosures at the service equipment or metering equipment enclosure and at the disconnecting means for any additional buildings or structures. The intersystem bonding termination shall comply with all of the following:

    1. 1.It shall be accessible for connection and inspection.

    2. 2.It shall consist of a set of terminals with the capacity for connection of not less than three intersystem bonding conductors.

    3. 3.It shall not interfere with opening of the enclosure for a service, building or structure disconnecting means, or metering equipment.

    4. 4.Where located at the service equipment, it shall be securely mounted and electrically connected to an enclosure for the service equipment, to the meter enclosure, or to an exposed nonflexible metallic service race-way, or shall be mounted at one of these enclosures and connected to the enclosure or to the grounding electrode conductor with a 6 AWG or larger copper conductor.

    5. 5.Where located at the disconnecting means for a building or structure, it shall be securely mounted and electrically connected to the metallic enclosure for the building or structure disconnecting means, or shall be mounted at the disconnecting means and connected to the metallic enclosure or to the grounding electrode conductor with a 6 AWG or larger copper conductor.

    6. 6.It shall be listed as grounding and bonding equipment. (250.94)

    E3609.4 Method of bonding at the service.

    Bonding jumpers meeting the requirements of this chapter shall be used around impaired connections, such as reducing washers or oversized, concentric, or eccentric knockouts. Standard locknuts or bushings shall not be the only means for the bonding required by this section but shall be permitted to be installed to make mechanical connections of raceways. Electrical continuity at service equipment, service raceways and service conductor enclosures shall be ensured by one or more of the methods specified in Sections E3609.4.1 through E3609.4.4.

    E3609.4.1 Grounded service conductor.

    Equipment shall be bonded to the grounded service conductor in a manner provided in this code.

    E3609.4.2 Threaded connections.

    Equipment shall be bonded by connections using threaded couplings or threaded hubs on enclosures. Such connections shall be made wrench tight.

    E3609.4.3 Threadless couplings and connectors.

    Equipment shall be bonded by threadless couplings and connectors for metal raceways and metal-clad cables. Such couplings and connectors shall be made wrench tight. Standard locknuts or bushings shall not be used for the bonding required by this section.

    E3609.4.4 Other devices.

    Equipment shall be bonded by other listed devices, such as bonding-type locknuts, bushings and bushings with bonding jumpers. [250.92(B)]

    E3609.5 Sizing supply-side bonding jumper and main bonding jumper.

    The bonding jumper shall not be smaller than the sizes shown in Table E3603.4 for grounding electrode conductors. Where the service-entrance conductors are paralleled in two or more raceways or cables, and an individual supply-side bonding jumper is used for bonding these raceways or cables, the supply-side bonding jumper for each raceway or cable shall be selected from Table E3603.4 based on the size of the ungrounded supply conductors in each raceway or cable. A single supply-side bonding jumper installed for bonding two or more raceways or cables shall be sized in accordance with Table E3603.4 based on the largest set of parallel ungrounded supply conductors. [250.102(C)]

    E3609.6 Metal water piping bonding.

    The metal water piping system shall be bonded to the service equipment enclosure, the grounded conductor at the service, the grounding electrode conductor where of sufficient size, or to the one or more grounding electrodes used. The bonding jumper shall be sized in accordance with Table E3603.4. The points of attachment of the bonding jumper(s) shall be accessible. [250.104(A) and 250.104(A)(1)]

    E3609.7 Bonding other metal piping.

    Where installed in or attached to a building or structure, metal piping systems, including gas piping, capable of becoming energized shall be bonded to the service equipment enclosure, the grounded conductor at the service, the grounding electrode conductor where of sufficient size, or to the one or more grounding electrodes used. The bonding conductor(s) or jumper(s) shall be sized in accordance with Table E3908.12 using the rating of the circuit capable of energizing the piping. The equipment grounding conductor for the circuit that is capable of energizing the piping shall be permitted to serve as the bonding means. The points of attachment of the bonding jumper(s) shall be accessible. [250.104(B)]

    SECTIONE3610
    GROUNDING ELECTRODE CONDUCTORS

    E3610.1 Continuous.

    The grounding electrode conductor shall be installed in one continuous length without splices or joints and shall run to any convenient grounding electrode available in the grounding electrode system where the other electrode(s), if any, are connected by bonding jumpers in accordance with Section E3608.2, or to one or more grounding electrode(s) individually. The grounding electrode conductor shall be sized for the largest grounding electrode conductor required among all of the electrodes connected to it. [250.64(C)]

    Exception: Splicing of the grounding electrode conductor by irreversible compression-type connectors listed as grounding and bonding equipment or by the exothermic welding process shall not be prohibited. [250.64(C)(1)]

    E3610.2 Securing and protection against physical damage.

    Where exposed, a grounding electrode conductor or its enclosure shall be securely fastened to the surface on which it is carried. Grounding electrode conductors shall be permitted to be installed on or through framing members. A 4 AWG or larger conductor shall be protected where exposed to physical damage. A 6 AWG grounding conductor that is free from exposure to physical damage shall be permitted to be run along the surface of the building construction without metal covering or protection where it is and securely fastened to the construction; otherwise, it shall be in rigid metal conduit, intermediate metal conduit, rigid polyvinyl chloride (PVC), nonmetallic conduit, reinforced thermosetting resin (RTRC) nonmetallic conduit, electrical metallic tubing or cable armor. Grounding electrode conductors smaller than 6 AWG shall be in rigid metal conduit, intermediate metal conduit, rigid polyvinyl chloride (PVC) nonmetallic conduit, reinforced thermoseting resin (RTRC) nonmetallic conduit, electrical metallic tubing or cable armor. Grounding electrode conductors and grounding electrode bonding jumpers shall not be required to comply with Section E3803. [250.64(B)]

    Bare aluminum or copper-clad aluminum grounding electrode conductors shall not be used where in direct contact with masonry or the earth or where subject to corrosive conditions. Where used outside, aluminum or copper-clad aluminum grounding electrode conductors shall not be installed within 18 inches (457 mm) of the earth. [250.64(A)]

    E3610.3 Raceways and enclosures for grounding electrode conductors.

    Ferrous metal raceways and enclosures for grounding electrode conductors shall be electrically continuous from the point of attachment to cabinets or equipment to the grounding electrode, and shall be securely fastened to the ground clamp or fitting. Nonferrous metal raceways and enclosures shall not be required to be electrically continuous. Ferrous metal raceways and enclosures shall be bonded at each end of the raceway or enclosure to the grounding electrode or to the grounding electrode conductor. Bonding methods in compliance with Section E3609.4 for installations at service equipment locations and with E3609.4.2 through E3609.4.4 for other than service equipment locations shall apply at each end and to all intervening ferrous raceways, boxes, and enclosures between the cabinets or equipment and the grounding electrode. The bonding jumper for a grounding electrode conductor raceway shall be the same size or larger than the required enclosed grounding electrode conductor.

    Where a raceway is used as protection for a grounding conductor, the installation shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 38. [250.64(E)(4)]

    E3610.4 Prohibited use.

    An equipment grounding conductor shall not be used as a grounding electrode conductor. (250.121)

    Exception: A wire-type equipment grounding conductor shall be permitted to serve as both an equipment grounding conductor and a grounding electrode conductor where installed in accordance with the applicable requirements for both the equipment grounding conductor and the grounding electrode conductor in Chapters 36 and 39. Where used as a grounding electrode conductor, the wire-type equipment grounding conductor shall be installed and arranged in a manner that will prevent objectionable current. [250.121 Exception, 250.6(A)]

    SECTIONE3611
    GROUNDING ELECTRODE CONDUCTOR
    CONNECTION TO THE GROUNDING ELECTRODES

    E3611.1 Methods of grounding conductor connection to electrodes.

    The grounding or bonding conductor shall be connected to the grounding electrode by exothermic welding, listed lugs, listed pressure connectors, listed clamps or other listed means. Connections depending on solder shall not be used. Ground clamps shall be listed for the materials of the grounding electrode and the grounding electrode conductor and, where used on pipe, rod or other buried electrodes, shall also be listed for direct soil burial or concrete encasement. Not more than one conductor shall be connected to the grounding electrode by a single clamp or fitting unless the clamp or fitting is listed for multiple conductors. One of the methods indicated in the following items shall be used:

    1. 1.A pipe fitting, pipe plug or other approved device screwed into a pipe or pipe fitting.

    2. 2.A listed bolted clamp of cast bronze or brass, or plain or malleable iron.

    3. 3.For indoor communications purposes only, a listed sheet metal strap-type ground clamp having a rigid metal base that seats on the electrode and having a strap of such material and dimensions that it is not likely to stretch during or after installation.

    4. 4.Other equally substantial approved means. (250.70)

    E3611.2 Accessibility.

    All mechanical elements used to terminate a grounding electrode conductor or bonding jumper to the grounding electrodes that are not buried or concrete encased shall be accessible. [250.68(A) and 250.68(A) Exception]

    E3611.3 Effective grounding path.

    The connection of the grounding electrode conductor or bonding jumper shall be made in a manner that will ensure a permanent and effective grounding path. Where necessary to ensure effective grounding for a metal piping system used as a grounding electrode, effective bonding shall be provided around insulated joints and sections and around any equipment that is likely to be disconnected for repairs or replacement. Bonding jumpers shall be of sufficient length to permit removal of such equipment while retaining the integrity of the grounding path. [250.68(B)]

    E3611.4 Interior metal water piping.

    Where grounding electrode conductors and bonding jumpers are connected to interior metal water piping as a means to extend the grounding electrode conductor connection to an electrode(s), such piping shall be located not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the point of entry into the building.

    Where interior metal water piping is used as a conductor to interconnect electrodes that are part of the grounding electrode system, such piping shall be located not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the point of entry into the building. [250.68(C)(1)]

    E3611.5 Protection of ground clamps and fittings.

    Ground clamps or other fittings shall be approved for applications without protection or shall be protected from physical damage by installing them where they are not likely to be damaged or by enclosing them in metal, wood or equivalent protective coverings. (250.10)

    E3611.6 Clean surfaces.

    Nonconductive coatings (such as paint, enamel and lacquer) on equipment to be grounded shall be removed from threads and other contact surfaces to ensure good electrical continuity or shall be connected by fittings that make such removal unnecessary. (250.12)

    CHAPTER37
    BRANCH CIRCUIT AND FEEDER REQUIREMENTS

    SECTIONE3701
    GENERAL

    E3701.1 Scope.

    This chapter covers branch circuits and feeders and specifies the minimum required branch circuits, the allowable loads and the required overcurrent protection for branch circuits and feeders that serve less than 100 percent of the total dwelling unit load. Feeder circuits that serve 100 percent of the dwelling unit load shall be sized in accordance with the procedures in Chapter 36. [310.15(B)(7)(2)]

    E3701.2 Branch-circuit and feeder ampacity.

    Branch-circuit and feeder conductors shall have ampacities not less than the maximum load to be served. Where a branch circuit or a feeder supplies continuous loads or any combination of continuous and noncontinuous loads, the minimum branch-circuit or feeder conductor size, before the application of any adjustment or correction factors, shall have an allowable ampacity equal to or greater than the noncontinuous load plus 125 percent of the continuous load. [210.19(A)(1)(a) and 215.2(A)(1)(a)]

    Exception: The grounded conductors of feeders that are not connected to an overcurrent device shall be permitted to be sized at 100 percent of the continuous and noncontinuous load. [215.1(A)(1) Exception No. 2]

    E3701.3 Selection of ampacity.

    Where more than one calculated or tabulated ampacity could apply for a given circuit length, the lowest value shall be used. [310.15(A)(2)]

    Exception: Where two different ampacities apply to adjacent portions of a circuit, the higher ampacity shall be permitted to be used beyond the point of transition, a distance equal to 10 feet (3048 mm) or 10 percent of the circuit length figured at the higher ampacity, whichever is less. [310.15(A)(2) Exception]

    E3701.4 Branch circuits with more than one receptacle.

    Conductors of branch circuits supplying more than one receptacle for cord-and-plug-connected portable loads shall have ampacities of not less than the rating of the branch circuit. [210.19(A)(2)]

    E3701.5 Multiwire branch circuits.

    All conductors for multiwire branch circuits shall originate from the same panelboard or similar distribution equipment. Except where all ungrounded conductors are opened simultaneously by the branch-circuit overcurrent device, multiwire branch circuits shall supply only line-to-neutral loads or only one appliance. [210.4(A) and 210.4(C)]

    E3701.5.1 Disconnecting means.

    Each multiwire branch circuit shall be provided with a means that will simultaneously disconnect all ungrounded conductors at the point where the branch circuit originates. [210.4(B)]

    E3701.5.2 Grouping.

    The ungrounded and grounded circuit conductors of each multiwire branch circuit shall be grouped by cable ties or similar means in at least one location within the panelboard or other point of origination. [210.4(D)]

    Exception: Grouping shall not be required where the circuit conductors enter from a cable or raceway unique to the circuit, thereby making the grouping obvious, or where the conductors are identified at their terminations with numbered wire markers corresponding to their appropriate circuit number. [210.4(D) Exception].

    SECTIONE3702
    BRANCH CIRCUIT RATINGS

    E3702.1 Branch-circuit voltage limitations.

    The voltage ratings of branch circuits that supply luminaires or receptacles for cord-and-plug-connected loads of up to 1,400 volt-amperes or of less than 1/4 horsepower (0.186 kW) shall be limited to a maximum rating of 120 volts, nominal, between conductors.

    Branch circuits that supply cord-and-plug-connected or permanently connected utilization equipment and appliances rated at over 1,440 volt-amperes or 1/4 horsepower (0.186 kW) and greater shall be rated at 120 volts or 240 volts, nominal. [210.6(A), (B), and (C)]

    E3702.2 Branch-circuit ampere rating.

    Branch circuits shall be rated in accordance with the maximum allowable ampere rating or setting of the overcurrent protection device. The rating for other than individual branch circuits shall be 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50 amperes. Where conductors of higher ampacity are used, the ampere rating or setting of the specified over-current device shall determine the circuit rating. (210.3)

    E3702.3 Fifteen- and 20-ampere branch circuits.

    A 15- or 20-ampere branch circuit shall be permitted to supply lighting units, or other utilization equipment, or a combination of both. The rating of any one cord-and-plug-connected utilization equipment not fastened in place shall not exceed 80 percent of the branch-circuit ampere rating. The total rating of utilization equipment fastened in place, other than luminaires, shall not exceed 50 percent of the branch-circuit ampere rating where lighting units, cord-and-plug-connected utilization equipment not fastened in place, or both, are also supplied. [210.23(A)(1) and (2)]

    E3702.4 Thirty-ampere branch circuits.

    A 30-ampere branch circuit shall be permitted to supply fixed utilization equipment. A rating of any one cord-and-plug-connected utilization equipment shall not exceed 80 percent of the branch-circuit ampere rating. [210.23(B)]

    E3702.5 Branch circuits serving multiple loads or outlets.

    General-purpose branch circuits shall supply lighting outlets, appliances, equipment or receptacle outlets, and combinations of such. Multioutlet branch circuits serving lighting or receptacles shall be limited to a maximum branch-circuit rating of 20 amperes. [210.23(A), (B), and (C)]

    E3702.6 Branch circuits serving a single motor.

    Branch-circuit conductors supplying a single motor shall have an ampacity not less than 125 percent of the motor full-load current rating. [430.22(A)]

    E3702.7 Branch circuits serving motor-operated and combination loads.

    For circuits supplying loads consisting of motor-operated utilization equipment that is fastened in place and that has a motor larger than 1/8 horsepower (0.093 kW) in combination with other loads, the total calculated load shall be based on 125 percent of the largest motor load plus the sum of the other loads. [220.18(A)]

    E3702.8 Branch-circuit inductive and LED lighting loads.

    For circuits supplying luminaires having ballasts or LED drivers, the calculated load shall be based on the total ampere ratings of such units and not on the total watts of the lamps. [220.18(B)]

    E3702.9 Branch-circuit load for ranges and cooking appliances.

    It shall be permissible to calculate the branch-circuit load for one range in accordance with Table E3704.2(2). The branch-circuit load for one wall-mounted oven or one counter-mounted cooking unit shall be the nameplate rating of the appliance. The branch-circuit load for a counter-mounted cooking unit and not more than two wall-mounted ovens all supplied from a single branch circuit and located in the same room shall be calculated by adding the nameplate ratings of the individual appliances and treating the total as equivalent to one range. (220.55 Note 4)

    E3702.9.1 Minimum branch circuit for ranges.

    Ranges with a rating of 8.75 kVA or more shall be supplied by a branch circuit having a minimum rating of 40 amperes. [210.19(A)(3)]

    E3702.10 Branch circuits serving heating loads.

    Electric space-heating and water-heating appliances shall be considered to be continuous loads. Branch circuits supplying two or more outlets for fixed electric space-heating equipment shall be rated 15, 20, 25 or 30 amperes. [424.3(A)]

    E3702.11 Branch circuits for air-conditioning and heat pump equipment.

    The ampacity of the conductors supplying multimotor and combination load equipment shall be not less than the minimum circuit ampacity marked on the equipment. The branch-circuit overcurrent device rating shall be the size and type marked on the appliance. [440.4(B), 440.35, 440.62(A)]

    E3702.12 Branch circuits serving room air conditioners.

    A room air conditioner shall be considered as a single motor unit in determining its branch-circuit requirements where all the following conditions are met:

    1. 1.It is cord- and attachment plug-connected.

    2. 2.The rating is not more than 40 amperes and 250 volts; single phase.

    3. 3.Total rated-load current is shown on the room air-conditioner nameplate rather than individual motor currents.

    4. 4.The rating of the branch-circuit short-circuit and ground-fault protective device does not exceed the ampacity of the branch-circuit conductors, or the rating of the branch-circuit conductors, or the rating of the receptacle, whichever is less. [440.62(A)]

    E3702.12.1 Where no other loads are supplied.

    The total marked rating of a cord- and attachment plug-connected room air conditioner shall not exceed 80 percent of the rating of a branch circuit where no other appliances are also supplied. [440.62(B)]

    E3702.12.2 Where lighting units or other appliances are also supplied.

    The total marked rating of a cord- and attachment plug-connected room air conditioner shall not exceed 50 percent of the rating of a branch circuit where lighting or other appliances are also supplied. Where the circuitry is interlocked to prevent simultaneous operation of the room air conditioner and energization of other outlets on the same branch circuit, a cord- and attachment-plug-connected room air conditioner shall not exceed 80 percent of the branch-circuit rating. [440.62(C)]

    E3702.13 Electric vehicle branch circuit.

    Outlets installed for the purpose of charging electric vehicles shall be supplied by a separate branch circuit. Such circuit shall not supply other outlets. (210.17)

    E3702.14 Branch-circuit requirement—summary.

    The requirements for circuits having two or more outlets, or receptacles, other than the receptacle circuits of Sections E3703.2, E3703.3 and E3703.4, are summarized in Table E3702.14. Branch circuits in dwelling units shall supply only loads within that dwelling unit or loads associated only with that dwelling unit. Branch circuits installed for the purpose of lighting, central alarm, signal, communications or other purposes for public or common areas of a two-family dwelling shall not be supplied from equipment that supplies an individual dwelling unit. (210.24 and 210.25)

    TABLE E3702.14 (Table 210.24)

    BRANCH-CIRCUIT REQUIREMENTS-SUMMARYa, b

    CIRCUIT RATING
    15 amp20 amp30 amp
    Conductors:Minimum size (AWG) circuit conductors141210
    Maximum overcurrent-protection device ratingAmpere rating152030
    Outlet devices:Lampholders permittedReceptacle rating (amperes)Any type 15 maximumAny type 15 or 20N/A 30
    Maximum load (amperes)152030
    1. a.These gages are for copper conductors.

    2. b.N/A means not allowed.

    SECTIONE3703
    REQUIRED BRANCH CIRCUITS

    E3703.1 Branch circuits for heating.

    Central heating equipment other than fixed electric space heating shall be supplied by an individual branch circuit. Permanently connected air-conditioning equipment, and auxiliary equipment directly associated with the central heating equipment such as pumps, motorized valves, humidifiers and electrostatic air cleaners, shall not be prohibited from connecting to the same branch circuit as the central heating equipment. (422.12 and 422.12 Exceptions No. 1 and No. 2)

    E3703.2 Kitchen and dining area receptacles.

    A minimum of two 20-ampere-rated branch circuits shall be provided to serve all wall and floor receptacle outlets located in the kitchen, pantry, breakfast area, dining area or similar area of a dwelling. The kitchen countertop receptacles shall be served by a minimum of two 20-ampere-rated branch circuits, either or both of which shall also be permitted to supply other receptacle outlets in the same kitchen, pantry, breakfast and dining area including receptacle outlets for refrigeration appliances. [210.11(C)(1) and 210.52(B)(1) and (B)(2)]

    Exception: The receptacle outlet for refrigeration appliances shall be permitted to be supplied from an individual branch circuit rated 15 amperes or greater. [210.52(B)(1) Exception No. 2]

    E3703.3 Laundry circuit.

    A minimum of one 20-ampere-rated branch circuit shall be provided for receptacles located in the laundry area and shall serve only receptacle outlets located in the laundry area. [210.11(C)(2)]

    E3703.4 Bathroom branch circuits.

    A minimum of one 20-ampere branch circuit shall be provided to supply bathroom receptacle outlet(s). Such circuits shall have no other outlets. [210.11(C)(3)]

    Exception: Where the 20-ampere circuit supplies a single bathroom, outlets for other equipment within the same bathroom shall be permitted to be supplied in accordance with Section E3702. [210.11(C)(3) Exception)

    E3703.5 Number of branch circuits.

    The minimum number of branch circuits shall be determined from the total calculated load and the size or rating of the circuits used. The number of circuits shall be sufficient to supply the load served. In no case shall the load on any circuit exceed the maximum specified by Section E3702. [210.11(A)]

    E3703.6 Branch-circuit load proportioning.

    Where the branch-circuit load is calculated on a volt-amperes-per-square-foot (m2) basis, the wiring system, up to and including the branch-circuit panelboard(s), shall have the capacity to serve not less than the calculated load. This load shall be evenly proportioned among multioutlet branch circuits within the panelboard(s). Branch-circuit overcurrent devices and circuits shall only be required to be installed to serve the connected load. [210.11(B)]

    SECTIONE3704
    FEEDER REQUIREMENTS

    E3704.1 Conductor size.

    Feeder conductors that do not serve 100 percent of the dwelling unit load and branch-circuit conductors shall be of a size sufficient to carry the load as determined by this chapter. Feeder conductors shall not be required to be larger than the service-entrance conductors that supply the dwelling unit. The load for feeder conductors that serve as the main power feeder to a dwelling unit shall be determined as specified in Chapter 36 for services. [310.15(B)(7)(2) and (3)]

    E3704.2 Feeder loads.

    The minimum load in volt-amperes shall be calculated in accordance with the load calculation procedure prescribed in Table E3704.2(1). The associated table demand factors shall be applied to the actual load to determine the minimum load for feeders. (220.40)

    TABLE E3704.2(1)

    (Table 220.12, 220.14, Table 220.42, 220.50, 220.51, 220.52, 220.53, 220.54, 220.55, and 220.60) FEEDER LOAD CALCULATION

    LOAD CALCULATION PROCEDUREAPPLIED DEMAND FACTOR
    Lighting and receptacles: A unit load of not less than 3 VA per square foot of total floor area shall constitute the lighting and 120-volt, 15- and 20-ampere general use receptacle load. 1,500 VA shall be added for each 20-ampere branch circuit serving receptacles in the kitchen, dining room, pantry, breakfast area and laundry area.100 percent of first 3,000 VA or less and 35 percent of that in excess of 3,000 VA.
    Plus
    Appliances and motors: The nameplate rating load of all fastened-in-place appliances other than dryers, ranges, air-conditioning and space-heating equipment.100 percent of load for three or less appliances. 75 percent of load for four or more appliances.
    Plus
    Fixed motors: Full-load current of motors plus 25 percent of the full load current of the largest motor.
    Plus
    Electric clothes dryer: The dryer load shall be 5,000 VA for each dryer circuit or the nameplate rating load of each dryer, whichever is greater.
    Plus
    Cooking appliances: The nameplate rating of ranges, wall-mounted ovens, counter-mounted cooking units and other cooking appliances rated in excess of 1.75 kVA shall be summed.Demand factors shall be as allowed by Table E3704.2(2).
    Plus the largest of either the heating or cooling load
    Largest of the following two selections:
    1. 1.100 percent of the nameplate rating(s) of the air conditioning and cooling, including heat pump compressors.

    2. 2.100 percent of the fixed electric space heating.

    For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.

    TABLE E3704.2(2) (220.55 and Table 220.55)

    DEMAND LOADS FOR ELECTRIC RANGES, WALL-MOUNTED OVENS, COUNTER-MOUNTED COOKING UNITS AND OTHER COOKING APPLIANCES OVER 13/4 kVA RATINGa, b

    NUMBER OF APPLIANCESMAXIMUM DEMANDb, cDEMAND FACTORS (percent)d
    Column A maximum 12 kVA ratingColumn B less than 31/2 kVA ratingColumn C 31/2 to 83/4 kVA rating
    18 kVA8080
    211 kVA7565
    1. a.Column A shall be used in all cases except as provided for in Footnote d.

    2. b.For ranges all having the same rating and individually rated more than 12 kVA but not more than 27 kVA, the maximum demand in Column A shall be increased 5 percent for each additional kVA of rating or major fraction thereof by which the rating of individual ranges exceeds 12 kVA.

    3. c.For ranges of unequal ratings and individually rated more than 8.75 kVA, but none exceeding 27 kVA, an average value of rating shall be computed by adding together the ratings of all ranges to obtain the total connected load (using 12 kVA for any ranges rated less than 12 kVA) and dividing by the total number of ranges; and then the maximum demand in Column A shall be increased 5 percent for each kVA or major fraction thereof by which this average value exceeds 12 kVA.

    4. d.Over 1.75 kVA through 8.75 kVA. As an alternative to the method provided in Column A, the nameplate ratings of all ranges rated more than 1.75 kVA but not more than 8.75 kVA shall be added and the sum shall be multiplied by the demand factor specified in Column B or C for the given number of appliances.

    E3704.3 Feeder neutral load.

    The feeder neutral load shall be the maximum unbalance of the load determined in accordance with this chapter. The maximum unbalanced load shall be the maximum net calculated load between the neutral and any one ungrounded conductor. For a feeder or service supplying electric ranges, wall-mounted ovens, counter-mounted cooking units and electric dryers, the maximum unbalanced load shall be considered as 70 percent of the load on the ungrounded conductors. [220.61(A) and (B)]

    E3704.4 Lighting and general use receptacle load.

    A unit load of not less than 3 volt-amperes shall constitute the minimum lighting and general use receptacle load for each square foot of floor area (33 VA for each square meter of floor area). The floor area for each floor shall be calculated from the outside dimensions of the building. The calculated floor area shall not include open porches, garages, or unused or unfinished spaces not adaptable for future use. [220.12, Table 220.12, and 220.14(J)]

    E3704.5 Ampacity and calculated loads.

    The calculated load of a feeder shall be not less than the sum of the loads on the branch circuits supplied, as determined by Section E3704, after any applicable demand factors permitted by Section E3704 have been applied. (220.40)

    E3704.6 Equipment grounding conductor.

    Where a feeder supplies branch circuits in which equipment grounding conductors are required, the feeder shall include or provide an equipment grounding conductor that is one or more or a combination of the types specified in Section E3908.8, to which the equipment grounding conductors of the branch circuits shall be connected. Where the feeder supplies a separate building or structure, the requirements of Section E3607.3.1 shall apply. (215.6)

    SECTIONE3705
    CONDUCTOR SIZING
    AND OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

    E3705.1 General.

    Ampacities for conductors shall be determined based in accordance with Table E3705.1 and Sections E3705.2 and E3705.3. [310.15(A)]

    TABLE E3705.1

    ALLOWABLE AMPACITIES

    CONDUCTOR SIZECONDUCTOR TEMPERATURE RATINGCONDUCTOR SIZE
    60°C75°C90°C60°C75°C90°C
    AWG kcmilTypes TW, UFTypes RHW, THHW, THW, THWN, USE, XHHWTypes RHW-2, THHN, THHW, THW-2, THWN-2, XHHW, XHHW-2, USE-2Types TW, UFTypes RHW, THHW, THW, THWN, USE, XHHWTypes RHW-2, THHN, THHW, THW-2, THWN-2, XHHW, XHHW-2, USE-2AWG kcmil
    CopperAluminum or copper-clad aluminum
    14a152025
    12a20253015202512a
    10a30354025303510a
    84050553540458
    65565754050556
    47085955565754
    3851001156575853
    29511513075901002
    1110130145851001151
    1/01251501701001201351/0
    2/01451751951151351502/0
    3/01652002251301551753/0
    4/01952302601501802054/0
    250215255290170205230250
    300240285320195230260300
    350260310350210250280350
    400280335380225270305400
    500320380430260310350500
    600350420475285340385600
    700385460520315375425700
    750400475535320385435750
    800410490555330395445800
    900435520585355425480900

    For SI: °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8.

    1. a.See Table E3705.5.3 for conductor overcurrent protection limitations.

    E3705.2 Correction factor for ambient temperatures.

    For ambient temperatures other than 30°C (86°F), multiply the allowable ampacities specified in Table E3705.1 by the appropriate correction factor shown in Table E3705.2. [310.15(B)(2)]

    TABLE E3705.2 [Table 310.15(B)(2)(a)]

    AMBIENT TEMPERATURE CORRECTION FACTORS

    For ambient temperatures other than 30°C (86°F), multiply the allowable ampacities specified in the ampacity tables by the appropriate correction factor shown below.
    Ambient Temperature (°C)Temperature Rating of ConductorAmbient Temperature (°F)
    60°C75°C90°C
    10 or less1.291.201.1550 or less
    11-151.221.151.1251-59
    16-201.151.111.0860-68
    21-251.081.051.0469-77
    26-301.001.001.0078-86
    31-350.910.940.9687-95
    36-400.820.880.9196-104
    41-450.710.820.87105-113
    46-500.580.750.82114-122
    51-550.410.670.76123-131
    56-600.580.71132-140
    61-650.470.65141-149
    66-700.330.58150-158
    71-750.50159-167
    76-800.41168-176
    81-850.29177-185

    For SI: 1 °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8.

    E3705.3 Adjustment factor for conductor proximity.

    Where the number of current-carrying conductors in a raceway or cable exceeds three, or where single conductors or multiconductor cables are stacked or bundled for distances greater than 24 inches (610 mm) without maintaining spacing and are not installed in raceways, the allowable ampacity of each conductor shall be reduced as shown in Table E3705.3. [310.15(B)(3)]

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Adjustment factors shall not apply to conductors in nipples having a length not exceeding 24 inches (610 mm). [310.15(B)(3)(2)]

    2. 2.Adjustment factors shall not apply to underground conductors entering or leaving an outdoor trench if those conductors have physical protection in the form of rigid metal conduit, intermediate metal conduit, or rigid nonmetallic conduit having a length not exceeding 10 feet (3048 mm) and the number of conductors does not exceed four.[310.15(B)(3)(3)]

    3. 3.Adjustment factors shall not apply to type AC cable or to type MC cable without an overall outer jacket meeting all of the following conditions:

      1. 3.1.Each cable has not more than three current-carrying conductors.

      2. 3.2.The conductors are 12 AWG copper.

      3. 3.3.Not more than 20 current-carrying conductors are bundled, stacked or supported on bridle rings. [310.15(B)(3)(4)]

    4. 4.An adjustment factor of 60 percent shall be applied to Type AC cable and Type MC cable where all of the following conditions apply:

      1. 4.1.The cables do not have an overall outer jacket.

      2. 4.2.The number of current-carrying conductors exceeds 20.

      3. 4.3.The cables are stacked or bundled longer than 24 inches (607 mm) without spacing being maintained. [310.15(B)(3)(5)]

    TABLE E3705.3 [Table 310.15(B)(3)(a)]

    CONDUCTOR PROXIMITY ADJUSTMENT FACTORS

    NUMBER OF CURRENT-CARRYING CONDUCTORS IN CABLE OR RACEWAYPERCENT OF VALUES IN TABLE E3705.1
    4-680
    7-970
    10-2050
    21-3045
    31-4040
    41 and above35

    E3705.4 Temperature limitations.

    The temperature rating associated with the ampacity of a conductor shall be so selected and coordinated to not exceed the lowest temperature rating of any connected termination, conductor or device. Conductors with temperature ratings higher than specified for terminations shall be permitted to be used for ampacity adjustment, correction, or both. Except where the equipment is marked otherwise, conductor ampacities used in determining equipment termination provisions shall be based on Table E3705.1. [110.14(C)]

    E3705.4.1 Conductors rated 60°C.

    Except where the equipment is marked otherwise, termination provisions of equipment for circuits rated 100 amperes or less, or marked for 14 AWG through 1 AWG conductors, shall be used only for one of the following:

    1. 1.Conductors rated 60°C (140°F);

    2. 2.Conductors with higher temperature ratings, provided that the ampacity of such conductors is determined based on the 60°C (140°F) ampacity of the conductor size used;

    3. 3.Conductors with higher temperature ratings where the equipment is listed and identified for use with such conductors; or

    4. 4.For motors marked with design letters B, C, or D conductors having an insulation rating of 75°C (167°F) or higher shall be permitted to be used provided that the ampacity of such conductors does not exceed the 75°C (167°F) ampacity. [110.14(C)(1)(a)]

    E3705.4.2 Conductors rated 75°C.

    Termination provisions of equipment for circuits rated over 100 amperes, or marked for conductors larger than 1 AWG, shall be used only for:

    1. 1.Conductors rated 75°C (167°F).

    2. 2.Conductors with higher temperature ratings provided that the ampacity of such conductors does not exceed the 75°C (167°F) ampacity of the conductor size used, or provided that the equipment is listed and identified for use with such conductors. [110.14(C)(1)(b)]

    E3705.4.3 Separately installed pressure connectors.

    Separately installed pressure connectors shall be used with conductors at the ampacities not exceeding the ampacity at the listed and identified temperature rating of the connector. [110.14(C)(2)]

    E3705.4.4 Conductors of Type NM cable.

    Conductors in NM cable assemblies shall be rated at 90°C (194°F). Types NM, NMC, and NMS cable identified by the markings NMB, NMC-B, and NMS-B meet this requirement. The allowable ampacity of Types NM, NMC, and NMS cable shall not exceed that of 60°C (140°F) rated conductors and shall comply with Section E3705.1 and Table E3705.5.3. The 90°C (194°F) rating shall be permitted to be used for ampacity adjustment and calculations provided that the final corrected or adjusted ampacity does not exceed that for a 60°C (140°F) rated conductor. Where more than two NM cables containing two or more current-carrying conductors are installed, without maintaining spacing between the cables, through the same opening in wood framing that is to be sealed with thermal insulation, caulk or sealing foam, the allowable ampacity of each conductor shall be adjusted in accordance with Table E3705.3. Where more than two NM cables containing two or more current-carrying conductors are installed in contact with thermal insulation without maintaining spacing between cables, the allowable ampacity of each conductor shall be adjusted in accordance with Table E3705.3. (334.80 and 334.112)

    E3705.4.5 Conductors of Type SE cable.

    Where used as a branch circuit or feeder wiring method within the interior of a building and installed in thermal insulation, the ampacity of the conductors in Type SE cable assemblies shall be in accordance with the 60°C (140°F) conductor temperature rating. The maximum conductor temperature rating shall be permitted to be used for ampacity adjustment and correction purposes, provided that the final derated ampacity does not exceed that for a 60°C (140°F) rated conductor. [338.10(B)(4)(a)]

    E3705.5 Overcurrent protection required.

    All ungrounded branch-circuit and feeder conductors shall be protected against overcurrent by an overcurrent device installed at the point where the conductors receive their supply. Overcurrent devices shall not be connected in series with a grounded conductor. Overcurrent protection and allowable loads for branch circuits and for feeders that do not serve as the main power feeder to the dwelling unit load shall be in accordance with this chapter.

    Branch-circuit conductors and equipment shall be protected by overcurrent protective devices having a rating or setting not exceeding the allowable ampacity specified in Table E3705.1 and Sections E3705.2, E3705.3 and E3705.4 except where otherwise permitted or required in Sections E3705.5.1 through E3705.5.3. [240.4, 240.21, and 310.15(B)(7)(2)]

    E3705.5.1 Cords.

    Cords shall be protected in accordance with Section E3909.2. [240.5(B)]

    E3705.5.2 Overcurrent devices of the next higher rating.

    The next higher standard overcurrent device rating, above the ampacity of the conductors being protected, shall be permitted to be used, provided that all of the following conditions are met:

    1. 1.The conductors being protected are not part of a branch circuit supplying more than one receptacle for cord- and plug-connected portable loads.

    2. 2.The ampacity of conductors does not correspond with the standard ampere rating of a fuse or a circuit breaker without overload trip adjustments above its rating (but that shall be permitted to have other trip or rating adjustments).

    3. 3.The next higher standard device rating does not exceed 400 amperes. [240.4(B)]

    E3705.5.3 Small conductors.

    Except as specifically permitted by Section E3705.5.4, the rating of overcurrent protection devices shall not exceed the ratings shown in Table E3705.5.3 for the conductors specified therein. [240.4(D)]

    TABLE E3705.5.3 [240.4(D)]

    OVERCURRENT-PROTECTION RATING

    COPPERALUMINUM OR COPPER-CLAD ALUMINUM
    Size (AWG)Maximum overcurrent- protection-device ratinga (amps)Size (AWG)Maximum overcurrent protection-device ratinga (amps)
    14151215
    12201025
    1030830
    1. a.The maximum overcurrent-protection-device rating shall not exceed the conductor allowable ampacity determined by the application of the correction and adjustment factors in accordance with Sections E3705.2 and E3705.3.

    E3705.5.4 Air-conditioning and heat pump equipment.

    Air-conditioning and heat pump equipment circuit conductors shall be permitted to be protected against overcurrent in accordance with Section E3702.11. [240.4(G)]

    E3705.6 Fuses and fixed trip circuit breakers.

    The standard ampere ratings for fuses and inverse time circuit breakers shall be considered 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250, 300, 350 and 400 amperes. (240.6)

    E3705.7 Location of overcurrent devices in or on premises.

    Overcurrent devices shall:

    1. 1.Be readily accessible. [240.24(A)]

    2. 2.Not be located where they will be exposed to physical damage. [240.24(C)]

    3. 3.Not be located where they will be in the vicinity of easily ignitible material such as in clothes closets. [240.24(D)]

    4. 4.Not be located in bathrooms. [240.24(E)]

    5. 5.Not be located over steps of a stairway.

    6. 6.Be installed so that the center of the grip of the operating handle of the switch or circuit breaker, when in its highest position, is not more than 6 feet 7 inches (2007 mm) above the floor or working platform. [240.24(A)]

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.This section shall not apply to supplementary overcurrent protection that is integral to utilization equipment. [240.24(A)(2)]

    2. 2.Overcurrent devices installed adjacent to the utilization equipment that they supply shall be permitted to be accessible by portable means. [240.24(A)(4)]

    E3705.8 Ready access for occupants.

    Each occupant shall have ready access to all overcurrent devices protecting the conductors supplying that occupancy. [240.24(B)]

    E3705.9 Enclosures for overcurrent devices.

    Overcurrent devices shall be enclosed in cabinets, cutout boxes, or equipment assemblies. The operating handle of a circuit breaker shall be permitted to be accessible without opening a door or cover. [240.30(A) and (B)]

    SECTIONE3706
    PANELBOARDS

    E3706.1 Panelboard rating.

    All panelboards shall have a rating not less than that of the minimum service or feeder capacity required for the calculated load. (408.30)

    E3706.2 Panelboard circuit identification.

    All circuits and circuit modifications shall be legibly identified as to their clear, evident, and specific purpose or use. The identification shall include an approved degree of detail that allows each circuit to be distinguished from all others. Spare positions that contain unused overcurrent devices or switches shall be described accordingly. The identification shall be included in a circuit directory located on the face of the panelboard enclosure or inside the panel door. Circuits shall not be described in a manner that depends on transient conditions of occupancy. [408.4(A)]

    E3706.3 Panelboard overcurrent protection.

    In addition to the requirement of Section E3706.1, a panelboard shall be protected by an overcurrent protective device having a rating not greater than that of the panelboard. Such overcurrent protective device shall be located within or at any point on the supply side of the panelboard. (408.36)

    E3706.4 Grounded conductor terminations.

    Each grounded conductor shall terminate within the panelboard on an individual terminal that is not also used for another conductor, except that grounded conductors of circuits with parallel conductors shall be permitted to terminate on a single terminal where the terminal is identified for connection of more than one conductor. (408.41 and 408.41 Exception)

    E3706.5 Back-fed devices.

    Plug-in-type overcurrent protection devices or plug-in-type main lug assemblies that are back-fed and used to terminate field-installed ungrounded supply conductors shall be secured in place by an additional fastener that requires other than a pull to release the device from the mounting means on the panel. [408.36(D)]

    CHAPTER38
    WIRING METHODS

    SECTIONE3801
    GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

    E3801.1 Scope.

    This chapter covers the wiring methods for services, feeders and branch circuits for electrical power and distribution. (300.1)

    E3801.2 Allowable wiring methods.

    The allowable wiring methods for electrical installations shall be those listed in Table E3801.2. Single conductors shall be used only where part of one of the recognized wiring methods listed in Table E3801.2. As used in this code, abbreviations of the wiring-method types shall be as indicated in Table E3801.2. [110.8, 300.3(A)]

    TABLE E3801.2

    ALLOWABLE WIRING METHODS

    ALLOWABLE WIRING METHODDESIGNATED ABBREVIATION
    Armored cableAC
    Electrical metallic tubingEMT
    Electrical nonmetallic tubingENT
    Flexible metal conduitFMC
    Intermediate metal conduitIMC
    Liquidtight flexible conduitLFC
    Metal-clad cableMC
    Nonmetallic sheathed cableNM
    Rigid polyvinyl chloride conduit (Type PVC)RNC
    Rigid metallic conduitRMC
    Service entrance cableSE
    Surface racewaysSR
    Underground feeder cableUF
    Underground service cableUSE

    E3801.3 Circuit conductors.

    All conductors of a circuit, including equipment grounding conductors and bonding conductors, shall be contained in the same raceway, trench, cable or cord. [300.3(B)]

    E3801.4 Wiring method applications.

    Wiring methods shall be applied in accordance with Table E3801.4. (Chapter 3 and 300.2)

    TABLE E3801.4 (Chapter 3 and 300.2)

    ALLOWABLE APPLICATIONS FOR WIRING METHODSa, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k

    ALLOWABLE APPLICATIONS (application allowed where marked with an “A”)ACEMTENTFMCIMCRMC RNCLFCa, gMCNMSRSEUFUSE
    ServicesAAhAiAAiAAA
    FeedersAAAAAAAAAbAAb
    Branch circuitsAAAAAAAAAAcA
    Inside a buildingAAAAAAAAAAA
    Wet locations exposed to sunlightAAhAAAAAeAe
    Damp locationsAAAdAAAAAA
    Embedded in noncinder concrete in dry locationAAAAj
    In noncinder concrete in contact with gradeAfAAfAj
    Embedded in plaster not exposed to dampnessAAAAAAAAA
    Embedded in masonryAAAfAA
    In masonry voids and cells exposed to dampness or below grade lineAfAAdAfAAAA
    Fished in masonry voidsAAAAAAA
    In masonry voids and cells not exposed to dampnessAAAAAAAAAA
    Run exposedAAAAAAAAAAA
    Run exposed and subject to physical damageAg
    For direct burialAfAfAAfAA

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    1. a.Liquid-tight flexible nonmetallic conduit without integral reinforcement within the conduit wall shall not exceed 6 feet in length.

    2. b.Type USE cable shall not be used inside buildings.

    3. c.The grounded conductor shall be insulated.

    4. d.Conductors shall be a type approved for wet locations and the installation shall prevent water from entering other raceways.

    5. e.Shall be listed as “Sunlight Resistant.”

    6. f.Metal raceways shall be protected from corrosion and approved for the application. Aluminum RMC requires approved supplementary corrosion protection.

    7. g.RNC shall be Schedule 80.

    8. h.Shall be listed as “Sunlight Resistant” where exposed to the direct rays of the sun.

    9. i.Conduit shall not exceed 6 feet in length.

    10. j.Liquid-tight flexible nonmetallic conduit is permitted to be encased in concrete where listed for direct burial and only straight connectors listed for use with LFNC are used.

    11. k.In wet locations under any of the following conditions:

      1. 1.The metallic covering is impervious to moisture.

      2. 2.A lead sheath or moisture-impervious jacket is provided under the metal covering.

      3. 3.The insulated conductors under the metallic covering are listed for use in wet locations and a corrosion-resistant jacket is provided over the metallic sheath.

    SECTIONE3802
    ABOVE-GROUND INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS

    E3802.1 Installation and support requirements.

    Wiring methods shall be installed and supported in accordance with Table E3802.1. (Chapter 3 and 300.11)

    TABLE E3802.1 (Chapter 3)

    GENERAL INSTALLATION AND SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS FOR WIRING METHODSa, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k

    INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS (Requirement applicable only to wiring methods marked “A” )AC MCEMT IMC RMCENTFMC LFCNM UFRNCSESRaUSE
    Where run parallel with the framing member or furring strip, the wiring shall be not less than 11/4 inches from the edge of a furring strip or a framing member such as a joist, rafter or stud or shall be physically protected.AAAAA
    Bored holes in framing members for wiring shall be located not less than 11/4 inches from the edge of the framing member or shall be protected with a minimum 0.0625-inch steel plate or sleeve, a listed steel plate or other physical protection.AkAkAkAkAk
    Where installed in grooves, to be covered by wallboard, siding, paneling, carpeting, or similar finish, wiring methods shall be protected by 0.0625-inch-thick steel plate, sleeve, or equivalent, a listed steel plate or by not less than 11/4-inch free space for the full length of the groove in which the cable or raceway is installed.AAAAAAA
    Securely fastened bushings or grommets shall be provided to protect wiring run through openings in metal framing members.AjAjAj
    The maximum number of 90-degree bends shall not exceed four between junction boxes.AAAA
    Bushings shall be provided where entering a box, fitting or enclosure unless the box or fitting is designed to afford equivalent protection.AAAAAA
    Ends of raceways shall be reamed to remove rough edges.AAAAA
    Maximum allowable on center support spacing for the wiring method in feet.4.5b, c10l3b4.5b4.5i3d, l2.5e2.5
    Maximum support distance in inches from box or other terminations.12b, f363612b, g12h, i3612

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 degree = 0.0175 rad.

    1. a.Installed in accordance with listing requirements.

    2. b.Supports not required in accessible ceiling spaces between light fixtures where lengths do not exceed 6 feet.

    3. c.Six feet for MC cable.

    4. d.Five feet for trade sizes greater than 1 inch.

    5. e.Two and one-half feet where used for service or outdoor feeder and 4.5 feet where used for branch circuit or indoor feeder.

    6. f.Twenty-four inches for Type AC cable and thirty-six inches for interlocking Type MC cable where flexibility is necessary.

    7. g.Where flexibility after installation is necessary, lengths of flexible metal conduit and liquidtight flexible metal conduit measured from the last point where the raceway is securely fastened shall not exceed: 36 inches for trade sizes 12 through 114, 48 inches for trade sizes 112 through 2 and 5 feet for trade sizes 212 and larger.

    8. h.Within 8 inches of boxes without cable clamps.

    9. i.Flat cables shall not be stapled on edge.

    10. j.Bushings and grommets shall remain in place and shall be listed for the purpose of cable protection.

    11. k.See Sections R502.8 and R802.7 for additional limitations on the location of bored holes in horizontal framing members.

    E3802.2 Cables in accessible attics.

    Cables in attics or roof spaces provided with access shall be installed as specified in Sections E3802.2.1 and E3802.2.2. (320.3 and 334.23)

    E3802.2.1 Across structural members.

    Where run across the top of floor joists, or run within 7 feet (2134 mm) of floor or floor joists across the face of rafters or studding, in attics and roof spaces that are provided with access, the cable shall be protected by substantial guard strips that are at least as high as the cable. Where such spaces are not provided with access by permanent stairs or ladders, protection shall only be required within 6 feet (1829 mm) of the nearest edge of the attic entrance. [330.23(A) and 334.23]

    E3802.2.2 Cable installed through or parallel to framing members.

    Where cables are installed through or parallel to the sides of rafters, studs or floor joists, guard strips and running boards shall not be required, and the installation shall comply with Table E3802.1. [330.23(B) and 334.23]

    E3802.3 Exposed cable.

    In exposed work, except as provided for in Sections E3802.2 and E3802.4, cable assemblies shall be installed as specified in Sections E3802.3.1 and E3802.3.2. (330.15 and 334.15)

    E3802.3.1 Surface installation.

    Cables shall closely follow the surface of the building finish or running boards. [334.15(A)]

    E3802.3.2 Protection from physical damage.

    Where subject to physical damage, cables shall be protected by rigid metal conduit, intermediate metal conduit, electrical metallic tubing, Schedule 80 PVC rigid nonmetallic conduit, or other approved means. Where passing through a floor, the cable shall be enclosed in rigid metal conduit, intermediate metal conduit, electrical metallic tubing, Schedule 80 PVC rigid nonmetallic conduit or other approved means extending not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the floor. [334.15(B)]

    E3802.3.3 Locations exposed to direct sunlight.

    Insulated conductors and cables used where exposed to direct rays of the sun shall be listed or listed and marked, as being “sunlight resistant,” or shall be covered with insulating material, such as tape or sleeving, that is listed or listed and marked as being “sunlight resistant.” [310.10(D)]

    E3802.4 In unfinished basements and crawl spaces.

    Where type NM or SE cable is run at angles with joists in unfinished basements and crawl spaces, cable assemblies containing two or more conductors of sizes 6 AWG and larger and assemblies containing three or more conductors of sizes 8 AWG and larger shall not require additional protection where attached directly to the bottom of the joists. Smaller cables shall be run either through bored holes in joists or on running boards. Type NM or SE cable installed on the wall of an unfinished basement shall be permitted to be installed in a listed conduit or tubing or shall be protected in accordance with Table E3802.1. Conduit or tubing shall be provided with a suitable insulating bushing or adapter at the point where the cable enters the raceway. The sheath of the Type NM or SE cable shall extend through the conduit or tubing and into the outlet or device box not less than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm). The cable shall be secured within 12 inches (305 mm) of the point where the cable enters the conduit or tubing. Metal conduit, tubing, and metal outlet boxes shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor complying with Section E3908.13. [334.15(C)]

    E3802.5 Bends.

    Bends shall be made so as not to damage the wiring method or reduce the internal diameter of raceways.

    For types NM and SE cable, bends shall be so made, and other handling shall be such that the cable will not be damaged and the radius of the curve of the inner edge of any bend shall be not less than five times the diameter of the cable. (334.24 and 338.24)

    E3802.6 Raceways exposed to different temperatures.

    Where portions of a raceway or sleeve are known to be subjected to different temperatures and where condensation is known to be a problem, as in cold storage areas of buildings or where passing from the interior to the exterior of a building, the raceway or sleeve shall be filled with an approved material to prevent the circulation of warm air to a colder section of the raceway or sleeve. [300.7(A)]

    E3802.7 Raceways in wet locations above grade.

    Where raceways are installed in wet locations above grade, the interior of such raceways shall be considered to be a wet location. Insulated conductors and cables installed in raceways in wet locations above grade shall be listed for use in wet locations. (300.9)

    SECTIONE3803
    UNDERGROUND INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS

    E3803.1 Minimum cover requirements.

    Direct buried cable or raceways shall be installed in accordance with the minimum cover requirements of Table E3803.1. [300.5(A)]

    TABLE E3803.1 (Table 300.5)

    MINIMUM COVER REQUIREMENTS, BURIAL IN INCHESa, b, c, d, e

    LOCATION OF WIRING METHOD OR CIRCUITTYPE OF WIRING METHOD OR CIRCUIT
    1Direct burial cables orconductors2Rigid metalconduit orintermediate metalconduit3Nonmetallic racewayslisted for direct burialwithout concreteencasement or otherapproved raceways4Residential branchcircuits rated 120 volts orless with GFCI protectionand maximumovercurrent protection of20 amperes5Circuits for control ofirrigation and landscapelighting limited to notmore than 30 volts andinstalled with type UF orin other identified cableor raceway
    All locations not specified below24618126
    In trench below 2-inch-thick concrete or equivalent1861266
    Under a building0(In raceway only or Type MC identified for direct burial)000(In raceway only or Type MC identified for direct burial)0(In raceway only or Type MC identified for direct burial)
    Under minimum of 4-inch-thick concrete exterior slab with no vehicular traffic and the slab extending not less than 6 inches beyond the underground installation18446 (Direct burial)4 (In raceway)6 (Direct burial)4 (In raceway)
    Under streets, highways, roads, alleys, driveways and parking lots2424242424
    One- and two-family dwelling driveways and outdoor parking areas, and used only for dwelling-related purposes1818181218
    In solid rock where covered by minimum of 2 inches concrete extending down to rock2 (In raceway only)222 (In raceway only)2 (In raceway only)

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    1. a.Raceways approved for burial only where encased concrete shall require concrete envelope not less than 2 inches thick.

    2. b.Lesser depths shall be permitted where cables and conductors rise for terminations or splices or where access is otherwise required.

    3. c.Where one of the wiring method types listed in columns 1 to 3 is combined with one of the circuit types in columns 4 and 5, the shallower depth of burial shall be permitted.

    4. d.Where solid rock prevents compliance with the cover depths specified in this table, the wiring shall be installed in metal or nonmetallic raceway permitted for direct burial. The raceways shall be covered by a minimum of 2 inches of concrete extending down to the rock.

    5. e.Cover is defined as the shortest distance in inches (millimeters) measured between a point on the top surface of any direct-buried conductor, cable, conduit or other raceway and the top surface of finished grade, concrete, or similar cover.

    E3803.2 Warning ribbon.

    Underground service conductors that are not encased in concrete and that are buried 18 inches (457 mm) or more below grade shall have their location identified by a warning ribbon that is placed in the trench not less than 12 inches (305 mm) above the underground installation. [300.5(D)(3)]

    E3803.3 Protection from damage.

    Direct buried conductors and cables emerging from the ground shall be protected by enclosures or raceways extending from the minimum cover distance below grade required by Section E3803.1 to a point at least 8 feet (2438 mm) above finished grade. In no case shall the protection be required to exceed 18 inches (457 mm) below finished grade. Conductors entering a building shall be protected to the point of entrance. Where the enclosure or raceway is subject to physical damage, the conductors shall be installed in rigid metal conduit, intermediate metal conduit, Schedule 80 rigid nonmetallic conduit or the equivalent. [300.5(D)(1)]

    E3803.4 Splices and taps.

    Direct buried conductors or cables shall be permitted to be spliced or tapped without the use of splice boxes. The splices or taps shall be made by approved methods with materials listed for the application. [300.5(E)]

    E3803.5 Backfill.

    Backfill containing large rock, paving materials, cinders, large or sharply angular substances, or corrosive material shall not be placed in an excavation where such materials cause damage to raceways, cables or other substructures or prevent adequate compaction of fill or contribute to corrosion of raceways, cables or other substructures. Where necessary to prevent physical damage to the raceway or cable, protection shall be provided in the form of granular or selected material, suitable boards, suitable sleeves or other approved means. [300.5(F)]

    E3803.6 Raceway seals.

    Conduits or raceways shall be sealed or plugged at either or both ends where moisture will enter and contact live parts. [300.5(G)]

    E3803.7 Bushing.

    A bushing, or terminal fitting, with an integral bushed opening shall be installed on the end of a conduit or other raceway that terminates underground where the conductors or cables emerge as a direct burial wiring method. A seal incorporating the physical protection characteristics of a bushing shall be considered equivalent to a bushing. [300.5(H)]

    E3803.8 Single conductors.

    All conductors of the same circuit and, where present, the grounded conductor and all equipment grounding conductors shall be installed in the same raceway or shall be installed in close proximity in the same trench. [300.5(I)]

    Exception: Conductors shall be permitted to be installed in parallel in raceways, multiconductor cables, and direct-buried single conductor cables. Each raceway or multiconductor cable shall contain all conductors of the same circuit, including equipment grounding conductors. Each direct-buried single conductor cable shall be located in close proximity in the trench to the other single conductor cables in the same parallel set of conductors in the circuit, including equipment grounding conductors. [300.5(I) Exception No.1]

    E3803.9 Earth movement.

    Where direct buried conductors, raceways or cables are subject to movement by settlement or frost, direct buried conductors, raceways or cables shall be arranged to prevent damage to the enclosed conductors or to equipment connected to the raceways. [300.5(J)]

    E3803.10 Wet locations.

    The interior of enclosures or raceways installed underground shall be considered to be a wet location. Insulated conductors and cables installed in such enclosures or raceways in underground installations shall be listed for use in wet locations. Connections or splices in an underground installation shall be approved for wet locations. [300.5(B)]

    E3803.11 Under buildings.

    Underground cable and conductors installed under a building shall be in a raceway. [300.5(C)]

    Exception: Type MC Cable shall be permitted under a building without installation in a raceway where the cable is listed and identified for direct burial or concrete encasement and one or more of the following applies:

    1. 1.The metallic covering is impervious to moisture.

    2. 2.A moisture-impervious jacket is provided under the metal covering.

    3. 3.The insulated conductors under the metallic covering are listed for use in wet locations, and a corrosion-resistant jacket is provided over the metallic sheath. [300.5(C) Exception No.2]

    CHAPTER39
    POWER AND LIGHTING DISTRIBUTION

    SECTIONE3901
    RECEPTACLE OUTLETS

    E3901.1 General.

    Outlets for receptacles rated at 125 volts, 15- and 20-amperes shall be provided in accordance with Sections E3901.2 through E3901.11. Receptacle outlets required by this section shall be in addition to any receptacle that is:

    1. 1.Part of a luminaire or appliance;

    2. 2.Located within cabinets or cupboards;

    3. 3.Controlled by a wall switch in accordance with Section E3903.2, Exception 1; or

    4. 4.Located over 5.5 feet (1676 mm) above the floor.

    Permanently installed electric baseboard heaters equipped with factory-installed receptacle outlets, or outlets provided as a separate assembly by the baseboard manufacturer shall be permitted as the required outlet or outlets for the wall space utilized by such permanently installed heaters. Such receptacle outlets shall not be connected to the heater circuits. (210.52)

    E3901.2 General purpose receptacle distribution.

    In every kitchen, family room, dining room, living room, parlor, library, den, sun room, bedroom, recreation room, or similar room or area of dwelling units, receptacle outlets shall be installed in accordance with the general provisions specified in Sections E3901.2.1 through E3901.2.3 (see Figure E3901.2).

    GENERAL USE RECEPTACLE DISTRIBUTION

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    FIGURE E3901.2

    GENERAL USE RECEPTACLE DISTRIBUTION

    E3901.2.1 Spacing.

    Receptacles shall be installed so that no point measured horizontally along the floor line of any wall space is more than 6 feet (1829 mm), from a receptacle outlet. [210.52(A)(1)]

    E3901.2.2 Wall space.

    As used in this section, a wall space shall include the following: [210.52(A)(2)]

    1. 1.Any space that is 2 feet (610 mm) or more in width, including space measured around corners, and that is unbroken along the floor line by doorways and similar openings, fireplaces, and fixed cabinets.

    2. 2.The space occupied by fixed panels in exterior walls, excluding sliding panels.

    3. 3.The space created by fixed room dividers such as railings and freestanding bar-type counters.

    E3901.2.3 Floor receptacles.

    Receptacle outlets in floors shall not be counted as part of the required number of receptacle outlets except where located within 18 inches (457 mm) of the wall. [210.52(A)(3)]

    E3901.2.4 Countertop receptacles.

    Receptacles installed for countertop surfaces as specified in Section E3901.4 shall not be considered as the receptacles required by Section E3901.2. [210.52(A)(4)]

    E3901.3 Small appliance receptacles.

    In the kitchen, pantry, breakfast room, dining room, or similar area of a dwelling unit, the two or more 20-ampere small-appliance branch circuits required by Section E3703.2, shall serve all wall and floor receptacle outlets covered by Sections E3901.2 and E3901.4 and those receptacle outlets provided for refrigeration appliances. [210.52(B)(1)]

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.In addition to the required receptacles specified by Sections E3901.1 and E3901.2, switched receptacles supplied from a general-purpose branch circuit as defined in Section E3903.2, Exception 1 shall be permitted. [210.52(B)(1) Exception No. 1]

    2. 2.The receptacle outlet for refrigeration appliances shall be permitted to be supplied from an individual branch circuit rated at 15 amperes or greater. [210.52(B)(1) Exception No. 2]

    E3901.3.1 Other outlets prohibited.

    The two or more small-appliance branch circuits specified in Section E3901.3 shall serve no other outlets. [210.52(B)(2)]

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.A receptacle installed solely for the electrical supply to and support of an electric clock in any of the rooms specified in Section E3901.3. [210.52(B)(2) Exception No.1]

    2. 2.Receptacles installed to provide power for supplemental equipment and lighting on gas-fired ranges, ovens, and counter-mounted cooking units. [210.52(B)(2) Exception No.2]

    E3901.3.2 Limitations.

    Receptacles installed in a kitchen to serve countertop surfaces shall be supplied by not less than two small-appliance branch circuits, either or both of which shall also be permitted to supply receptacle outlets in the same kitchen and in other rooms specified in Section E3901.3. Additional small-appliance branch circuits shall be permitted to supply receptacle outlets in the kitchen and other rooms specified in Section E3901.3. A small-appliance branch circuit shall not serve more than one kitchen. [210.52(B)(3)]

    E3901.4 Countertop receptacles.

    In kitchens pantries, breakfast rooms, dining rooms and similar areas of dwelling units, receptacle outlets for countertop spaces shall be installed in accordance with Sections E3901.4.1 through E3901.4.5 (see Figure E3901.4). [210.52(C)]

    COUNTERTOP RECEPTACLES

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    FIGURE E3901.4

    COUNTERTOP RECEPTACLES

    E3901.4.1 Wall countertop space.

    A receptacle outlet shall be installed at each wall countertop space 12 inches (305 mm) or wider. Receptacle outlets shall be installed so that no point along the wall line is more than 24 inches (610 mm), measured horizontally from a receptacle outlet in that space. [210.52(C)(1)]

    Exception: Receptacle outlets shall not be required on a wall directly behind a range, counter-mounted cooking unit or sink in the installation described in Figure E3901.4.1. [210.52(C)(1) Exception]

    DETERMINATION OF AREA BEHIND SINK OR RANGE

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE E3901.4.1

    DETERMINATION OF AREA BEHIND SINK OR RANGE

    E3901.4.2 Island countertop spaces.

    At least one receptacle outlet shall be installed at each island countertop space with a long dimension of 24 inches (610 mm) or greater and a short dimension of 12 inches (305 mm) or greater. [210.52(C)(2)]

    E3901.4.3 Peninsular countertop space.

    At least one receptacle outlet shall be installed at each peninsular countertop space with a long dimension of 24 inches (610 mm) or greater and a short dimension of 12 inches (305 mm) or greater. A peninsular countertop is measured from the connecting edge. [210.52(C)(3)]

    E3901.4.4 Separate spaces.

    Countertop spaces separated by range tops, refrigerators, or sinks shall be considered as separate countertop spaces in applying the requirements of Sections E3901.4.1, E3901.4.2 and E3901.4.3. Where a range, counter-mounted cooking unit, or sink is installed in an island or peninsular countertop and the depth of the countertop behind the range, counter-mounted cooking unit, or sink is less than 12 inches (305 mm), the range, counter-mounted cooking unit, or sink has divided the countertop space into two separate countertop spaces as defined in Section E3901.4.4. Each separate countertop space shall comply with the applicable requirements of this section. [210.52(C)(4)]

    E3901.4.5 Receptacle outlet location.

    Receptacle outlets shall be located not more than 20 inches (508 mm) above the countertop. Receptacle outlet assemblies installed in countertops shall be listed for the application. Receptacle outlets shall not be installed in a face-up position in the work surfaces or countertops. Receptacle outlets rendered not readily accessible by appliances fastened in place, appliance garages, sinks or rangetops as addressed in the exception to Section E3901.4.1, or appliances occupying dedicated space shall not be considered as these required outlets. [210.52(C)(5)]

    Exception: Receptacle outlets shall be permitted to be mounted not more than 12 inches (305 mm) below the countertop in construction designed for the physically impaired and for island and peninsular countertops where the countertop is flat across its entire surface and there are no means to mount a receptacle within 20 inches (508 mm) above the countertop, such as in an overhead cabinet. Receptacles mounted below the countertop in accordance with this exception shall not be located where the countertop extends more than 6 inches (152 mm) beyond its support base. [210.52(C)(5) Exception]

    E3901.5 Appliance receptacle outlets.

    Appliance receptacle outlets installed for specific appliances, such as laundry equipment, shall be installed within 6 feet (1829 mm) of the intended location of the appliance. (210.50(C)]

    E3901.6 Bathroom.

    At least one wall receptacle outlet shall be installed in bathrooms and such outlet shall be located within 36 inches (914 mm) of the outside edge of each lavatory basin. The receptacle outlet shall be located on a wall or partition that is adjacent to the lavatory basin location, located on the countertop, or installed on the side or face of the basin cabinet. The receptacle shall be located not more than 12 inches (305 mm) below the top of the basin.

    Receptacle outlets shall not be installed in a face-up position in the work surfaces or countertops in a bathroom basin location. Receptacle outlet assemblies installed in countertops shall be listed for the application. [210.52(D)]

    E3901.7 Outdoor outlets.

    Not less than one receptacle outlet that is readily accessible from grade level and located not more than 6 feet, 6 inches (1981 mm) above grade, shall be installed outdoors at the front and back of each dwelling unit having direct access to grade level. Balconies, decks, and porches that are accessible from inside of the dwelling unit shall have at least one receptacle outlet installed within the perimeter of the balcony, deck, or porch. The receptacle shall be located not more than 6 feet, 6 inches (1981 mm) above the balcony, deck, or porch surface. [210.52(E)]

    E3901.8 Laundry areas.

    Not less than one receptacle outlet shall be installed in areas designated for the installation of laundry equipment.

    E3901.9 Basements, garages and accessory buildings.

    Not less than one receptacle outlet, in addition to any provided for specific equipment, shall be installed in each separate unfinished portion of a basement, in each attached garage, and in each detached garage or accessory building that is provided with electrical power. The branch circuit supplying the receptacle(s) in a garage shall not supply outlets outside of the garage and not less than one receptacle outlet shall be installed for each motor vehicle space. [210.52(G)(1), (2), and (3)]

    E3901.10 Hallways.

    Hallways of 10 feet (3048 mm) or more in length shall have at least one receptacle outlet. The hall length shall be considered the length measured along the centerline of the hall without passing through a doorway. [210.52(H)]

    E3901.11 Foyers.

    Foyers that are not part of a hallway in accordance with Section E3901.10 and that have an area that is greater than 60 ft2 (5.57 m2) shall have a receptacle(s) located in each wall space that is 3 feet (914 mm) or more in width. Doorways, door-side windows that extend to the floor, and similar openings shall not be considered as wall space. [210.52(H)]

    E3901.12 HVAC outlet.

    A 125-volt, single-phase, 15- or 20-ampere-rated receptacle outlet shall be installed at an accessible location for the servicing of heating, air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The receptacle shall be located on the same level and within 25 feet (7620 mm) of the heating, air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The receptacle outlet shall not be connected to the load side of the HVAC equipment disconnecting means. (210.63)

    Exception: A receptacle outlet shall not be required for the servicing of evaporative coolers. (210.63 Exception)

    SECTIONE3902
    GROUND-FAULT AND ARC-FAULT
    CIRCUIT-INTERRUPTER PROTECTION

    E3902.1 Bathroom receptacles.

    125-volt, single-phase, 15- and 20-ampere receptacles installed in bathrooms shall have ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel. [210.8(A)(1)]

    E3902.2 Garage and accessory building receptacles.

    125-volt, single-phase, 15- or 20-ampere receptacles installed in garages and grade-level portions of unfinished accessory buildings used for storage or work areas shall have ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel. [210.8(A)(2)]

    E3902.3 Outdoor receptacles.

    125-volt, single-phase, 15- and 20-ampere receptacles installed outdoors shall have ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel. [210.8(A)(3)]

    Exception: Receptacles as covered in Section E4101.7. [210.8(A)(3) Exception]

    E3902.4 Crawl space receptacles.

    Where a crawl space is at or below grade level, 125-volt, single-phase, 15- and 20-ampere receptacles installed in such spaces shall have ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel. [210.8(A)(4)]

    E3902.5 Unfinished basement receptacles.

    125-volt, single-phase, 15- and 20-ampere receptacles installed in unfinished basements shall have ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel. For purposes of this section, unfinished basements are defined as portions or areas of the basement not intended as habitable rooms and limited to storage areas, work areas, and similar areas. [210.8(A)(5)]

    Exception: A receptacle supplying only a permanently installed fire alarm or burglar alarm system. Receptacles installed in accordance with this exception shall not be considered as meeting the requirement of Section E3901.9. [210.8(A)(5) Exception]

    E3902.6 Kitchen receptacles.

    125-volt, single-phase, 15- and 20-ampere receptacles that serve countertop surfaces shall have ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel. [210.8(A)(6)]

    E3902.7 Sink receptacles.

    125-volt, single-phase, 15- and 20-ampere receptacles that are located within 6 feet (1829 mm) of the outside edge of a sink shall have ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel. Receptacle outlets shall not be installed in a face-up position in the work surfaces or countertops. [210.8(A)(7)]

    E3902.8 Bathtub or shower stall receptacles.

    125-volt, single phase, 15- and 20-ampere receptacles that are located within 6 feet (1829 mm) of the outside edge of a bathtub or shower stall shall have ground-fault circuit interrupter protection for personnel. [210.8(A)(8)]

    E3902.9 Laundry areas.

    125-volt, single-phase, 15- and 20-ampere receptacles installed in laundry areas shall have ground-fault circuit interrupter protection for personnel. [210.8(A)(9)]

    E3902.10 Kitchen dishwasher branch circuit.

    Ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection shall be provided for outlets that supply dishwashers in dwelling unit locations. [210.8(D)]

    E3902.11 Boathouse receptacles.

    125-volt, single-phase, 15- or 20-ampere receptacles installed in boathouses shall have ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel. [210.8(A)(8)]

    E3902.12 Boat hoists.

    Ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel shall be provided for 240-volt and less outlets that supply boat hoists. [210.8(C)]

    E3902.13 Electrically heated floors.

    Ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel shall be provided for electrically heated floors in bathrooms, kitchens and in hydromassage bathtub, spa and hot tub locations. [424.44(G)]

    E3902.14 Location of ground-fault circuit interrupters.

    Ground-fault circuit interrupters shall be installed in a readily accessible location. [210.8(A)]

    E3902.15 Location of arc-fault circuit interrupters.

    Arc-fault circuit interrupters shall be installed in readily accessible locations.

    E3902.16 Arc-fault circuit-interrupter protection.

    Branch circuits that supply 120-volt, single-phase, 15- and 20-ampere outlets installed in kitchens, family rooms, dining rooms, living rooms, parlors, libraries, dens, bedrooms, sun-rooms, recreations rooms, closets, hallways, laundry areas and similar rooms or areas shall be protected by any of the following: [210.12(A)]

    1. 1.A listed combination-type arc-fault circuit interrupter, installed to provide protection of the entire branch circuit. [210.12(A)(1)]

    2. 2.A listed branch/feeder-type AFCI installed at the origin of the branch-circuit in combination with a listed outlet branch-circuit type arc-fault circuit interrupter installed at the first outlet box on the branch circuit. The first outlet box in the branch circuit shall be marked to indicate that it is the first outlet of the circuit. [210.12(A)(2)]

    3. 3.A listed supplemental arc protection circuit breaker installed at the origin of the branch circuit in combination with a listed outlet branch-circuit type arc-fault circuit interrupter installed at the first outlet box on the branch circuit where all of the following conditions are met:

      1. 3.1.The branch-circuit wiring shall be continuous from the branch-circuit overcurrent device to the outlet branch-circuit arc-fault circuit interrupter.

      2. 3.2.The maximum length of the branch-circuit wiring from the branch-circuit overcurrent device to the first outlet shall not exceed 50 feet (15.2 m) for 14 AWG conductors and 70 feet (21.3 m) for 12 AWG conductors.

      3. 3.3.The first outlet box on the branch circuit shall be marked to indicate that it is the first outlet on the circuit. [210.12(A)(3)]

    4. 4.A listed outlet branch-circuit type arc-fault circuit interrupter installed at the first outlet on the branch circuit in combination with a listed branch-circuit overcurrent protective device where all of the following conditions are met:

      1. 4.1.The branch-circuit wiring shall be continuous from the branch-circuit overcurrent device to the outlet branch-circuit arc-fault circuit interrupter.

      2. 4.2.The maximum length of the branch-circuit wiring from the branch-circuit overcurrent device to the first outlet shall not exceed 50 feet (15.2 m) for 14 AWG conductors and 70 feet (21.3 m) for 12 AWG conductors.

      3. 4.3.The first outlet box on the branch circuit shall be marked to indicate that it is the first outlet on the circuit.

      4. 4.4.The combination of the branch-circuit overcurrent device and outlet branch-circuit AFCI shall be identified as meeting the requirements for a system combination-type AFCI and shall be listed as such. [210.12(A)(4)]

    5. 5.Where metal outlet boxes and junction boxes and RMC, IMC, EMT, Type MC or steel-armored Type AC cables meeting the requirements of Section E3908.8, metal wireways or metal auxiliary gutters are installed for the portion of the branch circuit between the branch-circuit overcurrent device and the first outlet, a listed outlet branch-circuit type AFCI installed at the first outlet shall be considered as providing protection for the remaining portion of the branch circuit. [210.12(A)(5)]

    6. 6.Where a listed metal or nonmetallic conduit or tubing or Type MC cable is encased in not less than 2 inches (50.8 mm) of concrete for the portion of the branch circuit between the branch-circuit overcurrent device and the first outlet, a listed outlet branch-circuit type AFCI installed at the first outlet shall be considered as providing protection for the remaining portion of the branch circuit. [210.12(A)(6)]

    Exception: AFCI protection is not required for an individual branch circuit supplying only a fire alarm system where the branch circuit is wired with metal outlet and junction boxes and RMC, IMC, EMT or steel-sheathed armored cable Type AC or Type MC meeting the requirements of Section E3908.8.

    E3902.17 Arc-fault circuit interrupter protection for branch circuit extensions or modifications.

    Where branch-circuit wiring is modified, replaced, or extended in any of the areas specified in Section E3902.16, the branch circuit shall be protected by one of the following:

    1. 1.A combination-type AFCI located at the origin of the branch circuit

    2. 2.An outlet branch-circuit type AFCI located at the first receptacle outlet of the existing branch circuit. [210.12(B)]

    Exception: AFCI protection shall not be required where the extension of the existing conductors is not more than 6 feet (1.8 m) in length and does not include any additional outlets or devices. [210.12(B) Exception]

    SECTIONE3903
    LIGHTING OUTLETS

    E3903.1 General.

    Lighting outlets shall be provided in accordance with Sections E3903.2 through E3903.4. [210.70(A)]

    E3903.2 Habitable rooms.

    At least one wall switch-controlled lighting outlet shall be installed in every habitable room and bathroom. [210.70(A)(1)]

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.In other than kitchens and bathrooms, one or more receptacles controlled by a wall switch shall be considered equivalent to the required lighting outlet. [210.70(A)(1) Exception No. 1]

    2. 2.Lighting outlets shall be permitted to be controlled by occupancy sensors that are in addition to wall switches, or that are located at a customary wall switch location and equipped with a manual override that will allow the sensor to function as a wall switch. [210.70(A)(1) Exception No. 2]

    E3903.3 Additional locations.

    At least one wall-switch-controlled lighting outlet shall be installed in hallways, stairways, attached garages, and detached garages with electric power. At least one wall-switch-controlled lighting outlet shall be installed to provide illumination on the exterior side of each outdoor egress door having grade level access, including outdoor egress doors for attached garages and detached garages with electric power. A vehicle door in a garage shall not be considered as an outdoor egress door. Where one or more lighting outlets are installed for interior stairways, there shall be a wall switch at each floor level and landing level that includes an entryway to control the lighting outlets where the stairway between floor levels has six or more risers. [210.70(A)(2)]

    Exception: In hallways, stairways, and at outdoor egress doors, remote, central, or automatic control of lighting shall be permitted. [210.70(A)(2) Exception]

    E3903.4 Storage or equipment spaces.

    In attics, under-floor spaces, utility rooms and basements, at least one lighting outlet shall be installed where these spaces are used for storage or contain equipment requiring servicing. Such lighting outlet shall be controlled by a wall switch or shall have an integral switch. At least one point of control shall be at the usual point of entry to these spaces. The lighting outlet shall be provided at or near the equipment requiring servicing. [210.70(A)(3)]

    SECTIONE3904
    GENERAL INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS

    E3904.1 Electrical continuity of metal raceways and enclosures.

    Metal raceways, cable armor and other metal enclosures for conductors shall be mechanically joined together into a continuous electric conductor and shall be connected to all boxes, fittings and cabinets so as to provide effective electrical continuity. Raceways and cable assemblies shall be mechanically secured to boxes, fittings cabinets and other enclosures. (300.10)

    Exception: Short sections of raceway used to provide cable assemblies with support or protection against physical damage. (300.10 Exception No. 1)

    E3904.2 Mechanical continuity—raceways and cables.

    Metal or nonmetallic raceways, cable armors and cable sheaths shall be continuous between cabinets, boxes, fittings or other enclosures or outlets.

    Exception: Short sections of raceway used to provide cable assemblies with support or protection against physical damage. (300.12 Exception No. 1)

    E3904.3 Securing and supporting.

    Raceways, cable assemblies, boxes, cabinets and fittings shall be securely fastened in place. (300.11)

    E3904.3.1 Prohibited means of support.

    Cable wiring methods shall not be used as a means of support for other cables, raceways and nonelectrical equipment. [300.11(C)]

    E3904.4 Raceways as means of support.

    Raceways shall be used as a means of support for other raceways, cables or non-electric equipment only under the following conditions:

    1. 1.Where the raceway or means of support is identified as a means of support; or

    2. 2.Where the raceway contains power supply conductors for electrically controlled equipment and is used to support Class 2 circuit conductors or cables that are solely for the purpose of connection to the control circuits of the equipment served by such raceway; or

    3. 3.Where the raceway is used to support boxes or conduit bodies in accordance with Sections E3906.8.4 and E3906.8.5. [300.11(B)]

    E3904.5 Raceway installations.

    Raceways shall be installed complete between outlet, junction or splicing points prior to the installation of conductors. (300.18)

    Exception: Short sections of raceways used to contain conductors or cable assemblies for protection from physical damage shall not be required to be installed complete between outlet, junction, or splicing points. (300.18 Exception)

    E3904.6 Conduit and tubing fill.

    The maximum number of conductors installed in conduit or tubing shall be in accordance with Tables E3904.6(1) through E3904.6(10). (300.17, Chapter 9, Table 1 and Annex C)

    TABLE E3904.6(1) (Annex C, Table C.1)

    MAXIMUM NUMBER OF CONDUCTORS IN ELECTRICAL METALLIC TUBING (EMT)a

    TYPE LETTERSCONDUCTOR SIZE AWG/kcmilTRADE SIZES (inches)
    1/23/4111/411/22
    RHH, RHW, RHW-2144711202746
    12369172338
    10258131830
    81247916
    61135813
    41124610
    3111459
    2111347
    1011135
    1/0011124
    2/0011124
    3/0001113
    4/0001113
    TW, THHW, THW, THW-21481525435896
    1261119334574
    105814243355
    8258131830
    RHHa, RHWa, RHW-2a1461016283964
    124813233151
    103610182440
    8146101424
    RHHa, RHWa, RHW-2a, TW, THW, THHW, THW-2613481118
    41136813
    31135712
    21124610
    1111347
    1/0011236
    2/0011135
    3/0011124
    4/0001113
    THHN, THWN, THWN-2141222356184138
    12916264561101
    1051016283863
    8369162236
    6247121626
    412471016
    31136813
    21135711
    1111458
    1/0111347
    2/0011236
    3/0011135
    4/0011124
    XHH, XHHW, XHHW-21481525435896
    1261119334574
    105814243355
    8258131830
    6136101422
    412471016
    31136814
    21135711
    1111458
    1/0111347
    2/0011236
    3/0011135
    4/0011124

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    1. a.Types RHW, and RHW-2 without outer covering.

    TABLE E3904.6(2) (Annex C, Table C.2)

    MAXIMUM NUMBER OF CONDUCTORS IN ELECTRICAL NONMETALLIC TUBING (ENT)a

    TYPE LETTERSCONDUCTOR SIZE AWG/kcmilTRADE SIZES (inches)
    1/23/4111/411/22
    RHH, RHW, RHW-2143610192643
    12259162236
    10147131729
    81136915
    61135712
    4112469
    3111358
    2011347
    1011135
    1/0001124
    2/0001113
    RHH, RHW, RHW-23/0001113
    4/0001112
    TW, THHW, THW, THW-21471322405592
    1251017314271
    104713233252
    8147131729
    RHHa, RHWa, RHW-2a144815273761
    123712212949
    10359172338
    8135101423
    RHHa, RHWa, RHW-2a, TW, THW, THHW, THW-2612471017
    41135813
    31125711
    2112469
    1011346
    1/0011235
    2/0011135
    3/0001124
    4/0001113
    THHN, THWN, THWN-2141018325880132
    1271323425896
    104815263660
    8258152135
    6136111525
    41147915
    31135813
    21125611
    THHN, THWN, THWN-21111358
    1/0011347
    2/0011235
    3/0011134
    4/0001124
    XHH, XHHW, XHHW-21471322405592
    1251017314271
    104713233252
    8147131729
    613591321
    41147915
    31136813
    21125611
    1111358
    1/0011347
    2/0011236
    3/0011135
    4/0001124

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    1. a.Types RHW, and RHW-2 without outer covering.

    TABLE E3904.6(3) (Annex C, Table C.3)

    MAXIMUM NUMBER OF CONDUCTORS IN FLEXIBLE METALLIC CONDUIT (FMC)a

    TYPE LETTERSCONDUCTOR SIZE AWG/kcmilTRADE SIZES (inches)
    1/23/4111/411/22
    RHH, RHW, RHW-2144711172544
    12369142137
    10357111730
    81246915
    61135712
    41124510
    3111357
    RHH, RHW, RHW-22111347
    1011125
    1/0011124
    2/0011113
    3/0001113
    TW, THHW, THW, THW-21491523365394
    1271118284172
    105813213054
    8357111730
    RHHa, RHWa, RHW-2a1461015243562
    125812192850
    104610152239
    814691323
    RHHa, RHWa, RHW-2a, TW, THW, THHW, THW-2613471018
    41135713
    31134611
    21124510
    1111247
    1/0011136
    2/0011135
    3/0011124
    4/0001113
    4/0001112
    THHN, THWN, THWN-2141322335276134
    1291624385698
    1061015243562
    8369142035
    THHN, THWN, THWN-26246101425
    41246916
    31135713
    21134611
    1111348
    1/0111247
    2/0011136
    3/0011125
    4/0011114
    XHH, XHHW, XHHW-21491523365394
    1271118284172
    105813213054
    8357111730
    613581222
    41246916
    31135713
    21134611
    1111358
    1/0111247
    2/0011236
    3/0011135
    4/0011124

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    1. a.Types RHW, and RHW-2 without outer covering.

    TABLE E3904.6(4) (Annex C, Table C.4)

    MAXIMUM NUMBER OF CONDUCTORS IN INTERMEDIATE METALLIC CONDUIT (IMC)a

    TYPE LETTERSCONDUCTOR SIZE AWG/kcmilTRADE SIZES (inches)
    1/23/4111/411/22
    RHH, RHW, RHW-2144813223049
    124611182541
    10358152033
    813481017
    61136814
    41135611
    3112469
    2111358
    1011235
    1/0011134
    2/0011124
    3/0001113
    4/0001113
    TW, THHW, THW, THW-2141017274764104
    1271321364980
    105915273659
    8358152033
    RHHa, RHWa, RHW-2a1461118314269
    125914253456
    104711192643
    8247121626
    RHHa, RHWa, RHW-2a, TW, THW, THHW, THW-2613591220
    41246915
    31136813
    21135611
    1111347
    1/0111346
    2/0011235
    3/0011134
    4/0011124
    THHN, THWN, THWN-2141424396891149
    121017294967109
    1061118314268
    83610182439
    6247131728
    413481017
    31246915
    21135712
    1112459
    1/0111348
    2/0111346
    THHN, THWN, THWN-23/0011235
    2/0011124
    XHH, XHHW, XHHW-2141017274764104
    1271321364980
    105915273659
    8358152033
    6146111524
    413481118
    31247915
    21135712
    1112459
    1/0111358
    2/0111346
    3/0011235
    4/0011124

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    1. a.Types RHW, and RHW-2 without outer covering.

    TABLE E3904.6(5) (Annex C, Table C.5)

    MAXIMUM NUMBER OF CONDUCTORS IN LIQUID-TIGHT FLEXIBLE NONMETALLIC CONDUIT (FNMC-B)a

    TYPE LETTERSCONDUCTOR SIZE AWG/kcmilTRADE SIZES (inches)
    3/81/23/4111/411/22
    RHH, RHW, RHW-21424712212744
    1213610172236
    101358141829
    81124791
    611136712
    40112469
    RHH, RHW, RHW-230111458
    20111347
    10011135
    1/00011124
    2/00011113
    3/00001113
    4/00001112
    TW, THHW, THW, THW-214591525445793
    12471219334371
    1035914253253
    81358141829
    RHHa, RHWa, RGW-2a14361016293862
    1235813233050
    1013610182339
    81146111423
    RHHa, RHWa, RHW-2a,TW, THW, THHW, THW-26113581118
    411136813
    311135711
    20112469
    10111347
    1/00011236
    2/00011235
    3/00011124
    4/00001113
    THHN, THWN, THWN-21481322366381133
    12591626465997
    10361016293761
    81369162135
    THHN, THWN, THWN-261247121525
    411247915
    311136813
    211135711
    10111458
    1/00111347
    2/00011236
    3/00011135
    4/00011124
    XHH, XHHW, XHHW-214591525445793
    12471219334371
    1035914253253
    81358141829
    61136101322
    411247916
    311136813
    211135711
    10111458
    1/00111347
    2/00011236
    3/00011135
    4/00011124

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    1. a.Types RHW, and RHW-2 without outer covering.

    TABLE E3904.6(6) (Annex C, Table C.6)

    MAXIMUM NUMBER OF CONDUCTORS IN LIQUID-TIGHT FLEXIBLE NONMETALLIC CONDUIT (FNMC-A)a

    TYPE LETTERSCONDUCTOR SIZE AWG/kcmilTRADE SIZES (inches)
    3/81/23/4111/411/22
    RHH, RHW, RHW-21424711202745
    121369172338
    101358131830
    811247916
    611135713
    401124610
    30111458
    20111347
    10011135
    1/00011124
    2/00011114
    3/00001113
    4/00001113
    TW, THHW, THW, THW-214591524435896
    12471219334474
    1035914243355
    81358131830
    RHHa, RHWa, RHW-2a14361016283864
    1234813233151
    1013610182440
    81146101424
    RHHa, RHWa, RHW-2a, TW, THW, THHW, THW-26113481118
    411136813
    311135711
    201124610
    10111347
    RHHa, RHWa, RHW-2a, TW, THW, THHW, THW-21/00011236
    2/00011135
    3/00011124
    4/00001113
    THHN, THWN, THWN-21481322356283137
    125916254560100
    10361016283863
    81369162236
    61246121626
    411247916
    311136813
    211135711
    10111458
    1/00111347
    2/00011236
    3/00011135
    4/00011124
    XHH, XHHW, XHHW-214591524435896
    12471219334474
    1035914243355
    81358131830
    61135101322
    4112471016
    311136814
    211135711
    10111458
    XHH, XHHW, XHHW-21/00111347
    2/00011236
    3/00011135
    4/00011124

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    1. a.Types RHW, and RHW-2 without outer covering.

    TABLE E3904.6(7) (Annex C, Table C.7)

    MAXIMUM NUMBER OF CONDUCTORS IN LIQUID-TIGHT FLEXIBLE METAL CONDUIT (LFMC)a

    TYPE LETTERSCONDUCTOR SIZE AWG/kcmilTRADE SIZES (inches)
    1/23/4111/411/22
    RHH, RHW, RHW-2144712212744
    123610172236
    10358141829
    81247915
    61136712
    4112469
    3111458
    2111347
    1011135
    1/0011124
    2/0011113
    3/0001113
    4/0001112
    TW, THHW, THW, THW-21491525445793
    1271219334371
    105914253253
    8358141829
    RHHa, RHWa, RHW-2a, THHW, THW, THW-21461016293862
    125813233050
    103610182339
    8146111423
    RHHa, RHWa, RHW-2a, TW, THW, THHW, THW-2613581118
    41136813
    31135711
    2112469
    1111347
    1/0011236
    2/0011235
    3/0011124
    4/0001113
    THHN, THWN, THWN-2141322366381133
    1291626465997
    1061016293761
    8369162135
    6247121525
    41247915
    31136813
    21135711
    1111458
    1/0111347
    2/0011236
    3/0011135
    4/0011124
    XHH, XHHW, XHHW-21491525445793
    1271219334371
    105914253253
    8358141829
    XHH, XHHW, XHHW-26136101322
    41247916
    31136813
    21135711
    1111458
    1/0111347
    2/0011236
    3/0011135
    4/0011124

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    1. a.Types RHW, and RHW-2 without outer covering.

    TABLE E3904.6(8) (Annex C, Table C.8)

    MAXIMUM NUMBER OF CONDUCTORS IN RIGID METAL CONDUIT (RMC)a

    TYPE LETTERSCONDUCTOR SIZE AWG/kcmilTRADE SIZES (inches)
    1/23/4111/411/22
    RHH, RHW, RHW-2144712212846
    123610172338
    10358141931
    812471016
    61136813
    41124610
    3112459
    2111347
    1011135
    1/0011124
    2/0011124
    3/0001113
    4/0001113
    TW, THHW, THW, THW-21491525445998
    1271219334575
    105914253456
    8358141931
    RHHa, RHWa, RHW-2a1461017293965
    125813233252
    103610182541
    8146111524
    RHHa, RHWa, RHW-2a, TW, THW, THHW, THW-2613581118
    41136814
    31135712
    21124610
    1111347
    1/001123