Browse
  • PartIAdministrative

    CHAPTER1
    SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION

    PART1GENERAL PROVISIONS

    SECTION101
    SCOPE AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

    [A]101.1 Title.

    These regulations shall be known as the Fire Code of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], hereinafter referred to as “this code.”

    [A]101.2 Scope.

    This code establishes regulations affecting or relating to structures, processes, premises and safeguards regarding all of the following:

    1. 1.The hazard of fire and explosion arising from the storage, handling or use of structures, materials or devices.

    2. 2.Conditions hazardous to life, property or public welfare in the occupancy of structures or premises.

    3. 3.Fire hazards in the structure or on the premises from occupancy or operation.

    4. 4.Matters related to the construction, extension, repair, alteration or removal of fire suppression or alarm systems.

    5. 5.Conditions affecting the safety of fire fighters and emergency responders during emergency operations.

    [A]101.2.1 Appendices.

    Provisions in the appendices shall not apply unless specifically adopted.

    [A]101.3 Intent.

    The purpose of this code is to establish the minimum requirements consistent with nationally recognized good practice for providing a reasonable level of life safety and property protection from the hazards of fire, explosion or dangerous conditions in new and existing buildings, structures and premises, and to provide a reasonable level of safety to fire fighters and emergency responders during emergency operations.

    [A]101.4 Severability.

    If a section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this code is, for any reason, held to be unconstitutional, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this code.

    [A]101.5 Validity.

    In the event any part or provision of this code is held to be illegal or void, this shall not have the effect of making void or illegal any of the other parts or provisions hereof, which are determined to be legal; and it shall be presumed that this code would have been adopted without such illegal or invalid parts or provisions.

    SECTION102
    APPLICABILITY

    [A]102.1 Construction and design provisions.

    The construction and design provisions of this code shall apply to:

    1. 1.Structures, facilities and conditions arising after the adoption of this code.

    2. 2.Existing structures, facilities and conditions not legally in existence at the time of adoption of this code.

    3. 3.Existing structures, facilities and conditions where required in Chapter 11.

    4. 4.Existing structures, facilities and conditions that, in the opinion of the fire code official, constitute a distinct hazard to life or property.

    [A]102.2 Administrative, operational and maintenance provisions.

    The administrative, operational and maintenance provisions of this code shall apply to:

    1. 1.Conditions and operations arising after the adoption of this code.

    2. 2.Existing conditions and operations.

    [A]102.3 Change of use or occupancy.

    Changes shall not be made in the use or occupancy of any structure that would place the structure in a different division of the same group or occupancy or in a different group of occupancies, unless such structure is made to comply with the requirements of this code and the International Building Code. Subject to the approval of the fire code official, the use or occupancy of an existing structure shall be allowed to be changed and the structure is allowed to be occupied for purposes in other groups without conforming to all of the requirements of this code and the International Building Code for those groups, provided the new or proposed use is less hazardous, based on life and fire risk, than the existing use.

    [A]102.4 Application of building code.

    The design and construction of new structures shall comply with the International Building Code, and any alterations, additions, changes in use or changes in structures required by this code, which are within the scope of the International Building Code, shall be made in accordance therewith.

    [A]102.5 Application of residential code.

    Where structures are designed and constructed in accordance with the International Residential Code, the provisions of this code shall apply as follows:

    1. 1.Construction and design provisions of this code pertaining to the exterior of the structure shall apply including, but not limited to, premises identification, fire apparatus access and water supplies. Where interior or exterior systems or devices are installed, construction permits required by Section 105.7 of this code shall apply.

    2. 2.Administrative, operational and maintenance provisions of this code shall apply.

    [A]102.6 Historic buildings.

    The provisions of this code relating to the construction, alteration, repair, enlargement, restoration, relocation or moving of buildings or structures shall not be mandatory for existing buildings or structures identified and classified by the state or local jurisdiction as historic buildings where such buildings or structures do not constitute a distinct hazard to life or property. Fire protection in designated historic buildings shall be provided with an approved fire protection plan as required in Section 1103.1.1.

    [A]102.7 Referenced codes and standards.

    The codes and standards referenced in this code shall be those that are listed in Chapter 80, and such codes and standards shall be considered to be part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such reference and as further regulated in Sections 102.7.1 and 102.7.2.

    [A]102.7.1 Conflicts.

    Where conflicts occur between provisions of this code and referenced codes and standards, the provisions of this code shall apply.

    [A]102.7.2 Provisions in referenced codes and standards.

    Where the extent of the reference to a referenced code or standard includes subject matter that is within the scope of this code, the provisions of this code, as applicable, shall take precedence over the provisions in the referenced code or standard.

    [A]102.8 Subjects not regulated by this code.

    Where applicable standards or requirements are not set forth in this code, or are contained within other laws, codes, regulations, ordinances or bylaws adopted by the jurisdiction, compliance with applicable standards of the National Fire Protection Association or other nationally recognized fire safety standards, as approved, shall be deemed as prima facie evidence of compliance with the intent of this code. Nothing herein shall derogate from the authority of the fire code official to determine compliance with codes or standards for those activities or installations within the fire code official’s jurisdiction or responsibility.

    [A]102.9 Matters not provided for.

    Requirements that are essential for the public safety of an existing or proposed activity, building or structure, or for the safety of the occupants thereof, that are not specifically provided for by this code, shall be determined by the fire code official.

    [A]102.10 Conflicting provisions.

    Where there is a conflict between a general requirement and a specific requirement, the specific requirement shall be applicable. Where, in a specific case, different sections of this code specify different materials, methods of construction or other requirements, the most restrictive shall govern.

    [A]102.11 Other laws.

    The provisions of this code shall not be deemed to nullify any provisions of local, state or federal law.

    [A]102.12 Application of references.

    References to chapter or section numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified by number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section or provision of this code.

    PART2ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

    SECTION103
    DEPARTMENT OF FIRE PREVENTION

    [A]103.1 General.

    The department of fire prevention is established within the jurisdiction under the direction of the fire code official. The function of the department shall be the implementation, administration and enforcement of the provisions of this code.

    [A]103.2 Appointment.

    The fire code official shall be appointed by the chief appointing authority of the jurisdiction; and the fire code official shall not be removed from office except for cause and after full opportunity to be heard on specific and relevant charges by and before the appointing authority.

    [A]103.3 Deputies.

    In accordance with the prescribed procedures of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the appointing authority, the fire code official shall have the authority to appoint a deputy fire code official, other related technical officers, inspectors and other employees.

    [A]103.4 Liability.

    The fire code official, member of the board of appeals, officer or employee charged with the enforcement of this code, while acting for the jurisdiction, in good faith and without malice in the discharge of the duties required by this code or other pertinent law or ordinance, shall not thereby be rendered civilly or criminally liable personally, and is hereby relieved from all personal liability for any damage accruing to persons or property as a result of an act or by reason of an act or omission in the discharge of official duties.

    [A]103.4.1 Legal defense.

    Any suit or criminal complaint instituted against any officer or employee because of an act performed by that officer or employee in the lawful discharge of duties and under the provisions of this code shall be defended by the legal representatives of the jurisdiction until the final termination of the proceedings. The fire code official or any subordinate shall not be liable for costs in an action, suit or proceeding that is instituted in pursuance of the provisions of this code; and any officer of the department of fire prevention, acting in good faith and without malice, shall be free from liability for acts performed under any of its provisions or by reason of any act or omission in the performance of official duties in connection therewith.

    SECTION104
    GENERAL AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITIES

    [A]104.1 General.

    The fire code official is hereby authorized to enforce the provisions of this code and shall have the authority to render interpretations of this code, and to adopt policies, procedures, rules and regulations in order to clarify the application of its provisions. Such interpretations, policies, procedures, rules and regulations shall be in compliance with the intent and purpose of this code and shall not have the effect of waiving requirements specifically provided for in this code.

    [A]104.2 Applications and permits.

    The fire code official is authorized to receive applications, review construction documents and issue permits for construction regulated by this code, issue permits for operations regulated by this code, inspect the premises for which such permits have been issued and enforce compliance with the provisions of this code.

    [A]104.3 Right of entry.

    Where it is necessary to make an inspection to enforce the provisions of this code, or where the fire code official has reasonable cause to believe that there exists in a building or upon any premises any conditions or violations of this code that make the building or premises unsafe, dangerous or hazardous, the fire code official shall have the authority to enter the building or premises at all reasonable times to inspect or to perform the duties imposed upon the fire code official by this code. If such building or premises is occupied, the fire code official shall present credentials to the occupant and request entry. If such building or premises is unoccupied, the fire code official shall first make a reasonable effort to locate the owner, the owner’s authorized agent or other person having charge or control of the building or premises and request entry. If entry is refused, the fire code official has recourse to every remedy provided by law to secure entry.

    [A]104.3.1 Warrant.

    Where the fire code official has first obtained a proper inspection warrant or other remedy provided by law to secure entry, an owner, the owner’s authorized agent or occupant or person having charge, care or control of the building or premises shall not fail or neglect, after proper request is made as herein provided, to permit entry therein by the fire code official for the purpose of inspection and examination pursuant to this code.

    [A]104.4 Identification.

    The fire code official shall carry proper identification when inspecting structures or premises in the performance of duties under this code.

    [A]104.5 Notices and orders.

    The fire code official is authorized to issue such notices or orders as are required to affect compliance with this code in accordance with Sections 109.1 and 109.2.

    [A]104.6 Official records.

    The fire code official shall keep official records as required by Sections 104.6.1 through 104.6.4. Such official records shall be retained for not less than 5 years or for as long as the structure or activity to which such records relate remains in existence, unless otherwise provided by other regulations.

    [A]104.6.1 Approvals.

    A record of approvals shall be maintained by the fire code official and shall be available for public inspection during business hours in accordance with applicable laws.

    [A]104.6.2 Inspections.

    The fire code official shall keep a record of each inspection made, including notices and orders issued, showing the findings and disposition of each.

    104.6.3 Fire records.

    The fire department shall keep a record of fires occurring within its jurisdiction and of facts concerning the same, including statistics as to the extent of such fires and the damage caused thereby, together with other information as required by the fire code official.

    [A]104.6.4 Administrative.

    Application for modification, alternative methods or materials and the final decision of the fire code official shall be in writing and shall be officially recorded in the permanent records of the fire code official.

    [A]104.7 Approved materials and equipment.

    Materials, equipment and devices approved by the fire code official shall be constructed and installed in accordance with such approval.

    [A]104.7.1 Material and equipment reuse.

    Materials, equipment and devices shall not be reused or reinstalled unless such elements have been reconditioned, tested and placed in good and proper working condition and approved.

    [A]104.7.2 Technical assistance.

    To determine the acceptability of technologies, processes, products, facilities, materials and uses attending the design, operation or use of a building or premises subject to inspection by the fire code official, the fire code official is authorized to require the owner or owner’s authorized agent to provide, without charge to the jurisdiction, a technical opinion and report. The opinion and report shall be prepared by a qualified engineer, specialist, laboratory or fire safety specialty organization acceptable to the fire code official and shall analyze the fire safety properties of the design, operation or use of the building or premises and the facilities and appurtenances situated thereon, to recommend necessary changes. The fire code official is authorized to require design submittals to be prepared by, and bear the stamp of, a registered design professional.

    [A]104.8 Modifications.

    Where there are practical difficulties involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, the fire code official shall have the authority to grant modifications for individual cases, provided the fire code official shall first find that special individual reason makes the strict letter of this code impractical and the modification is in compliance with the intent and purpose of this code and that such modification does not lessen health, life and fire safety requirements. The details of action granting modifications shall be recorded and entered in the files of the department of fire prevention.

    [A]104.9 Alternative materials and methods.

    The provisions of this code are not intended to prevent the installation of any material or to prohibit any method of construction not specifically prescribed by this code, provided that any such alternative has been approved. The fire code official is authorized to approve an alternative material or method of construction where the fire code official finds that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies with the intent of the provisions of this code, and that the material, method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the equivalent of that prescribed in this code in quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety. Where the alternative material, design or method of construction is not approved, the fire code official shall respond in writing, stating the reasons why the alternative was not approved.

    [A]104.9.1 Research reports.

    Supporting data, where necessary to assist in the approval of materials or assemblies not specifically provided for in this code, shall consist of valid research reports from approved sources.

    [A]104.9.2 Tests.

    Where there is insufficient evidence of compliance with the provisions of this code, or evidence that a material or method does not conform to the requirements of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for alternative materials or methods, the fire code official shall have the authority to require tests as evidence of compliance to be made at no expense to the jurisdiction. Test methods shall be as specified in this code or by other recognized test standards. In the absence of recognized and accepted test methods, the fire code official shall approve the testing procedures. Tests shall be performed by an approved agency. Reports of such tests shall be retained by the fire code official for the period required for retention of public records.

    104.10 Fire investigations.

    The fire code official, the fire department or other responsible authority shall have the authority to investigate the cause, origin and circumstances of any fire, explosion or other hazardous condition. Information that could be related to trade secrets or processes shall not be made part of the public record, except as directed by a court of law.

    104.10.1 Assistance from other agencies.

    Police and other enforcement agencies shall have authority to render necessary assistance in the investigation of fires when requested to do so.

    104.11 Authority at fires and other emergencies.

    The fire chief or officer of the fire department in charge at the scene of a fire or other emergency involving the protection of life or property, or any part thereof, shall have the authority to direct such operation as necessary to extinguish or control any fire, perform any rescue operation, investigate the existence of suspected or reported fires, gas leaks or other hazardous conditions or situations, or take any other action necessary in the reasonable performance of duty. In the exercise of such power, the fire chief is authorized to prohibit any person, vehicle, vessel or thing from approaching the scene, and is authorized to remove, or cause to be removed or kept away from the scene, any vehicle, vessel or thing that could impede or interfere with the operations of the fire department and, in the judgment of the fire chief, any person not actually and usefully employed in the extinguishing of such fire or in the preservation of property in the vicinity thereof.

    104.11.1 Barricades.

    The fire chief or officer of the fire department in charge at the scene of an emergency is authorized to place ropes, guards, barricades or other obstructions across any street, alley, place or private property in the vicinity of such operation so as to prevent accidents or interference with the lawful efforts of the fire department to manage and control the situation and to handle fire apparatus.

    104.11.2 Obstructing operations.

    Persons shall not obstruct the operations of the fire department in connection with extinguishment or control of any fire, or actions relative to other emergencies, or disobey any lawful command of the fire chief or officer of the fire department in charge of the emergency, or any part thereof, or any lawful order of a police officer assisting the fire department.

    104.11.3 Systems and devices.

    Persons shall not render a system or device inoperative during an emergency unless by direction of the fire chief or fire department official in charge of the incident.

    SECTION105
    PERMITS

    [A]105.1 General.

    Permits shall be in accordance with Sections 105.1.1 through 105.7.18.

    [A]105.1.1 Permits required.

    A property owner or owner’s authorized agent who intends to conduct an operation or business, or install or modify systems and equipment that are regulated by this code, or to cause any such work to be performed, shall first make application to the fire code official and obtain the required permit.

    105.1.2 Types of permits.

    There shall be two types of permits as follows:

    1. 1.Operational permit. An operational permit allows the applicant to conduct an operation or a business for which a permit is required by Section 105.6 for either:

      1. 1.1.A prescribed period.

      2. 1.2.Until renewed or revoked.

    2. 2.Construction permit. A construction permit allows the applicant to install or modify systems and equipment for which a permit is required by Section 105.7.

    105.1.3 Multiple permits for the same location.

    Where more than one permit is required for the same location, the fire code official is authorized to consolidate such permits into a single permit provided that each provision is listed in the permit.

    [A]105.1.4 Emergency repairs.

    Where equipment replacement and repairs must be performed in an emergency situation, the permit application shall be submitted within the next working business day to the fire code official.

    [A]105.1.5 Repairs.

    Application or notice to the fire code official is not required for ordinary repairs to structures, equipment or systems. Such repairs shall not include the cutting away of any wall, partition or portion thereof, the removal or change of any required means of egress, or rearrangement of parts of a structure affecting the egress requirements; nor shall any repairs include addition to, alteration of, replacement or relocation of any standpipe, fire protection water supply, automatic sprinkler system, fire alarm system or other work affecting fire protection or life safety.

    [A]105.1.6 Annual permit.

    Instead of an individual construction permit for each alteration to an already approved system or equipment installation, the fire code official is authorized to issue an annual permit upon application therefor to any person, firm or corporation regularly employing one or more qualified tradespersons in the building, structure or on the premises owned or operated by the applicant for the permit.

    [A]105.1.6.1 Annual permit records.

    The person to whom an annual permit is issued shall keep a detailed record of alterations made under such annual permit. The fire code official shall have access to such records at all times or such records shall be filed with the fire code official as designated.

    [A]105.2 Application.

    Application for a permit required by this code shall be made to the fire code official in such form and detail as prescribed by the fire code official. Applications for permits shall be accompanied by such plans as prescribed by the fire code official.

    [A]105.2.1 Refusal to issue permit.

    If the application for a permit describes a use that does not conform to the requirements of this code and other pertinent laws and ordinances, the fire code official shall not issue a permit, but shall return the application to the applicant with the refusal to issue such permit. Such refusal shall, where requested, be in writing and shall contain the reasons for refusal.

    [A]105.2.2 Inspection authorized.

    Before a new operational permit is approved, the fire code official is authorized to inspect the receptacles, vehicles, buildings, devices, premises, storage spaces or areas to be used to determine compliance with this code or any operational constraints required.

    [A]105.2.3 Time limitation of application.

    An application for a permit for any proposed work or operation shall be deemed to have been abandoned 180 days after the date of filing, unless such application has been diligently prosecuted or a permit shall have been issued; except that the fire code official is authorized to grant one or more extensions of time for additional periods not exceeding 90 days each. The extension shall be requested in writing and justifiable cause demonstrated.

    [A]105.2.4 Action on application.

    The fire code official shall examine or cause to be examined applications for permits and amendments thereto within a reasonable time after filing. If the application or the construction documents do not conform to the requirements of pertinent laws, the fire code official shall reject such application in writing, stating the reasons therefor. If the fire code official is satisfied that the proposed work or operation conforms to the requirements of this code and laws and ordinances applicable thereto, the fire code official shall issue a permit therefor as soon as practicable.

    [A]105.3 Conditions of a permit.

    A permit shall constitute permission to maintain, store or handle materials; or to conduct processes that produce conditions hazardous to life or property; or to install equipment utilized in connection with such activities; or to install or modify any fire protection system or equipment or any other construction, equipment installation or modification in accordance with the provisions of this code where a permit is required by Section 105.6 or 105.7. Such permission shall not be construed as authority to violate, cancel or set aside any of the provisions of this code or other applicable regulations or laws of the jurisdiction.

    [A]105.3.1 Expiration.

    An operational permit shall remain in effect until reissued, renewed or revoked, or for such a period of time as specified in the permit. Construction permits shall automatically become invalid unless the work authorized by such permit is commenced within 180 days after its issuance, or if the work authorized by such permit is suspended or abandoned for a period of 180 days after the time the work is commenced. Before such work recommences, a new permit shall be first obtained and the fee to recommence work, if any, shall be one‒half the amount required for a new permit for such work, provided that changes have not been made and will not be made in the original construction documents for such work, and provided further that such suspension or abandonment has not exceeded one year. Permits are not transferable and any change in occupancy, operation, tenancy or ownership shall require that a new permit be issued.

    [A]105.3.2 Extensions.

    A permittee holding an unexpired permit shall have the right to apply for an extension of the time within which the permittee will commence work under that permit where work is unable to be commenced within the time required by this section for good and satisfactory reasons. The fire code official is authorized to grant, in writing, one or more extensions of the time period of a permit for periods of not more than 180 days each. Such extensions shall be requested by the permit holder in writing and justifiable cause demonstrated.

    [A]105.3.3 Occupancy prohibited before approval.

    The building or structure shall not be occupied prior to the fire code official issuing a permit and conducting associated inspections indicating the applicable provisions of this code have been met.

    [A]105.3.4 Conditional permits.

    Where permits are required and upon the request of a permit applicant, the fire code official is authorized to issue a conditional permit to occupy the premises or portion thereof before the entire work or operations on the premises is completed, provided that such portion or portions will be occupied safely prior to full completion or installation of equipment and operations without endangering life or public welfare. The fire code official shall notify the permit applicant in writing of any limitations or restrictions necessary to keep the permit area safe. The holder of a conditional permit shall proceed only to the point for which approval has been given, at the permit holder’s own risk and without assurance that approval for the occupancy or the utilization of the entire premises, equipment or operations will be granted.

    [A]105.3.5 Posting the permit.

    Issued permits shall be kept on the premises designated therein at all times and shall be readily available for inspection by the fire code official.

    [A]105.3.6 Compliance with code.

    The issuance or granting of a permit shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an approval of, any violation of any of the provisions of this code or of any other ordinance of the jurisdiction. Permits presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. The issuance of a permit based on construction documents and other data shall not prevent the fire code official from requiring the correction of errors in the construction documents and other data. Any addition to or alteration of approved construction documents shall be approved in advance by the fire code official, as evidenced by the issuance of a new or amended permit.

    [A]105.3.7 Information on the permit.

    The fire code official shall issue all permits required by this code on an approved form furnished for that purpose. The permit shall contain a general description of the operation or occupancy and its location and any other information required by the fire code official. Issued permits shall bear the signature of the fire code official or other approved legal authorization.

    [A]105.3.8 Validity of permit.

    The issuance or granting of a permit shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an approval of, any violation of any of the provisions of this code or of any other ordinances of the jurisdiction. Permits presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. The issuance of a permit based on construction documents, operational documents and other data shall not prevent the fire code official from requiring correction of errors in the documents or other data.

    [A]105.4 Construction documents.

    Construction documents shall be in accordance with Sections 105.4.1 through 105.4.6.

    [A]105.4.1 Submittals.

    Construction documents and supporting data shall be submitted in two or more sets with each application for a permit and in such form and detail as required by the fire code official. The construction documents shall be prepared by a registered design professional where required by the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed.

    Exception: The fire code official is authorized to waive the submission of construction documents and supporting data not required to be prepared by a registered design professional if it is found that the nature of the work applied for is such that review of construction documents is not necessary to obtain compliance with this code.

    [A]105.4.1.1 Examination of documents.

    The fire code official shall examine or cause to be examined the accompanying construction documents and shall ascertain by such examinations whether the work indicated and described is in accordance with the requirements of this code.

    [A]105.4.2 Information on construction documents.

    Construction documents shall be drawn to scale upon suitable material. Electronic media documents are allowed to be submitted where approved by the fire code official. Construction documents shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this code and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations as determined by the fire code official.

    [A]105.4.2.1 Fire protection system shop drawings.

    Shop drawings for the fire protection system(s) shall be submitted to indicate compliance with this code and the construction documents, and shall be approved prior to the start of installation. Shop drawings shall contain all information as required by the referenced installation standards in Chapter 9.

    [A]105.4.3 Applicant responsibility.

    It shall be the responsibility of the applicant to ensure that the construction documents include all of the fire protection requirements and the shop drawings are complete and in compliance with the applicable codes and standards.

    [A]105.4.4 Approved documents.

    Construction documents approved by the fire code official are approved with the intent that such construction documents comply in all respects with this code. Review and approval by the fire code official shall not relieve the applicant of the responsibility of compliance with this code.

    [A]105.4.4.1 Phased approval.

    The fire code official is authorized to issue a permit for the construction of part of a structure, system or operation before the construction documents for the whole structure, system or operation have been submitted, provided that adequate information and detailed statements have been filed complying with pertinent requirements of this code. The holder of such permit for parts of a structure, system or operation shall proceed at the holder’s own risk with the building operation and without assurance that a permit for the entire structure, system or operation will be granted.

    [A]105.4.5 Amended construction documents.

    Work shall be installed in accordance with the approved construction documents, and any changes made during construction that are not in compliance with the approved construction documents shall be resubmitted for approval as an amended set of construction documents.

    [A]105.4.6 Retention of construction documents.

    One set of construction documents shall be retained by the fire code official for a period of not less than 180 days from date of completion of the permitted work, or as required by state or local laws. One set of approved construction documents shall be returned to the applicant, and said set shall be kept on the site of the building or work at all times during which the work authorized thereby is in progress.

    [A]105.5 Revocation.

    The fire code official is authorized to revoke a permit issued under the provisions of this code where it is found by inspection or otherwise that there has been a false statement or misrepresentation as to the material facts in the application or construction documents on which the permit or approval was based including, but not limited to, any one of the following:

    1. 1.The permit is used for a location or establishment other than that for which it was issued.

    2. 2.The permit is used for a condition or activity other than that listed in the permit.

    3. 3.Conditions and limitations set forth in the permit have been violated.

    4. 4.There have been any false statements or misrepresentations as to the material fact in the application for permit or plans submitted or a condition of the permit.

    5. 5.The permit is used by a different person or firm than the name for which it was issued.

    6. 6.The permittee failed, refused or neglected to comply with orders or notices duly served in accordance with the provisions of this code within the time provided therein.

    7. 7.The permit was issued in error or in violation of an ordinance, regulation or this code.

    105.6 Required operational permits.

    The fire code official is authorized to issue operational permits for the operations set forth in Sections 105.6.1 through 105.6.48.

    105.6.1 Aerosol products.

    An operational permit is required to manufacture, store or handle an aggregate quantity of Level 2 or Level 3 aerosol products in excess of 500 pounds (227 kg) net weight.

    105.6.2 Amusement buildings.

    An operational permit is required to operate a special amusement building.

    105.6.3 Aviation facilities.

    An operational permit is required to use a Group H or Group S occupancy for aircraft servicing or repair and aircraft fuel-servicing vehicles. Additional permits required by other sections of this code include, but are not limited to, hot work, hazardous materials and flammable or combustible finishes.

    105.6.4 Carbon dioxide systems used in beverage dispensing applications.

    An operational permit is required for carbon dioxide systems used in beverage dispensing applications having more than 100 pounds of carbon dioxide.

    105.6.5 Carnivals and fairs.

    An operational permit is required to conduct a carnival or fair.

    105.6.6 Cellulose nitrate film.

    An operational permit is required to store, handle or use cellulose nitrate film in a Group A occupancy.

    105.6.7 Combustible dust-producing operations.

    An operational permit is required to operate a grain elevator, flour starch mill, feed mill, or a plant pulverizing aluminum, coal, cocoa, magnesium, spices or sugar, or other operations producing combustible dusts as defined in Chapter 2.

    105.6.8 Combustible fibers.

    An operational permit is required for the storage and handling of combustible fibers in quantities greater than 100 cubic feet (2.8 m3).

    Exception: A permit is not required for agricultural storage.

    105.6.9 Compressed gases.

    An operational permit is required for the storage, use or handling at normal temperature and pressure (NTP) of compressed gases in excess of the amounts listed in Table 105.6.9.

    Exception: Vehicles equipped for and using compressed gas as a fuel for propelling the vehicle.

    TABLE 105.6.9

    PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR COMPRESSED GASES

    TYPE OF GASAMOUNT (cubic feet at NTP)
    Corrosive200
    Flammable (except cryogenic fluids and liquefied petroleum gases)200
    Highly toxicAny Amount
    Inert and simple asphyxianta6,000
    Oxidizing (including oxygen)504
    PyrophoricAny Amount
    ToxicAny Amount

    For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3.

    1. a.For carbon dioxide used in beverage dispensing applications, see Section 105.6.4.

    105.6.10 Covered and open mall buildings.

    An operational permit is required for:

    1. 1.The placement of retail fixtures and displays, concession equipment, displays of highly combustible goods and similar items in the mall.

    2. 2.The display of liquid- or gas-fired equipment in the mall.

    3. 3.The use of open-flame or flame-producing equipment in the mall.

    105.6.11 Cryogenic fluids.

    An operational permit is required to produce, store, transport on site, use, handle or dispense cryogenic fluids in excess of the amounts listed in Table 105.6.11.

    Exception: Permits are not required for vehicles equipped for and using cryogenic fluids as a fuel for propelling the vehicle or for refrigerating the lading.

    TABLE 105.6.11

    PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR CRYOGENIC FLUIDS

    TYPE OF CRYOGENIC FLUIDINSIDE BUILDING (gallons)OUTSIDE BUILDING (gallons)
    FlammableMore than 160
    Inert60500
    Oxidizing (includes oxygen)1050
    Physical or health hazard not indicated aboveAny AmountAny Amount

    For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

    105.6.12 Cutting and welding.

    An operational permit is required to conduct cutting or welding operations within the jurisdiction.

    105.6.13 Dry cleaning.

    An operational permit is required to engage in the business of dry cleaning or to change to a more hazardous cleaning solvent used in existing dry cleaning equipment.

    105.6.14 Exhibits and trade shows.

    An operational permit is required to operate exhibits and trade shows.

    105.6.15 Explosives.

    An operational permit is required for the manufacture, storage, handling, sale or use of any quantity of explosives, explosive materials, fireworks or pyrotechnic special effects within the scope of Chapter 56.

    Exception: Storage in Group R-3 occupancies of smokeless propellant, black powder and small arms primers for personal use, not for resale and in accordance with Section 5606.

    105.6.16 Fire hydrants and valves.

    An operational permit is required to use or operate fire hydrants or valves intended for fire suppression purposes that are installed on water systems and accessible to a fire apparatus access road that is open to or generally used by the public.

    Exception: A permit is not required for authorized employees of the water company that supplies the system or the fire department to use or operate fire hydrants or valves.

    105.6.17 Flammable and combustible liquids.

    An operational permit is required:

    1. 1.To use or operate a pipeline for the transportation within facilities of flammable or combustible liquids. This requirement shall not apply to the off‒site transportation in pipelines regulated by the Department of Transportation (DOTn) nor does it apply to piping systems.

    2. 2.To store, handle or use Class I liquids in excess of 5 gallons (19 L) in a building or in excess of 10 gallons (37.9 L) outside of a building, except that a permit is not required for the following:

      1. 2.1.The storage or use of Class I liquids in the fuel tank of a motor vehicle, aircraft, motorboat, mobile power plant or mobile heating plant, unless such storage, in the opinion of the fire code official, would cause an unsafe condition.

      2. 2.2.The storage or use of paints, oils, varnishes or similar flammable mixtures where such liquids are stored for maintenance, painting or similar purposes for a period of not more than 30 days.

    3. 3.To store, handle or use Class II or Class IIIA liquids in excess of 25 gallons (95 L) in a building or in excess of 60 gallons (227 L) outside a building, except for fuel oil used in connection with oil‒burning equipment.

    4. 4.To store, handle or use Class IIIB liquids in tanks or portable tanks for fueling motor vehicles at motor fuel‒dispensing facilities or where connected to fuel‒burning equipment.

      Exception: Fuel oil and used motor oil used for space heating or water heating.

    5. 5.To remove Class I or II liquids from an underground storage tank used for fueling motor vehicles by any means other than the approved, stationary on‒site pumps normally used for dispensing purposes.

    6. 6.To operate tank vehicles, equipment, tanks, plants, terminals, wells, fuel‒dispensing stations, refineries, distilleries and similar facilities where flammable and combustible liquids are produced, processed, transported, stored, dispensed or used.

    7. 7.To place temporarily out of service (for more than 90 days) an underground, protected above‒ground or above‒ground flammable or combustible liquid tank.

    8. 8.To change the type of contents stored in a flammable or combustible liquid tank to a material that poses a greater hazard than that for which the tank was designed and constructed.

    9. 9.To manufacture, process, blend or refine flammable or combustible liquids.

    10. 10.To engage in the dispensing of liquid fuels into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles at commercial, industrial, governmental or manufacturing establishments.

    11. 11.To utilize a site for the dispensing of liquid fuels from tank vehicles into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles, marine craft and other special equipment at commercial, industrial, governmental or manufacturing establishments.

    105.6.18 Floor finishing.

    An operational permit is required for floor finishing or surfacing operations exceeding 350 square feet (33 m2) using Class I or Class II liquids.

    105.6.19 Fruit and crop ripening.

    An operational permit is required to operate a fruit‒ or crop‒ripening facility or conduct a fruit‒ripening process using ethylene gas.

    105.6.20 Fumigation and insecticidal fogging.

    An operational permit is required to operate a business of fumigation or insecticidal fogging, and to maintain a room, vault or chamber in which a toxic or flammable fumigant is used.

    105.6.21 Hazardous materials.

    An operational permit is required to store, transport on site, dispense, use or handle hazardous materials in excess of the amounts listed in Table 105.6.21.

    TABLE 105.6.21

    PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

    TYPE OF MATERIALAMOUNT
    Combustible liquidsSee Section 105.6.17
    Corrosive materials
     GasesSee Section 105.6.9
     Liquids55 gallons
     Solids1000 pounds
    Explosive materialsSee Section 105.6.15
    Flammable materials
     GasesSee Section 105.6.9
     LiquidsSee Section 105.6.17
     Solids100 pounds
    Highly toxic materials
     GasesSee Section 105.6.9
     LiquidsAny Amount
     SolidsAny Amount
    Oxidizing materials
     GasesSee Section 105.6.9
     Liquids
      Class 4Any Amount
      Class 31 gallona
      Class 210 gallons
      Class 155 gallons
     Solids
      Class 4Any Amount
      Class 310 poundsb
      Class 2100 pounds
      Class 1500 pounds
    Organic peroxides
     Liquids
      Class IAny Amount
      Class IIAny Amount
      Class III1 gallon
      Class IV2 gallons
      Class VNo Permit Required
     Solids
      Class IAny Amount
      Class IIAny Amount
      Class III10 pounds
      Class IV20 pounds
      Class VNo Permit Required
    Pyrophoric materials
     GasesAny Amount
     LiquidsAny Amount
     SolidsAny Amount
    Toxic materials
     GasesSee Section 105.6.9
     Liquids10 gallons
     Solids100 pounds
    Unstable (reactive) materials
     Liquids
      Class 4Any Amount
      Class 3Any Amount
      Class 25 gallons
      Class 110 gallons
     Solids
      Class 4Any Amount
      Class 3Any Amount
      Class 250 pounds
      Class 1100 pounds
    Water‒reactive materials
     Liquids
      Class 3Any Amount
      Class 25 gallons
      Class 155 gallons
     Solids
      Class 3Any Amount
      Class 250 pounds
      Class 1500 pounds

    For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.

    1. a.20 gallons where Table 5003.1.1(1) Note k applies and hazard identification signs in accordance with Section 5003.5 are provided for quantities of 20 gallons or less.

    2. b.200 pounds where Table 5003.1.1(1) Note k applies and hazard identification signs in accordance with Section 5003.5 are provided for quantities of 200 pounds or less.

    105.6.22 HPM facilities.

    An operational permit is required to store, handle or use hazardous production materials.

    105.6.23 High‒piled storage.

    An operational permit is required to use a building or portion thereof as a high‒piled storage area exceeding 500 square feet (46 m2).

    105.6.24 Hot work operations.

    An operational permit is required for hot work including, but not limited to:

    1. 1.Public exhibitions and demonstrations where hot work is conducted.

    2. 2.Use of portable hot work equipment inside a structure.

      Exception: Work that is conducted under a construction permit.

    3. 3.Fixed‒site hot work equipment, such as welding booths.

    4. 4.Hot work conducted within a wildfire risk area.

    5. 5.Application of roof coverings with the use of an open‒flame device.

    6. 6.Where approved, the fire code official shall issue a permit to carry out a hot work program. This program allows approved personnel to regulate their facility’s hot work operations. The approved personnel shall be trained in the fire safety aspects denoted in this chapter and shall be responsible for issuing permits requiring compliance with the requirements found in Chapter 35. These permits shall be issued only to their employees or hot work operations under their supervision.

    105.6.25 Industrial ovens.

    An operational permit is required for operation of industrial ovens regulated by Chapter 30.

    105.6.26 Lumber yards and woodworking plants.

    An operational permit is required for the storage or processing of lumber exceeding 100,000 board feet (8,333 ft3) (236 m3).

    105.6.27 Liquid‒ or gas‒fueled vehicles or equipment in assembly buildings.

    An operational permit is required to display, operate or demonstrate liquid‒ or gas‒fueled vehicles or equipment in assembly buildings.

    105.6.28 LP‒gas.

    An operational permit is required for:

    1. 1.Storage and use of LP‒gas.

      Exception: A permit is not required for individual containers with a 500‒gallon (1893 L) water capacity or less or multiple container systems having an aggregate quantity not exceeding 500 gallons (1893 L), serving occupancies in Group R‒3.

    2. 2.Operation of cargo tankers that transport LP‒gas.

    105.6.29 Magnesium.

    An operational permit is required to melt, cast, heat treat or grind more than 10 pounds (4.54 kg) of magnesium.

    105.6.30 Miscellaneous combustible storage.

    An operational permit is required to store in any building or upon any premises in excess of 2,500 cubic feet (71 m3) gross volume of combustible empty packing cases, boxes, barrels or similar containers, rubber tires, rubber, cork or similar combustible material.

    105.6.31 Motor fuel‒dispensing facilities.

    An operational permit is required for the operation of automotive, marine and fleet motor fuel‒dispensing facilities.

    105.6.32 Open burning.

    An operational permit is required for the kindling or maintaining of an open fire or a fire on any public street, alley, road, or other public or private ground. Instructions and stipulations of the permit shall be adhered to.

    Exception: Recreational fires.

    105.6.33 Open flames and torches.

    An operational permit is required to remove paint with a torch; or to use a torch or open‒flame device in a wildfire risk area.

    105.6.34 Open flames and candles.

    An operational permit is required to use open flames or candles in connection with assembly areas, dining areas of restaurants or drinking establishments.

    105.6.35 Organic coatings.

    An operational permit is required for any organic‒coating manufacturing operation producing more than 1 gallon (4 L) of an organic coating in one day.

    105.6.36 Places of assembly.

    An operational permit is required to operate a place of assembly.

    105.6.37 Private fire hydrants.

    An operational permit is required for the removal from service, use or operation of private fire hydrants.

    Exception: A permit is not required for private industry with trained maintenance personnel, private fire brigade or fire departments to maintain, test and use private hydrants.

    105.6.38 Pyrotechnic special effects material.

    An operational permit is required for use and handling of pyrotechnic special effects material.

    105.6.39 Pyroxylin plastics.

    An operational permit is required for storage or handling of more than 25 pounds (11 kg) of cellulose nitrate (pyroxylin) plastics, and for the assembly or manufacture of articles involving pyroxylin plastics.

    105.6.40 Refrigeration equipment.

    An operational permit is required to operate a mechanical refrigeration unit or system regulated by Chapter 6.

    105.6.41 Repair garages and motor fuel‒dispensing facilities.

    An operational permit is required for operation of repair garages.

    105.6.42 Rooftop heliports.

    An operational permit is required for the operation of a rooftop heliport.

    105.6.43 Spraying or dipping.

    An operational permit is required to conduct a spraying or dipping operation utilizing flammable or combustible liquids, or the application of combustible powders regulated by Chapter 24.

    105.6.44 Storage of scrap tires and tire byproducts.

    An operational permit is required to establish, conduct or maintain storage of scrap tires and tire byproducts that exceeds 2,500 cubic feet (71 m3) of total volume of scrap tires, and for indoor storage of tires and tire byproducts.

    105.6.45 Temporary membrane structures and tents.

    An operational permit is required to operate an air‒supported temporary membrane structure, a temporary stage canopy or a tent having an area in excess of 400 square feet (37 m2).

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Tents used exclusively for recreational camping purposes.

    2. 2.Tents open on all sides, which comply with all of the following:

      1. 2.1.Individual tents having a maximum size of 700 square feet (65 m2).

      2. 2.2.The aggregate area of multiple tents placed side by side without a fire break clearance of not less than 12 feet (3658 mm) shall not exceed 700 square feet (65 m2) total.

      3. 2.3.A minimum clearance of 12 feet (3658 mm) to structures and other tents shall be provided.

    105.6.46 Tire‒rebuilding plants.

    An operational permit is required for the operation and maintenance of a tire‒rebuilding plant.

    105.6.47 Waste handling.

    An operational permit is required for the operation of wrecking yards, junk yards and waste material‒handling facilities.

    105.6.48 Wood products.

    An operational permit is required to store chips, hogged material, lumber or plywood in excess of 200 cubic feet (6 m3).

    [A]105.7 Required construction permits.

    The fire code official is authorized to issue construction permits for work as set forth in Sections 105.7.1 through 105.7.18.

    [A]105.7.1 Automatic fire‒extinguishing systems.

    A construction permit is required for installation of or modification to an automatic fire‒extinguishing system. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered to be a modification and does not require a permit.

    [A]105.7.2 Battery systems.

    A permit is required to install stationary storage battery systems having a liquid capacity of more than 50 gallons (189 L).

    [A]105.7.3 Compressed gases.

    Where the compressed gases in use or storage exceed the amounts listed in Table 105.6.9, a construction permit is required to install, repair damage to, abandon, remove, place temporarily out of service, or close or substantially modify a compressed gas system.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Routine maintenance.

    2. 2.For emergency repair work performed on an emergency basis, application for permit shall be made within two working days of commencement of work.

    [A]105.7.4 Cryogenic fluids.

    A construction permit is required for installation of or alteration to outdoor stationary cryogenic fluid storage systems where the system capacity exceeds the amounts listed in Table 105.6.11. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered to be an alteration and does not require a construction permit.

    [A]105.7.5 Emergency responder radio coverage system.

    A construction permit is required for installation of or modification to emergency responder radio coverage systems and related equipment. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered to be a modification and does not require a construction permit.

    [A]105.7.6 Fire alarm and detection systems and related equipment.

    A construction permit is required for installation of or modification to fire alarm and detection systems and related equipment. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered to be a modification and does not require a construction permit.

    [A]105.7.7 Fire pumps and related equipment.

    A construction permit is required for installation of or modification to fire pumps and related fuel tanks, jockey pumps, controllers and generators. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered to be a modification and does not require a construction permit.

    [A]105.7.8 Flammable and combustible liquids.

    A construction permit is required:

    1. 1.To install, repair or modify a pipeline for the transportation of flammable or combustible liquids.

    2. 2.To install, construct or alter tank vehicles, equipment, tanks, plants, terminals, wells, fuel‒dispensing stations, refineries, distilleries and similar facilities where flammable and combustible liquids are produced, processed, transported, stored, dispensed or used.

    3. 3.To install, alter, remove, abandon or otherwise dispose of a flammable or combustible liquid tank.

    [A]105.7.9 Gates and barricades across fire apparatus access roads.

    A construction permit is required for the installation of or modification to a gate or barricade across a fire apparatus access road.

    [A]105.7.10 Hazardous materials.

    A construction permit is required to install, repair damage to, abandon, remove, place temporarily out of service, or close or substantially modify a storage facility or other area regulated by Chapter 50 where the hazardous materials in use or storage exceed the amounts listed in Table 105.6.21.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Routine maintenance.

    2. 2.For repair work performed on an emergency basis, application for permit shall be made within two working days of commencement of work.

    [A]105.7.11 Industrial ovens.

    A construction permit is required for installation of industrial ovens covered by Chapter 30.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Routine maintenance.

    2. 2.For repair work performed on an emergency basis, application for permit shall be made within two working days of commencement of work.

    [A]105.7.12 LP‒gas.

    A construction permit is required for installation of or modification to an LP‒gas system. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered to be a modification and does not require a permit.

    [A]105.7.13 Private fire hydrants.

    A construction permit is required for the installation or modification of private fire hydrants. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered to be a modification and does not require a permit.

    [A]105.7.14 Smoke control or smoke exhaust systems.

    Construction permits are required for installation of or alteration to smoke control or smoke exhaust systems. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered to be an alteration and does not require a permit.

    [A]105.7.15 Solar photovoltaic power systems.

    A construction permit is required to install or modify solar photovoltaic power systems. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered to be a modification and does not require a permit.

    [A]105.7.16 Spraying or dipping.

    A construction permit is required to install or modify a spray room, dip tank or booth. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered to be a modification and does not require a permit.

    [A]105.7.17 Standpipe systems.

    A construction permit is required for the installation, modification or removal from service of a standpipe system. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered to be a modification and does not require a permit.

    [A]105.7.18 Temporary membrane structures and tents.

    A construction permit is required to erect an air‒supported temporary membrane structure, a temporary stage canopy or a tent having an area in excess of 400 square feet (37 m2).

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Tents used exclusively for recreational camping purposes.

    2. 2.Funeral tents and curtains, or extensions attached thereto, when used for funeral services.

    3. 3.Tents and awnings open on all sides, which comply with all of the following:

      1. 3.1.Individual tents shall have a maximum size of 700 square feet (65 m2).

      2. 3.2.The aggregate area of multiple tents placed side by side without a fire break clearance of not less than 12 feet (3658 mm) shall not exceed 700 square feet (65 m2) total.

      3. 3.3.A minimum clearance of 12 feet (3658 mm) to structures and other tents shall be maintained.

    SECTION106
    INSPECTIONS

    [A]106.1 Inspection authority.

    The fire code official is authorized to enter and examine any building, structure, marine vessel, vehicle or premises in accordance with Section 104.3 for the purpose of enforcing this code.

    [A]106.2 Inspections.

    The fire code official is authorized to conduct such inspections as are deemed necessary to determine the extent of compliance with the provisions of this code and to approve reports of inspection by approved agencies or individuals. Reports of such inspections shall be prepared and submitted in writing for review and approval. Inspection reports shall be certified by a responsible officer of such approved agency or by the responsible individual. The fire code official is authorized to engage such expert opinion as deemed necessary to report upon unusual, detailed or complex technical issues subject to the approval of the governing body.

    [A]106.2.1 Inspection requests.

    It shall be the duty of the holder of the permit or their duly authorized agent to notify the fire code official when work is ready for inspection. It shall be the duty of the permit holder to provide access to and means for inspections of such work that are required by this code.

    [A]106.2.2 Approval required.

    Work shall not be done beyond the point indicated in each successive inspection without first obtaining the approval of the fire code official. The fire code official, upon notification, shall make the requested inspections and shall either indicate the portion of the construction that is satisfactory as completed, or notify the permit holder or his or her agent wherein the same fails to comply with this code. Any portions that do not comply shall be corrected, and such portion shall not be covered or concealed until authorized by the fire code official.

    [A]106.3 Concealed work.

    It shall be the duty of the permit applicant to cause the work to remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes. Where any installation subject to inspection prior to use is covered or concealed without having first been inspected, the fire code official shall have the authority to require that such work be exposed for inspection. Neither the fire code official nor the jurisdiction shall be liable for expense entailed in the removal or replacement of any material required to allow inspection.

    [A]106.4 Approvals.

    Approval as the result of an inspection shall not be construed to be an approval of a violation of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction. Inspections presuming to give authority to violate or cancel provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid.

    SECTION107
    MAINTENANCE

    [A]107.1 Maintenance of safeguards.

    Where any device, equipment, system, condition, arrangement, level of protection, or any other feature is required for compliance with the provisions of this code, or otherwise installed, such device, equipment, system, condition, arrangement, level of protection, or other feature shall thereafter be continuously maintained in accordance with this code and applicable referenced standards.

    [A]107.2 Testing and operation.

    Equipment requiring periodic testing or operation to ensure maintenance shall be tested or operated as specified in this code.

    [A]107.2.1 Reinspection and testing.

    Where any work or installation does not pass an initial test or inspection, the necessary corrections shall be made so as to achieve compliance with this code. The work or installation shall then be resubmitted to the fire code official for inspection and testing.

    [A]107.3 Recordkeeping.

    A record of periodic inspections, tests, servicing and other operations and maintenance shall be maintained on the premises or other approved location for not less than 3 years, or a different period of time where specified in this code or referenced standards. Records shall be made available for inspection by the fire code official, and a copy of the records shall be provided to the fire code official upon request.

    The fire code official is authorized to prescribe the form and format of such recordkeeping. The fire code official is authorized to require that certain required records be filed with the fire code official.

    [A]107.4 Supervision.

    Maintenance and testing shall be under the supervision of a responsible person who shall ensure that such maintenance and testing are conducted at specified intervals in accordance with this code.

    107.5 Rendering equipment inoperable.

    Portable or fixed fire‒extinguishing systems or devices, and fire‒warning systems, shall not be rendered inoperative or inaccessible, except as necessary during emergencies, maintenance, repairs, alterations, drills or prescribed testing.

    [A]107.6 Overcrowding.

    Overcrowding or admittance of any person beyond the approved capacity of a building or a portion thereof shall not be allowed. The fire code official, upon finding any overcrowding conditions or obstructions in aisles, passageways or other means of egress, or upon finding any condition that constitutes a life safety hazard, shall be authorized to cause the event to be stopped until such condition or obstruction is corrected.

    SECTION108
    BOARD OF APPEALS

    [A]108.1 Board of appeals established.

    In order to hear and decide appeals of orders, decisions or determinations made by the fire code official relative to the application and interpretation of this code, there shall be and is hereby created a board of appeals. The board of appeals shall be appointed by the governing body and shall hold office at its pleasure. The fire code official shall be an ex officio member of said board but shall not have a vote on any matter before the board. The board shall adopt rules of procedure for conducting its business, and shall render all decisions and findings in writing to the appellant with a duplicate copy to the fire code official.

    [A]108.2 Limitations on authority.

    An application for appeal shall be based on a claim that the intent of this code or the rules legally adopted hereunder have been incorrectly interpreted, the provisions of this code do not fully apply, or an equivalent method of protection or safety is proposed. The board shall not have authority to waive requirements of this code.

    [A]108.3 Qualifications.

    The board of appeals shall consist of members who are qualified by experience and training to pass on matters pertaining to hazards of fire, explosions, hazardous conditions or fire protection systems, and are not employees of the jurisdiction.

    SECTION109
    VIOLATIONS

    [A]109.1 Unlawful acts.

    It shall be unlawful for a person, firm or corporation to erect, construct, alter, repair, remove, demolish or utilize a building, occupancy, premises or system regulated by this code, or cause same to be done, in conflict with or in violation of any of the provisions of this code.

    [A]109.2 Owner/occupant responsibility.

    Correction and abatement of violations of this code shall be the responsibility of the owner or the owner’s authorized agent. Where an occupant creates, or allows to be created, hazardous conditions in violation of this code, the occupant shall be held responsible for the abatement of such hazardous conditions.

    [A]109.3 Notice of violation.

    Where the fire code official finds a building, premises, vehicle, storage facility or outdoor area that is in violation of this code, the fire code official is authorized to prepare a written notice of violation describing the conditions deemed unsafe and, where compliance is not immediate, specifying a time for reinspection.

    [A]109.3.1 Service.

    A notice of violation issued pursuant to this code shall be served upon the owner, the owner’s authorized agent, operator, occupant or other person responsible for the condition or violation, either by personal service, mail or by delivering the same to, and leaving it with, some person of responsibility upon the premises. For unattended or abandoned locations, a copy of such notice of violation shall be posted on the premises in a conspicuous place at or near the entrance to such premises and the notice of violation shall be mailed by certified mail with return receipt requested or a certificate of mailing, to the last known address of the owner, the owner’s authorized agent, or occupant.

    [A]109.3.2 Compliance with orders and notices.

    A notice of violation issued or served as provided by this code shall be complied with by the owner, the owner’s authorized agent, operator, occupant or other person responsible for the condition or violation to which the notice of violation pertains.

    [A]109.3.3 Prosecution of violations.

    If the notice of violation is not complied with promptly, the fire code official is authorized to request the legal counsel of the jurisdiction to institute the appropriate legal proceedings at law or in equity to restrain, correct or abate such violation or to require removal or termination of the unlawful occupancy of the structure in violation of the provisions of this code or of the order or direction made pursuant hereto.

    [A]109.3.4 Unauthorized tampering.

    Signs, tags or seals posted or affixed by the fire code official shall not be mutilated, destroyed or tampered with, or removed, without authorization from the fire code official.

    [A]109.4 Violation penalties.

    Persons who shall violate a provision of this code or shall fail to comply with any of the requirements thereof or who shall erect, install, alter, repair or do work in violation of the approved construction documents or directive of the fire code official, or of a permit or certificate used under provisions of this code, shall be guilty of a [SPECIFY OFFENSE], punishable by a fine of not more than [AMOUNT] dollars or by imprisonment not exceeding [NUMBER OF DAYS], or both such fine and imprisonment. Each day that a violation continues after due notice has been served shall be deemed a separate offense.

    [A]109.4.1 Abatement of violation.

    In addition to the imposition of the penalties herein described, the fire code official is authorized to institute appropriate action to prevent unlawful construction or to restrain, correct or abate a violation; or to prevent illegal occupancy of a structure or premises; or to stop an illegal act, conduct of business or occupancy of a structure on or about any premises.

    SECTION110
    UNSAFE BUILDINGS

    [A]110.1 General.

    If during the inspection of a premises, a building or structure, or any building system, in whole or in part, constitutes a clear and inimical threat to human life, safety or health, the fire code official shall issue such notice or orders to remove or remedy the conditions as shall be deemed necessary in accordance with this section, and shall refer the building to the building department for any repairs, alterations, remodeling, removing or demolition required.

    [A]110.1.1 Unsafe conditions.

    Structures or existing equipment that are or hereafter become unsafe or deficient because of inadequate means of egress or which constitute a fire hazard, or are otherwise dangerous to human life or the public welfare, or which involve illegal or improper occupancy or inadequate maintenance, shall be deemed an unsafe condition. A vacant structure that is not secured against unauthorized entry as required by Section 311 shall be deemed unsafe.

    [A]110.1.2 Structural hazards.

    Where an apparent structural hazard is caused by the faulty installation, operation or malfunction of any of the items or devices governed by this code, the fire code official shall immediately notify the building code official in accordance with Section 110.1.

    [A]110.2 Evacuation.

    The fire code official or the fire department official in charge of an incident shall be authorized to order the immediate evacuation of any occupied building deemed unsafe where such building has hazardous conditions that present imminent danger to building occupants. Persons so notified shall immediately leave the structure or premises and shall not enter or re‒enter until authorized to do so by the fire code official or the fire department official in charge of the incident.

    [A]110.3 Summary abatement.

    Where conditions exist that are deemed hazardous to life and property, the fire code official or fire department official in charge of the incident is authorized to abate summarily such hazardous conditions that are in violation of this code.

    [A]110.4 Abatement.

    The owner, the owner’s authorized agent, operator or occupant of a building or premises deemed unsafe by the fire code official shall abate or cause to be abated or corrected such unsafe conditions either by repair, rehabilitation, demolition or other approved corrective action.

    SECTION111
    STOP WORK ORDER

    [A]111.1 Order.

    Where the fire code official finds any work regulated by this code being performed in a manner contrary to the provisions of this code, or in a dangerous or unsafe manner, the fire code official is authorized to issue a stop work order.

    [A]111.2 Issuance.

    A stop work order shall be in writing and shall be given to the owner of the property, or to the owner’s authorized agent, or to the person doing the work. Upon issuance of a stop work order, the cited work shall immediately cease. The stop work order shall state the reason for the order, and the conditions under which the cited work is authorized to resume.

    [A]111.3 Emergencies.

    Where an emergency exists, the fire code official shall not be required to give a written notice prior to stopping the work.

    [A]111.4 Failure to comply.

    Any person who shall continue any work after having been served with a stop work order, except such work as that person is directed to perform to remove a violation or unsafe condition, shall be liable to a fine of not less than [AMOUNT] dollars or more than [AMOUNT] dollars.

    SECTION112
    SERVICE UTILITIES

    [A]112.1 Authority to disconnect service utilities.

    The fire code official shall have the authority to authorize disconnection of utility service to the building, structure or system in order to safely execute emergency operations or to eliminate an immediate hazard. The fire code official shall notify the serving utility and, where possible, the owner or the owner’s authorized agent and the occupant of the building, structure or service system of the decision to disconnect prior to taking such action. If not notified prior to disconnection, then the owner, the owner’s authorized agent or occupant of the building, structure or service system shall be notified in writing as soon as practical thereafter.

    SECTION113
    FEES

    [A]113.1 Fees.

    A permit shall not be issued until the fees have been paid, nor shall an amendment to a permit be released until the additional fee, if any, has been paid.

    [A]113.2 Schedule of permit fees.

    A fee for each permit shall be paid as required, in accordance with the schedule as established by the applicable governing authority.

    [A]113.3 Work commencing before permit issuance.

    A person who commences any work, activity or operation regulated by this code before obtaining the necessary permits shall be subject to an additional fee established by the applicable governing authority, which shall be in addition to the required permit fees.

    [A]113.4 Related fees.

    The payment of the fee for the construction, alteration, removal or demolition of work done in connection to or concurrently with the work or activity authorized by a permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed by law.

    [A]113.5 Refunds.

    The applicable governing authority is authorized to establish a refund policy.

    CHAPTER2
    DEFINITIONS

    SECTION201
    GENERAL

    201.1 Scope.

    Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the meanings shown in this chapter.

    201.2 Interchangeability.

    Words used in the present tense include the future; words stated in the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural and the plural, the singular.

    201.3 Terms defined in other codes.

    Where terms are not defined in this code and are defined in the International Building Code, International Fuel Gas Code, International Mechanical Code or International Plumbing Code, such terms shall have the meanings ascribed to them as in those codes.

    201.4 Terms not defined.

    Where terms are not defined through the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies. Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th Edition, shall be considered as providing ordinarily accepted meanings.

    SECTION202
    GENERAL DEFINITIONS

    [BG]24-HOUR BASIS. The actual time that a person is an occupant within a facility for the purpose of receiving care. It shall not include a facility that is open for 24 hours and is capable of providing care to someone visiting the facility during any segment of the 24 hours.

    [BE]ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed way of egress travel from any accessible point in a building or facility to a public way.

    [BE]ACCESSIBLE ROUTE. A continuous, unobstructed path that complies with Chapter 11 of the International Building Code.

    AEROSOL. A product that is dispensed from an aerosol container by a propellant.

    Aerosol products shall be classified by means of the calculation of their chemical heats of combustion and shall be designated Level 1, Level 2 or Level 3.

    Level 1 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat of combustion that is less than or equal to 8,600 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) (20 kJ/g).

    Level 2 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat of combustion that is greater than 8,600 Btu/lb (20 kJ/g), but less than or equal to 13,000 Btu/lb (30 kJ/g).

    Level 3 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat of combustion that is greater than 13,000 Btu/lb (30 kJ/g).

    AEROSOL CONTAINER. A metal can, or a glass or plastic bottle designed to dispense an aerosol.

    AEROSOL WAREHOUSE. A building used for warehousing aerosol products.

    AGENCY. Any emergency responder department within the jurisdiction that utilizes radio frequencies for communication. This could include, but not be limited to, various public safety agencies such as fire departments, emergency medical services and law enforcement.

    AGENT. A person who shall have charge, care or control of any structure as owner, or agent of the owner, or as executor, executrix, administrator, administratrix, trustee or guardian of the estate of the owner. Any such person representing the actual owner shall be bound to comply with the provisions of this code to the same extent as if that person was the owner.

    [BG]AGRICULTURAL BUILDING. A structure designed and constructed to house farm implements, hay, grain, poultry, livestock or other horticultural products. This structure shall not be a place of human habitation or a place of employment where agricultural products are processed, treated or packaged, nor shall it be a place used by the public.

    AGRO-INDUSTRIAL. A facility, or portion thereof, housing operations involving the transforming of raw agricultural products into intermediate or consumable products.

    [BG]AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE. A structure that uses air-pressurized membrane beams, arches or other elements to enclose space. Occupants of such a structure do not occupy the pressurized areas used to support the structure.

    [BG]AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. A structure wherein the shape of the structure is attained by air pressure, and occupants of the structure are within the elevated pressure area. Air supported structures are of two basic types:

    Double skin. Similar to a single skin, but with an attached liner that is separated from the outer skin and provides an airspace which serves for insulation, acoustic, aesthetic or similar purposes.

    Single skin. Where there is only the single outer skin and the air pressure is directly against that skin.

    AIRCRAFT MOTOR-VEHICLE FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. That portion of property where flammable or combustible liquids or gases used as motor fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed automotive-type equipment into the fuel tanks of aircraft.

    AIRCRAFT OPERATION AREA (AOA). Any area used or intended for use for the parking, taxiing, takeoff, landing or other ground-based aircraft activity.

    AIRPORT. An area of land or structural surface that is used, or intended for use, for the landing and taking off of aircraft with an overall length greater than 39 feet (11 887 mm) and an overall exterior fuselage width greater than 6.6 feet (2012 mm), and any appurtenant areas that are used or intended for use for airport buildings and other airport facilities.

    [BE]AISLE. An unenclosed exit access component that defines and provides a path of egress travel.

    [BE]AISLE ACCESSWAY. That portion of an exit access that leads to an aisle.

    ALARM, NUISANCE. See “Nuisance alarm.”

    ALARM DEVICE, MULTIPLE STATION. See “Multiple-station alarm device.”

    ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A fire alarm system component such as a bell, horn, speaker, light or text display that provides audible, tactile or visible outputs, or any combination thereof. See also “Audible alarm notification appliance” or “Visible alarm notification appliance.”

    ALARM SIGNAL. A signal indicating an emergency requiring immediate action, such as a signal indicative of fire.

    ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. A feature of automatic fire detection and alarm systems to reduce unwanted alarms wherein smoke detectors report alarm conditions for a minimum period of time, or confirm alarm conditions within a given time period, after being automatically reset, in order to be accepted as a valid alarm-initiation signal.

    ALCOHOL-BASED HAND RUB. An alcohol-containing preparation designed for application to the hands for reducing the number of viable microorganisms on the hands and containing ethanol or isopropanol in an amount not exceeding 95-percent by volume.

    ALCOHOL-BLENDED FUELS. Flammable liquids consisting of 10-percent or greater, by volume, ethanol or other alcohols blended with gasoline.

    [A]ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an existing structure other than a repair or addition.

    [BE]ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. A device that has a series of steps between 50 and 70 degrees (0.87 and 1.22 rad) from horizontal, usually attached to a center support rail in an alternating manner so that the user does not have both feet on the same level at the same time.

    [BG]AMBULATORY CARE FACILITY. Buildings or portions thereof used to provide medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing or similar care on a less-than-24-hour basis to persons who are rendered incapable of self-preservation by the services provided.

    AMMONIUM NITRATE. A chemical compound represented by the formula NH4NO3.

    ANNUNCIATOR. A unit containing one or more indicator lamps, alphanumeric displays or other equivalent means in which each indication provides status information about a circuit, condition or location.

    [A]APPROVED. Acceptable to the fire code official.

    [BG]AREA, BUILDING. The area included within surrounding exterior walls (or exterior walls and fire walls) exclusive of vent shafts and courts. Areas of the building not provided with surrounding walls shall be included in the building area if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof or floor above.

    [BE]AREA OF REFUGE. An area where persons unable to use stairways can remain temporarily to await instructions or assistance during emergency evacuation.

    ARRAY. The configuration of storage. Characteristics considered in defining an array include the type of packaging, flue spaces, height of storage and compactness of storage.

    ARRAY, CLOSED. A storage configuration having a 6-inch (152 mm) or smaller width vertical flue space that restricts air movement through the stored commodity.

    [BG]ATRIUM. An opening connecting two or more stories other than enclosed stairways, elevators, hoistways, escalators, plumbing, electrical, air-conditioning or other equipment, which is closed at the top and not defined as a mall. Stories, as used in this definition, do not include balconies within assembly groups or mezzanines that comply with Section 505 of the International Building Code.

    [BG]ATTIC. The space between the ceiling beams of the top story and the roof rafters.

    AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A notification appliance that alerts by the sense of hearing.

    AUTOMATED RACK STORAGE. Automated rack storage is a stocking method whereby the movement of pallets, products, apparatus or systems are automatically controlled by mechanical or electronic devices.

    AUTOMATIC. As applied to fire protection devices, a device or system providing an emergency function without the necessity for human intervention and activated as a result of a predetermined temperature rise, rate of temperature rise or combustion products.

    AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. An approved system of devices and equipment which automatically detects a fire and discharges an approved fire-extinguishing agent onto or in the area of a fire.

    AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM. A fire alarm system that has initiation devices that utilize smoke detectors for protection of an area such as a room or space with detectors to provide early warning of fire.

    AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. An automatic sprinkler system, for fire protection purposes, is an integrated system of underground and overhead piping designed in accordance with fire protection engineering standards. The system includes a suitable water supply. The portion of the system above the ground is a network of specially sized or hydraulically designed piping installed in a structure or area, generally overhead, and to which automatic sprinklers are connected in a systematic pattern. The system is usually activated by heat from a fire and discharges water over the fire area.

    AUTOMATIC WATER MIST SYSTEM. A system consisting of a water supply, a pressure source and a distribution piping system with attached nozzles which, at or above a minimum operating pressure, defined by its listing, discharges water in fine droplets meeting the requirements of NFPA 750 for the purpose of the control, suppression or extinguishment of a fire. Such systems include wet-pipe, dry-pipe and pre-action types. The systems are designed as engineered, preengineered, local-application or total flooding systems.

    AUTOMOTIVE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. That portion of property where flammable or combustible liquids or gases used as motor fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed equipment into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles.

    AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. The root mean square, A-weighted sound pressure level measured over a 24-hour period, or the time any person is present, whichever time period is less.

    [BG]AWNING. An architectural projection that provides weather protection, identity or decoration and is partially or wholly supported by the building to which it is attached. An awning is comprised of a lightweight frame structure over which a covering is attached.

    [BE]BALANCED DOOR. A door equipped with double-pivoted hardware so designed as to cause a semicounter balanced swing action when opening.

    BALED COTTON. See “Cotton.”

    BALED COTTON, DENSELY PACKED. See “Cotton.”

    BARRICADE. A structure that consists of a combination of walls, floor and roof, which is designed to withstand the rapid release of energy in an explosion and which is fully confined, partially vented or fully vented; or other effective method of shielding from explosive materials by a natural or artificial barrier.

    Artificial barricade. An artificial mound or revetment with a minimum thickness of 3 feet (914 mm).

    Natural barricade. Natural features of the ground, such as hills, or timber of sufficient density that the surrounding exposures that require protection cannot be seen from the magazine or building containing explosives when the trees are bare of leaves.

    BARRICADED. The effective screening of a building containing explosive materials from the magazine or other building, railway or highway by a natural or an artificial barrier. A straight line from the top of any sidewall of the building containing explosive materials to the eave line of any magazine or other building or to a point 12 feet (3658 mm) above the center of a railway or highway shall pass through such barrier.

    [BG]BASEMENT. A story that is not a story above grade plane.

    BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY LEAD ACID. A system which consists of three interconnected subsystems:

    1. 1.A lead-acid battery.

    2. 2.A battery charger.

    3. 3.A collection of rectifiers, inverters, converters and associated electrical equipment as required for a particular application.

    BATTERY TYPES.

    Lithium-ion battery. A storage battery that consists of lithium ions embedded in a carbon graphite or nickel metal-oxide substrate. The electrolyte is a carbonate mixture or a gelled polymer. The lithium ions are the charge carriers of the battery.

    Lithium metal polymer battery. A storage battery that is comprised of nonaqueous liquid or polymerized electrolytes, which provide ionic conductivity between lithiated positive active material electrically separated from metallic lithium or lithiated negative active material.

    Nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery. An alkaline storage battery in which the positive active material is nickel oxide, the negative contains cadmium and the electrolyte is potassium hydroxide.

    Nonrecombinant battery. A storage battery in which, under conditions of normal use, hydrogen and oxygen gasses created by electrolysis are vented into the air outside of the battery.

    Recombinant battery. A storage battery in which, under conditions of normal use, hydrogen and oxygen gases created by electrolysis are converted back into water inside the battery instead of venting into the air outside of the battery.

    Stationary storage battery. A group of electrochemical cells interconnected to supply a nominal voltage of DC power to a suitably connected electrical load, designed for service in a permanent location. The number of cells connected in a series determines the nominal voltage rating of the battery. The size of the cells determines the discharge capacity of the entire battery. After discharge, it may be restored to a fully charged condition by an electric current flowing in a direction opposite to the flow of current when the battery is discharged.

    Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery. A lead-acid battery consisting of sealed cells furnished with a valve that opens to vent the battery whenever the internal pressure of the battery exceeds the ambient pressure by a set amount. In VRLA batteries, the liquid electrolyte in the cells is immobilized in an absorptive glass mat (AGM cells or batteries) or by the addition of a gelling agent (gel cells or gelled batteries).

    Vented (flooded) lead-acid battery. A lead-acid battery consisting of cells that have electrodes immersed in liquid electrolyte. Flooded lead-acid batteries have a provision for the user to add water to the cell and are equipped with a flame-arresting vent which permits the escape of hydrogen and oxygen gas from the cell in a diffused manner such that a spark, or other ignition source, outside the cell will not ignite the gases inside the cell.

    BIN BOX. A five-sided container with the open side facing an aisle. Bin boxes are self-supporting or supported by a structure designed so that little or no horizontal or vertical space exists around the boxes.

    BIOMASS. Plant- or animal-based material of biological origin excluding material embedded in geologic formations or transformed into fossils.

    BLAST AREA. The area including the blast site and the immediate adjacent area within the influence of flying rock, missiles and concussion.

    BLAST SITE. The area in which explosive materials are being or have been loaded and which includes all holes loaded or to be loaded for the same blast and a distance of 50 feet (15 240 mm) in all directions.

    BLASTER. A person qualified in accordance with Section 3301.4 to be in charge of and responsible for the loading and firing of a blast.

    BLASTING AGENT. A material or mixture consisting of fuel and oxidizer, intended for blasting provided that the finished product, as mixed for use or shipment, cannot be detonated by means of a No. 8 test detonator when unconfined. Blasting agents are labeled and placarded as Class 1.5 material by US DOTn.

    [BE]BLEACHERS. Tiered seating supported on a dedicated structural system and two or more rows high and is not a building element (see “Grandstand”).

    [BG]BOARDING HOUSE. A building arranged or used for lodging for compensation, with or without meals, and not occupied as a single-family unit.

    BOILING POINT. The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) (101 kPa) or 760 mm of mercury. Where an accurate boiling point is unavailable for the material in question, or for mixtures which do not have a constant boiling point, for the purposes of this classification, the 20-percent evaporated point of a distillation performed in accordance with ASTM D 86 shall be used as the boiling point of the liquid.

    BONFIRE. An outdoor fire utilized for ceremonial purposes.

    [BE] BREAKOUT. For revolving doors, a process whereby wings or door panels can be pushed open manually for means of egress travel.

    BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (BTU). The heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 pound (0.454 kg) of water by 1°F (0.5565°C).

    [A]BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy.

    BUILDING AREA. See “Area, building.”

    BUILDING HEIGHT. See “Height, building.”

    [A]BUILDING OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of the International Building Code, or a duly authorized representative.

    BULK OXYGEN SYSTEM. An assembly of equipment, such as oxygen storage containers, pressure regulators, safety devices, vaporizers, manifolds and interconnecting piping, that has a storage capacity of more than 20,000 cubic feet (566 m3) of oxygen at normal temperature and pressure (NTP) including unconnected reserves on hand at the site. The bulk oxygen system terminates at the point where oxygen at service pressure first enters the supply line. The oxygen containers can be stationary or movable, and the oxygen can be stored as a gas or liquid.

    BULK PLANT OR TERMINAL. That portion of a property where flammable or combustible liquids are received by tank vessel, pipelines, tank car or tank vehicle and are stored or blended in bulk for the purpose of distributing such liquids by tank vessel, pipeline, tank car, tank vehicle, portable tank or container.

    BULK TRANSFER. The loading or unloading of flammable or combustible liquids from or between tank vehicles, tank cars or storage tanks.

    BULLET RESISTANT. Constructed so as to resist penetration of a bullet of 150-grain M2 ball ammunition having a nominal muzzle velocity of 2,700 feet per second (fps) (824 mps) when fired from a 30-caliber rifle at a distance of 100 feet (30 480 mm), measured perpendicular to the target.

    CANOPY. A structure or architectural projection of rigid construction over which a covering is attached that provides weather protection, identity or decoration, and may be structurally independent or supported by attachment to a building on one end and by not less than one stanchion on the outer end.

    CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A system supplying carbon dioxide (CO2) from a pressurized vessel through fixed pipes and nozzles. The system includes a manual- or automatic-actuating mechanism.

    [BG]CARE SUITE. In Group I-2 occupancies, a group of treatment rooms, care recipient sleeping rooms and the support rooms or spaces and circulation space within the suite where staff are in attendance for supervision of all care recipients within the suite, and the suite is in compliance with the requirements of Section 407.4.4 of the International Building Code.

    CARTON. A cardboard or fiberboard box enclosing a product.

    CEILING LIMIT. The maximum concentration of an airborne contaminant to which one may be exposed. The ceiling limits utilized are those published in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000. The ceiling Recommended Exposure Limit (REL-C) concentrations published by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Threshold Limit Value-Ceiling (TLV-C) concentrations published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Ceiling Workplace Environmental Exposure Level (WEEL-Ceiling) Guides published by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), and other approved, consistent measures are allowed as surrogates for hazardous substances not listed in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000.

    [A]CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY. A change in the use of a building or a portion of a building. A change of occupancy shall include any change of occupancy classification, any change from one group to another group within an occupancy classification or any change in use within a group for a specific occupancy classification.

    CHEMICAL. An element, chemical compound or mixture of elements or compounds or both.

    CHEMICAL NAME. The scientific designation of a chemical in accordance with the nomenclature system developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the Chemical Abstracts Service rules of nomenclature, or a name which will clearly identify a chemical for the purpose of conducting an evaluation.

    [M]CHIMNEY. A primarily vertical structure containing one or more flues for the purpose of carrying gaseous products of combustion and air from a fuel-burning appliance to the outdoor atmosphere.

    Factory-built chimney. A listed and labeled chimney composed of factory-made components, assembled in the field in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions and the conditions of the listing.

    Masonry chimney. A field-constructed chimney composed of solid masonry units, bricks, stones, or concrete.

    Metal chimney. A field-constructed chimney of metal.

    CLEAN AGENT. Electrically nonconducting, volatile or gaseous fire extinguishant that does not leave a residue upon evaporation.

    [BG]CLINIC, OUTPATIENT. Buildings or portions thereof used to provide medical care on a less-than-24-hour basis to persons who are not rendered incapable of self-preservation by the services provided.

    CLOSED CONTAINER. A container sealed by means of a lid or other device such that liquid, vapor or dusts will not escape from it under ordinary conditions of use or handling.

    CLOSED SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous material involving a closed vessel or system that remains closed during normal operations where vapors emitted by the product are not liberated outside of the vessel or system and the product is not exposed to the atmosphere during normal operations; and all uses of compressed gases. Examples of closed systems for solids and liquids include product conveyed through a piping system into a closed vessel, system or piece of equipment.

    COLD DECK. A pile of unfinished cut logs.

    COMBUSTIBLE DUST. Finely divided solid material which is 420 microns or less in diameter and which, when dispersed in air in the proper proportions, could be ignited by a flame, spark or other source of ignition. Combustible dust will pass through a U.S. No. 40 standard sieve.

    COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. Readily ignitable and free-burning materials in a fibrous or shredded form, such as cocoa fiber, cloth, cotton, excelsior, hay, hemp, henequen, istle, jute, kapok, oakum, rags, sisal, Spanish moss, straw, tow, wastepaper, certain synthetic fibers or other like materials. This definition does not include densely packed baled cotton.

    COMBUSTIBLE GAS DETECTOR. An instrument that samples the local atmosphere and indicates the presence of ignitable vapors or gases within the flammable or explosive range expressed as a volume percent in air.

    COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. A liquid having a closed cup flash point at or above 100°F (38°C). Combustible liquids shall be subdivided as follows:

    Class II. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or above 100°F (38°C) and below 140°F (60°C).

    Class IIIA. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C).

    Class IIIB. Liquids having closed cup flash points at or above 200°F (93°C).

    The category of combustible liquids does not include compressed gases or cryogenic fluids.

    [M]COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES. Appliances used in a commercial food service establishment for heating or cooking food and which produce grease vapors, steam, fumes, smoke or odors that are required to be removed through a local exhaust ventilation system. Such appliances include deep fat fryers, upright broilers, griddles, broilers, steam-jacketed kettles, hot-top ranges, under-fired broilers (charbroilers), ovens, barbecues, rotisseries, and similar appliances. For the purpose of this definition, a food service establishment shall include any building or a portion thereof used for the preparation and serving of food.

    COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE. A motor vehicle used to transport passengers or property where the motor vehicle:

    1. 1.Has a gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 pounds (454 kg) or more; or

    2. 2.Is designed to transport 16 or more passengers, including the driver.

    COMMODITY. A combination of products, packing materials and containers.

    [BE]COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. That portion of the exit access travel distance measured from the most remote point within a story to that point where the occupants have separate and distinct access to two exits or exit access doorways.

    [BE]COMMON USE. Interior or exterior circulation paths, rooms, spaces or elements that are not for public use and are made available for the shared use of two or more people.

    COMPRESSED GAS. A material, or mixture of materials that:

    1. 1.Is a gas at 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) of pressure; and

    2. 2.Has a boiling point of 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) which is either liquefied, nonliquefied or in solution, except those gases which have no other health- or physical-hazard properties are not considered to be compressed until the pressure in the packaging exceeds 41 psia (282 kPa) at 68°F (20°C).

    The states of a compressed gas are categorized as follows:

    1. 1.Nonliquefied compressed gases are gases, other than those in solution, which are in a packaging under the charged pressure and are entirely gaseous at a temperature of 68°F (20°C).

    2. 2.Liquefied compressed gases are gases that, in a packaging under the charged pressure, are partially liquid at a temperature of 68°F (20°C).

    3. 3.Compressed gases in solution are nonliquefied gases that are dissolved in a solvent.

    4. 4.Compressed gas mixtures consist of a mixture of two or more compressed gases contained in a packaging, the hazard properties of which are represented by the properties of the mixture as a whole.

    COMPRESSED GAS CONTAINER. A pressure vessel designed to hold compressed gases at pressures greater than one atmosphere at 68°F (20°C) and includes cylinders, containers and tanks.

    COMPRESSED GAS SYSTEM. An assembly of equipment designed to contain, distribute or transport compressed gases. It can consist of a compressed gas container or containers, reactors and appurtenances, including pumps, compressors and connecting piping and tubing.

    [BG]CONGREGATE LIVING FACILITIES. A building or part thereof that contains sleeping units where residents share bathroom and/or kitchen facilities.

    CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. A designated location at a facility staffed by trained personnel on a continuous basis where alarm or supervisory signals are monitored and facilities are provided for notification of the fire department or other emergency services.

    [A]CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. The written, graphic and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of the project necessary for obtaining a permit.

    CONTAINER. A vessel of 60 gallons (227 L) or less in capacity used for transporting or storing hazardous materials. Pipes, piping systems, engines and engine fuel tanks are not considered to be containers.

    CONTAINMENT SYSTEM. A gas-tight recovery system comprised of equipment or devices which can be placed over a leak in a compressed gas container, thereby stopping or controlling the escape of gas from the leaking container.

    CONTAINMENT VESSEL. A gas-tight recovery vessel designed so that a leaking compressed gas container can be placed within its confines thereby encapsulating the leaking container.

    CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. A gas detection system where the analytical instrument is maintained in continuous operation and sampling is performed without interruption. Analysis is allowed to be performed on a cyclical basis at intervals not to exceed 30 minutes.

    CONTROL AREA. Spaces within a building where quantities of hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area are stored, dispensed, used or handled. See also the definition of “Outdoor control area.”

    [BE]CORRIDOR. An enclosed exit access component that defines and provides a path of egress travel.

    CORRIDOR, OPEN-ENDED. See “Open-ended corridor.”

    CORROSIVE. A chemical that causes visible destruction of, or irreversible alterations in, living tissue by chemical action at the point of contact. A chemical shall be considered corrosive if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the method described in DOTn 49 CFR 173.137, such chemical destroys or changes irreversibly the structure of the tissue at the point of contact following an exposure period of 4 hours. This term does not refer to action on inanimate surfaces.

    COTTON.

    Baled cotton. A natural seed fiber wrapped in and secured with industry-accepted materials, usually consisting of burlap, woven polypropylene, polyethylene or cotton or sheet polyethylene, and secured with steel, synthetic or wire bands, or wire; also includes linters (lint removed from the cottonseed) and motes (residual materials from the ginning process).

    Baled cotton, densely packed. Cotton, made into banded bales, with a packing density of not less than 22 pounds per cubic foot (360 kg/m3), and dimensions complying with the following: a length of 55 inches (1397 mm), a width of 21 inches (533.4 mm) and a height of 27.6 to 35.4 inches (701 to 899 mm).

    Seed cotton. Perishable raw agricultural commodity consisting of cotton fiber (lint) attached to the seed of the cotton plant, which requires ginning to become a commercial product.

    [BG]COURT. An open, uncovered space, unobstructed to the sky, bounded on three or more sides by exterior building walls or other enclosing devices.

    [BG]COVERED MALL BUILDING. A single building enclosing a number of tenants and occupants such as retail stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement facilities, passenger transportation terminals, offices, and other similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance into one or more malls. Anchor buildings shall not be considered as a part of the covered mall building. The term “covered mall building” shall include open mall buildings as defined below.

    Mall. A roofed or covered common pedestrian area within a covered mall building that serves as access for two or more tenants and not to exceed three levels that are open to each other. The term “mall” shall include open malls as defined below.

    Open mall. An unroofed common pedestrian way serving a number of tenants not exceeding three levels. Circulation at levels above grade shall be permitted to include open exterior balconies leading to exits discharging at grade.

    Open mall building. Several structures housing a number of tenants such as retail stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement facilities, offices, and other similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance into one or more open malls. Anchor buildings are not considered as a part of the open mall building.

    CRITICAL CIRCUIT. A circuit that requires continuous operation to ensure safety of the structure and occupants.

    CRYOGENIC CONTAINER. A cryogenic vessel of any size used for the transportation, handling or storage of cryogenic fluids.

    CRYOGENIC FLUID. A fluid having a boiling point lower than -130°F (-89.9°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmosphere (psia) (an absolute pressure of 101.3 kPa).

    CRYOGENIC VESSEL. A pressure vessel, low-pressure tank or atmospheric tank designed to contain a cryogenic fluid on which venting, insulation, refrigeration or a combination of these is used in order to maintain the operating pressure within the design pressure and the contents in a liquid phase.

    [BG]CUSTODIAL CARE. Assistance with day-to-day living tasks; such as assistance with cooking, taking medication, bathing, using toilet facilities and other tasks of daily living. Custodial care includes persons receiving care who have the ability to respond to emergency situations and evacuate at a slower rate and/or who have mental and psychiatric complications.

    CYLINDER. A pressure vessel designed for pressures higher than 40 psia (275.6 kPa) and having a circular cross section. It does not include a portable tank, multiunit tank car tank, cargo tank or tank car.

    DAMPER. See “Fire damper” and “Smoke damper.”

    DAY BOX. A portable magazine designed to hold explosive materials and constructed in accordance with the requirements for a Type 3 magazine as defined and classified in Chapter 56.

    DECORATIVE MATERIALS. All materials applied over the building interior finish for decorative, acoustical or other effect including, but not limited to, curtains, draperies, fabrics, streamers and all other materials utilized for decorative effect including, but not limited to, bulletin boards, artwork, posters, photographs, paintings, batting, cloth, cotton, hay, stalks, straw, vines, leaves, trees, moss and similar items, foam plastics and materials containing foam plastics. Decorative materials do not include wall coverings, ceiling coverings, floor coverings, ordinary window shades, interior finish and materials 0.025 inch (0.64 mm) or less in thickness applied directly to and adhering tightly to a substrate.

    DEFLAGRATION. An exothermic reaction, such as the extremely rapid oxidation of a flammable dust or vapor in air, in which the reaction progresses through the unburned material at a rate less than the velocity of sound. A deflagration can have an explosive effect.

    DELUGE SYSTEM. A sprinkler system employing open sprinklers attached to a piping system connected to a water supply through a valve that is opened by the operation of a detection system installed in the same area as the sprinklers. When this valve opens, water flows into the piping system and discharges from all sprinklers attached thereto.

    DESIGN PRESSURE. The maximum gauge pressure that a pressure vessel, device, component or system is designed to withstand safely under the temperature and conditions of use expected.

    DETACHED BUILDING. A separate single-story building, without a basement or crawl space, used for the storage or use of hazardous materials and located an approved distance from all structures.

    DETEARING. A process for rapidly removing excess wet coating material from a dipped or coated object or material by passing it through an electrostatic field.

    DETECTOR, HEAT. A fire detector that senses heat, either abnormally high temperature or rate of rise, or both.

    DETONATING CORD. A flexible cord containing a center core of high explosive used to initiate other explosives.

    DETONATION. An exothermic reaction characterized by the presence of a shock wave in the material which establishes and maintains the reaction. The reaction zone progresses through the material at a rate greater than the velocity of sound. The principal heating mechanism is one of shock compression. Detonations have an explosive effect.

    DETONATOR. A device containing any initiating or primary explosive that is used for initiating detonation. A detonator shall not contain more than 154.32 grains (10 grams) of total explosives by weight, excluding ignition or delay charges. The term includes, but is not limited to, electric blasting caps of instantaneous and delay types, blasting caps for use with safety fuses, detonating cord delay connectors, and noninstantaneous and delay blasting caps which use detonating cord, shock tube or any other replacement for electric leg wires. All types of detonators in strengths through No. 8 cap should be rated at 11/2 pounds (0.68 kg) of explosives per 1,000 caps. For strengths higher than No. 8 cap, consult the manufacturer.

    [BG]DETOXIFICATION FACILITIES. Facilities that provide treatment for substance abuse serving care recipients who are incapable of self-preservation or who are harmful to themselves or others.

    DIP TANK. A tank, vat or container of flammable or combustible liquid in which articles or materials are immersed for the purpose of coating, finishing, treating and similar processes.

    DISCHARGE SITE. The immediate area surrounding the fireworks mortars used for an outdoor fireworks display.

    DISPENSING. The pouring or transferring of any material from a container, tank or similar vessel, whereby vapors, dusts, fumes, mists or gases are liberated to the atmosphere.

    DISPENSING DEVICE, OVERHEAD TYPE. A dispensing device that consists of one or more individual units intended for installation in conjunction with each other, mounted above a dispensing area typically within the motor fuel-dispensing facility canopy structure, and characterized by the use of an overhead hose reel.

    DISPLAY SITE. The immediate area where a fireworks display is conducted. The display area includes the discharge site, the fallout area and the required separation distance from the mortars to spectator viewing areas. The display area does not include spectator viewing areas or vehicle parking areas.

    DOOR, BALANCED. See “Balanced door.”

    DOOR, DUTCH. See “Dutch door.”

    DOOR, LOW ENERGY POWER-OPERATED. See “Low energy power-operated door.”

    DOOR, POWER-ASSISTED. See “Power-assisted door.”

    DOOR, POWER-OPERATED. See “Power-operated door.”

    DOORWAY, EXIT ACCESS. See “Exit access doorway.”

    [BG]DORMITORY. A space in a building where group sleeping accommodations are provided in one room, or in a series of closely associated rooms, for persons not members of the same family group, under joint occupancy and single management, as in college dormitories or fraternity houses.

    DRAFT CURTAIN. A structure arranged to limit the spread of smoke and heat along the underside of the ceiling or roof.

    [BF]DRAFTSTOP. A material, device or construction installed to restrict the movement of air within open spaces of concealed areas of building components such as crawl spaces, floor/ceiling assemblies, roof/ceiling assemblies and attics.

    DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. A powder composed of small particles, usually of sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, urea-potassium-based bicarbonate, potassium chloride or monoammonium phosphate, with added particulate material supplemented by special treatment to provide resistance to packing, resistance to moisture absorption (caking) and the proper flow capabilities.

    DRY CLEANING. The process of removing dirt, grease, paints and other stains from such items as wearing apparel, textiles, fabrics and rugs by use of nonaqueous liquids (solvents).

    DRY CLEANING PLANT. A facility in which dry cleaning and associated operations are conducted, including the office, receiving area and storage rooms.

    DRY CLEANING ROOM. An occupiable space within a building used for performing dry cleaning operations, the installation of solvent-handling equipment or the storage of dry cleaning solvents.

    DRY CLEANING SYSTEM. Machinery or equipment in which textiles are immersed or agitated in solvent or in which dry cleaning solvent is extracted from textiles.

    DUTCH DOOR. A door divided horizontally so that the top can be operated independently from the bottom.

    [BG]DWELLING. A building that contains one or two dwelling units used, intended or designed to be used, rented, leased, let or hired out to be occupied for living purposes.

    [BG]DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete, independent living facilities for one or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation.

    EARLY SUPPRESSION FAST-RESPONSE (ESFR) SPRINKLER. A sprinkler listed for early suppression fast-response performance.

    [BE]EGRESS COURT. A court or yard which provides access to a public way for one or more exits.

    ELECTROSTATIC FLUIDIZED BED. A container holding powder coating material that is aerated from below so as to form an air-supported expanded cloud of such material that is electrically charged with a charge opposite to that of the object to be coated. Such object is transported through the container immediately above the charged and aerated materials in order to be coated.

    ELEVATOR GROUP. A grouping of elevators in a building located adjacent or directly across from one another that respond to a common hall call button(s).

    EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. A system to provide indication and warning of emergency situations involving hazardous materials.

    EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. An approved location on the premises where signals from emergency equipment are received and which is staffed by trained personnel.

    [BE]EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. An operable window, door or other similar device that provides for a means of escape and access for rescue in the event of an emergency.

    EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRILL. An exercise performed to train staff and occupants and to evaluate their efficiency and effectiveness in carrying out emergency evacuation procedures.

    EMERGENCY POWER SYSTEM. A source of automatic electric power of a required capacity and duration to operate required life safety, fire alarm, detection and ventilation systems in the event of a failure of the primary power. Emergency power systems are required for electrical loads where interruption of the primary power could result in loss of human life or serious injuries.

    EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE. A valve designed to shut off the flow of gases or liquids.

    EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE, AUTOMATIC. A fail-safe automatic-closing valve designed to shut off the flow of gases or liquids initiated by a control system that is activated by automatic means.

    EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE, MANUAL. A manually operated valve designed to shut off the flow of gases or liquids.

    EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS. Dedicated manual or automatic facilities for originating and distributing voice instructions, as well as alert and evacuation signals pertaining to a fire emergency, to the occupants of a building.

    [BG]EMPLOYEE WORK AREA. All or any portion of a space used only by employees and only for work. Corridors, toilet rooms, kitchenettes and break rooms are not employee work areas.

    [BG]EQUIPMENT PLATFORM. An unoccupied, elevated platform used exclusively for mechanical systems or industrial process equipment, including the associated elevated walkways, stairways, alternating tread devices and ladders necessary to access the platform (see Section 505.3 of the International Building Code).

    EXCESS FLOW CONTROL. A fail-safe system or other approved means designed to shut off flow caused by a rupture in pressurized piping systems.

    EXCESS FLOW VALVE. A valve inserted into a compressed gas cylinder, portable tank or stationary tank that is designed to positively shut off the flow of gas in the event that its predetermined flow is exceeded.

    EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. An appliance or piece of equipment which consists of a top, a back and two sides providing a means of local exhaust for capturing gases, fumes, vapors and mists. Such enclosures include laboratory hoods, exhaust fume hoods and similar appliances and equipment used to retain and exhaust locally the gases, fumes, vapors and mists that could be released. Rooms or areas provided with general ventilation, in themselves, are not exhausted enclosures.

    EXISTING. Buildings, facilities or conditions that are already in existence, constructed or officially authorized prior to the adoption of this code.

    [BE]EXIT. That portion of a means of egress system between the exit access and the exit discharge or public way. Exit components include exterior exit doors at the level of exit discharge, interior exit stairways and ramps, exit passageways, exterior exit stairways and ramps and horizontal exits.

    [BE]EXIT ACCESS. That portion of a means of egress system that leads from any occupied portion of a building or structure to an exit.

    [BE]EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY. A door or access point along the path of egress travel from an occupied room, area or space where the path of egress enters an intervening room, corridor, exit access stairway or ramp.

    [BE]EXIT ACCESS RAMP. A ramp within the exit access portion of the means of egress system.

    [BE]EXIT ACCESS STAIRWAY. A stairway within the exit access portion of the means of egress system.

    [BE]EXIT DISCHARGE. That portion of a means of egress system between the termination of an exit and a public way.

    [BE]EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. The story at the point at which an exit terminates and an exit discharge begins.

    [BE]EXIT PASSAGEWAY. An exit component that is separated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives, and provides for a protected path of egress travel in a horizontal direction to the exit discharge.

    EXPANDED PLASTIC. A foam or cellular plastic material having a reduced density based on the presence of numerous small cavities or cells dispersed throughout the material.

    EXPLOSION. An effect produced by the sudden violent expansion of gases, which may be accompanied by a shock wave or disruption, or both, of enclosing materials or structures. An explosion could result from any of the following:

    1. 1.Chemical changes such as rapid oxidation, deflagration or detonation, decomposition of molecules and runaway polymerization (usually detonations).

    2. 2.Physical changes such as pressure tank ruptures.

    3. 3.Atomic changes (nuclear fission or fusion).

    EXPLOSIVE. A chemical compound, mixture or device, the primary or common purpose of which is to function by explosion. The term includes, but is not limited to, dynamite, black powder, pellet powder, initiating explosives, detonators, safety fuses, squibs, detonating cord, igniter cord, igniters and display fireworks, 1.3G.

    The term “Explosive” includes any material determined to be within the scope of USC Title 18: Chapter 40 and also includes any material classified as an explosive other than consumer fireworks, 1.4G by the hazardous materials regulations of DOTn 49 CFR Parts 100-185.

    High explosive. Explosive material, such as dynamite, which can be caused to detonate by means of a No. 8 test blasting cap where unconfined.

    Low explosive. Explosive material that will burn or deflagrate when ignited. It is characterized by a rate of reaction that is less than the speed of sound. Examples of low explosives include, but are not limited to, black powder, safety fuse, igniters, igniter cord, fuse lighters, fireworks, 1.3G and propellants, 1.3C.

    Mass-detonating explosives. Division 1.1, 1.2 and 1.5 explosives alone or in combination, or loaded into various types of ammunition or containers, most of which can be expected to explode virtually instantaneously when a small portion is subjected to fire, severe concussion, impact, the impulse of an initiating agent or the effect of a considerable discharge of energy from without. Materials that react in this manner represent a mass explosion hazard. Such an explosive will normally cause severe structural damage to adjacent objects. Explosive propagation could occur immediately to other items of ammunition and explosives stored sufficiently close to and not adequately protected from the initially exploding pile with a time interval short enough so that two or more quantities must be considered as one for quantity-distance purposes.

    UN/DOTn Class 1 explosives. The former classification system used by DOTn included the terms “high” and “low” explosives as defined herein. The following terms further define explosives under the current system applied by DOTn for all explosive materials defined as hazard Class 1 materials. Compatibility group letters are used in concert with the division to specify further limitations on each division noted (for example, the letter G identifies the material as a pyrotechnic substance or article containing a pyrotechnic substance and similar materials).

    Division 1.1. Explosives that have a mass explosion hazard. A mass explosion is one which affects almost the entire load instantaneously.

    Division 1.2. Explosives that have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard.

    Division 1.3. Explosives that have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard.

    Division 1.4. Explosives that pose a minor explosion hazard. The explosive effects are largely confined to the package and no projection of fragments of appreciable size or range is to be expected. An external fire must not cause virtually instantaneous explosion of almost the entire contents of the package.

    Division 1.5. Very insensitive explosives. This division is comprised of substances that have a mass explosion hazard but which are so insensitive that there is very little probability of initiation or of transition from burning to detonation under normal conditions of transport.

    Division 1.6. Extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion hazard. This division is comprised of articles that contain only extremely insensitive detonating substances and which demonstrate a negligible probability of accidental initiation or propagation.

    EXPLOSIVE MATERIAL. The term “explosive” material means explosives, blasting agents and detonators.

    [BE]EXTERIOR EXIT RAMP. An exit component that serves to meet one or more means of egress design requirements, such as required number of exits or exit access travel distance, and is open to yards, courts or public ways.

    [BE]EXTERIOR EXIT STAIRWAY. An exit component that serves to meet one or more means of egress design requirements, such as required number of exits or exit access travel distance, and is open to yards, courts or public ways.

    [BF]EXTERIOR WALL. A wall, bearing or nonbearing, that is used as an enclosing wall for a building, other than a fire wall, and that has a slope of 60 degrees (1.05 rad) or greater with the horizontal plane.

    EXTRA-HIGH-RACK COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. Storage on racks of Class I, II, III or IV commodities that exceed 40 feet (12 192 mm) in height and storage on racks of high-hazard commodities that exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) in height.

    FABRICATION AREA. An area within a semiconductor fabrication facility and related research and development areas in which there are processes using hazardous production materials. Such areas are allowed to include ancillary rooms or areas such as dressing rooms and offices that are directly related to the fabrication area processes.

    [A]FACILITY. A building or use in a fixed location including exterior storage areas for flammable and combustible substances and hazardous materials, piers, wharves, tank farms and similar uses. This term includes recreational vehicles, mobile home and manufactured housing parks, sales and storage lots.

    FAIL-SAFE. A design condition incorporating a feature for automatically counteracting the effect of an anticipated possible source of failure; also, a design condition eliminating or mitigating a hazardous condition by compensating automatically for a failure or malfunction.

    FALLOUT AREA. The area over which aerial shells are fired. The shells burst over the area, and unsafe debris and malfunctioning aerial shells fall into this area. The fallout area is the location where a typical aerial shell dud falls to the ground depending on the wind and the angle of mortar placement.

    FALSE ALARM. The willful and knowing initiation or transmission of a signal, message or other notification of an event of fire when no such danger exists.

    FINES. Small pieces or splinters of wood byproducts that will pass through a 0.25-inch (6.4 mm) screen.

    FIRE ALARM. The giving, signaling or transmission to any public fire station, or company or to any officer or employee thereof, whether by telephone, spoken word or otherwise, of information to the effect that there is a fire at or near the place indicated by the person giving, signaling or transmitting such information.

    FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See “Manual fire alarm box.”

    FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. A system component that receives inputs from automatic and manual fire alarm devices and may be capable of supplying power to detection devices and transponder(s) or off-premises transmitter(s). The control unit may be capable of providing a transfer of power to the notification appliances and transfer of condition to relays or devices.

    FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. A signal initiated by a fire alarm-initiating device such as a manual fire alarm box, automatic fire detector, waterflow switch or other device whose activation is indicative of the presence of a fire or fire signature.

    FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. A system or portion of a combination system consisting of components and circuits arranged to monitor and annunciate the status of fire alarm or supervisory signal-initiating devices and to initiate the appropriate response to those signals.

    FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD. A road that provides fire apparatus access from a fire station to a facility, building or portion thereof. This is a general term inclusive of all other terms such as fire lane, public street, private street, parking lot lane and access roadway.

    [BF]FIRE AREA. The aggregate floor area enclosed and bounded by fire walls, fire barriers, exterior walls or horizontal assemblies of a building. Areas of the building not provided with surrounding walls shall be included in the fire area if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof or floor next above.

    [BF]FIRE BARRIER. A fire-resistance-rated wall assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in which continuity is maintained.

    FIRE CHIEF. The chief officer of the fire department serving the jurisdiction, or a duly authorized representative.

    FIRE CODE OFFICIAL. The fire chief or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of the code, or a duly authorized representative.

    FIRE COMMAND CENTER. The principal attended or unattended location where the status of detection, alarm communications and control systems is displayed, and from which the system(s) can be manually controlled.

    [BF]FIRE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to close automatically upon detection of heat and resist the passage of flame. Fire dampers are classified for use in either static systems that will automatically shut down in the event of a fire, or in dynamic systems that continue to operate during a fire. A dynamic fire damper is tested and rated for closure under elevated temperature airflow.

    FIRE DEPARTMENT MASTER KEY. A limited issue key of special or controlled design to be carried by fire department officials in command which will open key boxes on specified properties.

    FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. A device designed to detect the presence of a fire signature and to initiate action.

    [BF]FIRE DOOR. The door component of a fire door assembly.

    [BF]FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. Any combination of a fire door, frame, hardware and other accessories that together provide a specific degree of fire protection to the opening.

    [BF]FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. Panic hardware that is listed for use on fire door assemblies.

    FIRE LANE. A road or other passageway developed to allow the passage of fire apparatus. A fire lane is not necessarily intended for vehicular traffic other than fire apparatus.

    [BF]FIRE PARTITION. A vertical assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in which openings are protected.

    FIRE POINT. The lowest temperature at which a liquid will ignite and achieve sustained burning when exposed to a test flame in accordance with ASTM D 92.

    [BF]FIRE PROTECTION RATING. The period of time that an opening protective assembly will maintain the ability to confine a fire as determined by tests prescribed in Section 716 of the International Building Code. Ratings are stated in hours or minutes.

    FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. Approved devices, equipment and systems or combinations of systems used to detect a fire, activate an alarm, extinguish or control a fire, control or manage smoke and products of a fire or any combination thereof.

    [BF]FIRE RESISTANCE. That property of materials or their assemblies that prevents or retards the passage of excessive heat, hot gases or flames under conditions of use.

    [BF]FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING. The period of time a building element, component or assembly maintains the ability to confine a fire, continues to perform a given structural function, or both, as determined by the tests, or the methods based on tests, prescribed in Section 703 of the International Building Code.

    [BF]FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. An assemblage of specific materials or products that are designed, tested and fire-resistance rated in accordance with either ASTM E 1966 or UL 2079 to resist for a prescribed period of time the passage of fire through joints made in or between fire-resistance-rated assemblies.

    FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. Building and fire control functions that are intended to increase the level of life safety for occupants or to control the spread of the harmful effects of fire.

    [BF]FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. The distance measured from the building face to one of the following:

    1. 1.The closest interior lot line.

    2. 2.To the centerline of a street, an alley or public way.

    3. 3.To an imaginary line between two buildings on the lot.

    The distance shall be measured at right angles from the face of the wall.

    [BF]FIRE WALL. A fire-resistance-rated wall having protected openings, which restricts the spread of fire and extends continuously from the foundation to or through the roof, with sufficient structural stability under fire conditions to allow collapse of construction on either side without collapse of the wall.

    FIRE WATCH. A temporary measure intended to ensure continuous and systematic surveillance of a building or portion thereof by one or more qualified individuals for the purposes of identifying and controlling fire hazards, detecting early signs of unwanted fire, raising an alarm of fire and notifying the fire department.

    [BF]FIREBLOCKING. Building materials, or materials approved for use as fireblocking, installed to resist the free passage of flame to other areas of the building through concealed spaces.

    FIREWORKS. Any composition or device for the purpose of producing a visible or an audible effect for entertainment purposes by combustion, deflagration or detonation that meets the definition of 1.4G fireworks or 1.3G fireworks.

    Fireworks, 1.4G. Small fireworks devices containing restricted amounts of pyrotechnic composition designed primarily to produce visible or audible effects by combustion. Such 1.4G fireworks which comply with the construction, chemical composition and labeling regulations of the DOTn for Fireworks, UN 0336, and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission as set forth in CPSC 16 CFR Parts 1500 and 1507, are not explosive materials for the purpose of this code.

    Fireworks, 1.3G. Large fireworks devices, which are explosive materials, intended for use in fireworks displays and designed to produce audible or visible effects by combustion, deflagration or detonation. Such 1.3G fireworks include, but are not limited to, firecrackers containing more than 130 milligrams (2 grains) of explosive composition, aerial shells containing more than 40 grams of pyrotechnic composition and other display pieces which exceed the limits for classification as 1.4G fireworks. Such 1.3G fireworks are also described as Fireworks, UN 0335 by the DOTn.

    FIREWORKS DISPLAY. A presentation of fireworks for a public or private gathering.

    [BG]FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO). A commercial business granted the right by the airport sponsor to operate on an airport and provide aeronautical services such as fueling, hangaring, tie-down and parking, aircraft rental, aircraft maintenance and flight instruction.

    [BE]FIXED SEATING. Furniture or fixtures designed and installed for the use of sitting and secured in place including bench-type seats and seats with or without back or arm rests.

    [BF]FLAME SPREAD. The propagation of flame over a surface.

    [BF]FLAME SPREAD INDEX. A comparative measure, expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from visual measurements of the spread of flame versus time for a material tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723.

    FLAMMABLE CRYOGENIC FLUID. A cryogenic fluid that is flammable in its vapor state.

    FLAMMABLE FINISHES. Coatings to articles or materials in which the material being applied is a flammable liquid, combustible liquid, combustible powder, fiberglass resin or flammable or combustible gel coating.

    FLAMMABLE GAS. A material which is a gas at 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmosphere (psia) (101 kPa) of pressure [a material that has a boiling point of 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia (101 kPa)] which:

    1. 1.Is ignitable at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) when in a mixture of 13 percent or less by volume with air; or

    2. 2.Has a flammable range at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) with air of not less than 12 percent, regardless of the lower limit.

    The limits specified shall be determined at 14.7 psi (101 kPa) of pressure and a temperature of 68°F (20°C) in accordance with ASTM E 681.

    FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. A liquefied compressed gas which, under a charged pressure, is partially liquid at a temperature of 68°F (20°C) and which is flammable.

    FLAMMABLE LIQUID. A liquid having a closed cup flash point below 100°F (38°C). Flammable liquids are further categorized into a group known as Class I liquids. The Class I category is subdivided as follows:

    Class IA. Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (23°C) and having a boiling point below 100°F (38°C).

    Class IB. Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (23°C) and having a boiling point at or above 100°F (38°C).

    Class IC. Liquids having a flash point at or above 73°F (23°C) and below 100°F (38°C).

    The category of flammable liquids does not include compressed gases or cryogenic fluids.

    FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. A material capable of being readily ignited from common sources of heat or at a temperature of 600°F (316°C) or less.

    FLAMMABLE SOLID. A solid, other than a blasting agent or explosive, that is capable of causing fire through friction, absorption of moisture, spontaneous chemical change or retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which has an ignition temperature below 212°F (100°C) or which burns so vigorously and persistently when ignited as to create a serious hazard. A chemical shall be considered a flammable solid as determined in accordance with the test method of CPSC 16 CFR Part 1500.44, if it ignites and burns with a self-sustained flame at a rate greater than 0.0866 inch (2.2 mm) per second along its major axis.

    FLAMMABLE VAPOR AREA. An area in which the concentration of flammable constituents (vapor, gas, fume, mist or dust) in air exceeds 25 percent of their lower flammable limit (LFL) because of the flammable finish processes operation. It shall include:

    1. 1.The interior of spray booths.

    2. 2.The interior of ducts exhausting from spraying processes.

    3. 3.Any area in the direct path of spray or any area containing dangerous quantities of air-suspended powder, combustible residue, dust, deposits, vapor or mists as a result of spraying operations.

    4. 4.The area in the vicinity of dip tanks, drain boards or associated drying, conveying or other equipment during operation or shutdown periods.

    The fire code official is authorized to determine the extent of the flammable vapor area, taking into consideration the material characteristics of the flammable materials, the degree of sustained ventilation and the nature of the operations.

    FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. The concentration of flammable constituents in air that exceeds 25 percent of their lower flammable limit (LFL).

    FLASH POINT. The minimum temperature in degrees Fahrenheit at which a liquid will give off sufficient vapors to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface or in the container, but will not sustain combustion. The flash point of a liquid shall be determined by appropriate test procedure and apparatus as specified in ASTM D 56, ASTM D 93 or ASTM D 3278.

    FLEET VEHICLE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. That portion of a commercial, industrial, governmental or manufacturing property where liquids used as fuels are stored and dispensed into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles that are used in connection with such businesses, by persons within the employ of such businesses.

    [BE]FLIGHT. A continuous run of rectangular treads, winders or combination thereof from one landing to another.

    FLOAT. A floating structure normally used as a point of transfer for passengers and goods, or both, for mooring purposes.

    [BE]FLOOR AREA, GROSS. The floor area within the inside perimeter of the exterior walls of the building under consideration, exclusive of vent shafts and courts, without deduction for corridors, stairways, ramps, closets, the thickness of interior walls, columns or other features. The floor area of a building, or portion thereof, not provided with surrounding exterior walls shall be the usable area under the horizontal projection of the roof or floor above. The gross floor area shall not include shafts with no openings or interior courts.

    [BE]FLOOR AREA, NET. The actual occupied area not including unoccupied accessory areas such as corridors, stairways, ramps, toilet rooms, mechanical rooms and closets.

    FLUE SPACES.

    Longitudinal flue space. The flue space between rows of storage perpendicular to the direction of loading.

    Transverse flue space. The space between rows of storage parallel to the direction of loading.

    FLUIDIZED BED. A container holding powder coating material that is aerated from below so as to form an air-supported expanded cloud of such material through which the preheated object to be coated is immersed and transported.

    FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A special system discharging a foam made from concentrates, either mechanically or chemically, over the area to be protected.

    [BE]FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. Tiered seating having an overall shape and size that is capable of being reduced for purposes of moving or storing and is not a building element.

    [BG]FOSTER CARE FACILITIES. Facilities that provide care to more than five children, 21/2 years of age or less.

    FUEL LIMIT SWITCH. A mechanism, located on a tank vehicle, that limits the quantity of product dispensed at one time.

    FUMIGANT. A substance which by itself or in combination with any other substance emits or liberates a gas, fume or vapor utilized for the destruction or control of insects, fungi, vermin, germs, rats or other pests, and shall be distinguished from insecticides and disinfectants which are essentially effective in the solid or liquid phases. Examples are methyl bromide, ethylene dibromide, hydrogen cyanide, carbon disulfide and sulfuryl fluoride.

    FUMIGATION. The utilization within an enclosed space of a fumigant in concentrations that are hazardous or acutely toxic to humans.

    FURNACE CLASS A. An oven or furnace that has heat utilization equipment operating at approximately atmospheric pressure wherein there is a potential explosion or fire hazard that could be occasioned by the presence of flammable volatiles or combustible materials processed or heated in the furnace.

    Note: Such flammable volatiles or combustible materials can, for instance, originate from the following:

    1. 1.Paints, powders, inks, and adhesives from finishing processes, such as dipped, coated, sprayed and impregnated materials.

    2. 2.The substrate material.

    3. 3.Wood, paper and plastic pallets, spacers or packaging materials.

    4. 4.Polymerization or other molecular rearrangements.

    Potentially flammable materials, such as quench oil, water-borne finishes, cooling oil or cooking oils, that present a hazard are ventilated according to Class A standards.

    FURNACE CLASS B. An oven or furnace that has heat utilization equipment operating at approximately atmospheric pressure wherein there are no flammable volatiles or combustible materials being heated.

    FURNACE CLASS C. An oven or furnace that has a potential hazard due to a flammable or other special atmosphere being used for treatment of material in process. This type of furnace can use any type of heating system and includes a special atmosphere supply system. Also included in the Class C classification are integral quench furnaces and molten salt bath furnaces.

    FURNACE CLASS D. An oven or furnace that operates at temperatures from above ambient to over 5,000°F (2760°C) and at pressures normally below atmospheric using any type of heating system. These furnaces can include the use of special processing atmospheres.

    GAS CABINET. A fully enclosed, ventilated, noncombustible enclosure used to provide an isolated environment for compressed gas cylinders in storage or use. Doors and access ports for exchanging cylinders and accessing pressure-regulating controls are allowed to be included.

    GAS DETECTION SYSTEM, CONTINUOUS. See “Continuous gas detection system.

    GAS ROOM. A separately ventilated, fully enclosed room in which only compressed gases and associated equipment and supplies are stored or used.

    GAS ROOM, HYDROGEN FUEL. See “Hydrogen fuel gas room.

    GASEOUS HYDROGEN SYSTEM. An assembly of piping, devices and apparatus designed to generate, store, contain, distribute or transport a nontoxic, gaseous hydrogen-containing mixture having not less than 95-percent hydrogen gas by volume and not more than 1-percent oxygen by volume. Gaseous hydrogen systems consist of items such as compressed gas containers, reactors and appurtenances, including pressure regulators, pressure relief devices, manifolds, pumps, compressors and interconnecting piping and tubing and controls.

    [BG]GRADE FLOOR OPENING. A window or other opening located such that the sill height of the opening is not more than 44 inches (1118 mm) above or below the finished ground level adjacent to the opening.

    [BG]GRADE PLANE. A reference plane representing the average of finished ground level adjoining the building at exterior walls. Where the finished ground level slopes away from the exterior walls, the reference plane shall be established by the lowest points within the area between the building and the lot line or, where the lot line is more than 6 feet (1829 mm) from the building, between the building and a point 6 feet (1829 mm) from the building.

    [BE]GRANDSTAND. Tiered seating supported on a dedicated structural system and two or more rows high and is not a building element (see “Bleachers”).

    [BG]GROUP HOME. A facility for social rehabilitation, substance abuse or mental health problems that contains a group housing arrangement that provides custodial care but does not provide medical care.

    [BE]GUARD. A building component or a system of building components located at or near the open sides of elevated walking surfaces that minimizes the possibility of a fall from the walking surface to a lower level.

    [BG]GUEST ROOM. A room used or intended to be used by one or more guests for living or sleeping purposes.

    [BS]GYPSUM BOARD. Gypsum wallboard, gypsum sheathing, gypsum base for gypsum veneer plaster, exterior gypsum soffit board, predecorated gypsum board or water-resistant gypsum backing board complying with the standards listed in Tables 2506.2 and 2507.2 and Chapter 35 of the International Building Code.

    [BG]HABITABLE SPACE. A space in a building for living, sleeping, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, halls, storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not considered habitable spaces.

    HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A fire-extinguishing system using one or more atoms of an element from the halogen chemical series: fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine.

    HANDLING. The deliberate transport by any means to a point of storage or use.

    [BE]HANDRAIL. A horizontal or sloping rail intended for grasping by the hand for guidance or support.

    HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. Those chemicals or substances which are physical hazards or health hazards as defined and classified in this chapter, whether the materials are in usable or waste condition.

    HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). A solid, liquid or gas associated with semiconductor manufacturing that has a degree-of-hazard rating in health, flammability or instability of Class 3 or 4 as ranked by NFPA 704 and which is used directly in research, laboratory or production processes which have, as their end product, materials that are not hazardous.

    HEALTH HAZARD. A classification of a chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence that acute or chronic health effects are capable of occurring in exposed persons. The term “health hazard” includes chemicals that are toxic, highly toxic and corrosive.

    HEAT DETECTOR. See “Detector, heat.

    [BG]HEIGHT, BUILDING. The vertical distance from grade plane to the average height of the highest roof surface.

    HELIPORT. An area of land or water or a structural surface that is used, or intended for use, for the landing and taking off of helicopters, and any appurtenant areas which are used, or intended for use, for heliport buildings and other heliport facilities.

    HELISTOP. The same as “Heliport,” except that fueling, defueling, maintenance, repairs or storage of helicopters is not permitted.

    HI-BOY. A cart used to transport hot roofing materials on a roof.

    HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. Storage of combustible materials in closely packed piles or combustible materials on pallets, in racks or on shelves where the top of storage is greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) in height. Where required by the fire code official, high-piled combustible storage also includes certain high-hazard commodities, such as rubber tires, Group A plastics, flammable liquids, idle pallets and similar commodities, where the top of storage is greater than 6 feet (1829 mm) in height.

    HIGH-PILED STORAGE AREA. An area within a building which is designated, intended, proposed or actually used for high-piled combustible storage.

    [BG]HIGH-RISE BUILDING. A building with an occupied floor located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.

    HIGH-VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION LINE. An electrical power transmission line operating at or above 66 kilovolts.

    HIGHLY TOXIC. A material which produces a lethal dose or lethal concentration which falls within any of the following categories:

    1. 1.A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 50 milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when administered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.

    2. 2.A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 200 milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each.

    3. 3.A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of 200 parts per million by volume or less of gas or vapor, or 2 milligrams per liter or less of mist, fume or dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for one hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.

    Mixtures of these materials with ordinary materials, such as water, might not warrant classification as highly toxic. While this system is basically simple in application, any hazard evaluation that is required for the precise categorization of this type of material shall be performed by experienced, technically competent persons.

    HIGHLY VOLATILE LIQUID. A liquefied compressed gas with a boiling point of less than 68°F (20°C).

    HIGHWAY. A public street, public alley or public road.

    [A]HISTORIC BUILDINGS. Buildings that are listed in or eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places, or designated as historic under an appropriate state or local law.

    HOGGED MATERIALS. Wood waste materials produced from the lumber production process.

    [M]HOOD. An air-intake device used to capture by entrapment, impingement, adhesion or similar means, grease and similar contaminants before they enter a duct system.

    Type I. A kitchen hood for collecting and removing grease vapors and smoke.

    Type II. A general kitchen hood for collecting and removing steam vapor, heat, odors and products of combustion.

    [BF]HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLY. A fire-resistance-rated floor or roof assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in which continuity is maintained.

    [BE]HORIZONTAL EXIT. An exit component consisting of fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives intended to compartmentalize portions of a building thereby creating refuge areas that afford safety from fire and smoke from the area of fire origin.

    [BG]HOSPITALS AND PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALS. Facilities that provide care or treatment for the medical, psychiatric, obstetrical, or surgical treatment of inpatient care recipients that are incapable of self-preservation.

    HOT WORK. Operations including cutting, welding, Thermit welding, brazing, soldering, grinding, thermal spraying, thawing pipe, installation of torch-applied roof systems or any other similar activity.

    HOT WORK AREA. The area exposed to sparks, hot slag, radiant heat, or convective heat as a result of the hot work.

    HOT WORK EQUIPMENT. Electric or gas welding or cutting equipment used for hot work.

    HOT WORK PERMITS. Permits issued by the responsible person at the facility under the hot work permit program permitting welding or other hot work to be done in locations referred to in Section 3503.3 and prepermitted by the fire code official.

    HOT WORK PROGRAM. A permitted program, carried out by approved facilities-designated personnel, allowing them to oversee and issue permits for hot work conducted by their personnel or at their facility. The intent is to have trained, on-site, responsible personnel ensure that required hot work safety measures are taken to prevent fires and fire spread.

    HPM FACILITY. See “Semiconductor fabrication facility.

    HPM ROOM. A room used in conjunction with or serving a Group H-5 occupancy, where HPM is stored or used and which is classified as a Group H-2, H-3 or H-4 occupancy.

    HYDROGEN FUEL GAS ROOM. A room or space that is intended exclusively to house a gaseous hydrogen system.

    IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH (IDLH). The concentration of air-borne contaminants that poses a threat of death, immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects, or effects that could prevent escape from such an environment. This contaminant concentration level is established by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) based on both toxicity and flammability. It generally is expressed in parts per million by volume (ppm v/v) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3). Where adequate data do not exist for precise establishment of IDLH concentrations, an independent certified industrial hygienist, industrial toxicologist, appropriate regulatory agency or other source approved by the fire code official shall make such determination.

    IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR. The person responsible for the maintenance of a particular fire protection system.

    [BG]INCAPABLE OF SELF-PRESERVATION. Persons who, because of age, physical limitations, mental limitations, chemical dependency or medical treatment, cannot respond as an individual to an emergency situation.

    INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. Materials that, when mixed, have the potential to react in a manner which generates heat, fumes, gases or byproducts which are hazardous to life or property.

    INERT GAS. A gas that is capable of reacting with other materials only under abnormal conditions such as high temperatures, pressures and similar extrinsic physical forces. Within the context of the code, inert gases do not exhibit either physical or health hazard properties as defined (other than acting as a simple asphyxiant) or hazard properties other than those of a compressed gas. Some of the more common inert gases include argon, helium, krypton, neon, nitrogen and xenon.

    INHABITED BUILDING. A building regularly occupied in whole or in part as a habitation for people, or any place of religious worship, schoolhouse, railroad station, store or other structure where people are accustomed to assemble, except any building or structure occupied in connection with the manufacture, transportation, storage or use of explosive materials.

    INITIATING DEVICE. A system component that originates transmission of a change-of-state condition, such as in a smoke detector, manual fire alarm box, or supervisory switch.

    INSECTICIDAL FOGGING. The utilization of insecticidal liquids passed through fog-generating units where, by means of pressure and turbulence, with or without the application of heat, such liquids are transformed and discharged in the form of fog or mist blown into an area to be treated.

    [BE]INTERIOR EXIT RAMP. An exit component that serves to meet one or more means of egress design requirements, such as required number of exits or exit access travel distance, and provides for a protected path of egress travel to the exit discharge or public way.

    [BE]INTERIOR EXIT STAIRWAY. An exit component that serves to meet one or more means of egress design requirements, such as required number of exits or exit access travel distance, and provides for a protected path of egress travel to the exit discharge or public way.

    [BG]INTERIOR FINISH. Interior finish includes interior wall and ceiling finish and interior floor finish.

    [BG]INTERIOR FLOOR-WALL BASE. Interior floor finish trim used to provide a functional or decorative border at the intersection of walls and floors.

    [BG]INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH. The exposed interior surfaces of buildings, including but not limited to: fixed or movable walls and partitions; toilet room privacy partitions; columns; ceilings; and interior wainscoting, paneling or other finish applied structurally or for decoration, acoustical correction, surface insulation, structural fire resistance or similar purposes, but not including trim.

    IRRITANT. A chemical which is not corrosive, but which causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact. A chemical is a skin irritant if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the methods of CPSC 16 CFR Part 1500.41 for an exposure of four or more hours or by other appropriate techniques, it results in an empirical score of 5 or more. A chemical is classified as an eye irritant if so determined under the procedure listed in CPSC 16 CFR Part 1500.42 or other approved techniques.

    [A]JURISDICTION. The governmental unit that has adopted this code under due legislative authority.

    KEY BOX. A secure device with a lock operable only by a fire department master key, and containing building entry keys and other keys that may be required for access in an emergency.

    [A]LABELED. Equipment, materials or products to which have been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory, approved agency or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of the production of the labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that the equipment, material or product meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.

    LEVEL OF EXIT DISCHARGE. See “Exit discharge, level of.

    LIMITED SPRAYING SPACE. An area in which operations for touch‒up or spot painting of a surface area of 9 square feet (0.84 m2) or less are conducted.

    LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG). A fluid in the liquid state composed predominantly of methane and which may contain minor quantities of ethane, propane, nitrogen or other components normally found in natural gas.

    LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LP‒gas). A material which is composed predominantly of the following hydrocarbons or mixtures of them: propane, propylene, butane (normal butane or isobutane) and butylenes.

    LIQUID. A material having a melting point that is equal to or less than 68°F (20°C) and a boiling point which is greater than 68°F (20°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) (101 kPa). Where not otherwise identified, the term “liquid” includes both flammable and combustible liquids.

    LIQUID OXYGEN AMBULATORY CONTAINER. A container used for liquid oxygen not exceeding 0.396 gallons (1.5 liters) specifically designed for use as a medical device as defined by 21 USC Chapter 9 that is intended for portable therapeutic use and to be filled from its companion base unit, a liquid oxygen home care container.

    LIQUID OXYGEN HOME CARE CONTAINER. A container used for liquid oxygen not exceeding 15.8 gallons (60 liters) specifically designed for use as a medical device as defined by 21 USC Chapter 9 that is intended to deliver gaseous oxygen for therapeutic use in a home environment.

    LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. A room classified as a Group H‒3 occupancy used for the storage of flammable or combustible liquids in a closed condition.

    LIQUID STORAGE WAREHOUSE. A building classified as a Group H‒2 or H‒3 occupancy used for the storage of flammable or combustible liquids in a closed condition.

    [A]LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services included in a list published by an organization acceptable to the fire code official and concerned with evaluation of products or services that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product or service meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.

    LOCKDOWN. An emergency situation, in other than a Group I-3 occupancy, requiring that the occupants be sheltered and secured in place within a building when normal evacuation would put occupants at risk.

    [BG]LODGING HOUSE. A one‒family dwelling where one or more occupants are primarily permanent in nature and rent is paid for guest rooms.

    LONGITUDINAL FLUE SPACE. See “Flue spacelongitudinal.

    [A]LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit.

    [A]LOT LINE. A line dividing one lot from another, or from a street or any public place.

    [BE]LOW ENERGY POWER‒OPERATED DOOR. Swinging door which opens automatically upon an action by a pedestrian such as pressing a push plate or waving a hand in front of a sensor. The door closes automatically, and operates with decreased forces and decreased speeds. See also “Power‒assisted door” and “Power‒operated door.”

    LOW‒PRESSURE TANK. A storage tank designed to withstand an internal pressure greater than 0.5 pound per square inch gauge (psig) (3.4 kPa) but not greater than 15 psig (103.4 kPa).

    LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (LEL). See “Lower flammable limit.

    LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). The minimum concentration of vapor in air at which propagation of flame will occur in the presence of an ignition source. The LFL is sometimes referred to as LEL or lower explosive limit.

    LP‒GAS CONTAINER. Any vessel, including cylinders, tanks, portable tanks and cargo tanks, used for transporting or storing LP‒gases.

    MAGAZINE. A building, structure or container, other than an operating building, approved for storage of explosive materials.

    Indoor. A portable structure, such as a box, bin or other container, constructed as required for Type 2, 4 or 5 magazines in accordance with NFPA 495, NFPA 1124 or DOTy 27 CFR Part 55 so as to be fire resistant and theft resistant.

    Type 1. A permanent structure, such as a building or igloo, that is bullet resistant, fire resistant, theft resistant, weather resistant and ventilated in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 495, NFPA 1124 or DOTy 27 CFR Part 55.

    Type 2. A portable or mobile structure, such as a box, skid‒magazine, trailer or semitrailer, constructed in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 495, NFPA 1124 or DOTy 27 CFR Part 55 that is fire resistant, theft resistant, weather resistant and ventilated. If used outdoors, a Type 2 magazine is also bullet resistant.

    Type 3. A fire resistant, theft resistant and weather resistant “day box” or portable structure constructed in accordance with NFPA 495, NFPA 1124 or DOTy 27 CFR Part 55 used for the temporary storage of explosive materials.

    Type 4. A permanent, portable or mobile structure such as a building, igloo, box, semitrailer or other mobile container that is fire resistant, theft resistant and weather resistant and constructed in accordance with NFPA 495, NFPA 1124 or DOTy 27 CFR Part 55.

    Type 5. A permanent, portable or mobile structure such as a building, igloo, box, bin, tank, semitrailer, bulk trailer, tank trailer, bulk truck, tank truck or other mobile container that is theft resistant, which is constructed in accordance with NFPA 495, NFPA 1124 or DOTy 27 CFR Part 55.

    MAGNESIUM. The pure metal and alloys, of which the major part is magnesium.

    MALL. See “Covered mall building.”

    MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. A manually operated device used to initiate an alarm signal.

    MANUAL STOCKING METHODS. Stocking methods utilizing ladders or other nonmechanical equipment to move stock.

    MARINA. Any portion of the ocean or inland water, either naturally or artificially protected, for the mooring, servicing or safety of vessels and shall include artificially protected works, the public or private lands ashore, and structures or facilities provided within the enclosed body of water and ashore for the mooring or servicing of vessels or the servicing of their crews or passengers.

    MARINE MOTOR FUEL‒DISPENSING FACILITY. That portion of property where flammable or combustible liquids or gases used as fuel for watercraft are stored and dispensed from fixed equipment on shore, piers, wharves, floats or barges into the fuel tanks of watercraft and shall include all other facilities used in connection therewith.

    MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET (MSDS). Information concerning a hazardous material which is prepared in accordance with the provisions of DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1200 or in accordance with the provisions of a federally approved state OSHA plan.

    MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA. The maximum amount of a hazardous material allowed to be stored or used within a control area inside a building or an outdoor control area. The maximum allowable quantity per control area is based on the material state (solid, liquid or gas) and the material storage or use conditions.

    [BE]MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed path of vertical and horizontal egress travel from any occupied portion of a building or structure to a public way. A means of egress consists of three separate and distinct parts: the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge.

    MECHANICAL STOCKING METHODS. Stocking methods utilizing motorized vehicles or hydraulic jacks to move stock.

    [BG]MEDICAL CARE. Care involving medical or surgical procedures, nursing or for psychiatric purposes.

    MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. An air‒inflated, air‒supported, cable or frame‒covered structure as defined by the International Building Code and not otherwise defined as a tent. See Chapter 31 of the International Building Code.

    [BE]MERCHANDISE PAD. A merchandise pad is an area for display of merchandise surrounded by aisles, permanent fixtures or walls. Merchandise pads contain elements such as nonfixed and moveable fixtures, cases, racks, counters and partitions as indicated in Section 105.2 of the International Building Code from which customers browse or shop.

    METAL HYDRIDE. A generic name for compounds composed of metallic element(s) and hydrogen.

    METAL HYDRIDE STORAGE SYSTEM. A closed system consisting of a group of components assembled as a package to contain metal‒hydrogen compounds for which there exists an equilibrium condition where the hydrogen‒absorbing metal alloy(s), hydrogen gas and the metal‒hydrogen compound(s) coexist and where only hydrogen gas is released from the system in normal use.

    [BG]MEZZANINE. An intermediate level or levels between the floor and ceiling of any story and in accordance with Section 505 of the International Building Code.

    MOBILE FUELING. The operation of dispensing liquid fuels from tank vehicles into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles. Mobile fueling may also be known by the terms “Mobile fleet fueling,” “Wet fueling” and “Wet hosing.”

    MORTAR. A tube from which fireworks shells are fired into the air.

    MULTIPLE‒STATION ALARM DEVICE. Two or more single‒station alarm devices that can be interconnected such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible alarms to operate. A multiple‒station alarm device can consist of one single‒station alarm device having connections to other detectors or to a manual fire alarm box.

    MULTIPLE‒STATION SMOKE ALARM. Two or more single‒station alarm devices that are capable of interconnection such that actuation of one causes the appropriate alarm signal to operate in all interconnected alarms.

    NESTING. A method of securing flat‒bottomed compressed gas cylinders upright in a tight mass using a contiguous three‒point contact system whereby all cylinders within a group have not less than three points of contact with other cylinders, walls or bracing.

    NET EXPLOSIVE WEIGHT (net weight). The weight of explosive material expressed in pounds. The net explosive weight is the aggregate amount of explosive material contained within buildings, magazines, structures or portions thereof, used to establish quantity‒distance relationships.

    NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). A temperature of 70°F (21°C) and a pressure of 1 atmosphere [14.7 psia (101 kPa)].

    [BE]NOSING. The leading edge of treads of stairs and of landings at the top of stairway flights.

    NOTIFICATION ZONE. See “Zone, notification.

    NUISANCE ALARM. An alarm caused by mechanical failure, malfunction, improper installation or lack of proper maintenance, or an alarm activated by a cause that cannot be determined.

    [BG]NURSING HOMES. Facilities that provide care, including both intermediate care facilities and skilled nursing facilities, where any of the persons are incapable of self‒preservation.

    OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION. For the purposes of this code, certain occupancies are defined as follows:

    [BG]Assembly Group A. Assembly Group A occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for the gathering of persons for purposes such as civic, social or religious functions; recreation, food or drink consumption; or awaiting transportation.

    [BG]Small buildings and tenant spaces. A building or tenant space used for assembly purposes with an occupant load of less than 50 persons shall be classified as a Group B occupancy.

    [BG]Small assembly spaces. The following rooms and spaces shall not be classified as assembly occupancies:

    1. 1.A room or space used for assembly purposes with an occupant load of less than 50 persons and accessory to another occupancy shall be classified as a Group B occupancy or as part of that occupancy.

    2. 2.A room or space used for assembly purposes that is less than 750 square feet (70 m2) in area and accessory to another occupancy shall be classified as a Group B occupancy or as part of that occupancy.

    [BG]Associated with Group E occupancies. A room or space used for assembly purposes that is associated with a Group E occupancy is not considered a separate occupancy.

    [BG]Accessory with places of religious worship. Accessory religious educational rooms and religious auditoriums with occupant loads of less than 100 per room or space are not considered separate occupancies

    [BG]Assembly Group A‒1. Group A occupancy includes assembly uses, usually with fixed seating, intended for the production and viewing of performing arts or motion pictures including, but not limited to:

    • Motion picture theaters

    • Symphony and concert halls

    • Television and radio studios admitting an audience Theaters

    [BG]Assembly Group A‒2. Group A‒2 occupancy includes assembly uses intended for food and/or drink consumption including, but not limited to:

    • Banquet halls

    • Casinos (gaming areas)

    • Night clubs

    • Restaurants, cafeterias and similar dining facilities (including associated commercial kitchens)

    • Taverns and bars

    [BG]Assembly Group A‒3. Group A‒3 occupancy includes assembly uses intended for worship, recreation or amusement and other assembly uses not classified elsewhere in Group A, including, but not limited to:

    • Amusement arcades

    • Art galleries

    • Bowling alleys

    • Community halls

    • Courtrooms

    • Dance halls (not including food or drink consumption)

    • Exhibition halls

    • Funeral parlors

    • Gymnasiums (without spectator seating)

    • Indoor swimming pools (without spectator seating)

    • Indoor tennis courts (without spectator seating)

    • Lecture halls

    • Libraries

    • Museums

    • Places of religious worship

    • Pool and billiard parlors

    • Waiting areas in transportation terminals

    [BG]Assembly Group A‒4. Group A‒4 occupancy includes assembly uses intended for viewing of indoor sporting events and activities with spectator seating including, but not limited to:

    • Arenas

    • Skating rinks

    • Swimming pools

    • Tennis courts

    [BG]Assembly Group A‒5. Group A‒5 occupancy includes assembly uses intended for participation in or viewing outdoor activities including, but not limited to:

    • Amusement park structures

    • Bleachers

    • Grandstands

    • Stadiums

    [BG]Business Group B. Business Group B occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for office, professional or service‒type transactions, including storage of records and accounts. Business occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

    • Airport traffic control towers

    • Ambulatory care facilities

    • Animal hospitals, kennels and pounds

    • Banks

    • Barber and beauty shops

    • Car wash

    • Civic administration

    • Clinic‒outpatient

    • Dry cleaning and laundries: pick‒up and delivery stations and self‒service

    • Educational occupancies for students above the 12th grade

    • Electronic data processing

    • Food processing establishments and commercial kitchens not associated with restaurants, cafeterias and similar dining facilities not more than 2,500 square feet (232 m2) in area.

    • Laboratories: testing and research

    • Motor vehicle showrooms

    • Post offices

    • Print shops

    • Professional services (architects, attorneys, dentists, physicians, engineers, etc.)

    • Radio and television stations

    • Telephone exchanges

    • Training and skill development not in a school or academic program (This shall include, but not be limited to, tutoring centers, martial arts studios, gymnastics and similar uses regardless of the ages served, and where not classified as a Group A occupancy).

    [BG]Educational Group E. Educational Group E occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, by six or more persons at any one time for educational purposes through the 12th grade.

    [BG]Accessory to places of religious worship. Religious educational rooms and religious auditoriums, which are accessory to places of religious worship in accordance with Section 508.3.1 of the International Building Code and have occupant loads of less than 100 per room or space shall be classified as Group A‒3 occupancies.

    [BG]Group E, day care facilities. This group includes buildings and structures or portions thereof occupied by more than five children older than 21/2 years of age who receive educational, supervision or personal care services for less than 24 hours per day.

    [BG]Within places of worship. Rooms and spaces within places of worship providing such care during religious functions shall be classified as part of the primary occupancy.

    [BG]Five or fewer children. A facility having five or fewer children receiving such care shall be classified as part of the primary occupancy.

    [BG]Five or fewer children in a dwelling unit. A facility such as the above within a dwelling unit and having five or fewer children receiving such care shall be classified as a Group R‒3 occupancy or shall comply with the International Residential Code.

    [BG]Factory Industrial Group F. Factory Industrial Group F occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for assembling, disassembling, fabricating, finishing, manufacturing, packaging, repair or processing operations that are not classified as a Group H high‒hazard or Group S storage occupancy.

    [BG]Factory Industrial F‒1 Moderate‒hazard occupancy. Factory industrial uses that are not classified as Factory Industrial F‒2 Low Hazard shall be classified as F‒1 Moderate Hazard and shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

    • Aircraft (manufacturing, not to include repair)

    • Appliances

    • Athletic equipment

    • Automobiles and other motor vehicles

    • Bakeries

    • Beverages; over 16‒percent alcohol content

    • Bicycles

    • Boats

    • Brooms or brushes

    • Business machines

    • Cameras and photo equipment

    • Canvas or similar fabric

    • Carpets and rugs (includes cleaning)

    • Clothing

    • Construction and agricultural machinery

    • Disinfectants

    • Dry cleaning and dyeing

    • Electric generation plants

    • Electronics

    • Engines (including rebuilding)

    • Food processing and commercial kitchens not associated with restaurants, cafeterias and similar dining facilities more than 2,500 square feet (232 m2) in area.

    • Furniture

    • Hemp products

    • Jute products

    • Laundries

    • Leather products

    • Machinery

    • Metals

    • Millwork (sash and door)

    • Motion pictures and television filming (without spectators)

    • Musical instruments

    • Optical goods

    • Paper mills or products

    • Photographic film

    • Plastic products

    • Printing or publishing

    • Refuse incineration

    • Shoes

    • Soaps and detergents Textiles

    • Tobacco

    • Trailers

    • Upholstering

    • Wood; distillation

    • Woodworking (cabinet)

    [BG]Factory Industrial F‒2 Low‒hazard Occupancy. Factory industrial uses involving the fabrication or manufacturing of noncombustible materials that, during finishing, packaging or processing do not involve a significant fire hazard, shall be classified as Group F‒2 occupancies and shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

    • Beverages; up to and including 16‒percent alcohol content

    • Brick and masonry

    • Ceramic products

    • Foundries

    • Glass products

    • Gypsum

    • Ice

    • Metal products (fabrication and assembly)

    High‒hazard Group H. High‒hazard Group H occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, that involves the manufacturing, processing, generation or storage of materials that constitute a physical or health hazard in quantities in excess of those allowed in control areas complying with Section 5003.8.3, based on the maximum allowable quantity limits for control areas set forth in Tables 5003.1.1(1) and 5003.1.1(2). Hazardous occupancies are classified in Groups H‒1, H‒2, H‒3, H‒4 and H‒5 and shall be in accordance with this code and the requirements of Section 415 of the International Building Code. Hazardous materials stored or used on top of roofs or canopies shall be classified as outdoor storage or use and shall comply with this code.

    Uses other than Group H. The storage, use or handling of hazardous materials as described in one or more of the following items shall not cause the occupancy to be classified as Group H, but it shall be classified as the occupancy that it most nearly resembles:

    1. 1.Buildings and structures occupied for the application of flammable finishes, provided that such buildings or areas conform to the requirements of Chapter 24 of this code and Section 416 of the International Building Code.

    2. 2.Wholesale and retail sales and storage of flammable and combustible liquids in mercantile occupancies conforming to Chapter 57.

    3. 3.Closed piping system containing flammable or combustible liquids or gases utilized for the operation of machinery or equipment.

    4. 4.Cleaning establishments that utilize combustible liquid solvents having a flash point of 140°F (60°C) or higher in closed systems employing equipment listed by an approved testing agency, provided that this occupancy is separated from all other areas of the building by 1‒hour fire barriers in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or 1‒hour horizontal assemblies in accordance with Section 711 of the International Building Code, or both.

    5. 5.Cleaning establishments that utilize a liquid solvent having a flash point at or above 200°F (93°C).

    6. 6.Liquor stores and distributors without bulk storage.

    7. 7.Refrigeration systems.

    8. 8.The storage or utilization of materials for agricultural purposes on the premises.

    9. 9.Stationary batteries utilized for facility emergency power, uninterruptible power supply or telecommunication facilities, provided that the batteries are equipped with safety venting caps and ventilation is provided in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

    10. 10.Corrosive personal or household products in their original packaging used in retail display.

    11. 11.Commonly used corrosive building materials.

    12. 12.Buildings and structures occupied for aerosol storage shall be classified as Group S‒1, provided that such buildings conform to the requirements of Chapter 51.

    13. 13.Display and storage of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials in quantities not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area in Group M or S occupancies complying with Section 5003.8.3.5.

    14. 14.The storage of black powder, smokeless propellant and small arms primers in Groups M and R‒3 and special industrial explosive devices in Groups B, F, M and S, provided such storage conforms to the quantity limits and requirements of this code.

    High‒hazard Group H‒1. Buildings and structures containing materials that pose a detonation hazard shall be classified as Group H‒1. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

    • Detonable pyrophoric materials

    • Explosives:

      • Division 1.1

      • Division 1.2

      • Division 1.3

      • Division 1.4

      • Division 1.5

      • Division 1.6

    • Organic peroxides, unclassified detonable

    • Oxidizers, Class 4

    • Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3 detonable, and Class 4

    Occupancies containing explosives not classified as H‒1. The following occupancies containing explosive materials shall be classified as follows:

    1. 1.Division 1.3 explosive materials that are used and maintained in a form where either confinement or configuration will not elevate the hazard from a mass fire hazard to mass explosion hazard shall be allowed in Group H‒2 occupancies.

    2. 2.Articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as a Division 1.4 explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives regulations, or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles shall be allowed in H‒3 occupancies.

    High‒hazard Group H‒2. Buildings and structures containing materials that pose a deflagration hazard or a hazard from accelerated burning shall be classified as Group H‒2. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

    • Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids that are used or stored in normally open containers or systems, or in closed containers or systems pressurized at more than 15 pounds per square inch gauge (103.4 kPa)

    • Combustible dusts where manufactured, generated or used in such a manner that the concentration and conditions create a fire or explosion hazard based on information prepared in accordance with Section 414.1.3 of the International Building Code

    • Cryogenic fluids, flammable

    • Flammable gases

    • Organic peroxides, Class I

    • Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally open containers or systems, or in closed containers or systems pressurized at more than 15 pounds per square inch gauge (103.4 kPa)

    • Pyrophoric liquids, solids and gases, nondetonable Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3, nondetonable

    • Water‒reactive materials, Class 3

    High‒hazard Group H‒3. Buildings and structures containing materials that readily support combustion or that pose a physical hazard shall be classified as Group H‒3. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

    • Combustible fibers, other than densely packed baled cotton, where manufactured, generated or used in such a manner that the concentration and conditions create a fire or explosion hazard based on information prepared in accordance with Section 414.1.3 of the International Building Code

    • Consumer fireworks, 1.4G (Class C, Common)

    • Cryogenic fluids, oxidizing

    • Flammable solids

    • Organic peroxides, Class II and III

    • Oxidizers, Class 2

    • Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally closed containers or systems pressurized at 15 pounds per square inch gauge (103 kPa) or less

    • Oxidizing gases

    • Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 2

    • Water‒reactive materials, Class 2

    High‒hazard Group H‒4. Buildings and structures containing materials that are health hazards shall be classified as Group H‒4. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

    • Corrosives

    • Highly toxic materials

    • Toxic materials

    High‒hazard Group H‒5. Semiconductor fabrication facilities and comparable research and development areas in which hazardous production materials (HPM) are used and the aggregate quantity of materials is in excess of those listed in Tables 5003.1.1(1) and 5003.1.1(2) shall be classified as Group H‒5. Such facilities and areas shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section 415.11 of the International Building Code.

    [BG]Institutional Group I. Institutional Group I occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, in which care or supervision is provided to persons who are or are not capable of self‒preservation without physical assistance or in which persons are detained for penal or correctional purposes or in which the liberty of the occupants is restricted. Institutional occupancies shall be classified as Group I-1, I-2, I-3 or I-4.

    [BG]Institutional Group I-1. Institutional Group I-1 occupancy shall include buildings, structures or portions thereof for more than 16 persons, excluding staff, who reside on a 24-hour basis in a supervised environment and receive custodial care. Buildings of Group I-1 shall be classified as one of the occupancy conditions indicated below. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

    • Alcohol and drug centers

    • Assisted living facilities

    • Congregate care facilities

    • Group homes

    • Halfway houses

    • Residential board and care facilities

    • Residential board and custodial care facilities

    • Social rehabilitation facilities

    [BG]Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which all persons receiving custodial care who, without any assistance, are capable of responding to an emergency situation to complete building evacuation.

    [BG]Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which there are any persons receiving custodial care who require limited verbal or physical assistance while responding to an emergency situation to complete building evacuation.

    [BG]Six to 16 persons receiving custodial care. A facility housing not fewer than six and not more than 16 persons receiving custodial care shall be classified as Group R‒4.

    [BG]Five or fewer persons receiving custodial care. A facility with five or fewer persons receiving custodial care shall be classified as Group R‒3 or shall comply with the International Residential Code provided an automatic sprinkler system is installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 or with Section P2904 of the International Residential Code.

    [BG]Institutional Group I-2. Institutional Group I-2 occupancy shall include buildings and structures used for medical care on a 24‒hour basis for more than five persons who are not capable of self‒preservation. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

    • Foster care facilities

    • Detoxification facilities

    • Hospitals

    • Nursing homes

    • Psychiatric hospitals

    [BG]Occupancy Conditions. Buildings of Group I-2 shall be classified as one of the following occupancy conditions:

    [BG]Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall include facilities that provide nursing and medical care but do not provide emergency care, surgery, obstetrics, or in‒patient stabilization units for psychiatric or detoxification, including, but not limited to, nursing homes and foster care facilities.

    [BG]Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall include facilities that provide nursing and medical care and could provide emergency care, surgery, obstetrics, or inpatient stabilization units for psychiatric or detoxification, including, but not limited to, hospitals.

    [BG]Five or fewer persons receiving medical care.A facility with five or fewer persons receiving medical care shall be classified as Group R‒3 or shall comply with the International Residential Code provided an automatic sprinkler system is installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 or with Section P2904 of the International Residential Code.

    [BG]Institutional Group I-3. Institutional Group I-3 occupancy shall include buildings and structures which are inhabited by more than five persons who are under restraint or security. A Group I-3 facility is occupied by persons who are generally incapable of self‒preservation due to security measures not under the occupants’ control. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

    • Correctional centers

    • Detention centers

    • Jails

    • Prerelease centers

    • Prisons

    • Reformatories

    Buildings of Group I-3 shall be classified as one of the following occupancy conditions:

    [BG]Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed from sleeping areas and other spaces where access or occupancy is permitted to the exterior via means of egress without restraint. A Condition 1 facility is permitted to be constructed as Group R.

    [BG]Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed from sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke compartment to one or more other smoke compartments. Egress to the exterior is impeded by locked exits.

    [BG]Condition 3. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed within individual smoke compartments, such as within a residential unit comprised of individual sleeping units and group activity spaces, where egress is impeded by remote‒controlled release of means of egress from such smoke compartment to another smoke compartment.

    [BG]Condition 4. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is restricted from an occupied space. Remote‒controlled release is provided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to other smoke compartments.

    [BG]Condition 5. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is restricted from an occupied space. Staff‒controlled manual release is provided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to other smoke compartments.

    [BG]Institutional Group I-4, day care facilities. Institutional Group I-4 shall include buildings and structures occupied by more than five persons of any age who receive custodial care for less than 24 hours by persons other than parents or guardians, relatives by blood, marriage, or adoption, and in a place other than the home of the person cared for. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

    • Adult day care

    • Child day care

    [BG]Classification as Group E. A child day care facility that provides care for more than five but not more than 100 children 21/2 years or less of age, where the rooms in which the children are cared for are located on a level of exit discharge serving such rooms and each of these child care rooms has an exit door directly to the exterior, shall be classified as Group E.

    [BG]Within a place of religious worship. Rooms and spaces within places of religious worship providing such care during religious functions shall be classified as part of the primary occupancy.

    [BG]Five or fewer occupants receiving care. A facility having five or fewer persons receiving custodial care shall be classified as part of the primary occupancy.

    [BG]Five or fewer occupants receiving care in a dwelling unit. A facility such as the above within a dwelling unit and having five or fewer persons receiving custodial care shall be classified as a Group R‒3 occupancy or shall comply with the International Residential Code.

    [BG]Mercantile Group M. Mercantile Group M occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure or a portion thereof, for the display and sale of merchandise, and involves stocks of goods, wares or merchandise incidental to such purposes and accessible to the public. Mercantile occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

    • Department stores

    • Drug stores

    • Markets

    • Motor fuel‒dispensing facilities

    • Retail or wholesale stores

    • Sales rooms

    [BG]Residential Group R. Residential Group R includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for sleeping purposes when not classified as an Institutional Group I or when not regulated by the International Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2 of the International Building Code.

    [BG]Residential Group R‒1. Residential Group R‒1 occupancies containing sleeping units where the occupants are primarily transient in nature, including:

    • Boarding houses (transient) with more than 10 occupants

    • Congregate living facilities (transient) with more than 10 occupants

    • Hotels (transient)

    • Motels (transient)

    [BG]Residential Group R‒2. Residential Group R‒2 occupancies containing sleeping units or more than two dwelling units where the occupants are primarily permanent in nature, including:

    • Apartment houses

    • Boarding houses (nontransient) with more than 16 occupants

    • Congregate living facilities (nontransient) with more than 16 occupants

    • Convents

    • Dormitories

    • Fraternities and sororities

    • Hotels (nontransient)

    • Live/work units

    • Monasteries

    • Motels (nontransient)

    • Vacation timeshare properties

    [BG]Residential Group R‒3. Residential Group R‒3 occupancies where the occupants are primarily permanent in nature and not classified as Group R‒1, R‒2, R‒4 or I, including:

    • Boarding houses (nontransient) with 16 or fewer occupants

    • Boarding houses (transient) with 10 or fewer occupants

    • Buildings that do not contain more than two dwelling units

    • Care facilities that provide accommodations for five or fewer persons receiving care

    • Congregate living facilities (nontransient) with 16 or fewer occupants

    • Congregate living facilities (transient) with 10 or fewer occupants

    • Lodging houses with five or fewer guest rooms

    [BG]Care facilities within a dwelling. Care facilities for five or fewer persons receiving care that are within a single‒family dwelling are permitted to comply with the International Residential Code provided an automatic sprinkler system is installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 or Section P2904 of the International Residential Code.

    [BG]Lodging houses. Owner‒occupied lodging houses with five or fewer guest rooms shall be permitted to be constructed in accordance with the International Residential Code.

    [BG]Residential Group R‒4. Residential Group R‒4 shall include buildings, structures or portions thereof for more than five but not more than 16 persons, excluding staff, who reside on a 24‒hour basis in a supervised residential environment and receive custodial care. Buildings of Group R‒4 shall be classified as one of the occupancy conditions indicated below. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

    • Alcohol and drug centers

    • Assisted living facilities

    • Congregate care facilities

    • Group homes

    • Halfway houses

    • Residential board and care facilities

    • Social rehabilitation facilities

    Group R‒4 occupancies shall meet the requirements for construction as defined for Group R‒3, except as otherwise provided for in the International Building Code.

    [BG]Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which all persons receiving custodial care, without any assistance, are capable of responding to an emergency situation to complete building evacuation.

    [BG]Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which there are any persons receiving custodial care who require limited verbal or physical assistance while responding to an emergency situation to complete building evacuation.

    [BG]Storage Group S. Storage Group S occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for storage that is not classified as a hazardous occupancy.

    [BG]Accessory storage spaces. A room or space used for storage purposes that is less than 100 square feet (9.3 m2) in area and accessory to another occupancy shall be classified as part of that occupancy. The aggregate area of such rooms or spaces shall not exceed the allowable area limits of Section 508.2 of the International Building Code.

    [BG]Moderate‒hazard storage, Group S‒1. Storage Group S‒1 occupancies are buildings occupied for storage uses that are not classified as Group S‒2, including, but not limited to, storage of the following:

    • Aerosols, Levels 2 and 3

    • Aircraft hangar (storage and repair)

    • Bags: cloth, burlap and paper

    • Bamboos and rattan

    • Baskets

    • Belting: canvas and leather

    • Books and paper in rolls or packs

    • Boots and shoes

    • Buttons, including cloth covered, pearl or bone

    • Cardboard and cardboard boxes

    • Clothing, woolen wearing apparel

    • Cordage

    • Dry boat storage (indoor)

    • Furniture

    • Furs

    • Glues, mucilage, pastes and size

    • Grains

    • Horns and combs, other than celluloid

    • Leather

    • Linoleum

    • Lumber

    • Motor vehicle repair garages complying with the maximum allowable quantities of hazardous materials listed in Table 5003.1.1(1) (see Section 406.8 of the International Building Code)

    • Photo engravings

    • Resilient flooring

    • Silks

    • Soaps

    • Sugar

    • Tires, bulk storage of

    • Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff

    • Upholstery and mattresses

    • Wax candles

    [BG]Low‒hazard storage, Group S‒2. Storage Group S‒2 occupancies include, among others, buildings used for the storage of noncombustible materials such as products on wood pallets or in paper cartons with or without single thickness divisions; or in paper wrappings. Such products are permitted to have a negligible amount of plastic trim, such as knobs, handles or film wrapping. Storage uses shall include, but not be limited to, storage of the following:

    • Asbestos

    • Beverages up to and including 16‒percent alcohol in metal, glass or ceramic containers

    • Cement in bags

    • Chalk and crayons

    • Dairy products in nonwaxed coated paper containers

    • Dry cell batteries

    • Electrical coils

    • Electrical motors

    • Empty cans

    • Food products

    • Foods in noncombustible containers

    • Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic trays or containers

    • Frozen foods

    • Glass

    • Glass bottles, empty or filled with noncombustible liquids

    • Gypsum board

    • Inert pigments

    • Ivory

    • Meats

    • Metal cabinets

    • Metal desks with plastic tops and trim

    • Metal parts

    • Metals

    • Mirrors

    • Oil‒filled and other types of distribution transformers

    • Parking garages, open or enclosed

    • Porcelain and pottery

    • Stoves

    • Talc and soapstones

    • Washers and dryers

    [BG]Miscellaneous Group U. Buildings and structures of an accessory character and miscellaneous structures not classified in any specific occupancy shall be constructed, equipped and maintained to conform to the requirements of this code commensurate with the fire and life hazard incidental to their occupancy. Group U shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

    • Agricultural buildings

    • Aircraft hangar, accessory to a one‒ or two‒family residence (see Section 412.5 of the International Building Code)

    • Barns

    • Carports

    • Fences more than 6 feet (1829 mm) high

    • Grain silos, accessory to a residential occupancy

    • Greenhouses

    • Livestock shelters

    • Private garages

    • Retaining walls

    • Sheds

    • Stables

    • Tanks

    • Towers

    [BG]OCCUPANT LOAD. The number of persons for which the means of egress of a building or portion thereof is designed.

    OPEN BURNING. The burning of materials wherein products of combustion are emitted directly into the ambient air without passing through a stack or chimney from an enclosed chamber. Open burning does not include road flares, smudge‒pots and similar devices associated with safety or occupational uses typically considered open flames, recreational fires or use of portable outdoor fireplaces. For the purpose of this definition, a chamber shall be regarded as enclosed when, during the time combustion occurs, only apertures, ducts, stacks, flues or chimneys necessary to provide combustion air and permit the escape of exhaust gas are open.

    [BE]OPEN‒ENDED CORRIDOR. An interior corridor that is open on each end and connects to an exterior stairway or ramp at each end with no intervening doors or separation from the corridor.

    OPEN MALL. See “Covered mall building.

    OPEN MALL BUILDING. See “Covered mall building.

    [BG]OPEN PARKING GARAGE. A structure or portion of a structure with the openings as described in Section 406.5.2 of the International Building Code on two or more sides that is used for the parking or storage of private motor vehicles as described in Section 406.5 of the International Building Code.

    OPEN SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous material involving a vessel or system that is continuously open to the atmosphere during normal operations and where vapors are liberated, or the product is exposed to the atmosphere during normal operations. Examples of open systems for solids and liquids include dispensing from or into open beakers or containers, dip tank and plating tank operations.

    OPERATING BUILDING. A building occupied in conjunction with the manufacture, transportation or use of explosive materials. Operating buildings are separated from one another with the use of intraplant or intraline distances.

    OPERATING LINE. A group of buildings, facilities or workstations so arranged as to permit performance of the steps in the manufacture of an explosive or in the loading, assembly, modification and maintenance of ammunition or devices containing explosive materials.

    OPERATING PRESSURE. The pressure at which a system operates.

    ORGANIC COATING. A liquid mixture of binders such as alkyd, nitrocellulose, acrylic or oil, and flammable and combustible solvents such as hydrocarbon, ester, ketone or alcohol, which, when spread in a thin film, convert to a durable protective and decorative finish.

    ORGANIC PEROXIDE. An organic compound that contains the bivalent ‒O‒O‒ structure and which may be considered to be a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide where one or both of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by an organic radical. Organic peroxides can present an explosion hazard (detonation or deflagration) or they can be shock sensitive. They can also decompose into various unstable compounds over an extended period of time.

    Class I. Describes those formulations that are capable of deflagration but not detonation.

    Class II. Describes those formulations that burn very rapidly and that pose a moderate reactivity hazard.

    Class III. Describes those formulations that burn rapidly and that pose a moderate reactivity hazard.

    Class IV. Describes those formulations that burn in the same manner as ordinary combustibles and that pose a minimal reactivity hazard.

    Class V. Describes those formulations that burn with less intensity than ordinary combustibles or do not sustain combustion and that pose no reactivity hazard.

    Unclassified detonable. Organic peroxides that are capable of detonation. These peroxides pose an extremely high‒explosion hazard through rapid explosive decomposition.

    OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA. An outdoor area that contains hazardous materials in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantities of Table 5003.1.1(3) or Table 5003.1.1(4).

    OUTPATIENT CLINIC. See “Clinic, outpatient.

    OVERCROWDING. A condition that exists when either there are more people in a building, structure or portion thereof than have been authorized or posted by the fire code official, or when the fire code official determines that a threat exists to the safety of the occupants due to persons sitting and/or standing in locations that may obstruct or impede the use of aisles, passages, corridors, stairways, exits or other components of the means of egress.

    [A]OWNER. Any person, agent, operator, entity, firm or corporation having any legal or equitable interest in the property; or recorded in the official records of the state, county or municipality as holding an interest or title to the property; or otherwise having possession or control of the property, including the guardian of the estate of any such person, and the executor or administrator of the estate of such person if ordered to take possession of real property by a court.

    OXIDIZER. A material that readily yields oxygen or other oxidizing gas, or that readily reacts to promote or initiate combustion of combustible materials and, if heated or contaminated, can result in vigorous self‒sustained decomposition.

    Class 4. An oxidizer that can undergo an explosive reaction due to contamination or exposure to thermal or physical shock and that causes a severe increase in the burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes into contact. Additionally, the oxidizer causes a severe increase in the burning rate and can cause spontaneous ignition of combustibles.

    Class 3. An oxidizer that causes a severe increase in the burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes in contact.

    Class 2. An oxidizer that will cause a moderate increase in the burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes in contact.

    Class 1. An oxidizer that does not moderately increase the burning rate of combustible materials.

    OXIDIZING CRYOGENIC FLUID. An oxidizing gas in the cryogenic state.

    OXIDIZING GAS. A gas that can support and accelerate combustion of other materials more than air does.

    OZONE‒GAS GENERATOR. Equipment which causes the production of ozone.

    [BE]PANIC HARDWARE. A door‒latching assembly incorporating a device that releases the latch upon the application of a force in the direction of egress travel. See also “Fire exit hardware.

    PASS‒THROUGH. An enclosure installed in a wall with a door on each side that allows chemicals, HPM, equipment, and parts to be transferred from one side of the wall to the other.

    [BG]PENTHOUSE. An enclosed, unoccupied rooftop structure used for sheltering mechanical and electrical equipment, tanks, elevators and related machinery, and vertical shaft openings.

    PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMIT (PEL). The maximum permitted 8‒hour time‒weighted‒average concentration of an air‒borne contaminant. The exposure limits to be utilized are those published in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000. The Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) concentrations published by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Threshold Limit Value‒Time Weighted Average (TLV‒TWA) concentrations published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Workplace Environmental Exposure Level (WEEL) Guides published by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), and other approved, consistent measures are allowed as surrogates for hazardous substances not listed in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000.

    [A]PERMIT. An official document or certificate issued by the fire code official that authorizes performance of a specified activity.

    [A]PERSON. An individual, heirs, executors, administrators or assigns, and also includes a firm, partnership or corporation, its or their successors or assigns, or the agent of any of the aforesaid.

    [BG]PERSONAL CARE SERVICE. The care of persons who do not require medical care. Personal care involves responsibility for the safety of the persons while inside the building.

    PESTICIDE. A substance or mixture of substances, including fungicides, intended for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating pests and substances or a mixture of substances intended for use as a plant regulator, defoliant or desiccant. Products defined as drugs in the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act are not pesticides.

    [BE]PHOTOLUMINESCENT. Having the property of emitting light that continues for a length of time after excitation by visible or invisible light has been removed.

    PHYSICAL HAZARD. A chemical for which there is evidence that it is a combustible liquid, cryogenic fluid, explosive, flammable (solid, liquid or gas), organic peroxide (solid or liquid), oxidizer (solid or liquid), oxidizing gas, pyrophoric (solid, liquid or gas), unstable (reactive) material (solid, liquid or gas) or water‒reactive material (solid or liquid).

    PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD. A concentration of air‒borne contaminants, normally expressed in parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3), that represents the concentration at which persons can sense the presence of the contaminant due to odor, irritation or other quick‒acting physiological responses. When used in conjunction with the permissible exposure limit (PEL), the physiological warning threshold levels are those consistent with the classification system used to establish the PEL. See the definition of “Permissible exposure limit (PEL).

    PIER. A structure built over the water, supported by pillars or piles, and used as a landing place, pleasure pavilion or similar purpose.

    PLACE OF RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. See “Religious worship, place of.”

    [M]PLENUM. An enclosed portion of the building structure, other than an occupiable space being conditioned, that is designed to allow air movement and thereby serve as part of an air distribution system.

    PLOSOPHORIC MATERIAL. Two or more unmixed, commercially manufactured, prepackaged chemical substances including oxidizers, flammable liquids or solids, or similar substances that are not independently classified as explosives but which, when mixed or combined, form an explosive that is intended for blasting.

    PLYWOOD AND VENEER MILLS. Facilities where raw wood products are processed into finished wood products, including waferboard, oriented strandboard, fiberboard, composite wood panels and plywood.

    PORTABLE OUTDOOR FIREPLACE. A portable, outdoor, solid‒fuel‒burning fireplace that may be constructed of steel, concrete, clay or other noncombustible material. A portable outdoor fireplace may be open in design, or may be equipped with a small hearth opening and a short chimney or chimney opening in the top.

    POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK. A forklift, tractor, platform lift truck or motorized hand truck powered by an electrical motor or internal combustion engine. Powered industrial trucks do not include farm vehicles or automotive vehicles for highway use.

    [BE]POWER‒ASSISTED DOOR. Swinging door that opens by reduced pushing or pulling force on the door‒operating hardware. The door closes automatically after the pushing or pulling force is released, and functions with decreased forces. See also “Low energy power‒operated door” and “Power‒operated door.

    [BE]POWER‒OPERATED DOOR. Swinging, sliding, or folding door that opens automatically when approached by a pedestrian or opens automatically upon an action by a pedestrian. The door closes automatically and includes provisions such as presence sensors to prevent entrapment. See also “Low energy power‒operated door” and “Power‒assisted door.

    PRESSURE VESSEL. A closed vessel designed to operate at pressures above 15 psig (103 kPa).

    PRIMARY CONTAINMENT. The first level of containment, consisting of the inside portion of that container which comes into immediate contact on its inner surface with the material being contained.

    [BG]PRIVATE GARAGE. A building or portion of a building in which motor vehicles used by the tenants of the building or buildings on the premises are stored or kept, without provisions for repairing or servicing such vehicles for profit.

    PROCESS TRANSFER. The transfer of flammable or combustible liquids between tank vehicles or tank cars and process operations. Process operations may include containers, tanks, piping and equipment.

    PROPELLANT. The liquefied or compressed gas in an aerosol container that expels the contents from an aerosol container when the valve is actuated. A propellant is considered flammable if it forms a flammable mixture with air, or if a flame is self‒propagating in a mixture with air.

    PROXIMATE AUDIENCE. An audience closer to pyrotechnic devices than allowed by NFPA 1123.

    [B]PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALS. See “Hospitals.”

    PUBLIC TRAFFIC ROUTE (PTR). Any public street, road, highway, navigable stream or passenger railroad that is used for through traffic by the general public.

    [BE]PUBLIC‒USE AREAS. Interior or exterior rooms or spaces that are made available to the general public.

    [A]PUBLIC WAY. A street, alley or other parcel of land open to the outside air leading to a street, that has been deeded, dedicated or otherwise permanently appropriated to the public for public use and which has a clear width and height of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm).

    PYROPHORIC. A chemical with an autoignition temperature in air, at or below a temperature of 130°F (54°C).

    PYROTECHNIC ARTICLE. A pyrotechnic device for use in the entertainment industry, which is not classified as fireworks.

    PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. A chemical mixture that produces visible light displays or sounds through a self‒propagating, heat‒releasing chemical reaction which is initiated by ignition.

    PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL EFFECT. A visible or audible effect for entertainment created through the use of pyrotechnic materials and devices.

    PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL‒EFFECT MATERIAL. A chemical mixture used in the entertainment industry to produce visible or audible effects by combustion, deflagration or detonation. Such a chemical mixture predominantly consists of solids capable of producing a controlled, self‒sustaining and self‒contained exothermic chemical reaction that results in heat, gas sound, light or a combination of these effects. The chemical reaction functions without external oxygen.

    PYROTECHNICS. Controlled exothermic chemical reactions timed to create the effects of heat, hot gas, sound, dispersion of aerosols, emission of visible light or a combination of such effects to achieve the maximum effect from the least volume of pyrotechnic composition.

    QUANTITY‒DISTANCE (Q‒D). The quantity of explosive material and separation distance relationships providing protection. These relationships are based on levels of risk considered acceptable for the stipulated exposures and are tabulated in the appropriate Q‒D tables. The separation distances specified afford less than absolute safety:

    Inhabited building distance (IBD). The minimum separation distance between an operating building or magazine containing explosive materials and an inhabited building or site boundary.

    Intermagazine distance (IMD). The minimum separation distance between magazines.

    Intraline distance (ILD) or Intraplant distance (IPD). The distance to be maintained between any two operating buildings on an explosives manufacturing site when at least one contains or is designed to contain explosives, or the distance between a magazine and an operating building.

    Minimum separation distance (Do). The minimum separation distance between adjacent buildings occupied in conjunction with the manufacture, transportation, storage or use of explosive materials where one of the buildings contains explosive materials and the other building does not.

    RAILWAY. A steam, electric or other railroad or railway that carriers passengers for hire.

    [BE]RAMP. A walking surface that has a running slope steeper than one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5‒percent slope).

    RAMP, EXIT ACCESS. See “Exit access ramp.

    RAMP, EXTERIOR EXIT. See “Exterior exit ramp.

    RAMP, INTERIOR EXIT. See “Interior exit ramp.

    RAW PRODUCT. A mixture of natural materials such as tree, brush trimmings, or waste logs and stumps.

    READY BOX. A weather‒resistant container with a self‒closing or automatic‒closing cover that protects fireworks shells from burning debris. Tarpaulins shall not be considered as ready boxes.

    [A]RECORD DRAWINGS. Drawings (“as builts”) that document the location of all devices, appliances, wiring, sequences, wiring methods and connections of the components of a fire alarm system as installed.

    RECREATIONAL FIRE. An outdoor fire burning materials other than rubbish where the fuel being burned is not contained in an incinerator, outdoor fireplace, portable outdoor fireplace, barbeque grill or barbeque pit and has a total fuel area of 3 feet (914 mm) or less in diameter and 2 feet (610 mm) or less in height for pleasure, religious, ceremonial, cooking, warmth or similar purposes.

    REDUCED FLOW VALVE. A valve equipped with a restricted flow orifice and inserted into a compressed gas cylinder, portable tank or stationary tank that is designed to reduce the maximum flow from the valve under full‒flow conditions. The maximum flow rate from the valve is determined with the valve allowed to flow to atmosphere with no other piping or fittings attached.

    REFINERY. A plant in which flammable or combustible liquids are produced on a commercial scale from crude petroleum, natural gasoline or other hydrocarbon sources.

    REFRIGERANT. The fluid used for heat transfer in a refrigeration system; the refrigerant absorbs heat and transfers it at a higher temperature and a higher pressure, usually with a change of state.

    [M]REFRIGERATING (REFRIGERATION) SYSTEM. A combination of interconnected refrigerant‒containing parts constituting one closed refrigerant circuit in which a refrigerant is circulated for the purpose of extracting heat.

    [A]REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An architect or engineer, registered or licensed to practice professional architecture or engineering, as defined by the statutory requirements of the professional registration laws of the state in which the project is to be constructed.

    [BG]RELIGIOUS WORSHIP, PLACE OF. A building or portion thereof intended for the performance of religious services.

    REMOTE EMERGENCY SHUTOFF DEVICE. The combination of an operator‒carried signaling device and a mechanism on the tank vehicle. Activation of the remote emergency shutoff device sends a signal to the tanker‒mounted mechanism and causes fuel flow to cease.

    REMOTE SOLVENT RESERVOIR. A liquid solvent container enclosed against evaporative losses to the atmosphere during periods when the container is not being utilized, except for a solvent return opening not larger than 16 square inches (10 322 mm2). Such return allows pump‒cycled used solvent to drain back into the reservoir from a separate solvent sink or work area.

    REMOTELY LOCATED, MANUALLY ACTIVATED SHUTDOWN CONTROL. A control system that is designed to initiate shutdown of the flow of gases or liquids that is manually activated from a point located some distance from the delivery system.

    REPAIR GARAGE. A building, structure or portion thereof used for servicing or repairing motor vehicles.

    RESIN APPLICATION AREA. An area where reinforced plastics are used to manufacture products by hand lay‒up or spray‒fabrication methods.

    RESPONSIBLE PERSON. A person trained in the safety and fire safety considerations concerned with hot work. Responsible for reviewing the sites prior to issuing permits as part of the hot work permit program and following up as the job progresses.

    RETAIL DISPLAY AREA. The area of a Group M occupancy open for the purpose of viewing or purchasing merchandise offered for sale. Individuals in such establishments are free to circulate among the items offered for sale which are typically displayed on shelves, racks or the floor.

    ROLL COATING. The process of coating, spreading and impregnating fabrics, paper or other materials as they are passed directly through a tank or trough containing flammable or combustible liquids, or over the surface of a roller revolving partially submerged in a flammable or combustible liquid.

    RUBBISH (TRASH). Combustible and noncombustible waste materials, including residue from the burning of coal, wood, coke or other combustible material, paper, rags, cartons, tin cans, metals, mineral matter, glass crockery, dust and discarded refrigerators, and heating, cooking or incinerator‒type appliances.

    SAFETY CAN. An approved container of not more than 5‒gallon (19 L) capacity having a spring‒closing lid and spout cover so designed that it will relieve internal pressure when subjected to fire exposure.

    [BE]SCISSOR STAIRWAY. Two interlocking stairways providing two separate paths of egress located within one exit enclosure.

    SECONDARY CONTAINMENT. That level of containment that is external to and separate from primary containment.

    SEED COTTON. See “Cotton.”

    SEGREGATED. Storage in the same room or inside area, but physically separated by distance from incompatible materials.

    [BF]SELF‒CLOSING. As applied to a fire door or other opening, means equipped with an approved device that will ensure closing after having been opened.

    [BE]SELF‒LUMINOUS. Illuminated by a self‒contained power source, other than batteries, and operated independently of external power sources.

    SELF‒PRESERVATION, INCAPABLE OF. See “Incapable of self‒preservation.

    SELF‒SERVICE MOTOR FUEL‒DISPENSING FACILITY. That portion of motor fuel‒dispensing facility where liquid motor fuels are dispensed from fixed approved dispensing equipment into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles by persons other than a motor fuel‒dispensing facility attendant.

    SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITY. A building or a portion of a building in which electrical circuits or devices are created on solid crystalline substances having electrical conductivity greater than insulators but less than conductors. These circuits or devices are commonly known as semiconductors.

    SERVICE CORRIDOR. A fully enclosed passage used for transporting HPM and purposes other than required means of egress.

    SHELF STORAGE. Storage on shelves less than 30 inches (762 mm) deep with the distance between shelves not exceeding 3 feet (914 mm) vertically. For other shelving arrangements, see the requirements for rack storage.

    SINGLE‒STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly incorporating the detector, the control equipment and the alarm‒sounding device in one unit, operated from a power supply either in the unit or obtained at the point of installation.

    [BG]SITE. A parcel of land bounded by a lot line or a designated portion of a public right‒of‒way.

    [BG]SITE‒FABRICATED STRETCH SYSTEM. A system, fabricated on site and intended for acoustical, tackable or aesthetic purposes, that is composed of three elements:

    1. 1.A frame constructed of plastic, wood, metal or other material used to hold fabric in place;

    2. 2.A core material (infill, with the correct properties for the application); and

    3. 3.An outside layer, comprised of a textile, fabric or vinyl, that is stretched taut and held in place by tension or mechanical fasteners via the frame.

    SKY LANTERN. An unmanned device with a fuel source that incorporates an open flame in order to make the device airborne.

    [BG]SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people sleep, which can also include permanent provisions for living, eating, and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are not sleeping units.

    SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION. A shotgun, rifle or pistol cartridge and any cartridge for propellant‒actuated devices. This definition does not include military ammunition containing bursting charges or incendiary, trace, spotting or pyrotechnic projectiles.

    SMALL ARMS PRIMERS. Small percussion‒sensitive explosive charges, encased in a cap, used to ignite propellant powder.

    SMOKE ALARM. A single‒ or multiple‒station alarm responsive to smoke. See also “Single‒station smoke alarm” and “Multiple‒station smoke alarm.

    [BF]SMOKE BARRIER. A continuous membrane, either vertical or horizontal, such as a wall, floor, or ceiling assembly, that is designed and constructed to restrict the movement of smoke.

    [BG]SMOKE COMPARTMENT. A space within a building enclosed by smoke barriers on all sides, including the top and bottom.

    [BF]SMOKE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to resist the passage of smoke. The device is installed to operate automatically, controlled by a smoke detection system, and where required, is capable of being positioned from a fire command center.

    SMOKE DETECTOR. A listed device that senses visible or invisible particles of combustion.

    [BG]SMOKE‒DEVELOPED INDEX. A comparative measure, expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from measurements of smoke obscuration versus time for a material tested in accordance with ASTM E 84.

    [BE]SMOKE‒PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. Seating served by means of egress that is not subject to smoke accumulation within or under a structure.

    SMOKELESS PROPELLANTS. Solid propellants, commonly referred to as smokeless powders, used in small arms ammunition, cannons, rockets, propellant‒actuated devices and similar articles.

    [BF]SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE. An interior exit stairway designed and constructed so that the movement of the products of combustion produced by a fire occurring in any part of the building into the enclosure is limited.

    SOLID. A material that has a melting point and decomposes or sublimes at a temperature greater than 68°F (20°C).

    SOLID BIOFUEL. Densified biomass made in the form of cubiform, polyhedral, polyhydric or cylindrical units, produced by compressing milled biomass.

    SOLID BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK. The basic materials of which solid biofuel is composed, manufactured or made.

    SOLID SHELVING. Shelving that is solid, slatted or of other construction located in racks and which obstructs sprinkler discharge down into the racks.

    SOLVENT DISTILLATION UNIT. An appliance that receives contaminated flammable or combustible liquids and which distills the contents to remove contaminants and recover the solvents.

    SOLVENT OR LIQUID CLASSIFICATIONS. A method for classifying solvents or liquids according to the following classes:

    Class I solvents. Liquids having a flash point below 100°F (38°C).

    Class II solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or above 100°F (38°C) and below 140°F (60°C).

    Class IIIA solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C).

    Class IIIB solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or above 200°F (93°C).

    Class IV solvents. Liquids classified as nonflammable.

    SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. A building that is temporary, permanent or mobile that contains a device or system that conveys passengers or provides a walkway along, around or over a course in any direction as a form of amusement arranged so that the egress path is not readily apparent due to visual or audio distractions or an intentionally confounded egress path, or is not readily available because of the mode of conveyance through the building or structure.

    SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL EXPLOSIVE DEVICE. An explosive power pack containing an explosive charge in the form of a cartridge or construction device. The term includes but is not limited to explosive rivets, explosive bolts, explosive charges for driving pins or studs, cartridges for explosive‒actuated power tools and charges of explosives used in automotive air bag inflators, jet tapping of open hearth furnaces and jet perforation of oil well casings.

    SPRAY BOOTH. A mechanically ventilated appliance of varying dimensions and construction provided to enclose or accommodate a spraying operation and to confine and limit the escape of spray vapor and residue and to exhaust it safely.

    SPRAY ROOM. A room designed to accommodate spraying operations, constructed in accordance with the International Building Code and separated from the remainder of the building by a minimum 1‒hour fire barrier.

    SPRAYING SPACE. An area in which dangerous quantities of flammable vapors or combustible residues, dusts or deposits are present due to the operation of spraying processes. The fire code official is authorized to define the limits of the spraying space in any specific case.

    [BE]STAIR. A change in elevation, consisting of one or more risers.

    [BE]STAIRWAY. One or more flights of stairs, either exterior or interior, with the necessary landings and platforms connecting them, to form a continuous and uninterrupted passage from one level to another.

    STAIRWAY, EXIT ACCESS. See “Exit access stairway.”

    STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR EXIT. See “Exterior exit stairway.”

    STAIRWAY, INTERIOR EXIT. See “Interior Exit Stairway.”

    STAIRWAY, SCISSOR. See “Scissor stairway.

    [BE]STAIRWAY, SPIRAL. A stairway having a closed circular form in its plan view with uniform section‒shaped treads attached to and radiating from a minimum‒diameter supporting column.

    STANDBY POWER SYSTEM. A source of automatic electric power of a required capacity and duration to operate required building, hazardous materials or ventilation systems in the event of a failure of the primary power. Standby power systems are required for electrical loads where interruption of the primary power could create hazards or hamper rescue or fire‒fighting operations.

    STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF. Standpipe system classes are as follows:

    Class I system. A system providing 21/2‒inch (64 mm) hose connections to supply water for use by fire departments and those trained in handling heavy fire streams.

    Class II system. A system providing 11/2‒inch (38 mm) hose stations to supply water for use primarily by the building occupants or by the fire department during initial response.

    Class III system. A system providing 11/2‒inch (38 mm) hose stations to supply water for use by building occupants and 21/2‒inch (64 mm) hose connections to supply a larger volume of water for use by fire departments and those trained in handling heavy fire streams.

    STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. Standpipe types are as follows:

    Automatic dry. A dry standpipe system, normally filled with pressurized air, that is arranged through the use of a device, such as a dry pipe valve, to admit water into the system piping automatically upon the opening of a hose valve. The water supply for an automatic dry standpipe system shall be capable of supplying the system demand.

    Automatic wet. A wet standpipe system that has a water supply that is capable of supplying the system demand automatically.

    Manual dry. A dry standpipe system that does not have a permanent water supply attached to the system. Manual dry standpipe systems require water from a fire department pumper to be pumped into the system through the fire department connection in order to supply the system demand.

    Manual wet. A wet standpipe system connected to a water supply for the purpose of maintaining water within the system but which does not have a water supply capable of delivering the system demand attached to the system. Manual wet standpipe systems require water from a fire department pumper (or the like) to be pumped into the system in order to supply the system demand.

    Semiautomatic dry. A dry standpipe system that is arranged through the use of a device, such as a deluge valve, to admit water into the system piping upon activation of a remote control device located at a hose connection. A remote control activation device shall be provided at each hose connection. The water supply for a semiautomatic dry standpipe system shall be capable of supplying the system demand.

    STATIC PILES. Piles in which processed wood product or solid biomass feedstock is mounded and is not being turned or moved.

    STEEL. Hot‒ or cold‒rolled as defined by the International Building Code.

    STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. The keeping, retention or leaving of hazardous materials in closed containers, tanks, cylinders, or similar vessels; or vessels supplying operations through closed connections to the vessel.

    [BG]STORY. That portion of a building included between the upper surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next above (see “Basement,” “Building height,” “Grade plane” and “Mezzanine”). A story is measured as the vertical distance from top to top of two successive tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces and, for the topmost story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the ceiling joists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of the roof rafters.

    [BG]STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE. Any story having its finished floor surface entirely above grade plane, or in which the finished surface of the floor next above is:

    1. 1.More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane; or

    2. 2.More than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground level at any point.

    SUPERVISING STATION. A facility that receives signals and at which personnel are in attendance at all times to respond to these signals.

    SUPERVISORY SERVICE. The service required to monitor performance of guard tours and the operative condition of fixed suppression systems or other systems for the protection of life and property.

    SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. A signal indicating the need of action in connection with the supervision of guard tours, the fire suppression systems or equipment, or the maintenance features of related systems.

    SUPERVISORY SIGNAL‒INITIATING DEVICE. An initiating device such as a valve supervisory switch, water level indicator, or low‒air pressure switch on a dry‒pipe sprinkler system whose change of state signals an off‒normal condition and its restoration to normal of a fire protection or life safety system; or a need for action in connection with guard tours, fire suppression systems or equipment, or maintenance features of related systems.

    SYSTEM. An assembly of equipment consisting of a tank, container or containers, appurtenances, pumps, compressors and connecting piping.

    TANK. A vessel containing more than 60 gallons (227 L).

    TANK, ATMOSPHERIC. A storage tank designed to operate at pressures from atmospheric through 1.0 pound per square inch gauge (760 mm Hg through 812 mm Hg) measured at the top of the tank.

    TANK, PORTABLE. A packaging of more than 60‒gallon (227 L) capacity and designed primarily to be loaded into or on or temporarily attached to a transport vehicle or ship and equipped with skids, mountings or accessories to facilitate handling of the tank by mechanical means. It does not include any cylinder having less than a 1,000‒pound (454 kg) water capacity, cargo tank, tank car tank or trailers carrying cylinders of more than 1,000‒pound (454 kg) water capacity.

    TANK, PRIMARY. A listed atmospheric tank used to store liquid. See “Primary containment.

    TANK, PROTECTED ABOVE GROUND. A tank listed in accordance with UL 2085 consisting of a primary tank provided with protection from physical damage and fire‒resistive protection from a high‒intensity liquid pool fire exposure. The tank may provide protection elements as a unit or may be an assembly of components, or a combination thereof.

    TANK, STATIONARY. Packaging designed primarily for stationary installations not intended for loading, unloading or attachment to a transport vehicle as part of its normal operation in the process of use. It does not include cylinders having less than a 1,000‒pound (454 kg) water capacity.

    TANK VEHICLE. A vehicle other than a railroad tank car or boat, with a cargo tank mounted thereon or built as an integral part thereof, used for the transportation of flammable or combustible liquids, LP‒gas or hazardous chemicals. Tank vehicles include self‒propelled vehicles and full trailers and semitrailers, with or without motive power, and carrying part or all of the load.

    TEMPORARY STAGE CANOPY. A temporary ground‒supported membrane‒covered frame structure used to cover stage areas and support equipment in the production of outdoor entertainment events.

    [BG]TENT. A structure, enclosure or shelter, with or without sidewalls or drops, constructed of fabric or pliable material supported by any manner except by air or the contents that it protects.

    THEFT RESISTANT. Construction designed to deter illegal entry into facilities for the storage of explosive materials.

    TIMBER AND LUMBER PRODUCTION FACILITIES. Facilities where raw wood products are processed into finished wood products.

    TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. Storage of tires where the area available for storage exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m3).

    TOOL. A device, storage container, workstation or process machine used in a fabrication area.

    TORCH‒APPLIED ROOF SYSTEM. Bituminous roofing systems using membranes that are adhered by heating with a torch and melting asphalt back coating instead of mopping hot asphalt for adhesion.

    [A]TOWNHOUSE. A single‒family dwelling unit constructed in a group of three or more attached units in which each unit extends from the foundation to roof and with open space on not less than two sides.

    TOXIC. A chemical falling within any of the following categories:

    1. 1.A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more than 50 milligrams per kilogram, but not more than 500 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when administered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.

    2. 2.A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more than 200 milligrams per kilogram but not more than 1,000 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each.

    3. 3.A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of more than 200 parts per million but not more than 2,000 parts per million by volume of gas or vapor, or more than 2 milligrams per liter but not more than 20 milligrams per liter of mist, fume or dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.

    TRAFFIC CALMING DEVICES. Traffic calming devices are design elements of fire apparatus access roads such as street alignment, installation of barriers, and other physical measures intended to reduce traffic and cut‒through volumes, and slow vehicle speeds.

    [BG]TRANSIENT. Occupancy of a dwelling unit or sleeping unit for not more than 30 days.

    [BG]TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT. Aircraft based at another location and that is at the transient location for not more than 90 days.

    TRANSVERSE FLUE SPACE. See “Flue spaceTransverse.

    TRASH. See “Rubbish.

    TROUBLE SIGNAL. A signal initiated by the fire alarm system or device indicative of a fault in a monitored circuit or component.

    TUBE TRAILER. A semitrailer on which a number of tubular gas cylinders have been mounted. A manifold is typically provided that connects the cylinder valves enabling gas to be discharged from one or more tubes or cylinders through a piping and control system.

    TWENTY‒FOUR HOUR BASIS. See “24‒hour basis” before the “A” entries.

    UNAUTHORIZED DISCHARGE. A release or emission of materials in a manner which does not conform to the provisions of this code or applicable public health and safety regulations.

    UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. A material, other than an explosive, which in the pure state or as commercially produced, will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense or become self‒reactive and undergo other violent chemical changes, including explosion, when exposed to heat, friction or shock, or in the absence of an inhibitor, or in the presence of contaminants, or in contact with incompatible materials. Unstable (reactive) materials are subdivided as follows:

    Class 4. Materials that in themselves are readily capable of detonation or explosive decomposition or explosive reaction at normal temperatures and pressures. This class includes materials that are sensitive to mechanical or localized thermal shock at normal temperatures and pressures.

    Class 3. Materials that in themselves are capable of detonation or of explosive decomposition or explosive reaction but which require a strong initiating source or which must be heated under confinement before initiation. This class includes materials that are sensitive to thermal or mechanical shock at elevated temperatures and pressures.

    Class 2. Materials that in themselves are normally unstable and readily undergo violent chemical change but do not detonate. This class includes materials that can undergo chemical change with rapid release of energy at normal temperatures and pressures, and that can undergo violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures.

    Class 1. Materials that in themselves are normally stable but which can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressure.

    UNWANTED FIRE. A fire not used for cooking, heating or recreational purposes or one not incidental to the normal operations of the property.

    USE (MATERIAL). Placing a material into action, including solids, liquids and gases.

    VAPOR PRESSURE. The pressure exerted by a volatile fluid as determined in accordance with ASTM D 323.

    [M]VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such air from, any space.

    VESSEL. A motorized watercraft, other than a seaplane on the water, used or capable of being used as a means of transportation. Nontransportation vessels, such as houseboats and boathouses, are included in this definition.

    VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A notification appliance that alerts by the sense of sight.

    WATER MIST SYSTEM, AUTOMATIC. See “Automatic water mist system.

    WATER‒REACTIVE MATERIAL. A material that explodes; violently reacts; produces flammable, toxic or other hazardous gases; or evolves enough heat to cause autoignition or ignition of combustibles upon exposure to water or moisture. Water‒reactive materials are subdivided as follows:

    Class 3. Materials that react explosively with water without requiring heat or confinement.

    Class 2. Materials that react violently with water or have the ability to boil water. Materials that produce flammable, toxic or other hazardous gases, or evolve enough heat to cause autoignition or ignition of combustibles upon exposure to water or moisture.

    Class 1. Materials that react with water with some release of energy, but not violently.

    WET‒CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. A solution of water and potassium‒carbonate‒based chemical, potassium‒acetate‒based chemical or a combination thereof, forming an extinguishing agent.

    WET FUELING. See “Mobile fueling.

    WET HOSING. See “Mobile fueling.”

    WHARF. A structure or bulkhead constructed of wood, stone, concrete or similar material built at the shore of a harbor, lake or river for vessels to lie alongside of, and to anchor piers or floats.

    WILDFIRE RISK AREA. Land that is covered with grass, grain, brush or forest, whether privately or publicly owned, which is so situated or is of such inaccessible location that a fire originating upon it would present an abnormally difficult job of suppression or would result in great or unusual damage through fire or such areas designated by the fire code official.

    [BE]WINDER. A tread with nonparallel edges.

    WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. A system or a part of a system that can transmit and receive signals without the aid of wire.

    WORKSTATION. A defined space or an independent principal piece of equipment using HPM within a fabrication area where a specific function, laboratory procedure or research activity occurs. Approved or listed hazardous materials storage cabinets, flammable liquid storage cabinets or gas cabinets serving a workstation are included as part of the workstation. A workstation is allowed to contain ventilation equipment, fire protection devices, detection devices, electrical devices and other processing and scientific equipment.

    [BG]YARD. An open space, other than a court, unobstructed from the ground to the sky, except where specifically provided by the International Building Code, on the lot on which a building is situated.

    ZONE. A defined area within the protected premises. A zone can define an area from which a signal can be received, an area to which a signal can be sent or an area in which a form of control can be executed.

    ZONE, NOTIFICATION. An area within a building or facility covered by notification appliances which are activated simultaneously.