• (This appendix is not part of this standard. It is merely informative and does not contain requirements necessary for conformance to the standard. It has not been processed according to the ANSI requirements for a standard and may contain material that has not been subject to public review or a consensus process. Unresolved objectors on informative material are not offered the right to appeal at ASHRAE or ANSI.)



    Integrated design, and related concepts such as integrated project delivery and integrative design, requires early stakeholder collaboration to enable stronger, more balanced design solutions in all aspects of a project through the sharing of knowledge and expertise among project team members. This integrated design process is in contrast to traditional methods, where there is a limited utilization of the skills and knowledge of all stakeholders in the development of design solutions. An integrated design process enables the construction of high-performance green buildings that consume fewer resources and achieve better comfort and functionality. A goal of integrated processes is to better enable the construction of high-performance green buildings that consume fewer resources and achieve better comfort and functionality, as well as increased predictability of project outcomes early on.

    Integrated design facilitates higher building performance by bringing major issues and key participants into the project early in the design process. For the most part, the opportunities for creatively addressing solutions occur very early in the design process. The complex interactions of sophisticated building systems require early coordination in order to maximize effectiveness and output of such systems. Early team building and goal setting may also reduce total project costs. This collaborative process can inform building form envelope and mechanical, electrical, plumbing and other systems. The later in the design process that systems are introduced to the project, the more expensive the implementation of such systems will be. Use of building information technologies can also be a valuable asset in increasing predictability of outcomes earlier in the project and is recommended for all integrated teams.

    An iterative design process is intended to take full advantage of the collective knowledge and skills of the design team. A linear process approaches each problem sequentially. In contrast, an integrated process approaches each problem with input from the different viewpoints of the participants and the issues they represent, circling back after each design decision to collectively evaluate the impact on all stakeholders. This process acknowledges the complex interdependency of all building systems and their relationship to resource consumption and occupant well being.

    There are several existing, and currently evolving, models for collaboration which can be considered: for example, ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Applications, Chapter 57; the MTS 1.0 WSIP Guide, Whole Systems Integrated Process Guide for Sustainable Buildings and Communities; and Integrated Project Delivery: A Guide by the AIA and AIA California Council.

    Project specific integrated design and/or integrated project delivery processes should be determined with full participation of the stakeholder team. What works for one project may not prove the best approach for the next. Additionally, the team should collectively identify the performance standards and the associated metrics by which the project success will be judged. Design charrettes of varying duration may be an effective tool to consider, though ultimately it is the responsibility of the stakeholder team to determine the process that will best fit any specific problem or project.

    Scheme #1—with Atrium, maximum exposure on the south, three-story office building.
    Building SystemHigh-Performance Criteria
    SiteIAQIEQEnergyComm. M&VInitial CostO & M
    Aggregate index8661.5626.8
    Result: Least numbers under energy and cost column defines consumption of substantial energy with high initial cost. Scheme #2—without Atrium, three-story, minimum exposure on the south and west side.
    Building SystemHigh-Performance Criteria
    SiteIAQIEQEnergyComm. M&VInitial CostO & M
    Aggregate index6677776.8
    Result: High numbers on all columns indicate the building is conceived optimally.

    FIGURE F-1 Sample charrette design matrices.

    F1.1Design Charrette.

    The following outlines one type of design charrette process that has resulted in successful integrated design.

    At the initial stages of building design, a charrette process can be initiated and the members of the process should include all the stakeholders.

    F1.1.1Charrette Process.

    Experienced personnel representing each specialty should participate in the charrette process. A discussion of all the systems and all the items that affect the integrated design should be discussed. Stakeholders should be able to decide and vote on the best integrated system.

    The integrative team process should entail the following steps of design optimization:

    1. a.The original goals and budget of the project should be revisited to see whether the overall intentions of the project are intact.

    2. b.The project should be compared against this standard or at least one existing green rating system.

    3. c.Each of the building and site components should be scrutinized to help ensure natural systems for energy conservation, lighting, ventilation, and passive heating and cooling are maximized before mechanical systems are engaged.

    4. d.The appropriateness and integration logic of the building’s primary systems should be confirmed.

    5. e.The impact of the design on the site and its larger context should be evaluated, including the environmental impact on a life-cycle cost basis.

    6. f.Building information modeling (BIM) software, design tools, and the experience of the design team should be used if practical to help optimize the design.

    7. g.All members of the design team should be included when making design decisions.

    8. h.Commissioning and consideration of future operation and maintenance (O&M) requirements should be included within the design optimization process.

    F1.1.2Design Charrette Matrix.

    At the end of the charrette process, a matrix for each proposed building scheme can be developed and evaluated to summarize the impact on the site, water, energy, materials, and indoor environmental quality and to help lead to a decision as to the best integrated system. The matrix contains cells indicating the high-performance value, grading a particular building system to its appropriate high-performance criteria. Each high-performance value is qualitatively rated from 1 to 10, with 1 being the lowest (minimal energy savings, low air quality, low water efficiency, high cost) and 10 being the highest (high energy savings, high air quality, high water efficiency, low cost). The average of the high-performance values for each building system is the aggregate index. Selection of the best system should be based upon a comparison of these aggregate indices for each matrix.