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  • PartVHazardous Materials

    CHAPTER50
    HAZARDOUS MATERIALS—GENERAL PROVISIONS

    SECTION5001
    GENERAL

    5001.1Scope.

    Prevention, control and mitigation of dangerous conditions related to storage, dispensing, use and handling of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with this chapter.

    This chapter shall apply to all hazardous materials, including those materials regulated elsewhere in this code, except that where specific requirements are provided in other chapters, those specific requirements shall apply in accordance with the applicable chapter. Where a material has multiple hazards, all hazards shall be addressed.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.In retail or wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuff or consumer products and cosmetics containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids and with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable shall not be limited, provided such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 L).

    2. 2.Quantities of alcoholic beverages in retail or wholesale sales occupancies shall not be limited providing the liquids are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 L).

    3. 3.Application and release of pesticide and agricultural products and materials intended for use in weed abatement, erosion control, soil amendment or similar applications where applied in accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions and label directions.

    4. 4.The off-site transportation of hazardous materials where in accordance with Department of Transportation (DOTn) regulations.

    5. 5.Building materials not otherwise regulated by this code.

    6. 6.Refrigeration systems (see Section 606).

    7. 7.Stationary storage battery systems regulated by Section 608.

    8. 8.The display, storage, sale or use of fireworks and explosives in accordance with Chapter 56.

    9. 9.Corrosives utilized in personal and household products in the manufacturers’ original consumer packaging in Group M occupancies.

    10. 10.The storage of distilled spirits and wines in wooden barrels and casks.

    11. 11.The use of wall-mounted dispensers containing alcohol-based hand rubs classified as Class I or II liquids where in accordance with Section 5705.5.

    5001.1.1Waiver.

    The provisions of this chapter are waived where the fire code official determines that such enforcement is preempted by other codes, statutes or ordinances. The details of any action granting such a waiver shall be recorded and entered in the files of the code enforcement agency.

    5001.2Material classification.

    Hazardous materials are those chemicals or substances defined as such in this code. Definitions of hazardous materials shall apply to all hazardous materials, including those materials regulated elsewhere in this code.

    5001.2.1Mixtures.

    Mixtures shall be classified in accordance with hazards of the mixture as a whole. Mixtures of hazardous materials shall be classified in accordance with nationally recognized reference standards; by an approved qualified organization, individual, or Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS); or by other approved methods.

    5001.2.2Hazard categories.

    Hazardous materials shall be classified according to hazard categories. The categories include materials regulated by this chapter and materials regulated elsewhere in this code.

    5001.2.2.1Physical hazards.

    The material categories listed in this section are classified as physical hazards. A material with a primary classification as a physical hazard can also pose a health hazard.

    1. 1.Explosives and blasting agents.

    2. 2.Combustible liquids.

    3. 3.Flammable solids, liquids and gases.

    4. 4.Organic peroxide solids or liquids.

    5. 5.Oxidizer, solids or liquids.

    6. 6.Oxidizing gases.

    7. 7.Pyrophoric solids, liquids or gases.

    8. 8.Unstable (reactive) solids, liquids or gases.

    9. 9.Water-reactive materials solids or liquids.

    10. 10.Cryogenic fluids.

    5001.2.2.2Health hazards.

    The material categories listed in this section are classified as health hazards. A material with a primary classification as a health hazard can also pose a physical hazard.

    1. 1.Highly toxic and toxic materials.

    2. 2.Corrosive materials.

    5001.3Performance-based design alternative.

    Where approved by the fire code official, buildings and facilities where hazardous materials are stored, used or handled shall be permitted to comply with this section as an alternative to compliance with the other requirements set forth in this chapter and Chapters 51 through 67.

    5001.3.1Objective.

    The objective of Section 5001.3 is to protect people and property from the consequences of unauthorized discharge, fires or explosions involving hazardous materials.

    5001.3.2Functional statements.

    Performance-based design alternatives are based on the following functional statements:

    1. 1.Provide safeguards to minimize the risk of unwanted releases, fires or explosions involving hazardous materials.

    2. 2.Provide safeguards to minimize the consequences of an unsafe condition involving hazardous materials during normal operations and in the event of an abnormal condition.

    5001.3.3Performance requirements.

    Where safeguards, systems, documentation, written plans or procedures, audits, process hazards analysis, mitigation measures, engineering controls or construction features are required by Sections 5001.3.3.1 through 5001.3.3.18, the details of the design alternative shall be subject to approval by the fire code official. The details of actions granting the use of the design alternatives shall be recorded and entered in the files of the jurisdiction.

    5001.3.3.1Properties of hazardous materials.

    The physical- and health-hazard properties of hazardous materials on site shall be known and shall be made readily available to employees, neighbors and the fire code official.

    5001.3.3.2Reliability of equipment and operations.

    Equipment and operations involving hazardous materials shall be designed, installed and maintained to ensure that they reliably operate as intended.

    5001.3.3.3Prevention of unintentional reaction or release.

    Safeguards shall be provided to minimize the risk of an unintentional reaction or release that could endanger people or property.

    5001.3.3.4Spill mitigation.

    Spill containment systems or means to render a spill harmless to people or property shall be provided where a spill is determined to be a plausible event and where such an event would endanger people or property.

    5001.3.3.5Ignition hazards.

    Safeguards shall be provided to minimize the risk of exposing combustible hazardous materials to unintended sources of ignition.

    5001.3.3.6Protection of hazardous materials.

    Safeguards shall be provided to minimize the risk of exposing hazardous materials to a fire or physical damage whereby such exposure could endanger or lead to the endangerment of people or property.

    5001.3.3.7Exposure hazards.

    Safeguards shall be provided to minimize the risk of and limit damage from a fire or explosion involving explosive hazardous materials whereby such fire or explosion could endanger or lead to the endangerment of people or property.

    5001.3.3.8Detection of gas or vapor release.

    Where a release of hazardous materials gas or vapor would cause immediate harm to persons or property, means of mitigating the dangerous effects of a release shall be provided.

    5001.3.3.9Reliable power source.

    Where a power supply is relied upon to prevent or control an emergency condition that could endanger people or property, the power supply shall be from a reliable source.

    5001.3.3.10Ventilation.

    Where ventilation is necessary to limit the risk of creating an emergency condition resulting from normal or abnormal operations, means of ventilation shall be provided.

    5001.3.3.11Process hazard analyses.

    Process hazard analyses shall be conducted to ensure reasonably the protection of people and property from dangerous conditions involving hazardous materials.

    5001.3.3.12Pre-startup safety review.

    Written documentation of pre-startup safety review procedures shall be developed and enforced to ensure that operations are initiated in a safe manner. The process of developing and updating such procedures shall involve the participation of affected employees.

    5001.3.3.13Operating and emergency procedures.

    Written documentation of operating procedures and procedures for emergency shut down shall be developed and enforced to ensure that operations are conducted in a safe manner. The process of developing and updating such procedures shall involve the participation of affected employees.

    5001.3.3.14Management of change.

    A written plan for management of change shall be developed and enforced. The process of developing and updating the plan shall involve the participation of affected employees.

    5001.3.3.15Emergency plan.

    A written emergency plan shall be developed to ensure that proper actions are taken in the event of an emergency, and the plan shall be followed if an emergency condition occurs. The process of developing and updating the plan shall involve the participation of affected employees.

    5001.3.3.16Accident procedures.

    Written procedures for investigation and documentation of accidents shall be developed, and accidents shall be investigated and documented in accordance with these procedures.

    5001.3.3.17Consequence analysis.

    Where an accidental release of hazardous materials could endanger people or property, either on or off-site, an analysis of the expected consequences of a plausible release shall be performed and utilized in the analysis and selection of active and passive hazard mitigation controls.

    5001.3.3.18Safety audits.

    Safety audits shall be conducted on a periodic basis to verify compliance with the requirements of this section.

    5001.4Retail and wholesale storage and display.

    For retail and wholesale storage and display of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials in Group M occupancies and storage in Group S occupancies, see Section 5003.11.

    5001.5Permits.

    Permits shall be required as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7.

    When required by the fire code official, permittees shall apply for approval to permanently close a storage, use or handling facility. Such application shall be submitted not less than 30 days prior to the termination of the storage, use or handling of hazardous materials. The fire code official is authorized to require that the application be accompanied by an approved facility closure plan in accordance with Section 5001.6.3.

    5001.5.1Hazardous Materials Management Plan.

    Where required by the fire code official, an application for a permit shall include a Hazardous Materials Management Plan (HMMP). The HMMP shall include a facility site plan designating the following:

    1. 1.Access to each storage and use area.

    2. 2.Location of emergency equipment.

    3. 3.Location where liaison will meet emergency responders.

    4. 4.Facility evacuation meeting point locations.

    5. 5.The general purpose of other areas within the building.

    6. 6.Location of all above-ground and underground tanks and their appurtenances including, but not limited to, sumps, vaults, below-grade treatment systems and piping.

    7. 7.The hazard classes in each area.

    8. 8.Locations of all control areas and Group H occupancies.

    9. 9.Emergency exits.

    5001.5.2Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement (HMIS).

    Where required by the fire code official, an application for a permit shall include an HMIS, such as Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) Title III, Tier II Report or other approved statement. The HMIS shall include the following information:

    1. 1.Product name.

    2. 2.Component.

    3. 3.Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) number.

    4. 4.Location where stored or used.

    5. 5.Container size.

    6. 6.Hazard classification.

    7. 7.Amount in storage.

    8. 8.Amount in use-closed systems.

    9. 9.Amount in use-open systems.

    5001.6Facility closure.

    Facilities shall be placed out of service in accordance with Sections 5001.6.1 through 5001.6.3.

    5001.6.1Temporarily out-of-service facilities.

    Facilities that are temporarily out of service shall continue to maintain a permit and be monitored and inspected.

    5001.6.2Permanently out-of-service facilities.

    Facilities for which a permit is not kept current or is not monitored and inspected on a regular basis shall be deemed to be permanently out of service and shall be closed in an approved manner. Where required by the fire code official, permittees shall apply for approval to close permanently storage, use or handling facilities. The fire code official is authorized to require that such application be accompanied by an approved facility closure plan in accordance with Section 5001.6.3.

    5001.6.3Facility closure plan.

    Where a facility closure plan is required in accordance with Section 5001.5 to terminate storage, dispensing, handling or use of hazardous materials, it shall be submitted to the fire code official not less than 30 days prior to facility closure. The plan shall demonstrate that hazardous materials that are stored, dispensed, handled or used in the facility will be transported, disposed of or reused in a manner that eliminates the need for further maintenance and any threat to public health and safety.

    SECTION5002
    DEFINITIONS

    5002.1Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    BOILING POINT.

    CEILING LIMIT.

    CHEMICAL.

    CHEMICAL NAME.

    CLOSED CONTAINER.

    CONTAINER.

    CONTROL AREA.

    CYLINDER.

    DAY BOX.

    DEFLAGRATION.

    DESIGN PRESSURE.

    DETACHED BUILDING.

    DISPENSING.

    EXCESS FLOW CONTROL.

    EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE.

    EXPLOSION.

    FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES.

    GAS CABINET.

    GAS ROOM.

    HANDLING.

    HAZARDOUS MATERIALS.

    HEALTH HAZARD.

    IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH (IDLH).

    INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS.

    LIQUID.

    LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (LEL).

    LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL).

    MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET (MSDS).

    MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA.

    NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP).

    OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA.

    PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMIT (PEL).

    PESTICIDE.

    PHYSICAL HAZARD.

    PRESSURE VESSEL.

    SAFETY CAN.

    SECONDARY CONTAINMENT.

    SEGREGATED.

    SOLID.

    STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS.

    SYSTEM.

    TANK, ATMOSPHERIC.

    TANK, PORTABLE.

    TANK, STATIONARY.

    TANK VEHICLE.

    UNAUTHORIZED DISCHARGE.

    USE (MATERIAL).

    VAPOR PRESSURE.

    SECTION5003
    GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

    5003.1Scope.

    The storage, use and handling of all hazardous materials shall be in accordance with this section.

    5003.1.1Maximum allowable quantity per control area.

    The maximum allowable quantity per control area shall be as specified in Tables 5003.1.1(1) through 5003.1.1(4).

    For retail and wholesale storage and display in Group M occupancies and Group S storage, see Section 5003.11.

    TABLE 5003.1.1(1)

    MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARDa, j, m, n, p

    MATERIALCLASSGROUP WHEN THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY IS EXCEEDEDSTORAGEbUSE-CLOSED SYSTEMSbUSE-OPEN SYSTEMSb
    Solid pounds (cubic feet)Liquid gallons (pounds)Gas (cubic feet at NTP)Solid pounds (cubic feet)Liquid gallons (pounds)Gas (cubic feet at NTP)Solid pounds (cubic feet)Liquid gallons (pounds)
    Combustible  dustNAH-2See Note qNANASee Note qNANASee Note qNA
    Combustible  fibersqLooseH-3(100)NANA(100)NANA(20)NA
    Baledo(1,000)(1,000)(200)
    Combustible  liquidc, iIIH-2 or H-3120d, e120d30d
    IIIAH-2 or H-3NA330d, eNANA330dNANA80d
    IIIBNA13,200e, f13,200f3,300f
    Consumer  fireworks1.4GH-3125e, lNANANANANANANA
    Cryogenic  FlammableNAH-2NA45dNANA45dNANA10d
    Cryogenic  InertNANANANANLNANANLNANA
    Cryogenic  OxidizingNAH-3NA45dNANA45dNANA10d
    ExplosivesDivision 1.1H-11e, g(1)e, g0.25g(0.25)g0.25g(0.25)g
    Division 1.2H-11e, g(1)e, g0.25g(0.25)g0.25g(0.25)g
    Division 1.3H-1 or H-25e, g(5)e, g1g(1)g1g(1)g
    Division 1.4H-350e, g(50)e, gNA50g(50)gNANANA
    Division 1.4GH-3125d, e, 1NANANANANA
    Division 1.5H-11e, g(1)e, g0.25g(0.25)g0.25g(0.25)g
    Division 1.6H-11e, gNANANANANA
    Flammable  gasGaseousH-2NANA1,000d, eNANA1,000d, eNANA
    Liquefied(150)d, eNA(150)d, eNA
    Flammable  liquidcIAH-230d, e30d10d
    orNANANANANA
    IB and ICH-3120d, e120d30d
    Flammable  liquid,  combination  (IA, IB, IC)H-2
    NAorNA120d, e, hNANA120d, hNANA30d, h
    H-3
    Flammable  solidNAH-3125d, eNANA125dNANA25dNA
    Inert GasGaseousNANANANLNANANLNANA
    LiquefiedNANANANLNANANLNANA

    Organic peroxideUDH-11e, g(1)e, gNA0.25g(0.25)gNA0.25g(0.25)g
    IH-25d, e(5)d, e1d(1)d1d(1)d
    IIH-350d, e(50)d, e50d(50)d10d(10)d
    IIIH-3125d, e(125)d, e125d(125)d25d(25)d
    IVNANLNLNLNLNLNL
    VNANLNLNLNLNLNL
    Oxidizer4H-11g(1)e, gNA0.25g(0.25)gNA0.25g(0.25)g
    3kH-2 or H-310d,e(10)d, e2d(2)d2d(2)d
    2H-3250d, e(250)d, e250d(250)d50d(50)d
    1NA4,000e, f(4,000)e, f4,000f(4,000)f1,000f(1,000)f
    Oxidizing gasGaseousH-3NANA1,500d, eNANA1,500d, eNANA
    Liquefied(150)d, eNA(150)d, eNA
    PyrophoricNAH-24e, g(4)e, g50e, g1g(1)g10e, g00
    Unstable (reactive)4H-11e, g(1)e, g10e, g0.25g(0.25)g2e, g0.25g(0.25)g
    3H-1 or H-25d, e(5)d, e50d, e1d(1)d10d, e1d(1)d
    2H-350d, e(50)d, e750d, e50d(50)d750d, e10d(10)d
    1NANLNLNLNLNLNLNLNL
    Water reactive3H-25d, e(5)d, e5d(5)d1d(1)d
    2H-350d, e(50)d, eNA50d(50)dNA10d(10)d
    1NANLNLNLNLNLNL

    For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

    NA = Not Applicable, NL = Not Limited, UD = Unclassified Detonable.

    1. a.For use of control areas, see Section 5003.8.3.

    2. b.The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.

    3. c.The quantities of alcoholic beverages in retail and wholesale sales occupancies shall not be limited providing the liquids are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons. In retail and wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuff or consumer products and cosmetics containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable shall not be limited, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons.

    4. d.Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where Note e also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.

    5. e.Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent where stored in approved storage cabinets, day boxes, gas cabinets, gas rooms, exhausted enclosures or in listed safety cans in accordance with Section 5003.9.10. Where Note d also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.

    6. f.Quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    7. g.Allowed only in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.

    8. h.Containing not more than the maximum allowable quantity per control area of Class IA, Class IB or Class IC flammable liquids.

    9. i.The maximum allowable quantity shall not apply to fuel oil storage complying with Section 603.3.2.

    10. j.Quantities in parenthesis indicate quantity units in parenthesis at the head of each column.

    11. k.A maximum quantity of 200 pounds of solid or 20 gallons of liquid Class 3 oxidizers is allowed where such materials are necessary for maintenance purposes, operation or sanitation of equipment where the storage containers and the manner of storage are approved.

    12. l.Net weight of pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks. Where the net weight of the pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks is not known, 25 percent of the gross weight of the fireworks including packaging shall be used.

    13. m.For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 5003.1.2.

    14. n.For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 5003.11, see Table 5003.11.1.

    15. o.Densely-packed baled cotton that complies with the packing requirements of ISO 8115 shall not be included in this material class.

    16. p.The following shall not be included in determining the maximum allowable quantities:

      1. 1. Liquid or gaseous fuel in fuel tanks on vehicles.

      2. 2. Liquid or gaseous fuel in fuel tanks on motorized equipment operated in accordance with this code.

      3. 3. Gaseous fuels in piping systems and fixed appliances regulated by the International Fuel Gas Code.

      4. 4. Liquid fuels in piping systems and fixed appliances regulated by the International Mechanical Code.

      5. 5. Alcohol-based hand rubs classified as Class I or II liquids in dispensers that are installed in accordance with Sections 5705.5 and 5705.5.1. The location of the alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) dispensers shall be provided in the construction documents.

    17. q.Where manufactured, generated or used in such a manner that the concentration and conditions create a fire or explosion hazard based on information prepared in accordance with Section 104.7.2.

    TABLE 5003.1.1(2)

    MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POSING A HEALTH HAZARDa, c, f, h, i

    MATERIALSTORAGEbUSE-CLOSED SYSTEMSbUSE-OPEN SYSTEMSb
    Solid poundsd, eLiquid gallons (pounds)d, eGas cubic feet at NTP (pounds)dSolid poundsdLiquid gallons (pounds)dGas cubic feet at NTP (pounds)dSolid poundsdLiquid gallons (pounds)d
    Corrosives5,000500Gaseous 810eLiquefied (150)5,000500Gaseous 810eLiquefied (150)1,000100
    Highly Toxics10(10)Gaseous 20gLiquefied (4)g10(10)Gaseous 20gLiquified (4)g3(3)
    Toxics500(500)Gaseous 810eLiquefied (150)e500(500)Gaseous 810eLiquefied (150)e125(125)

    For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

    1. a.For use of control areas, see Section 5003.8.3.

    2. b.The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.

    3. c.In retail and wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuff or consumer products and cosmetics, containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids and with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable, shall not be limited, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons.

    4. d.Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where Note e also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.

    5. e.Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent where stored in approved storage cabinets, gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures. Where Note d also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.

    6. f.For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 5003.11, see Table 5003.11.1.

    7. g.Allowed only where stored in approved exhausted gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures.

    8. h.Quantities in parentheses indicate quantity units in parentheses at the head of each column.

    9. i.For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 5003.1.2.

    TABLE 5003.1.1(3)

    MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARD IN AN OUTDOOR CONTROL AREAa,b, c, d

    MATERIALCLASSSTORAGEbUSE-CLOSED SYSTEMSbUSE-OPEN SYSTEMSb
    Solid pounds (cubic feet)Liquid gallons (pounds)dGas cubic feet at NTPSolid pounds (cubic feet)Liquid gallons (pounds)dGas cubic feet at NTPSolid pounds (cubic feet)Liquid gallons (pounds)d
    Flammable gasGaseous LiquefiedNot ApplicableNot Applicable (300)3,000 Not ApplicableNot ApplicableNot Applicable (150)1,500 Not ApplicableNot ApplicableNot Applicable
    Flammable solidNot Applicable500Not ApplicableNot Applicable250Not ApplicableNot Applicable50Not Applicable
    Inert GasGaseousNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot LimitedNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot LimitedNot ApplicableNot Applicable
    LiquefiedNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot LimitedNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot LimitedNot ApplicableNot Applicable
    Cryogenic inertNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot LimitedNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot LimitedNot ApplicableNot Applicable
    Organic peroxideUnclassified Detonable1(1)Not Applicable0.25(0.25)Not Applicable0.25(0.25)
    Organic peroxideI20(20)Not Applicable10(10)Not Applicable2(2)
    II200(200)100(100)20(20)
    III500(500)250(250)50(50)
    IV1,000(1,000)500(500)100(100)
    VNot LimitedNot LimitedNot LimitedNot LimitedNot LimitedNot Limited
    Oxidizer42(2)1(1)0.25(0.25)
    340(40)Not20(20)Not4(4)
    21,000(1,000)Applicable500(500)Applicable100(100)
    1Not LimitedNot LimitedNot LimitedNot LimitedNot LimitedNot Limited
    Oxidizing gasGaseous LiquefiedNot ApplicableNot Applicable (600)6,000 Not ApplicableNot ApplicableNot Applicable (300)1,500 Not ApplicableNot ApplicableNot Applicable
    Pyrophoric materialsNot Applicable8(8)1004(4)1000
    Unstable (reactive)42(2)201(1)20.25(0.25)
    320(20)20010(10)101(1)
    2200(200)1,000100(100)25010(10)
    1Not LimitedNot Limited1,500Not LimitedNot LimitedNot LimitedNot LimitedNot Limited
    Water reactive320(20)Not Applicable10(10)Not Applicable1(1)
    2200(200)100(100)10(10)
    1Not LimitedNot LimitedNot LimitedNot LimitedNot LimitedNot Limited

    For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3.

    1. a.For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 5003.1.2.

    2. b.The aggregate quantities in storage and use shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.

    3. c.The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials allowed in outdoor storage per single property under the same ownership or control used for retail or wholesale sales is allowed to exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area where such storage is in accordance with Section 5003.11.

    4. d.Quantities in parentheses indicate quantity units in parentheses at the head of each column.

    TABLE 5003.1.1(4)

    MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A HEALTH HAZARD IN AN OUTDOOR CONTROL AREAa, b, c, f

    MATERIALSTORAGEUSE-CLOSED SYSTEMSUSE-OPEN SYSTEMS
    Solid poundsLiquid gallons (pounds)Gas cubic feet at NTP (pounds)Solid poundsLiquid gallons (pounds)Gas cubic feet at NTP (pounds)Solid poundsLiquid gallons (pounds)
    Corrosives20,0002,000Gaseous 1,620Liquefied (300)10,0001,000Gaseous 810Liquefied (150)1,000100
    Highly toxics20(20)Gaseous 40dLiquefied (8)d10(10)Gaseous 20dLiquefied (4)d3(3)
    Toxics1,000(l,000)eGaseous 1,620Liquefied (300)50050eGaseous 810Liquefied (150)125(125)e

    For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 pound per square inch absolute = 6.895 kPa,°C = [(°F)-32/1.8].

    1. a.For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 5003.1.2.

    2. b.The aggregate quantities in storage and use shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.

    3. c.The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials allowed in outdoor storage per single property under the same ownership or control used for retail or wholesale sales is allowed to exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area where such storage is in accordance with Section 5003.11.

    4. d.Allowed only where used in approved exhausted gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures or under fume hoods.

    5. e.The maximum allowable quantity per control area for toxic liquids with vapor pressures in excess of 1 psia at 77°F shall be the maximum allowable quantity per control area listed for highly toxic liquids.

    6. f.Quantities in parentheses indicate quantity units in parentheses at the head of each column.

    5003.1.2Conversion.

    Where quantities are indicated in pounds and where the weight per gallon of the liquid is not provided to the fire code official, a conversion factor of 10 pounds per gallon (1.2 kg/L) shall be used.

    5003.1.3Quantities not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area.

    The storage, use and handling of hazardous materials in quantities not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 5003.1.1(1) through 5003.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 5001 and 5003.

    5003.1.4Quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area.

    The storage and use of hazardous materials in quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 5003.1.1(1) through 5003.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with this chapter.

    5003.2Systems, equipment and processes.

    Systems, equipment and processes utilized for storage, dispensing, use or handling of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.2.1 through 5003.2.8.

    5003.2.1Design and construction of containers, cylinders and tanks.

    Containers, cylinders and tanks shall be designed and constructed in accordance with approved standards. Containers, cylinders, tanks and other means used for containment of hazardous materials shall be of an approved type. Pressure vessels not meeting DOTn requirements for transportation shall comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    5003.2.2Piping, tubing, valves and fittings.

    Piping, tubing, valves, and fittings conveying hazardous materials shall be designed and installed in accordance with ASME B31 or other approved standards, and shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.2.2.1 and 5003.2.2.2.

    5003.2.2.1Design and construction.

    Piping, tubing, valves, fittings and related components used for hazardous materials shall be in accordance with the following:

    1. 1.Piping, tubing, valves, fittings and related components shall be designed and fabricated from materials that are compatible with the material to be contained and shall be of adequate strength and durability to withstand the pressure, structural and seismic stress and exposure to which they are subject.

    2. 2.Piping and tubing shall be identified in accordance with ASME A13.1 to indicate the material conveyed.

    3. 3.Readily accessible manual valves or automatic remotely activated fail-safe emergency shutoff valves shall be installed on supply piping and tubing at the following locations:

      1. 3.1. The point of use.

      2. 3.2. The tank, cylinder or bulk source.

    4. 4.Manual emergency shutoff valves and controls for remotely activated emergency shutoff valves shall be identified and the location shall be clearly visible, accessible and indicated by means of a sign.

    5. 5.Backflow prevention or check valves shall be provided where the backflow of hazardous materials could create a hazardous condition or cause the unauthorized discharge of hazardous materials.

    6. 6.Where gases or liquids having a hazard ranking of:

      • Health Class 3 or 4

      • Flammability Class 4

      • Instability Class 3 or 4

       in accordance with NFPA 704 are carried in pressurized piping above 15 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (103 kPa), an approved means of leak detection and emergency shutoff or excess flow control shall be provided. Where the piping originates from within a hazardous material storage room or area, the excess flow control shall be located within the storage room or area. Where the piping originates from a bulk source, the excess flow control shall be located as close to the bulk source as practical.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Piping for inlet connections designed to prevent backflow.

    2. 2.Piping for pressure relief devices.

    5003.2.2.2Additional regulations for supply piping for health-hazard materials.

    Supply piping and tubing for gases and liquids having a health-hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 shall be in accordance with ASME B31.3 and the following:

    1. 1.Piping and tubing utilized for the transmission of highly toxic, toxic or highly volatile corrosive liquids and gases shall have welded, threaded or flanged connections throughout except for connections located within a ventilated enclosure if the material is a gas, or an approved method of drainage or containment is provided for connections if the material is a liquid.

    2. 2.Piping and tubing shall not be located within corridors, within any portion of a means of egress required to be enclosed in fire-resistance-rated construction or in concealed spaces in areas not classified as Group H occupancies.

    Exception: Piping and tubing within the space defined by the walls of corridors and the floor or roof above or in concealed spaces above other occupancies where installed in accordance with Section 415.11.6.4 of the International Building Code for Group H-5 occupancies.

    5003.2.3Equipment, machinery and alarms.

    Equipment, machinery and required detection and alarm systems associated with the use, storage or handling of hazardous materials shall be listed or approved.

    5003.2.4Installation of tanks.

    Installation of tanks shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.2.4.1 through 5003.2.4.2.1.

    5003.2.4.1Underground tanks.

    Underground tanks used for the storage of liquid hazardous materials shall be provided with secondary containment. In lieu of providing secondary containment for an underground tank, an above-ground tank in an underground vault complying with Section 5704.2.8 shall be permitted.

    5003.2.4.2Above-ground tanks.

    Above-ground stationary tanks used for the storage of hazardous materials shall be located and protected in accordance with the requirements for outdoor storage of the particular material involved.

    Exception: Above-ground tanks that are installed in vaults complying with Section 5303.16 or 5704.2.8 shall not be required to comply with location and protection requirements for outdoor storage.

    5003.2.4.2.1Marking.

    Above-ground stationary tanks shall be marked as required by Section 5003.5.

    5003.2.5Empty containers and tanks.

    Empty containers and tanks previously used for the storage of hazardous materials shall be free from residual material and vapor as defined by DOTn, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or other regulating authority or maintained as specified for the storage of hazardous material.

    5003.2.6Maintenance.

    In addition to the requirements of Section 5003.2.3, equipment, machinery and required detection and alarm systems associated with hazardous materials shall be maintained in an operable condition. Defective containers, cylinders and tanks shall be removed from service, repaired or disposed of in an approved manner. Defective equipment or machinery shall be removed from service and repaired or replaced. Required detection and alarm systems shall be replaced or repaired where defective.

    5003.2.6.1Tanks out of service for 90 days.

    Stationary tanks not used for a period of 90 days shall be properly safeguarded or removed in an approved manner. Such tanks shall have the fill line, gauge opening and pump connection secured against tampering. Vent lines shall be properly maintained.

    5003.2.6.1.1Return to service.

    Tanks that are to be placed back in service shall be tested in an approved manner.

    5003.2.6.2Defective containers and tanks.

    Defective containers and tanks shall be removed from service, repaired in accordance with approved standards or disposed of in an approved manner.

    5003.2.7Liquid-level limit control.

    Atmospheric tanks having a capacity greater than 500 gallons (1893 L) and that contain hazardous material liquids shall be equipped with a liquid-level limit control or other approved means to prevent overfilling of the tank.

    5003.2.8Seismic protection.

    Machinery and equipment utilizing hazardous materials shall be braced and anchored in accordance with the seismic design requirements of the International Building Code for the seismic design category in which the machinery or equipment is classified.

    5003.2.9Testing.

    The equipment, devices and systems listed in Section 5003.2.9.1 shall be tested at the time of installation and at one of the intervals listed in Section 5003.2.9.2. Records of the tests conducted or maintenance performed shall be maintained in accordance with the provisions of Section 107.2.1.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Periodic testing shall not be required where approved written documentation is provided stating that testing will damage the equipment, device or system and the equipment, device or system is maintained as specified by the manufacturer.

    2. 2.Periodic testing shall not be required for equipment, devices and systems that fail in a fail-safe manner.

    3. 3.Periodic testing shall not be required for equipment, devices and systems that self-diagnose and report trouble. Records of the self-diagnosis and trouble reporting shall be made available to the fire code official.

    4. 4.Periodic testing shall not be required if system activation occurs during the required test cycle for the components activated during the test cycle.

    5. 5.Approved maintenance in accordance with Section 5003.2.6 that is performed not less than annually or in accordance with an approved schedule shall be allowed to meet the testing requirements set forth in Sections 5003.2.9.1 and 5003.2.9.2.

    5003.2.9.1Equipment, devices and systems requiring testing.

    The following equipment, systems and devices shall be tested in accordance with Sections 5003.2.9 and 5003.2.9.2.

    1. 1.Gas detection systems, alarms and automatic emergency shutoff valves required by Section 6004.2.2.10 for highly toxic and toxic gases.

    2. 2.Limit control systems for liquid level, temperature and pressure required by Sections 5003.2.7, 5004.8 and 5005.1.4.

    3. 3.Emergency alarm systems and supervision required by Sections 5004.9 and 5005.4.4.

    4. 4.Monitoring and supervisory systems required by Sections 5004.10 and 5005.1.6.

    5. 5.Manually activated shutdown controls required by Section 6403.1.1.1 for compressed gas systems conveying pyrophoric gases.

    5003.2.9.2Testing frequency.

    The equipment, systems and devices listed in Section 5003.2.9.1 shall be tested at one of the frequencies listed below:

    1. 1.Not less than annually.

    2. 2.In accordance with the approved manufacturer’s requirements.

    3. 3.In accordance with approved recognized industry standards.

    4. 4.In accordance with an approved schedule.

    5003.3Release of hazardous materials.

    Hazardous materials in any quantity shall not be released into a sewer, storm drain, ditch, drainage canal, creek, stream, river, lake or tidal waterway or on the ground, sidewalk, street, highway or into the atmosphere.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.The release or emission of hazardous materials is allowed where in compliance with federal, state or local governmental agencies, regulations or permits.

    2. 2.The release of pesticides is allowed where used in accordance with registered label directions.

    3. 3.The release of fertilizer and soil amendments is allowed where used in accordance with manufacturer’s specifications.

    5003.3.1Unauthorized discharges.

    Where hazardous materials are released in quantities reportable under state, federal or local regulations, the fire code official shall be notified and the following procedures required in accordance with Sections 5003.3.1.1 through 5003.3.1.4.

    5003.3.1.1Records.

    Records of the unauthorized discharge of hazardous materials by the permittee shall be maintained.

    5003.3.1.2Preparation.

    Provisions shall be made for controlling and mitigating unauthorized discharges.

    5003.3.1.3Control.

    Where an unauthorized discharge caused by primary container failure is discovered, the involved primary container shall be repaired or removed from service.

    5003.3.1.4Responsibility for cleanup.

    The person, firm or corporation responsible for an unauthorized discharge shall institute and complete all actions necessary to remedy the effects of such unauthorized discharge, whether sudden or gradual, without cost to the jurisdiction. Where deemed necessary by the fire code official, cleanup can be initiated by the fire department or by an authorized individual or firm. Costs associated with such cleanup shall be borne by the owner, operator or other person responsible for the unauthorized discharge.

    5003.4Material Safety Data Sheets.

    Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) shall be readily available on the premises for hazardous materials regulated by this chapter. Where a hazardous substance is developed in a laboratory, available information shall be documented.

    Exception: Designated hazardous waste.

    5003.5Hazard identification signs.

    Unless otherwise exempted by the fire code official, visible hazard identification signs as specified in NFPA 704 for the specific material contained shall be placed on stationary containers and aboveground tanks and at entrances to locations where hazardous materials are stored, dispensed, used or handled in quantities requiring a permit and at specific entrances and locations designated by the fire code official.

    5003.5.1Markings.

    Individual containers, cartons or packages shall be conspicuously marked or labeled in an approved manner. Rooms or cabinets containing compressed gases shall be conspicuously labeled: COMPRESSED GAS.

    5003.6Signs.

    Signs and markings required by Sections 5003.5 and 5003.5.1 shall not be obscured or removed, shall be in English as a primary language or in symbols allowed by this code, shall be durable, and the size, color and lettering shall be approved.

    5003.7Sources of ignition.

    Sources of ignition shall comply with Sections 5003.7.1 through 5003.7.3.

    5003.7.1Smoking.

    Smoking shall be prohibited and “No Smoking” signs provided as follows:

    1. 1.In rooms or areas where hazardous materials are stored or dispensed or used in open systems in amounts requiring a permit in accordance with Section 5001.5.

    2. 2.Within 25 feet (7620 mm) of outdoor storage, dispensing or open use areas.

    3. 3.Facilities or areas within facilities that have been designated as totally “no smoking” shall have “No Smoking” signs placed at all entrances to the facility or area. Designated areas within such facilities where smoking is permitted either permanently or temporarily, shall be identified with signs designating that smoking is permitted in these areas only.

    4. 4.In rooms or areas where flammable or combustible hazardous materials are stored, dispensed or used.

    Signs required by this section shall be in English as a primary language or in symbols allowed by this code and shall comply with Section 310.

    5003.7.2Open flames.

    Open flames and high-temperature devices shall not be used in a manner that creates a hazardous condition and shall be listed for use with the hazardous materials stored or used.

    5003.7.3Industrial trucks.

    Powered industrial trucks used in areas designated as hazardous (classified) locations in accordance with NFPA 70 shall be listed and labeled for use in the environment intended in accordance with NFPA 505.

    5003.8Construction requirements.

    Buildings, control areas, enclosures and cabinets for hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.8.1 through 5003.8.6.3.

    5003.8.1Buildings.

    Buildings, or portions thereof, in which hazardous materials are stored, handled or used shall be constructed in accordance with the International Building Code.

    5003.8.2Required detached buildings.

    Group H occupancies containing quantities of hazardous materials in excess of those set forth in Table 5003.8.2 shall be in detached buildings.

    TABLE 5003.8.2

    DETACHED BUILDING REQUIRED

    A DETACHED BUILDING IS REQUIRED WHERE THE QUANTITY OF MATERIAL EXCEEDS THAT LISTED HEREIN
    MaterialClassSolids and liquids (tons)a, bGases (cubic feet)a, b
    ExplosivesDivision 1.1Maximum Allowable QuantityNot Applicable
    Division 1.2Maximum Allowable Quantity
    Division 1.3Maximum Allowable Quantity
    Division 1.4Maximum Allowable Quantity
    Division 1.4c1
    Division 1.5Maximum Allowable Quantity
    Division 1.6Maximum Allowable Quantity
    OxidizersClass 4Maximum Allowable QuantityMaximum Allowable Quantity
    Unstable (reactives) detonableClass 3 or 4Maximum Allowable QuantityMaximum Allowable Quantity
    Oxidizer, liquids and solidsClass 31,200Not Applicable
    Class 22,000
    Organic peroxidesDetonableMaximum Allowable QuantityNot Applicable
    Class IMaximum Allowable Quantity
    Class II25
    Class III50
    Unstable (reactives) nondetonableClass 312,000
    Class 22510,000
    Water reactivesClass 31Not Applicable
    Class 225
    Pyrophoric gasesNot ApplicableNot Applicable2,000

    For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 ton = 2000 1bs. = 907.2 kg.

    1. a.For materials that are detonable, the distance to other buildings or lot lines shall be as specified in the International Building Code. For materials classified as explosives, the required separation distances shall be as specified in Chapter 56.

    2. b.“Maximum Allowable Quantity” means the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Table 5003.1.1(1).

    3. c.Limited to Division 1.4 materials and articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives regulations, or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles, providing the net explosive weight of individual articles does not exceed 1 pound.

    5003.8.3Control areas.

    Control areas shall comply with Sections 5003.8.3.1 through 5003.8.3.5.

    5003.8.3.1Construction requirements.

    Control areas shall be separated from each other by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the International Building Code, or both.

    5003.8.3.2Percentage of maximum allowable quantities.

    The percentage of maximum allowable quantities of hazardous materials per control area allowed at each floor level within a building shall be in accordance with Table 5003.8.3.2.

    TABLE 5003.8.3.2

    DESIGN AND NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS

    FLOOR LEVELPERCENTAGE OF THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREAaNUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS PER FLOORFIRE-RESISTANCE RATING FOR FIRE BARRIERS IN HOURSb
    Above grade planeHigher than 9512
    7-9522
    612.522
    512.522
    412.522
    35021
    27531
    110041
    Below grade plane17531
    25021
    Lower than 2Not AllowedNot AllowedNot Allowed
    1. a.Percentages shall be of the maximum allowable quantity per control area shown in Tables 5003.1.1(1) and 5003.1.1(2), with all increases allowed in the footnotes to those tables.

    2. b.Separation shall include fire barriers and horizontal assemblies as necessary to provide separation from other portions of the building.

    5003.8.3.3Number.

    The maximum number of control areas per floor within a building shall be in accordance with Table 5003.8.3.2.

    5003.8.3.4Fire-resistance-rating requirements.

    The required fire-resistance rating for fire barriers shall be in accordance with Table 5003.8.3.2. The floor assembly of the control area and the construction supporting the floor of the control area shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.

    Exception: The floor assembly of the control area and the construction supporting the floor of the control area is allowed to be 1-hour fire-resistance rated in buildings of Type IIA, IIIA and VA construction, provided that both of the following conditions exist:

    1. 1.The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    2. 2.The building is three stories or less above grade plane.

    5003.8.3.5Hazardous material in Group M display and storage areas and in Group S storage areas.

    The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials allowed within a single control area of a Group M display and storage area or a Group S storage area is allowed to exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area specified in Tables 5003.1.1(1) and 5003.1.1(2) without classifying the building or use as a Group H occupancy, provided that the materials are displayed and stored in accordance with Section 5003.11.

    5003.8.4Gas rooms.

    Where a gas room is used to increase the maximum allowable quantity per control area or provided to comply with the provisions of Chapter 60, the gas room shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.8.4.1 and 5003.8.4.2.

    5003.8.4.1Construction.

    Gas rooms shall be protected with an automatic sprinkler system. Gas rooms shall be separated from the remainder of the building in accordance with the requirements of the International Building Code based on the occupancy group into which it has been classified.

    5003.8.4.2Ventilation system.

    The ventilation system for gas rooms shall be designed to operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surrounding area. Highly toxic and toxic gases shall also comply with Section 6004.2.2.6. The ventilation system shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

    5003.8.5Exhausted enclosures.

    Where an exhausted enclosure is used to increase maximum allowable quantity per control area or where the location of hazardous materials in exhausted enclosures is provided to comply with the provisions of Chapter 60, the exhausted enclosure shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.8.5.1 through 5003.8.5.3.

    5003.8.5.1Construction.

    Exhausted enclosures shall be of noncombustible construction.

    5003.8.5.2Ventilation.

    Exhausted enclosures shall be provided with an exhaust ventilation system. The ventilation system for exhausted enclosures shall be designed to operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surrounding area. Ventilation systems used for highly toxic and toxic gases shall also comply with Items 1, 2 and 3 of Section 6004.1.2. The ventilation system shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

    5003.8.5.3Fire-extinguishing system.

    Exhausted enclosures where flammable materials are used shall be protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Chapter 9.

    5003.8.6Gas cabinets.

    Where a gas cabinet is used to increase the maximum allowable quantity per control area or where the location of compressed gases in gas cabinets is provided to comply with the provisions of Chapter 60, the gas cabinet shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.8.6.1 through 5003.8.6.3.

    5003.8.6.1Construction.

    Gas cabinets shall be constructed in accordance with the following:

    1. 1.Constructed of not less than 0.097-inch (2.5 mm) (No. 12 gage) steel.

    2. 2.Be provided with self-closing limited access ports or noncombustible windows to give access to equipment controls.

    3. 3.Be provided with self-closing doors.

    4. 4.Gas cabinet interiors shall be treated, coated or constructed of materials that are compatible with the hazardous materials stored. Such treatment, coating or construction shall include the entire interior of the cabinet.

    5003.8.6.2Ventilation.

    Gas cabinets shall be provided with an exhaust ventilation system. The ventilation system for gas cabinets shall be designed to operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surrounding area. Ventilation systems used for highly toxic and toxic gases shall also comply with Items 1, 2 and 3 of Section 6004.1.2. The ventilation system shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

    5003.8.6.3Maximum number of cylinders per gas cabinet.

    The number of cylinders contained in a single gas cabinet shall not exceed three.

    5003.8.7Hazardous materials storage cabinets.

    Where storage cabinets are used to increase maximum allowable quantity per control area or to comply with this chapter, such cabinets shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.8.7.1 and 5003.8.7.2.

    5003.8.7.1Construction.

    The interior of cabinets shall be treated, coated or constructed of materials that are nonreactive with the hazardous material stored. Such treatment, coating or construction shall include the entire interior of the cabinet. Cabinets shall either be listed in accordance with UL 1275 as suitable for the intended storage or constructed in accordance with the following:

    1. 1.Cabinets shall be of steel having a thickness of not less than 0.0478 inch (1.2 mm) (No. 18 gage). The cabinet, including the door, shall be double walled with a 11/2-inch (38 mm) airspace between the walls. Joints shall be riveted or welded and shall be tight fitting. Doors shall be well fitted, self-closing and equipped with a self-latching device.

    2. 2.The bottoms of cabinets utilized for the storage of liquids shall be liquid tight to a minimum height of 2 inches (51 mm).

    Electrical equipment and devices within cabinets used for the storage of hazardous gases or liquids shall be in accordance with NFPA 70.

    5003.8.7.2Warning markings.

    Cabinets shall be clearly identified in an approved manner with red letters on a contrasting background to read:

    HAZARDOUS—KEEP FIRE AWAY.

    5003.9General safety precautions.

    General precautions for the safe storage, handling or care of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.9.1 through 5003.9.10.

    5003.9.1Personnel training and written procedures.

    Persons responsible for the operation of areas in which hazardous materials are stored, dispensed, handled or used shall be familiar with the chemical nature of the materials and the appropriate mitigating actions necessary in the event of fire, leak or spill.

    5003.9.1.1Fire department liaison.

    Responsible persons shall be designated and trained to be liaison personnel to the fire department. These persons shall aid the fire department in preplanning emergency responses and identifying the locations where hazardous materials are located, and shall have access to Material Safety Data Sheets and be knowledgeable in the site’s emergency response procedures.

    5003.9.2Security.

    Storage, dispensing, use and handling areas shall be secured against unauthorized entry and safeguarded in a manner approved by the fire code official.

    5003.9.3Protection from vehicles.

    Guard posts or other approved means shall be provided to protect storage tanks and connected piping, valves and fittings; dispensing areas; and use areas subject to vehicular damage in accordance with Section 312.

    5003.9.4Electrical wiring and equipment.

    Electrical wiring and equipment shall be installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 70.

    5003.9.5Static accumulation.

    Where processes or conditions exist where a flammable mixture could be ignited by static electricity, means shall be provided to prevent the accumulation of a static charge.

    5003.9.6Protection from light.

    Materials that are sensitive to light shall be stored in containers designed to protect them from such exposure.

    5003.9.7Shock padding.

    Materials that are shock sensitive shall be padded, suspended or otherwise protected against accidental dislodgement and dislodgement during seismic activity.

    5003.9.8Separation of incompatible materials.

    Incompatible materials in storage and storage of materials that are incompatible with materials in use shall be separated where the stored materials are in containers having a capacity of more than 5 pounds (2 kg) or 0.5 gallon (2 L). Separation shall be accomplished by:

    1. 1.Segregating incompatible materials in storage by a distance of not less than 20 feet (6096 mm).

    2. 2.Isolating incompatible materials in storage by a noncombustible partition extending not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above and to the sides of the stored material.

    3. 3.Storing liquid and solid materials in hazardous material storage cabinets.

    4. 4.Storing compressed gases in gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures in accordance with Sections 5003.8.5 and 5003.8.6. Materials that are incompatible shall not be stored within the same cabinet or exhausted enclosure.

    5003.9.9Shelf storage.

    Shelving shall be of substantial construction, and shall be braced and anchored in accordance with the seismic design requirements of the International Building Code for the seismic zone in which the material is located. Shelving shall be treated, coated or constructed of materials that are compatible with the hazardous materials stored. Shelves shall be provided with a lip or guard where used for the storage of individual containers.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Storage in hazardous material storage cabinets or laboratory furniture specifically designed for such use.

    2. 2.Storage of hazardous materials in amounts not requiring a permit in accordance with Section 5001.5.

    Shelf storage of hazardous materials shall be maintained in an orderly manner.

    5003.9.10Safety cans.

    Safety cans shall be listed in accordance with UL 30 where used to increase the maximum allowable quantities per control area of flammable or combustible liquids in accordance with Table 5003.1.1(1). Safety cans listed in accordance with UL 1313 are allowed for flammable and combustible liquids where not used to increase the maximum allowable quantities per control area and for other hazardous material liquids in accordance with the listing.

    5003.10Handling and transportation.

    In addition to the requirements of Section 5003.2, the handling and transportation of hazardous materials in corridors or enclosures for stairways and ramps shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.10.1 through 5003.10.3.6.

    5003.10.1Valve protection.

    Hazardous material gas containers, cylinders and tanks in transit shall have their protective caps in place. Containers, cylinders and tanks of highly toxic or toxic compressed gases shall have their valve outlets capped or plugged with an approved closure device in accordance with Chapter 53.

    5003.10.2Carts and trucks required.

    Liquids in containers exceeding 5 gallons (19 L) in a corridor or enclosure for a stairway or ramp shall be transported on a cart or truck. Containers of hazardous materials having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 and transported within corridors or interior exit stairways and ramps, shall be on a cart or truck. Where carts and trucks are required for transporting hazardous materials, they shall be in accordance with Section 5003.10.3.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Two hazardous material liquid containers that are hand carried in acceptable safety carriers.

    2. 2.Not more than four drums not exceeding 55 gallons (208 L) each that are transported by suitable drum trucks.

    3. 3.Containers and cylinders of compressed gases that are transported by approved hand trucks, and containers and cylinders not exceeding 25 pounds (11 kg) that are hand carried.

    4. 4.Solid hazardous materials not exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg) that are transported by approved hand trucks, and a single container not exceeding 50 pounds (23 kg) that is hand carried.

    5003.10.3Carts and trucks.

    Carts and trucks required by Section 5003.10.2 to be used to transport hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.10.3.1 through 5003.10.3.6.

    5003.10.3.1Design.

    Carts and trucks used to transport hazardous materials shall be designed to provide a stable base for the commodities to be transported and shall have a means of restraining containers to prevent accidental dislodgement. Compressed gas cylinders placed on carts and trucks shall be individually restrained.

    5003.10.3.2Speed-control devices.

    Carts and trucks shall be provided with a device that will enable the operator to control safely movement by providing stops or speed-reduction devices.

    5003.10.3.3Construction.

    Construction materials for hazardous material carts or trucks shall be compatible with the material transported. The cart or truck shall be of substantial construction.

    5003.10.3.4Spill control.

    Carts and trucks transporting liquids shall be capable of containing a spill from the largest single container transported.

    5003.10.3.5Attendance.

    Carts and trucks used to transport materials shall not obstruct or be left unattended within any part of a means of egress.

    5003.10.3.6Incompatible materials.

    Incompatible materials shall not be transported on the same cart or truck.

    5003.11Group M storage and display and Group S storage.

    The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and non-flammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored and displayed within a single control area of a Group M occupancy, or an outdoor control area, or stored in a single control area of a Group S occupancy, is allowed to exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Section 5003.1 where in accordance with Sections 5003.11.1 through 5003.11.3.11.

    5003.11.1Maximum allowable quantity per control area in Group M or S occupancies.

    The aggregate amount of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or non-combustible liquid hazardous materials stored and displayed within a single control area of a Group M occupancy or stored in a single control area of a Group S occupancy shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 5003.11.1.

    TABLE 5003.11.1

    MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER INDOOR AND OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA IN GROUP M AND S OCCUPANCIES—NONFLAMMABLE SOLIDS, NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDSd,e,f

    CONDITIONMAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA
    MaterialaClassSolids poundsLiquids gallons
    A. HEALTH-HAZARD MATERIALS—NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS
    1. Corrosivesb, cNot Applicable9,750975
    2. Highly ToxicsNot Applicable20b, c2b, c
    3.Toxicsb, cNot Applicable1,000100
    B. PHYSICAL-HAZARD MATERIALS—NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS
    1. Oxidizersb, c4Not AllowedNot Allowed
    31,150g115
    22,250h225
    118,000i, j1,800i, j
    2. Unstable (Reactives)b, c4Not AllowedNot Allowed
    355055
    21,150115
    1Not LimitedNot Limited
    3. Water Reactives3b, c55055
    2b,c1,150115
    1Not LimitedNot Limited

    For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3.

    1. a.Hazard categories are as specified in Section 5001.2.2.

    2. b.Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where Note c also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.

    3. c.Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent where stored in approved storage cabinets in accordance with Section 5003.8. Where Note b also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.

    4. d.See Table 5003.8.3.2 for design and number of control areas.

    5. e.Maximum allowable quantities for other hazardous material categories shall be in accordance with Section 5003.1.

    6. f.Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in outdoor control areas.

    7. g.Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased to 2,250 pounds where individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.

    8. h.Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased to 4,500 pounds where individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.

    9. i.Quantities are unlimited where protected by an automatic sprinkler system.

    10. j.Quantities are unlimited in an outdoor control area.

    5003.11.2Maximum allowable quantity per outdoor control area in Group M or S occupancies.

    The aggregate amount of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored and displayed within a single outdoor control area of a Group M occupancy shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 5003.11.1.

    5003.11.3Storage and display.

    Storage and display shall be in accordance with Sections 5003.11.3.1 through 5003.11.3.11.

    5003.11.3.1Density.

    Storage and display of solids shall not exceed 200 pounds per square foot (976 kg/m2) of floor area actually occupied by solid merchandise. Storage and display of liquids shall not exceed 20 gallons per square foot (0.50 L/m2) of floor area actually occupied by liquid merchandise.

    5003.11.3.2Storage and display height.

    Display height shall not exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) above the finished floor in display areas of Group M occupancies. Storage height shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) above the finished floor in storage areas of Group M and Group S occupancies.

    5003.11.3.3Container location.

    Individual containers less than 5 gallons (19 L) or less than 25 pounds (11 kg) shall be stored or displayed on pallets, racks or shelves.

    5003.11.3.4Racks and shelves.

    Racks and shelves used for storage or display shall be in accordance with Section 5003.9.9.

    5003.11.3.5Container type.

    Containers shall be approved for the intended use and identified as to their content.

    5003.11.3.6Container size.

    Individual containers shall not exceed 100 pounds (45 kg) for solids or 10 gallons
    (38 L) for liquids in storage and display areas.

    5003.11.3.7Incompatible materials.

    Incompatible materials shall be separated in accordance with Section 5003.9.8.

    5003.11.3.8Floors.

    Floors shall be in accordance with Section 5004.12.

    5003.11.3.9Aisles.

    Aisles 4 feet (1219 mm) in width shall be maintained on three sides of the storage or display area.

    5003.11.3.10Signs.

    Hazard identification signs shall be provided in accordance with Section 5003.5.

    5003.11.3.11Storage plan.

    A storage plan illustrating the intended storage arrangement, including the location and dimensions of aisles, and storage racks shall be provided.

    5003.12Outdoor control areas.

    Outdoor control areas for hazardous materials in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per outdoor control area shall be in accordance with the following:

    1. 1.Outdoor control areas shall be kept free from weeds, debris and common combustible materials not necessary to the storage. The area surrounding an outdoor control area shall be kept clear of such materials for not less than 15 feet (4572 mm).

    2. 2.Outdoor control areas shall be located not closer than 20 feet (6096 mm) from a lot line that can be built upon, public street, public alley or public way.

      Exceptions:

      1. 1.For solid and liquid hazardous materials, a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated wall without openings extending not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above and to the sides of the storage area shall be allowed in lieu of such distance.

      2. 2.For compressed gas hazardous materials, unless otherwise specified, the minimum required distances shall not apply where fire barriers without openings or penetrations having a minimum fire-resistance rating of 2 hours interrupt the line of sight between the storage and the exposure. The configuration of the fire barrier shall be designed to allow natural ventilation to prevent the accumulation of hazardous gas concentrations.

    3. 3.Where a property exceeds 10,000 square feet (929 m2), a group of two outdoor control areas is allowed where approved and where each control area is separated by a minimum distance of 50 feet (15 240 mm).

    4. 4.Where a property exceeds 35,000 square feet (3252 m2), additional groups of outdoor control areas are allowed where approved and where each group is separated by a minimum distance of 300 feet (91 440 mm).

    SECTION5004
    STORAGE

    5004.1Scope.

    Storage of hazardous materials in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area as set forth in Section 5003.1 shall be in accordance with Sections 5001, 5003 and 5004. Storage of hazardous materials in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area as set forth in Section 5003.1 shall be in accordance with Sections 5001 and 5003. Retail and wholesale storage and display of nonflammable solid and nonflammable and noncombustible liquid hazardous materials in Group M occupancies and Group S storage shall be in accordance with Section 5003.11.

    5004.2Spill control and secondary containment for liquid and solid hazardous materials.

    Rooms, buildings or areas used for the storage of liquid or solid hazardous materials shall be provided with spill control and secondary containment in accordance with Sections 5004.2.1 through 5004.2.3.

    Exception: Outdoor storage of containers on approved containment pallets in accordance with Section 5004.2.3.

    5004.2.1Spill control for hazardous material liquids.

    Rooms, buildings or areas used for the storage of hazardous material liquids in individual vessels having a capacity of more than 55 gallons (208 L), or in which the aggregate capacity of multiple vessels exceeds 1,000 gallons (3785 L), shall be provided with spill control to prevent the flow of liquids to adjoining areas. Floors in indoor locations and similar surfaces in outdoor locations shall be constructed to contain a spill from the largest single vessel by one of the following methods:

    1. 1.Liquid-tight sloped or recessed floors in indoor locations or similar areas in outdoor locations.

    2. 2.Liquid-tight floors in indoor locations or similar areas in outdoor locations provided with liquid-tight raised or recessed sills or dikes.

    3. 3.Sumps and collection systems.

    4. 4.Other approved engineered systems.

    Except for surfacing, the floors, sills, dikes, sumps and collection systems shall be constructed of noncombustible material, and the liquid-tight seal shall be compatible with the material stored. Where liquid-tight sills or dikes are provided, they are not required at perimeter openings having an open-grate trench across the opening that connects to an approved collection system.

    5004.2.2Secondary containment for hazardous material liquids and solids.

    Where required by Table 5004.2.2 buildings, rooms or areas used for the storage of hazardous materials liquids or solids shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance with this section where the capacity of an individual vessel or the aggregate capacity of multiple vessels exceeds both of the following:

    1. 1.Liquids: Capacity of an individual vessel exceeds 55 gallons (208 L) or the aggregate capacity of multiple vessels exceeds 1,000 gallons (3785 L).

    2. 2.Solids: Capacity of an individual vessel exceeds 550 pounds (250 kg) or the aggregate capacity of multiple vessels exceeds 10,000 pounds (4540 kg).

    TABLE 5004.2.2

    REQUIRED SECONDARY CONTAINMENT—HAZARDOUS MATERIAL SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS STORAGE

    MATERIALINDOOR STORAGEOUTDOOR STORAGE
    SolidsLiquidsSolidsLiquids
    1. Physical-hazard materials
    Combustible liquidsClass IINot ApplicableSee Chapter 57Not ApplicableSee Chapter 57
    Class IIIASee Chapter 57See Chapter 57
    Class IIIBSee Chapter 57See Chapter 57
    Cryogenic fluidsSee Chapter 55See Chapter 55
    ExplosivesSee Chapter 56See Chapter 56
    Flammable liquidsClass IANot ApplicableSee Chapter 57Not ApplicableSee Chapter 57
    Class IBSee Chapter 57See Chapter 57
    Class ICSee Chapter 57See Chapter 57
    Flammable solidsNot RequiredNot ApplicableNot RequiredNot Applicable
    Organic peroxidesUnclassified DetonableRequiredRequiredNot RequiredNot Required
    Class I
    Class II
    Class III
    Class IV
    Class VNot RequiredNot RequiredNot RequiredNot Required
    OxidizersClass 4RequiredRequiredNot RequiredNot Required
    Class 3
    Class 2
    Class 1Not RequiredNot RequiredNot RequiredNot Required
    PyrophoricsNot RequiredRequiredNot RequiredRequired
    Unstable (reactives)Class 4RequiredRequiredRequiredRequired
    Class 3
    Class 2
    Class 1Not RequiredNot RequiredNot RequiredNot Required
    Water reactivesClass 3RequiredRequiredRequiredRequired
    Class 2
    Class 1Not RequiredNot RequiredNot RequiredNot Required
    2. Health-hazard materials
    CorrosivesNot RequiredRequiredNot RequiredRequired
    Highly toxicsRequiredRequiredRequiredRequired
    Toxics

    5004.2.2.1Containment and drainage methods.

    The building, room or area shall contain or drain the hazardous materials and fire protection water through the use of one of the following methods:

    1. 1.Liquid-tight sloped or recessed floors in indoor locations or similar areas in outdoor locations.

    2. 2.Liquid-tight floors in indoor locations or similar areas in outdoor locations provided with liquid-tight raised or recessed sills or dikes.

    3. 3.Sumps and collection systems.

    4. 4.Drainage systems leading to an approved location.

    5. 5.Other approved engineered systems.

    5004.2.2.2Incompatible materials.

    Incompatible materials used in open systems shall be separated from each other in the secondary containment system.

    5004.2.2.3Indoor design.

    Secondary containment for indoor storage areas shall be designed to contain a spill from the largest vessel plus the design flow volume of fire protection water calculated to discharge from the fire-extinguishing system over the minimum required system design area or area of the room or area in which the storage is located, whichever is smaller. The containment capacity shall be designed to contain the flow for a period of 20 minutes.

    5004.2.2.4Outdoor design.

    Secondary containment for outdoor storage areas shall be designed to contain a spill from the largest individual vessel. If the area is open to rainfall, secondary containment shall be designed to include the volume of a 24-hour rainfall as determined by a 25-year storm and provisions shall be made to drain accumulations of groundwater and rain-water.

    5004.2.2.5Monitoring.

    An approved monitoring method shall be provided to detect hazardous materials in the secondary containment system. The monitoring method is allowed to be visual inspection of the primary or secondary containment, or other approved means. Where secondary containment is subject to the intrusion of water, a monitoring method for detecting water shall be provided. Where monitoring devices are provided, they shall be connected to approved visual or audible alarms.

    5004.2.2.6Drainage system design.

    Drainage systems shall be in accordance with the International Plumbing Code and all of the following:

    1. 1.The slope of floors to drains in indoor locations, or similar areas in outdoor locations shall be not less than 1 percent.

    2. 2.Drains from indoor storage areas shall be sized to carry the volume of the fire protection water as determined by the design density discharged from the automatic fire-extinguishing system over the minimum required system design area or area of the room or area in which the storage is located, whichever is smaller.

    3. 3.Drains from outdoor storage areas shall be sized to carry the volume of the fire flow and the volume of a 24-hour rainfall as determined by a 25-year storm.

    4. 4.Materials of construction for drainage systems shall be compatible with the materials stored.

    5. 5.Incompatible materials used in open systems shall be separated from each other in the drainage system.

    6. 6.Drains shall terminate in an approved location away from buildings, valves, means of egress, fire access roadways, adjoining property and storm drains.

    5004.2.3Containment pallets.

    Where used as an alternative to spill control and secondary containment for outdoor storage in accordance with the exception in Section 5004.2, containment pallets shall comply with all of the following:

    1. 1.A liquid-tight sump accessible for visual inspection shall be provided.

    2. 2.The sump shall be designed to contain not less than 66 gallons (250 L).

    3. 3.Exposed surfaces shall be compatible with material stored.

    4. 4.Containment pallets shall be protected to prevent collection of rainwater within the sump.

    5004.3Ventilation.

    Indoor storage areas and storage buildings shall be provided with mechanical exhaust ventilation or natural ventilation where natural ventilation can be shown to be acceptable for the materials as stored.

    Exception: Storage areas for flammable solids complying with Chapter 59.

    5004.3.1System requirements.

    Exhaust ventilation systems shall comply with all of the following:

    1. 1.Installation shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

    2. 2.Mechanical ventilation shall be at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot [0.00508 m3/(s • m2)] of floor area over the storage area.

    3. 3.Systems shall operate continuously unless alternative designs are approved.

    4. 4.A manual shutoff control shall be provided outside of the room in a position adjacent to the access door to the room or in an approved location. The switch shall be a break-glass or other approved type and shall be labeled: VENTILATION SYSTEM EMERGENCY SHUTOFF.

    5. 5.Exhaust ventilation shall be designed to consider the density of the potential fumes or vapors released. For fumes or vapors that are heavier than air, exhaust shall be taken from a point within 12 inches (305 mm) of the floor. For fumes or vapors that are lighter than air, exhaust shall be taken from a point within 12 inches (305 mm) of the highest point of the room.

    6. 6.The location of both the exhaust and inlet air openings shall be designed to provide air movement across all portions of the floor or room to prevent the accumulation of vapors.

    7. 7.Exhaust air shall not be recirculated to occupied areas if the materials stored are capable of emitting hazardous vapors and contaminants have not been removed. Air contaminated with explosive or flammable vapors, fumes or dusts; flammable, highly toxic or toxic gases; or radioactive materials shall not be recirculated.

    5004.4Separation of incompatible hazardous materials.

    Incompatible materials shall be separated in accordance with Section 5003.9.8.

    5004.5Automatic sprinkler systems.

    Indoor storage areas and storage buildings shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. The design of the sprinkler system shall be not less than that required for Ordinary Hazard Group 2 with a minimum design area of 3,000 square feet (279 m2). Where the materials or storage arrangement are required by other regulations to be provided with a higher level of sprinkler system protection, the higher level of sprinkler system protection shall be provided.

    5004.6Explosion control.

    Indoor storage rooms, areas and buildings shall be provided with explosion control in accordance with Section 911.

    5004.7Standby or emergency power.

    Where mechanical ventilation, treatment systems, temperature control, alarm, detection or other electrically operated systems are required, such systems shall be provided with an emergency or standby power in accordance with Section 604.

    For storage areas for highly toxic or toxic materials, see Sections 6004.2.2.8 and 6004.3.4.2.

    5004.7.1Exempt applications.

    Standby or emergency power is not required for mechanical ventilation systems for any of the following:

    1. 1.Storage of Class IB and Class IC flammable and combustible liquids in closed containers not exceeding 61/2 gallons (25 L) capacity.

    2. 2.Storage of Class 1 and 2 oxidizers.

    3. 3.Storage of Class II, III, IV and V organic peroxides.

    4. 4.Storage of asphyxiant, irritant and radioactive gases.

    5004.7.2Fail-safe engineered systems.

    Standby power for mechanical ventilation, treatment systems and temperature control systems shall not be required where an approved fail-safe engineered system is installed.

    5004.8Limit controls.

    Limit controls shall be provided in accordance with Sections 5004.8.1 and 5004.8.2.

    5004.8.1Temperature control.

    Materials that must be kept at temperatures other than normal ambient temperatures to prevent a hazardous reaction shall be provided with an approved means to maintain the temperature within a safe range. Redundant temperature control equipment that will operate on failure of the primary temperature control system shall be provided. Where approved, alternative means that prevent a hazardous reaction are allowed.

    5004.8.2Pressure control.

    Stationary tanks and equipment containing hazardous material liquids that can generate pressures exceeding design limits because of exposure fires or internal reaction shall have some form of construction or other approved means that will relieve excessive internal pressure. The means of pressure relief shall vent to an approved location or to an exhaust scrubber or treatment system where required by Chapter 60.

    5004.9Emergency alarm.

    An approved manual emergency alarm system shall be provided in buildings, rooms or areas used for storage of hazardous materials. Emergency alarm-initiating devices shall be installed outside of each interior exit or exit access door of storage buildings, rooms or areas. Activation of an emergency alarm-initiating device shall sound a local alarm to alert occupants of an emergency situation involving hazardous materials.

    5004.10Supervision and monitoring.

    Emergency alarm, detection and automatic fire-extinguishing systems required by Section 5004 shall be electrically supervised and monitored by an approved supervising station or, where approved, shall initiate an audible and visual signal at a constantly attended on-site location.

    5004.11Clearance from combustibles.

    The area surrounding an outdoor storage area or tank shall be kept clear of combustible materials and vegetation for a minimum distance of 25 feet (7620 mm).

    5004.12Noncombustible floor.

    Except for surfacing, floors of storage areas shall be of noncombustible construction.

    5004.13Weather protection.

    Where overhead noncombustible construction is provided for sheltering outdoor hazardous material storage areas, such storage shall not be considered indoor storage where the area is constructed in accordance with the requirements for weather protection as required by the International Building Code.

    Exception: Storage of explosive materials shall be considered as indoor storage.

    SECTION5005
    USE, DISPENSING AND HANDLING

    5005.1General.

    Use, dispensing and handling of hazardous materials in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Section 5003.1 shall be in accordance with Sections 5001, 5003 and 5005. Use, dispensing and handling of hazardous materials in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Section 5003.1 shall be in accordance with Sections 5001 and 5003.

    5005.1.1Separation of incompatible materials.

    Separation of incompatible materials shall be in accordance with Section 5003.9.8.

    5005.1.2Noncombustible floor.

    Except for surfacing, floors of areas where liquid or solid hazardous materials are dispensed or used in open systems shall be of noncombustible, liquid-tight construction.

    5005.1.3Spill control and secondary containment for hazardous material liquids.

    Where required by other provisions of Section 5005, spill control and secondary containment shall be provided for hazardous material liquids in accordance with Section 5004.2.

    5005.1.4Limit controls.

    Limit controls shall be provided in accordance with Sections 5005.1.4.1 through 5005.1.4.4.

    5005.1.4.1High-liquid-level control.

    Open tanks in which liquid hazardous materials are used shall be equipped with a liquid-level limit control or other means to prevent overfilling of the tank.

    5005.1.4.2Low-liquid-level control.

    Approved safeguards shall be provided to prevent a low-liquid level in a tank from creating a hazardous condition, including but not limited to, overheating of a tank or its contents.

    5005.1.4.3Temperature control.

    Temperature control shall be provided in accordance with Section 5004.8.1.

    5005.1.4.4Pressure control.

    Pressure control shall be provided in accordance with Section 5004.8.2.

    5005.1.5Standby or emergency power.

    Where mechanical ventilation, treatment systems, temperature control, manual alarm, detection or other electrically operated systems are required by this code, such systems shall be provided with emergency or standby power in accordance with Section 604.

    5005.1.5.1Exempt applications.

    Standby power for mechanical ventilation, treatment systems and temperature control systems shall not be required where an approved fail-safe engineered system is installed.

    5005.1.6Supervision and monitoring.

    Manual alarm, detection and automatic fire-extinguishing systems required by other provisions of Section 5005 shall be electrically supervised and monitored by an approved supervisory service or, where approved, shall initiate an audible and visual signal at a constantly attended on-site location.

    5005.1.7Lighting.

    Adequate lighting by natural or artificial means shall be provided.

    5005.1.8Fire-extinguishing systems.

    Indoor rooms or areas in which hazardous materials are dispensed or used shall be protected by an automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Chapter 9. Sprinkler system design shall be not less than that required for Ordinary Hazard, Group 2, with a minimum design area of 3,000 square feet (279 m2). Where the materials or storage arrangement are required by other regulations to be provided with a higher level of sprinkler system protection, the higher level of sprinkler system protection shall be provided.

    5005.1.9Ventilation.

    Indoor dispensing and use areas shall be provided with exhaust ventilation in accordance with Section 5004.3.

    Exception: Ventilation is not required for dispensing and use of flammable solids other than finely divided particles.

    5005.1.10Liquid transfer.

    Liquids having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 shall be transferred by one of the following methods:

    1. 1.From safety cans complying with UL 30.

    2. 2.Through an approved closed piping system.

    3. 3.From containers or tanks by an approved pump taking suction through an opening in the top of the container or tank.

    4. 4.From containers or tanks by gravity through an approved self-closing or automatic-closing valve where the container or tank and dispensing operations are provided with spill control and secondary containment in accordance with Section 5004.2. Highly toxic liquids shall not be dispensed by gravity from tanks.

    5. 5.Approved engineered liquid transfer systems.

      Exceptions:

      1. 1.Liquids having a hazard ranking of 4 where dispensed from approved containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 L).

      2. 2.Liquids having a hazard ranking of 3 where dispensed from approved containers not exceeding 5.3 gallons (20 L).

    5005.1.11Design.

    Systems shall be suitable for the use intended and shall be designed by persons competent in such design. Controls shall be designed to prevent materials from entering or leaving the process or reaction system at other than the intended time, rate or path. Where failure of an automatic control could result in a dangerous condition or reaction, the automatic control shall be fail-safe.

    5005.2Indoor dispensing and use.

    Indoor dispensing and use of hazardous materials shall be in buildings complying with the International Building Code and in accordance with Section 5005.1 and Sections 5005.2.1 through 5005.2.2.4.

    5005.2.1Open systems.

    Dispensing and use of hazardous materials in open containers or systems shall be in accordance with Sections 5005.2.1.1 through 5005.2.1.4.

    5005.2.1.1Ventilation.

    Where gases, liquids or solids having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 are dispensed or used, mechanical exhaust ventilation shall be provided to capture gases, fumes, mists or vapors at the point of generation.

    Exception: Gases, liquids or solids that can be demonstrated not to create harmful gases, fumes, mists or vapors.

    5005.2.1.2Explosion control.

    Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with Section 5004.6 where an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous materials dispensed or used, or as a result of the dispensing or use process.

    5005.2.1.3Spill control for hazardous material liquids.

    Buildings, rooms or areas where hazardous material liquids are dispensed into vessels exceeding a 1.3-gallon (5 L) capacity or used in open systems exceeding a 5.3-gallon (20 L) capacity shall be provided with spill control in accordance with Section 5004.2.1.

    5005.2.1.4Secondary containment for hazardous material liquids.

    Where required by Table 5005.2.1.4, buildings, rooms or areas where hazardous material liquids are dispensed or used in open systems shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance with Section 5004.2.2 where the capacity of an individual vessel or system or the capacity of multiple vessels or systems exceeds the following:

    1. 1.Individual vessel or system: greater than 1.3 gallons (5 L).

    2. 2.Multiple vessels or systems: greater than 5.3 gallons (20 L).

    TABLE 5005.2.1.4

    REQUIRED SECONDARY CONTAINMENT—HAZARDOUS MATERIAL LIQUIDS USE

    MATERIALINDOOR LIQUIDS USEOUTDOOR LIQUIDS USE
    1. Physical-hazard materials
    Combustible liquidsClass IISee Chapter 57See Chapter 57
    Class IIIASee Chapter 57See Chapter 57
    Class IIIBSee Chapter 57See Chapter 57
    Cryogenic fluidsSee Chapter 55See Chapter 55
    ExplosivesSee Chapter 56See Chapter 56
    Flammable liquidsClass IASee Chapter 57See Chapter 57
    Class IBSee Chapter 57See Chapter 57
    Class ICSee Chapter 57See Chapter 57
    Flammable solidsNot ApplicableNot Applicable
    Organic peroxidesUnclassified DetonableRequiredRequired
    Class IRequiredRequired
    Class II
    Class III
    Class IV
    Class VNot RequiredNot Required
    OxidizersClass 4RequiredRequired
    Class 3
    Class 2
    Class 1
    PyrophoricsRequiredRequired
    Unstable (reactives)Class 4RequiredRequired
    Class 3
    Class 2
    Class 1Not RequiredRequired
    Water reactivesClass 3RequiredRequired
    Class 2
    Class 1Not RequiredRequired
    2. Health-hazard materials
    CorrosivesRequiredRequired
    Highly toxics
    Toxics

    5005.2.2Closed systems.

    Use of hazardous materials in closed containers or systems shall be in accordance with Sections 5005.2.2.1 through 5005.2.2.4.

    5005.2.2.1Ventilation.

    Where closed systems are designed to be opened as part of normal operations, ventilation shall be provided in accordance with Section 5005.2.1.1.

    5005.2.2.2Explosion control.

    Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with Section 5004.6 where an explosive environment exists because of the hazardous materials dispensed or used, or as a result of the dispensing or use process.

    Exception: Where process vessels are designed to contain fully the worst-case explosion anticipated within the vessel under process conditions based on the most likely failure.

    5005.2.2.3Spill control for hazardous material liquids.

    Buildings, rooms or areas where hazardous material liquids are used in individual vessels exceeding a 55-gallon (208 L) capacity shall be provided with spill control in accordance with Section 5004.2.1.

    5005.2.2.4Secondary containment for hazardous material liquids.

    Where required by Table 5005.2.1.4, buildings, rooms or areas where hazardous material liquids are used in vessels or systems shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance with Section 5004.2.2 where the capacity of an individual vessel or system or the capacity of multiple vessels or systems exceeds the following:

    1. 1.Individual vessel or system: greater than 55 gallons (208 L).

    2. 2.Multiple vessels or systems: greater than 1,000 gallons (3785 L).

    5005.3Outdoor dispensing and use.

    Dispensing and use of hazardous materials outdoors shall be in accordance with Sections 5005.3.1 through 5005.3.9.

    5005.3.1Quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area.

    Outdoor dispensing or use of hazardous materials, in either closed or open containers or systems, in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 5003.1.1(3) and 5003.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 5001, 5003, 5005.1 and 5005.3.

    5005.3.2Quantities not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area.

    Outdoor dispensing or use of hazardous materials, in either closed or open containers or systems, in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 5003.1.1(3) and 5003.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 5001 and 5003.

    5005.3.3Location.

    Outdoor dispensing and use areas for hazardous materials shall be located as required for outdoor storage in accordance with Section 5004.

    5005.3.4Spill control for hazardous material liquids in open systems.

    Outdoor areas where hazardous material liquids are dispensed in vessels exceeding a 1.3-gallon (5 L) capacity or used in open systems exceeding a 5.3-gallon (20 L) capacity shall be provided with spill control in accordance with Section 5004.2.1.

    5005.3.5Secondary containment for hazardous material liquids in open systems.

    Where required by Table 5005.2.1.4, outdoor areas where hazardous material liquids are dispensed or used in open systems shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance with Section 5004.2.2 where the capacity of an individual vessel or system or the capacity of multiple vessels or systems exceeds the following:

    1. 1.Individual vessel or system: greater than 1.3 gallons (5 L).

    2. 2.Multiple vessels or systems: greater than 5.3 gallons (20 L).

    5005.3.6Spill control for hazardous material liquids in closed systems.

    Outdoor areas where hazardous material liquids are used in closed systems exceeding 55 gallons (208 L) shall be provided with spill control in accordance with Section 5004.2.1.

    5005.3.7Secondary containment for hazardous material liquids in closed systems.

    Where required by Table 5005.2.1.4, outdoor areas where hazardous material liquids are dispensed or used in closed systems shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance with Section 5004.2.2 where the capacity of an individual vessel or system or the capacity of multiple vessels or systems exceeds the following:

    1. 1.Individual vessel or system: greater than 55 gallons (208 L).

    2. 2.Multiple vessels or systems: greater than 1,000 gallons (3785 L).

    5005.3.8Clearance from combustibles.

    The area surrounding an outdoor dispensing or use area shall be kept clear of combustible materials and vegetation for a minimum distance of 30 feet (9144 mm).

    5005.3.9Weather protection.

    Where overhead noncombustible construction is provided for sheltering outdoor hazardous material use areas, such use shall not be considered indoor use where the area is constructed in accordance with the requirements for weather protection as required in the International Building Code.

    Exception: Use of explosive materials shall be considered as indoor use.

    5005.4Handling.

    Handling of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with Sections 5005.4.1 through 5005.4.4.

    5005.4.1Quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area.

    Handling of hazardous materials in indoor and outdoor locations in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 5003.1.1(1) through 5003.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 5001, 5003, 5005.1 and 5005.4.

    5005.4.2Quantities not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area.

    Handling of hazardous materials in indoor locations in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 5003.1.1(1) and 5003.1.1(2) shall be in accordance with Sections 5001, 5003 and 5005.1. Handling of hazardous materials in outdoor locations in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Tables 5003.1.1(3) and 5003.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 5001 and 5003.

    5005.4.3Location.

    Outdoor handling areas for hazardous materials shall be located as required for outdoor storage in accordance with Section 5004.

    5005.4.4Dispensing, use and handling.

    Where hazardous materials having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 are transported through corridors, interior exit stairways or ramps or exit passageways, there shall be an emergency telephone system, a local manual alarm station or an approved alarm-initiating device at not more than 150-foot (45 720 mm) intervals and at each exit and exit access doorway throughout the transport route. The signal shall be relayed to an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or constantly attended on-site location and shall also initiate a local audible alarm.

    CHAPTER51
    AEROSOLS

    SECTION5101
    GENERAL

    5101.1Scope.

    The provisions of this chapter, the International Building Code and NFPA 30B shall apply to the manufacturing, storage and display of aerosol products. Manufacturing of aerosol products using hazardous materials shall also comply with Chapter 50.

    5101.2Permit required.

    Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.

    5101.3Material Safety Data Sheets.

    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) information for aerosol products displayed shall be kept on the premises at an approved location.

    5101.4Containers.

    Metal aerosol containers shall be limited to a maximum size of 33.8 fluid ounces (1000 ml). Plastic aerosol containers shall be limited to a maximum 4 fluid ounces (118 ml) except as provided in Section 5104.1.1. Glass aerosol containers shall be limited to a maximum 4 fluid ounces (118 ml).

    SECTION5102
    DEFINITIONS

    5102.1Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    AEROSOL.

     Level 1 aerosol products.

     Level 2 aerosol products.

     Level 3 aerosol products.

    AEROSOL CONTAINER.

    AEROSOL WAREHOUSE.

    PROPELLANT.

    RETAIL DISPLAY AREA.

    SECTION5103
    CLASSIFICATION OF AEROSOL PRODUCTS

    5103.1Classification levels.

    Aerosol products shall be classified as Level 1, 2 or 3 in accordance with Table 5103.1 and NFPA 30B. Aerosol products in cartons that are not identified in accordance with this section shall be classified as Level 3.

    TABLE 5103.1

    CLASSIFICATION OF AEROSOL PRODUCTS

    CHEMICAL HEAT OF COMBUSTIONAEROSOL CLASSIFICATION
    Greater than (Btu/lb)Less than or equal to (Btu/lb)
    08,6001
    8,60013,0002
    13,0003

    For SI: 1 British thermal unit per pound = 0.002326 kJ/g.

    5103.2Identification.

    Cartons shall be identified on not less than one side with the classification level of the aerosol products contained within the carton as follows:

    LEVEL ________ AEROSOLS

    SECTION5104
    INSIDE STORAGE OF AEROSOL PRODUCTS

    5104.1General.

    The inside storage of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products shall comply with Sections 5104.2 through 5104.7 and NFPA 30B. Level 1 aerosol products and those aerosol products covered by Section 5104.1.1 shall be considered equivalent to a Class III commodity and shall comply with the requirements for palletized or rack storage in NFPA 13.

    5104.1.1Plastic containers.

    Aerosol products in plastic containers larger than 4 fluid ounces (118 ml), but not to exceed 33.8 fluid ounces (1000 ml), shall be allowed only where in accordance with this section. The commodity classification shall be Class III commodities, as defined in NFPA 13 where any of the following conditions are met:

    1. 1.Base product has no fire point where tested in accordance with ASTM D 92, and nonflammable propellant.

    2. 2.Base product has no sustained combustion as tested in accordance with Appendix H, “Method of Testing for Sustained Combustibility,” in DOTn 49 CFR Part 173, and nonflammable propellant.

    3. 3.Base product contains up to 20 percent by volume (15.8 percent by weight) of ethanol and/or isopropyl alcohol in an aqueous mix, and nonflammable propellant.

    4. 4.Base product contains 4 percent by weight or less of an emulsified flammable liquefied gas propellant within an aqueous base. The propellant shall remain emulsified for the life of the product. Where such propellant is not permanently emulsified, the propellant shall be nonflammable.

    5104.2Storage in Groups A, B, E, F, I and R.

    Storage of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products in occupancies in Groups A, B, E, F, I and R shall be limited to the following maximum quantities:

    1. 1.A net weight of 1,000 pounds (454 kg) of Level 2 aerosol products.

    2. 2.A net weight of 500 pounds (227 kg) of Level 3 aerosol products.

    3. 3.A combined net weight of 1,000 pounds (454 kg) of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products.

    The maximum quantity shall be increased 100 percent where the excess quantity is stored in storage cabinets in accordance with Section 5704.3.2.

    5104.2.1Excess storage.

    Storage of quantities exceeding the maximum quantities indicated in Section 5104.2 shall be stored in separate inside flammable liquid storage rooms in accordance with Section 5104.5.

    5104.3Storage in general purpose warehouses.

    Aerosol storage in general purpose warehouses utilized only for warehousing-type operations involving mixed commodities shall comply with Section 5104.3.1 or 5104.3.2.

    5104.3.1Nonsegregated storage.

    Storage consisting of solid pile, palletized or rack storage of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products not segregated into areas utilized exclusively for the storage of aerosols shall comply with Table 5104.3.1.

    TABLE 5104.3.1

    NONSEGREGATED STORAGE OF LEVEL 2 AND 3 AEROSOL PRODUCTS IN GENERAL PURPOSE WAREHOUSESb

    AEROSOL LEVELMAXIMUM NET WEIGHT PER FLOOR (pounds)b
    Palletized or solid-pile storageRack storage
    UnprotectedProtectedaUnprotectedProtecteda
    22,50012,0002,50024,000
    31,00012,0001,00024,000
    Combination 2 and 32,50012,0002,50024,000

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.

    1. a.Approved automatic sprinkler system protection and storage arrangements shall comply with NFPA 30B. Sprinkler system protection shall extend 20 feet beyond the storage area containing the aerosol products.

    2. b.Storage quantities indicated are the maximum permitted in any 50,000-square-foot area.

    5104.3.2Segregated storage.

    Storage of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products segregated into areas utilized exclusively for the storage of aerosols shall comply with Table 5104.3.2 and Sections 5104.3.2.1 and 5104.3.2.2.

    TABLE 5104.3.2

    SEGREGATED STORAGE OF LEVEL 2 AND 3 AEROSOL PRODUCTS IN GENERAL PURPOSE WAREHOUSES

    STORAGE SEPARATIONMAXIMUM SEGREGATED STORAGE AREAaSPRINKLER REQUIREMENTS
    Percentage of building area (percent)Area limitation (square feet)
    Separation areae, f1520,000Notes b, c
    Chain-link fence enclosured2020,000Notes b, c
    1-hour fire-resistance-rated interior walls2030,000Note b
    2-hour fire-resistance-rated interior walls2540,000Note b
    3-hour fire-resistance-rated interior walls3050,000Note b

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.

    1. a.The maximum segregated storage area shall be limited to the smaller of the two areas resulting from the percentage of building area limitation and the area limitation.

    2. b.Automatic sprinkler system protection in aerosol product storage areas shall comply with NFPA 30B and be approved. Building areas not containing aerosol product storage shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    3. c.Automatic sprinkler system protection in aerosol product storage areas shall comply with NFPA 30B and be approved. Sprinkler system protection shall extend a minimum 20 feet beyond the aerosol storage area.

    4. d.Chain-link fence enclosures shall comply with Section 5104.3.2.1.

    5. e.A separation area shall be defined as an area extending outward from the periphery of the segregated aerosol product storage area as follows.

      1. 1. The limits of the aerosol product storage shall be clearly marked on the floor.

      2. 2. The separation distance shall be not less than 25 feet and maintained clear of all materials with a commodity classification greater than Class III in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    6. f.Separation areas shall only be permitted where approved.

    5104.3.2.1Chain-link fence enclosures.

    Chain-link fence enclosures required by Table 5104.3.2 shall comply with the following:

    1. 1.The fence shall not be less than No. 9 gage steel wire, woven into a maximum 2-inch (51 mm) diamond mesh.

    2. 2.The fence shall be installed from the floor to the underside of the roof or ceiling above.

    3. 3.Class IV and high-hazard commodities shall be stored outside of the aerosol storage area and not less than 8 feet (2438 mm) from the fence.

    4. 4.Access openings in the fence shall be provided with either self- or automatic-closing devices or a labyrinth opening arrangement preventing aerosol containers from rocketing through the access openings.

    5. 5.Not less than two means of egress shall be provided from the fenced enclosure.

    5104.3.2.2Aisles.

    The minimum aisle requirements for segregated storage in general purpose warehouses shall comply with Table 5104.3.2.2.

    TABLE 5104.3.2.2

    SEGREGATED STORAGE AISLE WIDTHS AND DISTANCE TO AISLES IN GENERAL PURPOSE WAREHOUSES

    STORAGE CONDITIONMINIMUM AISLE WIDTH (feet)MAXIMUM DISTANCE FROM STORAGE TO AISLE (feet)
    Solid pile or palletizeda4 feet between piles25
    Racks with ESFR sprinklersa4 feet between racks and adjacent Level 2 and 3 aerosol product storage25
    Racks without ESFR sprinklersa8 feet between racks and adjacent Level 2 and 3 aerosol product storage25

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    1. a.Sprinklers shall comply with NFPA 30B.

    5104.4Storage in aerosol warehouses.

    The total quantity of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products in a warehouse utilized for the storage, shipping and receiving of aerosol products shall not be restricted in structures complying with Sections 5104.4.1 through 5104.4.4.

    5104.4.1Automatic sprinkler system.

    Aerosol warehouses shall be protected by an approved wet-pipe automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 30B. Sprinkler protection shall be designed based on the highest classification level of aerosol product present.

    5104.4.2Pile and palletized storage aisles.

    Solid pile and palletized storage shall be arranged so the maximum travel distance to an aisle is 25 feet (7620 mm). Aisles shall have a minimum width of 4 feet (1219 mm).

    5104.4.3Rack storage aisles.

    Rack storage shall be arranged with a minimum aisle width of 8 feet (2438 mm) between rows of racks and 8 feet (2438 mm) between racks and adjacent solid pile or palletized storage. Where early suppression fast-response (ESFR) sprinklers provide automatic sprinkler protection, the minimum aisle width shall be 4 feet (1219 mm).

    5104.4.4Combustible commodities.

    Combustible commodities other than flammable and combustible liquids shall be permitted to be stored in an aerosol warehouse.

    Exception: Flammable and combustible liquids in 1-quart (946 mL) metal containers and smaller shall be permitted to be stored in an aerosol warehouse.

    5104.5Storage in inside flammable liquid storage rooms.

    Inside flammable liquid storage rooms shall comply with Section 5704.3.7. The maximum quantities of aerosol products shall comply with Section 5104.5.1 or 5104.5.2.

    5104.5.1Storage rooms of 500 square feet or less.

    The storage of aerosol products in flammable liquid storage rooms less than or equal to 500 square feet (46 m2) in area shall not exceed the following quantities:

    1. 1.A net weight of 1,000 pounds (454 kg) of Level 2 aerosol products.

    2. 2.A net weight of 500 pounds (227 kg) of Level 3 aerosol products.

    3. 3.A combined net weight of 1,000 pounds (454 kg) of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products.

    5104.5.2Storage rooms greater than 500 square feet.

    The storage of aerosol products in flammable liquid storage rooms greater than 500 square feet (46 m2) in area shall not exceed the following quantities:

    1. 1.A net weight of 2,500 pounds (1135 kg) of Level 2 aerosol products.

    2. 2.A net weight of 1,000 pounds (454 kg) of Level 3 aerosol products.

    3. 3.A combined net weight of 2,500 pounds (1135 kg) of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products.

    The maximum aggregate storage quantity of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products permitted in separate inside storage rooms protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 30B shall be 5,000 pounds (2270 kg).

    5104.6Storage in liquid warehouses.

    The storage of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products in liquid warehouses shall comply with NFPA 30B. The storage shall be located within segregated storage areas in accordance with Section 5104.3.2 and Sections 5104.6.1 through 5104.6.3.

    5104.6.1Containment.

    Spill control or drainage shall be provided to prevent the flow of liquid to within 8 feet (2438 mm) of the segregated storage area.

    5104.6.2Sprinkler design.

    Sprinkler protection shall be designed based on the highest level of aerosol product present.

    5104.6.3Opening protection into segregated storage areas.

    Fire doors or gates opening into the segregated storage area shall either be self-closing or provided with automatic-closing devices activated by sprinkler water flow or an approved fire detection system.

    5104.7Storage in Group M occupancies.

    Storage of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products in occupancies in Group M shall comply with Table 5104.7. Retail display shall comply with Section 5106.

    TABLE 5104.7

    MAXIMUM QUANTITIES OF LEVEL 2 AND 3 AEROSOL PRODUCTS IN RETAIL STORAGE AREAS

    MAXIMUM NET WEIGHT PER FLOOR (pounds)
    FloorNonsegregated storagea, bSegregated storage
    Storage cabinetsbSeparated from retail areac
    BasementNot PermittedNot PermittedNot Permitted
    Ground floor2,5005,000Note d
    Upper floors5001,000Note d

    For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.

    1. a.The total aggregate quantity on display and in storage shall not exceed the maximum retail display quantity indicated in Section 5106.3.

    2. b.Storage quantities indicated are the maximum permitted in any 50,000-square-foot area.

    3. c.The storage area shall be separated from the retail area with a 1-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly.

    4. d.See Table 5104.3.2.

    SECTION5105
    OUTSIDE STORAGE

    5105.1General.

    The outside storage of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products, including storage in temporary storage trailers, shall be separated from exposures in accordance with Table 5105.1.

    TABLE 5105.1

    DISTANCE TO EXPOSURES FOR OUTSIDE STORAGE OF LEVEL 2 AND 3 AEROSOL PRODUCTS

    EXPOSUREMINIMUM DISTANCE FROM AEROSOL STORAGE (feet)a
    Public alleys, public ways, public streets20
    Buildings50
    Exit discharge to a public way50
    Lot lines20
    Other outside storage50

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    1. a.The minimum separation distance indicated is not required where exterior walls having a 2-hour fire-resistance rating without penetrations separate the storage from the exposure. The walls shall extend not less than 30 inches above and to the sides of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products.

    SECTION5106
    RETAIL DISPLAY

    5106.1General.

    This section shall apply to the retail display of 500 pounds (227 kg) or more of Level 2 and 3 aerosol products.

    5106.2Aerosol display and normal merchandising not exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) high.

    Aerosol display and normal merchandising not exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) in height shall be in accordance with Sections 5106.2.1 through 5106.2.4.

    5106.2.1Maximum quantities in retail display areas.

    Aerosol products in retail display areas shall not exceed quantities needed for display and normal merchandising and shall not exceed the quantities in Table 5106.2.1.

    TABLE 5106.2.1

    MAXIMUM QUANTITIES OF LEVEL 2 AND 3 AEROSOL PRODUCTS IN RETAIL DISPLAY AREAS

    MAXIMUM NET WEIGHT PER FLOOR (pounds)b
    FloorUnprotectedaProtected in accordance with Section 5106.2a, cProtected in accordance with Section 5106.3c
    BasementNot allowed500500
    Ground2,50010,00010,000
    Upper5002,000Not allowed

    For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.

    1. a.The total quantity shall not exceed 1,000 pounds net weight in any one 100-square-foot retail display area.

    2. b.Per 25,000-square-foot retail display area.

    3. c.Minimum Ordinary Hazard Group 2 wet-pipe automatic sprinkler system throughout the retail sales occupancy.

    5106.2.2Display of containers.

    Level 2 and 3 aerosol containers shall not be stacked more than 6 feet (1829 mm) high from the base of the aerosol array to the top of the aerosol array unless the containers are placed on fixed shelving or otherwise secured in an approved manner. Where storage or retail display is on shelves, the height of such storage or retail display to the top of aerosol containers shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm).

    5106.2.3Combustible cartons.

    Aerosol products located in retail display areas shall be removed from combustible cartons.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Display areas that use a portion of combustible cartons that consist of only the bottom panel and not more than 2 inches (51 mm) of the side panel are allowed.

    2. 2.When the display area is protected in accordance with Tables 6.3.2.7(a) through 6.3.2.7(l) of NFPA 30B, storage of aerosol products in combustible cartons is allowed.

    5106.2.4Retail display automatic sprinkler system.

    Where an automatic sprinkler system is required for the protected retail display of aerosol products, the wet-pipe automatic sprinkler system shall be in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. The minimum system design shall be for an Ordinary Hazard Group 2 occupancy. The system shall be provided throughout the retail display area.

    5106.3Aerosol display and normal merchandising exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) high.

    Aerosol display and merchandising exceeding 8 feet in height shall be in accordance with Sections 5106.3.1 through 5106.3.3.

    5106.3.1Maximum quantities in retail display areas.

    Aerosol products in retail display areas shall not exceed quantities needed for display and normal merchandising and shall not exceed the quantities in Table 5106.2.1, with fire protection in accordance with Section 5106.3.2.

    5106.3.2Automatic sprinkler protection.

    Aerosol display and merchandising areas shall be protected by an automatic sprinkler system based on the requirements set forth in Tables 6.3.2.7(a) through 6.3.2.7(l) of NFPA 30B and the following:

    1. 1.Protection shall be based on the highest level of aerosol product in the array and the packaging method of the storage located more than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the finished floor.

    2. 2.Where using the cartoned aerosol tables of NFPA 30B, uncartoned or display-cut Level 2 and 3 aerosols shall be permitted not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the finished floor.

    3. 3.The design area for Level 2 and 3 aerosols shall extend not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) beyond the Level 2 and 3 aerosol display and merchandising areas.

    4. 4.Where ordinary and high-temperature ceiling sprinkler systems are adjacent to each other, noncombustible draft curtains shall be installed at the interface.

    5106.3.3Separation of Level 2 and 3 aerosol areas.

    Separation of Level 2 and 3 aerosol areas shall comply with the following:

    1. 1.Level 2 and 3 aerosol display and merchandising areas shall be separated from each other by not less than 25 feet (7620 mm). See Table 5106.2.1.

    2. 2.Level 2 and 3 aerosol display and merchandising areas shall be separated from flammable and combustible liquids storage and display areas by one or a combination of the following:

      1. 2.1. Segregating areas from each other by horizontal distance of not less than 25 feet (7620 mm).

      2. 2.2. Isolating areas from each other by a noncombustible partition extending not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the merchandise.

      3. 2.3. In accordance with Section 5106.5.

    3. 3.Where Item 2.2 is used to separate Level 2 or 3 aerosols from flammable or combustible liquids, and the aerosol products are located within 25 feet (7620 mm) of flammable or combustible liquids, the area below the noncombustible partition shall be liquid tight at the floor to prevent spilled liquids from flowing beneath the aerosol products.

    5106.4Maximum quantities in storage areas.

    Aerosol products in storage areas adjacent to retail display areas shall not exceed the quantities in Table 5106.4.

    TABLE 5106.4

    MAXIMUM STORAGE QUANTITIES FOR STORAGE AREAS ADJACENT TO RETAIL DISPLAY OF LEVEL 2 AND 3 AEROSOLS

    MAXIMUM NET WEIGHT PER FLOOR (pounds)
    FloorUnseparateda,bSeparated
    Storage Cabinetsb1-hour Occupancy Separation
    BasementNot AllowedNot AllowedNot Allowed
    Ground2,5005,000In accordance with Sections 6.3.4.3 and 6.3.4.4 of NFPA 30B
    Upper5001,000In accordance with Sections 6.3.4.3 and 6.3.4.4 of NFPA 30B

    For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.

    1. a.The aggregate quantity in storage and retail display shall not exceed the quantity limits for retail display.

    2. b.In any 50,000-square-foot area.

    5106.5Special protection design for Level 2 and 3 aerosols adjacent to flammable and combustible liquids in double-row racks.

    The display and merchandising of Level 2 and 3 aerosols adjacent to flammable and combustible liquids in double-row racks shall be in accordance with Sections 5106.5.1 through 5106.5.8 or Section 5106.3.3.

    5106.5.1Fire protection.

    Fire protection for the display and merchandising of Level 2 and 3 aerosols in double-row racks shall be in accordance with Table 7.4.1 and Figure 7.4.1 of NFPA 30B.

    5106.5.2Cartoned products.

    Level 2 and 3 aerosols displayed or merchandised more than 8 feet (2438 mm) above the finished floor shall be in cartons.

    5106.5.3Shelving.

    Shelving in racks shall be limited to wire mesh shelving having uniform openings not more than 6 inches (152 mm) apart, with the openings comprising not less than 50 percent of the overall shelf area.

    5106.5.4Aisles.

    Racks shall be arranged so that aisles not less than 71/2 feet (2286 mm) wide are maintained between rows of racks and adjacent solid-piled or palletized merchandise.

    5106.5.5Flue spaces.

    Flue spaces in racks shall comply with the following:

    1. 1.Transverse flue spaces—Nominal 3-inch (76 mm) transverse flue spaces shall be maintained between merchandise and rack uprights.

    2. 2.Longitudinal flue spaces—Nominal 6-inch (152 mm) longitudinal flue spaces shall be maintained.

    5106.5.6Horizontal barriers.

    Horizontal barriers constructed of minimum 3/8-inch-thick (10 mm) plywood or minimum 0.034-inch (0.086 mm) (No. 22 gage) sheet metal shall be provided and located in accordance with Table 7.4.1 and Figure 7.4.1 of NFPA 30B where in-rack sprinklers are installed.

    5106.5.7Class I, II, III, IV and plastic commodities.

    Class I, II, III, IV and plastic commodities located adjacent to Level 2 and 3 aerosols shall be protected in accordance with NFPA 13.

    5106.5.8Flammable and combustible liquids.

    Class I, II, III A and III B Liquids shall be allowed to be located adjacent to Level 2 and 3 aerosol products where both of the following conditions are met:

    1. 1.Class I, II, IIIA and IIIB liquid containers: Containers for Class I, II, IIIA and IIIB liquids shall be limited to 1.06-gallon (4 L) metal-relieving and nonrelieving style containers and 5.3-gallon (20 L) metal-relieving style containers.

    2. 2.Fire protection for Class I, II, IIIA and IIIB Liquids: Automatic sprinkler protection for Class I, II, IIIA and IIIB liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 57.

    SECTION5107
    MANUFACTURING FACILITIES

    5107.1General.

    Manufacturing facilities shall be in accordance with NFPA 30B.

    CHAPTER52
    RESERVED

    CHAPTER53
    COMPRESSED GASES

    SECTION5301
    GENERAL

    5301.1 Scope.

    Storage, use and handling of compressed gases in compressed gas containers, cylinders, tanks and systems shall comply with this chapter and NFPA 55, including those gases regulated elsewhere in this code. Partially full compressed gas containers, cylinders or tanks containing residual gases shall be considered as full for the purposes of the controls required.

    Liquefied natural gas for use as a vehicular fuel shall also comply with NFPA 52 and NFPA 59A.

    Compressed gases classified as hazardous materials shall also comply with Chapter 50 for general requirements and chapters addressing specific hazards, including Chapters 58 (Flammable Gases), 60 (Highly Toxic and Toxic Materials), 63 (Oxidizers, Oxidizing Gases and Oxidizing Cryogenic Fluids) and 64 (Pyrophoric Materials).

    Compressed hydrogen (CH2) for use as a vehicular fuel shall also comply with Chapters 23 and 58 of this code, the International Fuel Gas Code and NFPA 2.

    Cutting and welding gases shall also comply with Chapter 35.

    LP-gas shall also comply with Chapter 61 and the International Fuel Gas Code.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Gases used as refrigerants in refrigeration systems (see Section 606).

    2. 2.Compressed natural gas (CNG) for use as a vehicular fuel shall comply with Chapter 23, NFPA 52 and the International Fuel Gas Code.

    3. 3.Cryogenic fluids shall comply with Chapter 55.

    5301.2 Permits.

    Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.

    SECTION5302
    DEFINITIONS

    5302.1 Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    COMPRESSED GAS.

    COMPRESSED GAS CONTAINER.

    COMPRESSED GAS SYSTEM.

    NESTING.

    TUBE TRAILER.

    SECTION5303
    GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

    5303.1 Containers, cylinders and tanks.

    Compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks shall comply with this section. Compressed gas containers, cylinders or tanks that are not designed for refillable use shall not be refilled after use of the original contents.

    5303.2 Design and construction.

    Compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks shall be designed, fabricated, tested, marked with the specifications of manufacture and maintained in accordance with the regulations of DOTn 49 CFR Parts 100-185 or the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII.

    5303.3 Pressure relief devices.

    Pressure relief devices shall be in accordance with Sections 5303.3.1 through 5303.3.5.

    5303.3.1 Where required.

    Pressure relief devices shall be provided to protect containers, cylinders and tanks containing compressed gases from rupture in the event of overpressure.

    Exception: Cylinders, containers and tanks where exempt from the requirements for pressure relief devices specified by the standards of design listed in Section 5303.3.2.

    5303.3.2 Design.

    Pressure relief devices to protect containers shall be designed and provided in accordance with CGA S-1.1, CGA S-1.2, CGA S-1.3 or the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, as applicable.

    5303.3.3 Sizing.

    Pressure relief devices shall be sized in accordance with the specifications to which the container was fabricated and to material-specific requirements as applicable.

    5303.3.4 Arrangement.

    Pressure relief devices shall be arranged to discharge upward and unobstructed to the open air in such a manner as to prevent any impingement of escaping gas upon the container, adjacent structures or personnel.

    Exception: DOTn specification containers having an internal volume of 30 cubic feet (0.855 m3) or less.

    5303.3.5 Freeze protection.

    Pressure relief devices or vent piping shall be designed or located so that moisture cannot collect and freeze in a manner that would interfere with the operation of the device.

    5303.4 Marking.

    Stationary and portable compressed gas containers, cylinders, tanks and systems shall be marked in accordance with Sections 5303.4.1 through 5303.4.3.

    5303.4.1 Stationary compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks.

    Stationary compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks shall be marked with the name of the gas and in accordance with Sections 5003.5 and 5003.6. Markings shall be visible from any direction of approach.

    5303.4.2 Portable containers, cylinders and tanks.

    Portable compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks shall be marked in accordance with CGA C-7.

    5303.4.3 Piping systems.

    Piping systems shall be marked in accordance with ASME A13.1. Markings used for piping systems shall consist of the content’s name and include a direction-of-flow arrow. Markings shall be provided at each valve; at wall, floor or ceiling penetrations; at each change of direction; and at not less than every 20 feet (6096 mm) or fraction thereof throughout the piping run.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Piping that is designed or intended to carry more than one gas at various times shall have appropriate signs or markings posted at the manifold, along the piping and at each point of use to provide clear identification and warning.

    2. 2.Piping within gas manufacturing plants, gas processing plants, refineries and similar occupancies shall be marked in an approved manner.

    5303.5 Security.

    Compressed gas containers, cylinders, tanks and systems shall be secured against accidental dislodgement and against access by unauthorized personnel in accordance with Sections 5303.5.1 through 5303.5.3.

    5303.5.1 Security of areas.

    Areas used for the storage, use and handling of compressed gas containers, cylinders, tanks and systems shall be secured against unauthorized entry and safeguarded in an approved manner.

    5303.5.2 Physical protection.

    Compressed gas containers, cylinders, tanks and systems that could be exposed to physical damage shall be protected. Guard posts or other approved means shall be provided to protect compressed gas containers, cylinders, tanks and systems indoors and outdoors from vehicular damage and shall comply with Section 312.

    5303.5.3 Securing compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks.

    Compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks shall be secured to prevent falling caused by contact, vibration or seismic activity. Securing of compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks shall be by one of the following methods:

    1. 1.Securing containers, cylinders and tanks to a fixed object with one or more restraints.

    2. 2.Securing containers, cylinders and tanks on a cart or other mobile device designed for the movement of compressed gas containers, cylinders or tanks.

    3. 3.Nesting of compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks at container filling or servicing facilities or in sellers’ warehouses not accessible to the public. Nesting shall be allowed provided the nested containers, cylinders or tanks, if dislodged, do not obstruct the required means of egress.

    4. 4.Securing of compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks to or within a rack, framework, cabinet or similar assembly designed for such use.

      Exception: Compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks in the process of examination, filling, transport or servicing.

    5303.6 Valve protection.

    Compressed gas container, cylinder and tank valves shall be protected from physical damage by means of protective caps, collars or similar devices in accordance with Sections 5303.6.1 and 5303.6.2.

    5303.6.1 Compressed gas container, cylinder or tank protective caps or collars.

    Compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks designed for protective caps, collars or other protective devices shall have the caps or devices in place except when the containers, cylinders or tanks are in use or are being serviced or filled.

    5303.6.2 Caps and plugs.

    Compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks designed for valve protection caps or other protective devices shall have the caps or devices in place. When outlet caps or plugs are installed, they shall be in place.

    Exception: Compressed gas containers, cylinders or tanks in use, being serviced or being filled.

    5303.7 Separation from hazardous conditions.

    Compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks and systems in storage or use shall be separated from materials and conditions that pose exposure hazards to or from each other. Compressed gas containers, cylinders, tanks and systems in storage or use shall be separated in accordance with Sections 5303.7.1 through 5303.7.11.2.

    5303.7.1 Incompatible materials.

    Compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks shall be separated from each other based on the hazard class of their contents. Compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks shall be separated from incompatible materials in accordance with Section 5003.9.8.

    5303.7.2 Combustible waste, vegetation and similar materials.

    Combustible waste, vegetation and similar materials shall be kept not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from compressed gas containers, cylinders, tanks and systems. A noncombustible partition, without openings or penetrations and extending not less than 18 inches (457 mm) above and to the sides of the storage area is allowed in lieu of such distance. The wall shall either be an independent structure, or the exterior wall of the building adjacent to the storage area.

    5303.7.3 Ledges, platforms and elevators.

    Compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks shall not be placed near elevators, unprotected platform ledges or other areas where falling would result in compressed gas containers, cylinders or tanks being allowed to drop distances exceeding one-half the height of the container, cylinder or tank.

    5303.7.4 Temperature extremes.

    Compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks, whether full or partially full, shall not be exposed to artificially created high temperatures exceeding 125°F (52°C) or subambient (low) temperatures unless designed for use under the exposed conditions.

    5303.7.5 Falling objects.

    Compressed gas containers, cylinders, tanks and systems shall not be placed in areas where they are capable of being damaged by falling objects.

    5303.7.6 Heating.

    Compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks, whether full or partially full, shall not be heated by devices that could raise the surface temperature of the container, cylinder or tank to above 125°F (52°C). Heating devices shall comply with the International Mechanical Code and NFPA 70. Approved heating methods involving temperatures of less than 125°F (52°C) are allowed to be used by trained personnel. Devices designed to maintain individual compressed gas containers, cylinders or tanks at constant temperature shall be approved and shall be designed to be fail-safe.

    5303.7.7 Sources of ignition.

    Open flames and high-temperature devices shall not be used in a manner that creates a hazardous condition.

    5303.7.8 Exposure to chemicals.

    Compressed gas containers, cylinders, tanks and systems shall not be exposed to corrosive chemicals or fumes that could damage containers, cylinders, tanks, valves or valve-protective caps.

    5303.7.9 Exhausted enclosures.

    Where exhausted enclosures are provided as a means to segregate compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks from exposure hazards, such enclosures shall comply with the requirements of Section 5003.8.5.

    5303.7.10 Gas cabinets.

    Where gas cabinets are provided as a means to separate compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks from exposure hazards, such gas cabinets shall comply with the requirements of Section 5003.8.6.

    5303.7.11 Tube trailers.

    Tube trailers, including those containing compatible compressed gases, shall be surrounded by a clear space of not less than 3 feet (914 mm) to allow for maintenance, access and inspection.

    5303.7.11.1 Individual tube trailers containing incompatible materials.

    Increased separation distances between individual tube trailers containing incompatible gases shall be provided where required by Section 5303.7.1.

    5303.7.11.2 Connections.

    Piping systems used to connect tube trailers to a user piping system shall not be viewed as an encroachment into the 3-foot (914 mm) clear space.

    5303.8 Wiring and equipment.

    Electrical wiring and equipment shall comply with NFPA 70. Compressed gas containers, cylinders, tanks and systems shall not be located where they could become part of an electrical circuit. Compressed gas containers, cylinders, tanks and systems shall not be used for electrical grounding.

    5303.9 Service and repair.

    Service, repair, modification or removal of valves, pressure-relief devices or other compressed gas container, cylinder or tank appurtenances shall be performed by trained personnel.

    5303.10 Unauthorized use.

    Compressed gas containers, cylinders, tanks and systems shall not be used for any purpose other than to serve as a vessel for containing the product that it is designed to contain.

    5303.11 Exposure to fire.

    Compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks that have been exposed to fire shall be removed from service. Containers, cylinders and tanks so removed shall be handled by approved, qualified persons.

    5303.12 Leaks, damage or corrosion.

    Leaking, damaged or corroded compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks shall be removed from service. Leaking, damaged or corroded compressed gas systems shall be replaced or repaired in accordance with the following:

    1. 1.Compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks that have been removed from service shall be handled in an approved manner.

    2. 2.Compressed gas systems that are determined to be leaking, damaged or corroded shall be repaired to a serviceable condition or removed from service.

    5303.13 Surface of unprotected storage or use areas.

    Unless otherwise specified in Section 5303.14, compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks are allowed to be stored or used without being placed under overhead cover. To prevent bottom corrosion, containers, cylinders and tanks shall be protected from direct contact with soil or unimproved surfaces. The surface of the area on which the containers are placed shall be graded to prevent accumulation of water.

    5303.14 Overhead cover.

    Compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks are allowed to be stored or used in the sun except in locations where extreme temperatures prevail. Where extreme temperatures prevail, overhead covers shall be provided.

    5303.15 Lighting.

    Approved lighting by natural or artificial means shall be provided.

    5303.16 Vaults.

    Generation, compression, storage and dispensing equipment for compressed gases shall be allowed to be located in either above- or below-grade vaults complying with Sections 5303.16.1 through 5303.16.14.

    5303.16.1 Listing required.

    Vaults shall be listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory.

    Exception: Where approved by the fire code official, below-grade vaults are allowed to be constructed on site, provided that the design is in accordance with the International Building Code and that special inspections are conducted to verify structural strength and compliance of the installation with the approved design in accordance with Section 1707 of the International Building Code. Installation plans for below-grade vaults that are constructed on site shall be prepared by, and the design shall bear the stamp of, a professional engineer. Consideration shall be given to soil and hydrostatic loading on the floors, walls and lid; anticipated seismic forces; uplifting by ground water or flooding; and to loads imposed from above, such as traffic and equipment loading on the vault lid.

    5303.16.2 Design and construction.

    The vault shall completely enclose generation, compression, storage or dispensing equipment located in the vault. There shall not be openings in the vault enclosure except those necessary for vault ventilation and access, inspection, filling, emptying or venting of equipment in the vault. The walls and floor of the vault shall be constructed of reinforced concrete not less than 6 inches (152 mm) thick. The top of an above-grade vault shall be constructed of noncombustible material and shall be designed to be weaker than the walls of the vault to ensure that the thrust of any explosion occurring inside the vault is directed upward.

    The top of an at- or below-grade vault shall be designed to relieve safely or contain the force of an explosion occurring inside the vault. The top and floor of the vault and the tank foundation shall be designed to withstand the anticipated loading, including loading from vehicular traffic, where applicable. The walls and floor of a vault installed below grade shall be designed to withstand anticipated soil and hydrostatic loading. Vaults shall be designed to be wind and earthquake resistant, in accordance with the International Building Code.

    5303.16.3 Secondary containment.

    Vaults shall be substantially liquid-tight and there shall not be backfill within the vault. The vault floor shall drain to a sump. For pre-manufactured vaults, liquid tightness shall be certified as part of the listing provided by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. For field-erected vaults, liquid tightness shall be certified in an approved manner.

    5303.16.4 Internal clearance.

    There shall be sufficient clearance within the vault to allow for visual inspection and maintenance of equipment in the vault.

    5303.16.5 Anchoring.

    Vaults and equipment contained therein shall be suitably anchored to withstand uplifting by groundwater or flooding. The design shall verify that uplifting is prevented even where equipment within the vault is empty.

    5303.16.6 Vehicle impact protection.

    Vaults shall be resistant to damage from the impact of a motor vehicle, or vehicle impact protection shall be provided in accordance with Section 312.

    5303.16.7 Arrangement.

    Equipment in vaults shall be listed or approved for above-ground use. Where multiple vaults are provided, adjacent vaults shall be allowed to share a common wall. The common wall shall be liquid and vapor tight and shall be designed to withstand the load imposed when the vault on either side of the wall is filled with water.

    5303.16.8 Connections.

    Connections shall be provided to permit the venting of each vault to dilute, disperse and remove vapors prior to personnel entering the vault.

    5303.16.9 Ventilation.

    Vaults shall be provided with an exhaust ventilation system installed in accordance with Section 5004.3. The ventilation system shall operate continuously or be designed to operate upon activation of the vapor or liquid detection system. The system shall provide ventilation at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute (cfm) per square foot [0.00508 m3/(s m2)] of floor area, but not less than 150 cfm (4 m3/min). The exhaust system shall be designed to provide air movement across all parts of the vault floor for gases having a density greater than air and across all parts of the vault ceiling for gases having a density less than air. Supply ducts shall extend to within 3 inches (76 mm), but not more than 12 inches (305 mm), of the floor. Exhaust ducts shall extend to within 3 inches (76 mm), but not more than 12 inches (305 mm) of the floor or ceiling, for heavier-than-air or lighter-than-air gases, respectively. The exhaust system shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

    5303.16.10 Monitoring and detection.

    Vaults shall be provided with approved vapor and liquid detection systems and equipped with on-site audible and visual warning devices with battery backup. Vapor detection systems shall sound an alarm when the system detects vapors that reach or exceed 25 percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL) or one-half the immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) concentration for the gas in the vault. Vapor detectors shall be located not higher than 12 inches (305 mm) above the lowest point in the vault for heavier-than-air gases and not lower than 12 inches (305 mm) below the highest point in the vault for lighter-than-air gases. Liquid detection systems shall sound an alarm upon detection of any liquid, including water. Liquid detectors shall be located in accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions. Activation of either vapor or liquid detection systems shall cause a signal to be sounded at an approved, constantly attended location within the facility served by the tanks or at an approved location. Activation of vapor detection systems shall also shut off gas-handling equipment in the vault and dispensers.

    5303.16.11 Liquid removal.

    Means shall be provided to recover liquid from the vault. Where a pump is used to meet this requirement, it shall not be permanently installed in the vault. Electric-powered portable pumps shall be suitable for use in Class I, Division 1 locations, as defined in NFPA 70.

    5303.16.12 Relief vents.

    Vent pipes for equipment in the vault shall terminate not less than 12 feet (3658 mm) above ground level.

    5303.16.13 Accessway.

    Vaults shall be provided with an approved personnel accessway with a minimum dimension of 30 inches (762 mm) and with a permanently affixed, nonferrous ladder. Accessways shall be designed to be nonsparking. Travel distance from any point inside a vault to an accessway shall not exceed 20 feet (6096 mm). At each entry point, a warning sign indicating the need for procedures for safe entry into confined spaces shall be posted. Entry points shall be secured against unauthorized entry and vandalism.

    5303.16.14 Classified area.

    The interior of a vault containing a flammable gas shall be designated a Class I, Division 1 location, as defined in NFPA 70.

    SECTION5304
    STORAGE OF COMPRESSED GASES

    5304.1 Upright storage.

    Compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks, except those designed for use in a horizontal position, and all compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks containing nonliquefied gases, shall be stored in an upright position with the valve end up. An upright position shall include conditions where the container, cylinder or tank axis is inclined as much as 45 degrees (0.80 rad) from the vertical.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Compressed gas containers with a water volume less than 1.3 gallons (5 L) are allowed to be stored in a horizontal position.

    2. 2.Cylinders, containers and tanks containing nonflammable gases, or cylinders, containers and tanks containing nonliquefied flammable gases that have been secured to a pallet for transportation purposes.

    5304.2 Material-specific regulations.

    In addition to the requirements of this section, indoor and outdoor storage of compressed gases shall comply with the material-specific provisions of Chapters 54, 58 and 60 through 67.

    SECTION5305
    USE AND HANDLING OF COMPRESSED GASES

    5305.1 Compressed gas systems.

    Compressed gas systems shall be suitable for the use intended and shall be designed by persons competent in such design. Compressed gas equipment, machinery and processes shall be listed or approved.

    5305.2 Controls.

    Compressed gas system controls shall be designed to prevent materials from entering or leaving process or reaction systems at other than the intended time, rate or path. Automatic controls shall be designed to be fail safe.

    5305.3 Piping systems.

    Piping, including tubing, valves, fittings and pressure regulators, shall comply with this section and Chapter 50. Piping, tubing, pressure regulators, valves and other apparatus shall be kept gas tight to prevent leakage.

    5305.4 Valves.

    Valves utilized on compressed gas systems shall be suitable for the use intended and shall be accessible. Valve handles or operators for required shutoff valves shall not be removed or otherwise altered to prevent access.

    5305.5 Venting.

    Venting of gases shall be directed to an approved location. Venting shall comply with the International Mechanical Code.

    5305.6 Upright use.

    Compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks, except those designed for use in a horizontal position, and all compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks containing nonliquefied gases, shall be used in an upright position with the valve end up. An upright position shall include conditions where the container, cylinder or tank axis is inclined as much as 45 degrees (0.80 rad) from the vertical. Use of nonflammable liquefied gases in the inverted position where the liquid phase is used shall not be prohibited provided that the container, cylinder or tank is properly secured and the dispensing apparatus is designed for liquefied gas use.

    Exception: Compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks with a water volume less than 1.3 gallons (5 L) are allowed to be used in a horizontal position.

    5305.7 Transfer.

    Transfer of gases between containers, cylinders and tanks shall be performed by qualified personnel using equipment and operating procedures in accordance with CGA P-1.

    Exception: The fueling of vehicles with CNG or CH2, conducted in accordance with Chapter 23.

    5305.8 Use of compressed gas for inflation.

    Inflatable equipment, devices or balloons shall only be pressurized or filled with compressed air or inert gases.

    5305.9 Material-specific regulations.

    In addition to the requirements of this section, indoor and outdoor use of compressed gases shall comply with the material-specific provisions of Chapters 54, 58 and 60 through 67.

    5305.10 Handling.

    The handling of compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks shall comply with Sections 5305.10.1 and 5305.10.2.

    5305.10.1 Carts and trucks.

    Containers, cylinders and tanks shall be moved using an approved method. Where containers, cylinders or tanks are moved by hand cart, hand truck or other mobile device, such carts, trucks or devices shall be designed for the secure movement of containers, cylinders or tanks. Carts and trucks utilized for transport of compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks within buildings shall comply with Section 5003.10. Carts and trucks utilized for transport of compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks exterior to buildings shall be designed so that the containers, cylinders and tanks will be secured against dropping or otherwise striking against each other or other surfaces.

    5305.10.2 Lifting devices.

    Ropes, chains or slings shall not be used to suspend compressed gas containers, cylinders and tanks unless provisions at time of manufacture have been made on the container, cylinder or tank for appropriate lifting attachments, such as lugs.

    SECTION5306
    MEDICAL GASES

    5306.1 General.

    Medical gases at health care-related facilities intended for patient care, inhalation or sedation including, but not limited to, analgesia systems for dentistry, podiatry, veterinary and similar uses shall comply with Sections 5306.2 through 5306.4 in addition to other requirements of this chapter.

    5306.2 Interior supply location.

    Medical gases shall be stored in areas dedicated to the storage of such gases without other storage or uses. Where containers of medical gases in quantities greater than the permit amount are located inside buildings, they shall be in a 1-hour exterior room, a 1-hour interior room or a gas cabinet in accordance with Section 5306.2.1, 5306.2.2 or 5306.2.3, respectively. Rooms or areas where medical gases are stored or used in quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area as set forth in Section 5003.1 shall be in accordance with the International Building Code for high-hazard Group H occupancies.

    5306.2.1 One-hour exterior rooms.

    A 1-hour exterior room shall be a room or enclosure separated from the remainder of the building by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the International Building Code, or both, with a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Openings between the room or enclosure and interior spaces shall be self-closing smoke- and draft-control assemblies having a fire protection rating of not less than 1 hour. Rooms shall have not less than one exterior wall that is provided with not less than two nonclosable louvered vents. Each vent shall have a minimum free opening area of 24 square inches (155 cm2) for each 1,000 cubic feet (28 m3) at normal temperature and pressure (NTP) of gas stored in the room and shall be not less than 72 square inches (465 cm2) in aggregate free opening area. One vent shall be within 6 inches (152 mm) of the floor and one shall be within 6 inches (152 mm) of the ceiling. Rooms shall be provided with not less than one automatic sprinkler to provide container cooling in case of fire.

    5306.2.2 One-hour interior room.

    Where an exterior wall cannot be provided for the room, automatic sprinklers shall be installed within the room. The room shall be exhausted through a duct to the exterior. Supply and exhaust ducts shall be enclosed in a 1-hour-rated shaft enclosure from the room to the exterior. Approved mechanical ventilation shall comply with the International Mechanical Code and be provided at a minimum rate of 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot [0.00508 m3/(s · m2)] of the area of the room.

    5306.2.3 Gas cabinets.

    Gas cabinets shall be constructed in accordance with Section 5003.8.6 and the following:

    1. 1.The average velocity of ventilation at the face of access ports or windows shall be not less than 200 feet per minute (1.02 m/s) with not less than 150 feet per minute (0.76 m/s) at any point of the access port or window.

    2. 2.They shall be connected to an exhaust system.

    3. 3.They shall be internally sprinklered.

    5306.3 Exterior supply locations.

    Oxidizer medical gas systems located on the exterior of a building with quantities greater than the permit amount shall be located in accordance with Section 6304.2.1.

    5306.4 Transfilling.

    Transfilling areas and operations including, but not limited to, ventilation and separation, shall comply with NFPA 99.

    5306.5 Medical gas systems.

    Medical gas systems including, but not limited to, distribution piping, supply manifolds, connections, pressure regulators and relief devices and valves, shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 99 and the general provisions of this chapter. Existing medical gas systems shall be maintained in accordance with the maintenance, inspection and testing provisions of NFPA 99 for medical gas systems.

    SECTION5307
    CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) SYSTEMS USED IN

    BEVERAGE DISPENSING APPLICATIONS

    5307.1 General.

    Carbon dioxide systems with more than 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of carbon dioxide used in beverage dispensing applications shall comply with Sections 5307.2 through 5307.5.2.

    5307.2 Permits.

    Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.

    5307.3 Equipment.

    The storage, use, and handling of liquid carbon dioxide shall be in accordance with Chapter 53 and the applicable requirements of NFPA 55, Chapter 13. Insulated liquid carbon dioxide systems shall have pressure relief devices vented in accordance with NFPA 55.

    5307.4 Protection from damage.

    Carbon dioxide systems shall be installed so the storage tanks, cylinders, piping and fittings are protected from damage by occupants or equipment during normal facility operations.

    5307.5 Required protection.

    Where carbon dioxide storage tanks, cylinders, piping and equipment are located indoors, rooms or areas containing carbon dioxide storage tanks, cylinders, piping and fittings and other areas where a leak of carbon dioxide can collect shall be provided with either ventilation in accordance with Section 5307.5.1 or an emergency alarm system in accordance with Section 5307.5.2.

    5307.5.1 Ventilation.

    Mechanical ventilation shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and shall comply with all of the following:

    1. 1.Mechanical ventilation in the room or area shall be at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot [0.00508 m3/(s • m2)].

    2. 2.Exhaust shall be taken from a point within 12 inches (305 mm) of the floor.

    3. 3.The ventilation system shall be designed to operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surrounding area.

    5307.5.2 Emergency alarm system.

    An emergency alarm system shall comply with all of the following:

    1. 1.Continuous gas detection shall be provided to monitor areas where carbon dioxide can accumulate.

    2. 2.The threshold for activation of an alarm shall not exceed 5,000 parts per million (9,000 mg/m3).

    3. 3.Activation of the emergency alarm system shall initiate a local alarm within the room or area in which the system is installed.

    SECTION5308
    COMPRESSED GASES
    NOT OTHERWISE REGULATED

    5308.1 General.

    Compressed gases in storage or use not regulated by the material-specific provisions of Chapters 6, 54, 55 and 60 through 67, including asphyxiant, irritant and radioactive gases, shall comply with this section in addition to other requirements of this chapter.

    5308.2 Ventilation.

    Indoor storage and use areas and storage buildings shall be provided with mechanical exhaust ventilation or natural ventilation in accordance with the requirements of Section 5004.3 or 5005.1.9. Where mechanical ventilation is provided, the systems shall be operational during such time as the building or space is occupied.

    CHAPTER54
    CORROSIVE MATERIALS

    SECTION5401
    GENERAL

    5401.1 Scope.

    The storage and use of corrosive materials shall be in accordance with this chapter. Compressed gases shall also comply with Chapter 53.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Display and storage in Group M and storage in Group S occupancies complying with Section 5003.11.

    2. 2.Stationary storage battery systems in accordance with Section 608.

    3. 3.This chapter shall not apply to R-717 (ammonia) where used as a refrigerant in a refrigeration system (see Section 606).

    5401.2 Permits.

    Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.

    SECTION5402
    DEFINITION

    5402.1 Definition.

    The following term is defined in Chapter 2:

    CORROSIVE.

    SECTION5403
    GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

    5403.1 Quantities not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area.

    The storage and use of corrosive materials in amounts not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Section 5003.1 shall be in accordance with Sections 5001, 5003 and 5401.

    5403.2 Quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area.

    The storage and use of corrosive materials in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Section 5003.1 shall be in accordance with this chapter and Chapter 50.

    SECTION5404
    STORAGE

    5404.1 Indoor storage.

    Indoor storage of corrosive materials in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Table 5003.1.1(2), shall be in accordance with Sections 5001, 5003 and 5004 and this chapter.

    5404.1.1 Liquid-tight floor.

    In addition to the provisions of Section 5004.12, floors in storage areas for corrosive liquids shall be of liquid-tight construction.

    5404.2 Outdoor storage.

    Outdoor storage of corrosive materials in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Table 5003.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 5001, 5003 and 5004 and this chapter.

    5404.2.1 Above-ground outside storage tanks.

    Aboveground outside storage tanks exceeding an aggregate quantity of 1,000 gallons (3785 L) of corrosive liquids shall be provided with secondary containment in accordance with Section 5004.2.2.

    5404.2.2 Distance from storage to exposures.

    Outdoor storage of corrosive materials shall not be within 20 feet (6096 mm) of buildings not associated with the manufacturing or distribution of such materials, lot lines, public streets, public alleys, public ways or means of egress. A 2-hour fire barrier without openings or penetrations, and extending not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above and to the sides of the storage area, is allowed in lieu of such distance. The wall shall either be an independent structure, or the exterior wall of the building adjacent to the storage area.

    SECTION5405
    USE

    5405.1 Indoor use.

    The indoor use of corrosive materials in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Table 5003.1.1(2) shall be in accordance with Sections 5001, 5003 and 5005 and this chapter.

    5405.1.1 Liquid transfer.

    Corrosive liquids shall be transferred in accordance with Section 5005.1.10.

    5405.1.2 Ventilation.

    Where corrosive materials are dispensed or used, mechanical exhaust ventilation in accordance with Section 5005.2.1.1 shall be provided.

    5405.2 Outdoor use.

    The outdoor use of corrosive materials in amounts exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area indicated in Table 5003.1.1(4) shall be in accordance with Sections 5001, 5003 and 5005 and this chapter.

    5405.2.1 Distance from use to exposures.

    Outdoor use of corrosive materials shall be located in accordance with Section 5404.2.2.

    CHAPTER55
    CRYOGENIC FLUIDS

    SECTION5501
    GENERAL

    5501.1 Scope.

    Storage, use and handling of cryogenic fluids shall comply with this chapter and NFPA 55. Cryogenic fluids classified as hazardous materials shall also comply with the general requirements of Chapter 50. Partially full containers containing residual cryogenic fluids shall be considered as full for the purposes of the controls required.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Fluids used as refrigerants in refrigeration systems (see Section 606).

    2. 2.Liquefied natural gas (LNG), which shall comply with NFPA 59A.

    Oxidizing cryogenic fluids, including oxygen, shall comply with Chapter 63, as applicable.

    Flammable cryogenic fluids, including hydrogen, methane and carbon monoxide, shall comply with Chapters 23 and 58, as applicable.

    Inert cryogenic fluids, including argon, helium and nitrogen, shall comply with ANSI/CGA P-18.

    5501.2 Permits.

    Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.

    SECTION5502
    DEFINITIONS

    5502.1 Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2.

    CRYOGENIC CONTAINER.

    CRYOGENIC FLUID.

    CRYOGENIC VESSEL.

    FLAMMABLE CRYOGENIC FLUID.

    LOW-PRESSURE TANK.

    SECTION5503
    GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

    5503.1 Containers.

    Containers employed for storage or use of cryogenic fluids shall comply with Sections 5503.1.1 through 5503.1.3.2 and Chapter 50.

    5503.1.1 Nonstandard containers.

    Containers, equipment and devices that are not in compliance with recognized standards for design and construction shall be approved upon presentation of satisfactory evidence that they are designed and constructed for safe operation.

    5503.1.1.1 Data submitted for approval.

    The following data shall be submitted to the fire code official with reference to the deviation from the recognized standard with the application for approval.

    1. 1.Type and use of container, equipment or device.

    2. 2.Material to be stored, used or transported.

    3. 3.Description showing dimensions and materials used in construction.

    4. 4.Design pressure, maximum operating pressure and test pressure.

    5. 5.Type, size and setting of pressure relief devices.

    6. 6.Other data requested by the fire code official.

    5503.1.2 Concrete containers.

    Concrete containers shall be built in accordance with the International Building Code. Barrier materials and membranes used in connection with concrete, but not functioning structurally, shall be compatible with the materials contained.

    5503.1.3 Foundations and supports.

    Containers shall be provided with substantial concrete or masonry foundations, or structural steel supports on firm concrete or masonry foundations. Containers shall be supported to prevent the concentration of excessive loads on the supporting portion of the shell. Foundations for horizontal containers shall be constructed to accommodate expansion and contraction of the container. Foundations shall be provided to support the weight of vaporizers or heat exchangers.

    5503.1.3.1 Temperature effects.

    Where container foundations or supports are subject to exposure to temperatures below -130°F (-90°C), the foundations or supports shall be constructed of materials to withstand the low-temperature effects of cryogenic fluid spillage.

    5503.1.3.2 Corrosion protection.

    Portions of containers in contact with foundations or saddles shall be painted to protect against corrosion.

    5503.2 Pressure relief devices.

    Pressure relief devices shall be provided in accordance with Sections 5503.2.1 through 5503.2.7 to protect containers and systems containing cryogenic fluids from rupture in the event of overpressure. Pressure relief devices shall be designed in accordance with CGA S-1.1, CGA S-1.2 and CGA S-1.3.

    5503.2.1 Containers.

    Containers shall be provided with pressure relief devices.

    5503.2.2 Vessels or equipment other than containers.

    Heat exchangers, vaporizers, insulation casings surrounding containers, vessels and coaxial piping systems in which liquefied cryogenic fluids could be trapped because of leakage from the primary container shall be provided with a pressure relief device.

    5503.2.3 Sizing.

    Pressure relief devices shall be sized in accordance with the specifications to which the container was fabricated. The relief device shall have sufficient capacity to prevent the maximum design pressure of the container or system from being exceeded.

    5503.2.4 Accessibility.

    Pressure relief devices shall be located such that they are provided with ready access for inspection and repair.

    5503.2.5 Arrangement.

    Pressure relief devices shall be arranged to discharge unobstructed to the open air in such a manner as to prevent impingement of escaping gas on personnel, containers, equipment and adjacent structures or to enter enclosed spaces.

    Exception: DOTn-specified containers with an internal volume of 2 cubic feet (0.057 m3) or less.

    5503.2.6 Shutoffs between pressure relief devices and containers.

    Shutoff valves shall not be installed between pressure relief devices and containers.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.A shutoff valve is allowed on containers equipped with multiple pressure relief device installations where the arrangement of the valves provides the full required flow through the minimum number of required relief devices at all times.

    2. 2.A locking-type shutoff valve is allowed to be used upstream of the pressure relief device for service-related work performed by the supplier when in accordance with the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    5503.2.7 Temperature limits.

    Pressure relief devices shall not be subjected to cryogenic fluid temperatures except when operating.

    5503.3 Pressure relief vent piping.

    Pressure relief vent-piping systems shall be constructed and arranged so as to remain functional and direct the flow of gas to a safe location in accordance with Sections 5503.3.1 and 5503.3.2.

    5503.3.1 Sizing.

    Pressure relief device vent piping shall have a cross-sectional area not less than that of the pressure relief device vent opening and shall be arranged so as not to restrict the flow of escaping gas.

    5503.3.2 Arrangement.

    Pressure relief device vent piping and drains in vent lines shall be arranged so that escaping gas will discharge unobstructed to the open air and not impinge on personnel, containers, equipment and adjacent structures or enter enclosed spaces. Pressure relief device vent lines shall be installed in such a manner to exclude or remove moisture and condensation and prevent malfunction of the pressure relief device because of freezing or ice accumulation.

    5503.4 Marking.

    Cryogenic containers and systems shall be marked in accordance with Sections 5503.4.1 through 5503.4.6.

    5503.4.1 Identification signs.

    Visible hazard identification signs in accordance with NFPA 704 shall be provided at entrances to buildings or areas in which cryogenic fluids are stored, handled or used.

    5503.4.2 Identification of contents.

    Stationary and portable containers shall be marked with the name of the gas contained. Stationary above-ground containers shall be placarded in accordance with Sections 5003.5 and 5003.6. Portable containers shall be identified in accordance with CGA C-7.

    5503.4.3 Identification of containers.

    Stationary containers shall be identified with the manufacturing specification and maximum allowable working pressure with a permanent nameplate. The nameplate shall be installed on the container in an accessible location. The nameplate shall be marked in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code or DOTn 49 CFR Parts 100-185.

    5503.4.4 Identification of container connections.

    Container inlet and outlet connections, liquid-level limit controls, valves and pressure gauges shall be identified in accordance with one of the following:

    1. 1.Marked with a permanent tag or label identifying the function.

    2. 2.Identified by a schematic drawing that portrays the function and designates whether connected to the vapor or liquid space of the container.

    Where a schematic drawing is provided, it shall be attached to the container and maintained in a legible condition.

    5503.4.5 Identification of piping systems.

    Piping systems shall be identified in accordance with ASME A13.1.

    5503.4.6 Identification of emergency shutoff valves.

    Emergency shutoff valves shall be identified and the location shall be clearly visible and indicated by means of a sign.

    5503.5 Security.

    Cryogenic containers and systems shall be secured against accidental dislodgement and against access by unauthorized personnel in accordance with Sections 5503.5.1 through 5503.5.4.

    5503.5.1 Security of areas.

    Containers and systems shall be secured against unauthorized entry and safeguarded in an approved manner.

    5503.5.2 Securing of containers.

    Stationary containers shall be secured to foundations in accordance with the International Building Code. Portable containers subject to shifting or upset shall be secured. Nesting shall be an acceptable means of securing containers.

    5503.5.3 Securing of vaporizers.

    Vaporizers, heat exchangers and similar equipment shall be anchored to a suitable foundation and its connecting piping shall be sufficiently flexible to provide for the effects of expansion and contraction due to temperature changes.

    5503.5.4 Physical protection.

    Containers, piping, valves, pressure relief devices, regulating equipment and other appurtenances shall be protected against physical damage and tampering.

    5503.6 Electrical wiring and equipment.

    Electrical wiring and equipment shall comply with NFPA 70 and Sections 5503.6.1 and 5503.6.2.

    5503.6.1 Location.

    Containers and systems shall not be located where they could become part of an electrical circuit.

    5503.6.2 Electrical grounding and bonding.

    Containers and systems shall not be used for electrical grounding. Where electrical grounding and bonding is required, the system shall comply with NFPA 70. The grounding system shall be protected against corrosion, including corrosion caused by stray electric currents.

    5503.7 Service and repair.

    Service, repair, modification or removal of valves, pressure relief devices or other container appurtenances shall comply with Sections 5503.7.1 and 5503.7.2 and the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII or DOTn 49 CFR Parts 100-185.

    5503.7.1 Containers.

    Containers that have been removed from service shall be handled in an approved manner.

    5503.7.2 Systems.

    Service and repair of systems shall be performed by trained personnel.

    5503.8 Unauthorized use.

    Containers shall not be used for any purpose other than to serve as a vessel for containing the product that it is designed to contain.

    5503.9 Leaks, damage and corrosion.

    Leaking, damaged or corroded containers shall be removed from service. Leaking, damaged or corroded systems shall be replaced, repaired or removed in accordance with Section 5503.7.

    5503.10 Lighting.

    Where required, lighting, including emergency lighting, shall be provided for fire appliances and operating facilities such as walkways, control valves and gates ancillary to stationary containers.

    SECTION5504
    STORAGE

    5504.1 General.

    Storage of containers shall comply with this section.

    5504.2 Indoor storage.

    Indoor storage of containers shall be in accordance with Sections 5504.2.1 through 5504.2.2.3.

    5504.2.1 Stationary containers.

    Stationary containers shall be installed in accordance with the provisions applicable to the type of fluid stored and this section.

    5504.2.1.1 Containers.

    Stationary containers shall comply with Section 5503.1.

    5504.2.1.2 Construction of indoor areas.

    Cryogenic fluids in stationary containers stored indoors shall be located in buildings, rooms or areas constructed in accordance with the International Building Code.

    5504.2.1.3 Ventilation.

    Storage areas for stationary containers shall be ventilated in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

    5504.2.2 Portable containers.

    Indoor storage of portable containers shall comply with the provisions applicable to the type of fluid stored and Sections 5504.2.2.1 through 5504.2.2.3.

    5504.2.2.1 Containers.

    Portable containers shall comply with Section 5503.1.

    5504.2.2.2 Construction of indoor areas.

    Cryogenic fluids in portable containers stored indoors shall be stored in buildings, rooms or areas constructed in accordance with the International Building Code.

    5504.2.2.3 Ventilation.

    Storage areas shall be ventilated in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

    5504.3 Outdoor storage.

    Outdoor storage of containers shall be in accordance with Sections 5504.3.1 through 5504.3.1.2.3.

    5504.3.1 Separation from hazardous conditions.

    Cryogenic containers and systems in outdoor storage shall be separated from materials and conditions that pose exposure hazards to or from each other in accordance with Sections 5504.3.1.1 through 5504.3.1.1.5.

    5504.3.1.1 Stationary containers.

    Stationary containers shall be separated from exposure hazards in accordance with the provisions applicable to the type of fluid contained and the minimum separation distances indicated in Table 5504.3.1.1.

    TABLE 5504.3.1.1

    SEPARATION OF STATIONARY CONTAINERS FROM EXPOSURE HAZARDS

    EXPOSUREMINIMUM DISTANCE (feet)
    Buildings, regardless of construction type1
    Building exits10
    Wall openings1
    Air intakes10
    Lot lines5
    Places of public assembly50
    Nonambulatory patient areas50
    Combustible materials such as paper, leaves, weeds, dry grass or debris15
    Other hazardous materialsIn accordance with Chapter 50

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    5504.3.1.1.1 Point-of-fill connections.

    Remote transfer points and fill connection points shall not be positioned closer to exposures than the minimum distances required for stationary containers.

    5504.3.1.1.2 Surfaces beneath containers.

    Containers shall be placed on surfaces that are compatible with the fluid in the container.

    5504.3.1.1.3 Location.

    Containers of cryogenic fluids shall not be located within diked areas containing other hazardous materials.

    5504.3.1.1.4 Areas subject to flooding.

    Stationary containers located in areas subject to flooding shall be securely anchored or elevated to prevent the containers from separating from foundations or supports.

    5504.3.1.1.5 Drainage.

    The area surrounding stationary containers shall be provided with a means to prevent accidental discharge of fluids from endangering personnel, containers, equipment and adjacent structures or to enter enclosed spaces. The stationary container shall not be placed where spilled or discharged fluids will be retained around the container.

    Exception: These provisions shall not apply where it is determined by the fire code official that the container does not constitute a hazard, after consideration of special features such as crushed rock utilized as a heat sink, topographical conditions, nature of occupancy, proximity to structures on the same or adjacent property, and the capacity and construction of containers and character of fluids to be stored.

    5504.3.1.2 Outdoor storage of portable containers.

    Outdoor storage of portable containers shall comply with Section 5503 and Sections 5504.3.1.2.1 through 5504.3.1.2.3.

    5504.3.1.2.1 Exposure hazard separation.

    Portable containers in outdoor storage shall be separated from exposure hazards in accordance with Table 5504.3.1.2.1.

    TABLE 5504.3.1.2.1

    SEPARATION OF PORTABLE CONTAINERS FROM EXPOSURE HAZARDS

    EXPOSUREMINIMUM DISTANCE (feet)
    Building exits10
    Wall openings1
    Air intakes10
    Lot lines5
    Combustible materials such as paper, leaves, weeds, dry grass or debris15
    Other hazardous materialsIn accordance with Chapter 50

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    5504.3.1.2.2 Surfaces beneath containers.

    The surface of the area on which stationary containers are placed, including the surface of the area located below the point where connections are made for the purpose of filling such containers, shall be compatible with the fluid in the container.

    5504.3.1.2.3 Drainage.

    The area surrounding portable containers shall be provided with a means to prevent accidental discharge of fluids from endangering adjacent containers, buildings, equipment or adjoining property.

    Exception: These provisions shall not apply where it is determined by the fire code official that the container does not constitute a hazard.

    SECTION5505
    USE AND HANDLING

    5505.1 General.

    Use and handling of cryogenic fluid containers and systems shall comply with Sections 5505.1.1 through 5505.5.2.

    5505.1.1 Cryogenic fluid systems.

    Cryogenic fluid systems shall be suitable for the use intended and designed by persons competent in such design. Equipment, machinery and processes shall be listed or approved.

    5505.1.2 Piping systems.

    Piping, tubing, valves and joints and fittings conveying cryogenic fluids shall be installed in accordance with the material-specific provisions of Section 5501.1 and Sections 5505.1.2.1 through 5505.1.2.6.

    5505.1.2.1 Design and construction.

    Piping systems shall be suitable for the use intended through the full range of pressure and temperature to which they will be subjected. Piping systems shall be designed and constructed to provide adequate allowance for expansion, contraction, vibration, settlement and fire exposure.

    5505.1.2.2 Joints.

    Joints on container piping and tubing shall be threaded, welded, silver brazed or flanged.

    5505.1.2.3 Valves and accessory equipment.

    Valves and accessory equipment shall be suitable for the intended use at the temperatures of the application and shall be designed and constructed to withstand the maximum pressure at the minimum temperature to which they will be subjected.

    5505.1.2.3.1 Shutoff valves on containers.

    Shutoff valves shall be provided on all container connections except for pressure relief devices. Shutoff valves shall be provided with access thereto and located as close as practical to the container.

    5505.1.2.3.2 Shutoff valves on piping.

    Shutoff valves shall be installed in piping containing cryogenic fluids where needed to limit the volume of liquid discharged in the event of piping or equipment failure. Pressure relief valves shall be installed where liquid is capable of being trapped between shutoff-valves in the piping system (see Section 5503.2).

    5505.1.2.4 Physical protection and support.

    Piping systems shall be supported and protected from physical damage. Piping passing through walls shall be protected from mechanical damage.

    5505.1.2.5 Corrosion protection.

    Above-ground piping that is subject to corrosion because of exposure to corrosive atmospheres, shall be constructed of materials to resist the corrosive environment or otherwise protected against corrosion. Below-ground piping shall be protected against corrosion.

    5505.1.2.6 Testing.

    Piping systems shall be tested and proven free of leaks after installation as required by the standards to which they were designed and constructed. Test pressures shall be not less than 150 percent of the maximum allowable working pressure where hydraulic testing is conducted or 110 percent where testing is conducted pneumatically.

    5505.2 Indoor use.

    Indoor use of cryogenic fluids shall comply with the material-specific provisions of Section 5501.1.

    5505.3 Outdoor use.

    Outdoor use of cryogenic fluids shall comply with the material specific provisions of Sections 5501.1, 5505.3.1 and 5505.3.2.

    5505.3.1 Separation.

    Distances from lot lines, buildings and exposure hazards shall comply with Section 5504.3 and the material-specific provisions of Section 5501.1.

    5505.3.2 Emergency shutoff valves.

    Manual or automatic emergency shutoff valves shall be provided to shut off the cryogenic fluid supply in case of emergency. An emergency shutoff valve shall be located at the source of supply and at the point where the system enters the building.

    5505.4 Filling and dispensing.

    Filling and dispensing of cryogenic fluids shall comply with Sections 5505.4.1 through 5505.4.3.

    5505.4.1 Dispensing areas.

    Dispensing of cryogenic fluids with physical or health hazards shall be conducted in approved locations. Dispensing indoors shall be conducted in areas constructed in accordance with the International Building Code.

    5505.4.1.1 Ventilation.

    Indoor areas where cryogenic fluids are dispensed shall be ventilated in accordance with the requirements of the International Mechanical Code in a manner that captures any vapor at the point of generation.

    Exception: Cryogenic fluids that can be demonstrated not to create harmful vapors.

    5505.4.1.2 Piping systems.

    Piping systems utilized for filling or dispensing of cryogenic fluids shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section 5505.1.2.

    5505.4.2 Vehicle loading and unloading areas.

    Loading or unloading areas shall be conducted in an approved manner in accordance with the standards referenced in Section 5501.1.

    5505.4.3 Limit controls.

    Limit controls shall be provided to prevent overfilling of stationary containers during filling operations.

    5505.5 Handling.

    Handling of cryogenic containers shall comply with Sections 5505.5.1 and 5505.5.2.

    5505.5.1 Carts and trucks.

    Cryogenic containers shall be moved using an approved method. Where cryogenic containers are moved by hand cart, hand truck or other mobile device, such carts, trucks or devices shall be designed for the secure movement of the container.

    Carts and trucks used to transport cryogenic containers shall be designed to provide a stable base for the commodities to be transported and shall have a means of restraining containers to prevent accidental dislodgement.

    5505.5.2 Closed containers.

    Pressurized containers shall be transported in a closed condition. Containers designed for use at atmospheric conditions shall be transported with appropriate loose-fitting covers in place to prevent spillage.

    CHAPTER56
    EXPLOSIVES AND FIREWORKS

    SECTION5601
    GENERAL

    5601.1 Scope.

    The provisions of this chapter shall govern the possession, manufacture, storage, handling, sale and use of explosives, explosive materials, fireworks and small arms ammunition.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.The Armed Forces of the United States, Coast Guard or National Guard.

    2. 2.Explosives in forms prescribed by the official United States Pharmacopoeia.

    3. 3.The possession, storage and use of small arms ammunition where packaged in accordance with DOTn packaging requirements.

    4. 4.The possession, storage and use of not more than 1 pound (0.454 kg) of commercially manufactured sporting black powder, 20 pounds (9 kg) of smokeless powder and 10,000 small arms primers for hand loading of small arms ammunition for personal consumption.

    5. 5.The use of explosive materials by federal, state and local regulatory, law enforcement and fire agencies acting in their official capacities.

    6. 6.Special industrial explosive devices that in the aggregate contain less than 50 pounds (23 kg) of explosive materials.

    7. 7.The possession, storage and use of blank industrial-power load cartridges where packaged in accordance with DOTn packaging regulations.

    8. 8.Transportation in accordance with DOTn 49 CFR Parts 100–185.

    9. 9.Items preempted by federal regulations.

    5601.1.1 Explosive material standard.

    In addition to the requirements of this chapter, NFPA 495 shall govern the manufacture, transportation, storage, sale, handling and use of explosive materials.

    5601.1.2 Explosive material terminals.

    In addition to the requirements of this chapter, the operation of explosive material terminals shall conform to the provisions of NFPA 498.

    5601.1.3 Fireworks.

    The possession, manufacture, storage, sale, handling and use of fireworks are prohibited.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Storage and handling of fireworks as allowed in Section 5604.

    2. 2.Manufacture, assembly and testing of fireworks as allowed in Section 5605.

    3. 3.The use of fireworks for fireworks displays as allowed in Section 5608.

    4. 4.The possession, storage, sale, handling and use of specific types of Division 1.4G fireworks where allowed by applicable laws, ordinances and regulations, provided such fireworks and facilities comply with NFPA 1124, CPSC 16 CFR Parts 1500 and 1507, and DOTn 49 CFR Parts 100– 185, for consumer fireworks.

    5601.1.4 Rocketry.

    The storage, handling and use of model and high-power rockets shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 1122, NFPA 1125 and NFPA 1127.

    5601.1.5 Ammonium nitrate.

    The storage and handling of ammonium nitrate shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 400 and Chapter 63.

    Exception: Storage of ammonium nitrate in magazines with blasting agents shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 495.

    5601.2 Permit required.

    Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6 and regulated in accordance with this section.

    5601.2.1 Residential uses.

    Persons shall not keep or store, nor shall any permit be issued to keep or store, any explosives at any place of habitation, or within 100 feet (30 480 mm) thereof.

    Exception: Storage of smokeless propellant, black powder and small arms primers for personal use and not for resale in accordance with Section 5606.

    5601.2.2 Sale and retail display.

    Persons shall not construct a retail display nor offer for sale explosives, explosive materials or fireworks upon highways, sidewalks, public property or in Group A or E occupancies.

    5601.2.3 Permit restrictions.

    The fire code official is authorized to limit the quantity of explosives, explosive materials or fireworks permitted at a given location. Persons possessing a permit for storage of explosives at any place, shall not keep or store an amount greater than authorized in such permit. Only the kind of explosive specified in such a permit shall be kept or stored.

    5601.2.4 Financial responsibility.

    Before a permit is issued, as required by Section 5601.2, the applicant shall file with the jurisdiction a corporate surety bond in the principal sum of $100,000 or a public liability insurance policy for the same amount, for the purpose of the payment of all damages to persons or property that arise from, or are caused by, the conduct of any act authorized by the permit upon which any judicial judgment results. The fire code official is authorized to specify a greater or lesser amount when, in his or her opinion, conditions at the location of use indicate a greater or lesser amount is required. Government entities shall be exempt from this bond requirement.

    5601.2.4.1 Blasting.

    Before approval to do blasting is issued, the applicant for approval shall file a bond or submit a certificate of insurance in such form, amount and coverage as determined by the legal department of the jurisdiction to be adequate in each case to indemnify the jurisdiction against any and all damages arising from permitted blasting.

    5601.2.4.2 Fireworks display.

    The permit holder shall furnish a bond or certificate of insurance in an amount deemed adequate by the fire code official for the payment of all potential damages to a person or persons or to property by reason of the permitted display, and arising from any acts of the permit holder, the agent, employees or subcontractors.

    5601.3 Prohibited explosives.

    Permits shall not be issued or renewed for possession, manufacture, storage, handling, sale or use of the following materials and such materials currently in storage or use shall be disposed of in an approved manner.

    1. 1.Liquid nitroglycerin.

    2. 2.Dynamite containing more than 60-percent liquid explosive ingredient.

    3. 3.Dynamite having an unsatisfactory absorbent or one that permits leakage of a liquid explosive ingredient under any conditions liable to exist during storage.

    4. 4.Nitrocellulose in a dry and uncompressed condition in a quantity greater than 10 pounds (4.54 kg) of net weight in one package.

    5. 5.Fulminate of mercury in a dry condition and fulminate of all other metals in any condition except as a component of manufactured articles not hereinafter forbidden.

    6. 6.Explosive compositions that ignite spontaneously or undergo marked decomposition, rendering the products of their use more hazardous, when subjected for 48 consecutive hours or less to a temperature of 167°F (75°C).

    7. 7.New explosive materials until approved by DOTn, except that permits are allowed to be issued to educational, governmental or industrial laboratories for instructional or research purposes.

    8. 8.Explosive materials forbidden for transport by DOTn.

    9. 9.Explosive materials containing an ammonium salt and a chlorate.

    10. 10.Explosives not packed or marked as required by DOTn 49 CFR Parts 100–185.

    Exception: Gelatin dynamite.

    5601.4 Qualifications.

    Persons in charge of magazines, blasting, fireworks display or pyrotechnic special effect operations shall not be under the influence of alcohol or drugs that impair sensory or motor skills, shall be not less than 21 years of age and shall demonstrate knowledge of all safety precautions related to the storage, handling or use of explosives, explosive materials or fireworks.

    5601.5 Supervision.

    The fire code official is authorized to require operations permitted under the provisions of Section 5601.2 to be supervised at any time by the fire code official in order to determine compliance with all safety and fire regulations.

    5601.6 Notification.

    Whenever a new explosive material storage or manufacturing site is established, including a temporary job site, the local law enforcement agency, fire department and local emergency planning committee shall be notified 48 hours in advance, not including Saturdays, Sundays and holidays, of the type, quantity and location of explosive materials at the site.

    5601.7 Seizure.

    The fire code official is authorized to remove or cause to be removed or disposed of in an approved manner, at the expense of the owner, explosives, explosive materials or fireworks offered or exposed for sale, stored, possessed or used in violation of this chapter.

    5601.8 Establishment of quantity of explosives and distances.

    The quantity of explosives and distances shall be in accordance with Sections 5601.8.1 and 5601.8.1.1.

    5601.8.1 Quantity of explosives.

    The quantity-distance (Q-D) tables in Sections 5604.5 and 5605.3 shall be used to provide the minimum separation distances from potential explosion sites as set forth in Tables 5601.8.1(1) through 5601.8.1(3). The classification and the weight of the explosives are primary characteristics governing the use of these tables. The net explosive weight shall be determined in accordance with Sections 5601.8.1.1 through 5601.8.1.4.

    TABLE 5601.8.1(1)

    APPLICATION OF SEPARATION DISTANCE (Q-D) TABLES—DIVISION 1.1, 1.2 AND 1.5 EXPLOSIVESa, b, c

    ITEMMAGAZINEQ-DOPERATING BUILDINGQ-DINHABITED BUILDINGQ-DPUBLIC TRAFFIC ROUTEQ-D
    MagazineTable 5604.5.2(1)IMDTable 5605.3ILD or IPDTable 5604.5.2(1)IBDTable 5604.5.2(1)PTR
    Operating buildingTable 5604.5.2(1)ILD or IPDTable 5605.3ILD or IPDTable 5604.5.2(1)IBDTable 5604.5.2(1)PTR
    Inhabited buildingTable 5604.5.2(1)IBDTable 5604.5.2(1)IBDNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot Applicable
    Public traffic routeTable 5604.5.2(1)PTRTable 5604.5.2(1)PTRNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot Applicable

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    1. a.The minimum separation distance (Do) shall be 60 feet. Where a building or magazine containing explosives is barricaded, the minimum distance shall be 30 feet.

    2. b.Linear interpolation between tabular values in the referenced Q-D tables shall not be allowed. Nonlinear interpolation of the values shall be allowed subject to an approved technical opinion and report prepared in accordance with Section 104.7.2.

    3. c.For definitions of Quantity-Distance abbreviations IBD, ILD, IMD, IPD and PTR, see Chapter 2.

    TABLE 5601.8.1(2)

    APPLICATION OF SEPARATION DISTANCE (Q-D) TABLES—DIVISION 1.3 EXPLOSIVESa, b, c

    ITEMMAGAZINEQ-DOPERATING BUILDINGQ-DINHABITED BUILDINGQ-DPUBLIC TRAFFIC ROUTEQ-D
    MagazineTable 5604.5.2(2)IMDTable 5604.5.2(2)ILD or IPDTable 5604.5.2(2)IBDTable 5604.5.2(2)PTR
    Operating buildingTable 5604.5.2(2)ILD or IPDTable 5604.5.2(2)ILD or IPDTable 5604.5.2(2)IBDTable 5604.5.2(2)PTR
    Inhabited buildingTable 5604.5.2(2)IBDTable 5604.5.2(2)IBDNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot Applicable
    Public traffic routeTable 5604.5.2(2)PTRTable 5604.5.2(2)PTRNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot Applicable

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    1. a.The minimum separation distance (Do) shall be not less than 50 feet.

    2. b.Linear interpolation between tabular values in the referenced Q-D table shall be allowed.

    3. c.For definitions of Quantity-Distance abbreviations IBD, ILD, IMD, IPD and PTR, see Chapter 2.

    TABLE 5601.8.1(3)

    APPLICATION OF SEPARATION DISTANCE (Q-D) TABLES—DIVISION 1.4 EXPLOSIVESa, b, c, d

    ITEMMAGAZINEQ-DOPERATING BUILDINGQ-DINHABITED BUILDINGQ-DPUBLIC TRAFFIC ROUTEQ-D
    MagazineTable 5604.5.2(3)IMDTable 5604.5.2(3)ILD or IPDTable 5604.5.2(3)IBDTable 5604.5.2(3)PTR
    Operating buildingTable 5604.5.2(3)ILD or IPDTable 5604.5.2(3)ILD or IPDTable 5604.5.2(3)IBDTable 5604.5.2(3)PTR
    Inhabited buildingTable 5604.5.2(3)IBDTable 5604.5.2(3)IBDNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot Applicable
    Public traffic routeTable 5604.5.2(3)PTRTable 5604.5.2(3)PTRNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNot Applicable

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    1. a.The minimum separation distance (Do) shall be not less than 50 feet.

    2. b.Linear interpolation between tabular values in the referenced Q-D table shall not be allowed.

    3. c.For definitions of Quantity-Distance abbreviations IBD, ILD, IMD, IPD and PTR, see Chapter 2.

    4. d.This table shall not apply to consumer fireworks, 1.4G.

    5601.8.1.1 Mass-detonating explosives (Division 1.1, 1.2 or 1.5).

    The total net explosive weight of mass-detonating explosives (Division 1.1, 1.2 or 1.5) shall be used. See Table 5604.5.2(1) or Table 5605.3 as appropriate.

    Exception: Where the TNT equivalence of the explosive material has been determined, the equivalence is allowed to be used to establish the net explosive weight.

    5601.8.1.2 Nonmass-detonating explosives (excluding Division 1.4).

    Nonmass-detonating explosives (excluding Division 1.4) shall be as follows:

    1. 1.Division 1.3 propellants. The total weight of the propellants alone shall be the net explosive weight. The net weight of propellant shall be used. See Table 5604.5.2(2).

    2. 2.Combinations of bulk metal powder and pyrotechnic compositions. The sum of the net weights of metal powders and pyrotechnic compositions in the containers shall be the net explosive weight. See Table 5604.5.2(2).

    5601.8.1.3 Combinations of mass-detonating and nonmass-detonating explosives (excluding Division 1.4).

    Combination of mass-detonating and nonmassdetonating explosives (excluding Division 1.4) shall be as follows:

    1. 1.Where Division 1.1 and 1.2 explosives are located in the same site, determine the distance for the total quantity considered first as 1.1 and then as 1.2. The required distance is the greater of the two. Where the Division 1.1 requirements are controlling and the TNT equivalence of the 1.2 is known, the TNT equivalent weight of the 1.2 items shall be allowed to be added to the total explosive weight of Division 1.1 items to determine the net explosive weight for Division 1.1 distance determination. See Table 5604.5.2(2) or Table 5605.3 as appropriate.

    2. 2.Where Division 1.1 and 1.3 explosives are located in the same site, determine the distances for the total quantity considered first as 1.1 and then as 1.3. The required distance is the greater of the two. Where the Division 1.1 requirements are controlling and the TNT equivalence of the 1.3 is known, the TNT equivalent weight of the 1.3 items shall be allowed to be added to the total explosive weight of Division 1.1 items to determine the net explosive weight for Division 1.1 distance determination. See Table 5604.5.2(1), 5604.5.2(2) or 5605.3, as appropriate.

    3. 3.Where Division 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3 explosives are located in the same site, determine the distances for the total quantity considered first as 1.1, next as 1.2 and finally as 1.3. The required distance is the greatest of the three. As allowed by paragraphs 1 and 2 above, TNT equivalent weights for 1.2 and 1.3 items are allowed to be used to determine the net weight of explosives for Division 1.1 distance determination. Table 5604.5.2(1) or 5605.3 shall be used where TNT equivalency is used to establish the net explosive weight.

    4. 4.For composite pyrotechnic items Division 1.1 and Division 1.3, the sum of the net weights of the pyrotechnic composition and the explosives involved shall be used. See Tables 5604.5.2(1) and 5604.5.2(2).

    5601.8.1.4 Moderate fire—no blast hazards (Division 1.4).

    For Division 1.4 explosives, the total weight of the explosive material alone is the net weight. The net weight of the explosive material shall be used.

    SECTION5602
    DEFINITIONS

    5602.1 Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    AMMONIUM NITRATE.

    BARRICADE.

     Artificial barricade.

     Natural barricade.

    BARRICADED.

    BLAST AREA.

    BLAST SITE.

    BLASTER.

    BLASTING AGENT.

    BULLET RESISTANT.

    DETONATING CORD.

    DETONATION.

    DETONATOR.

    DISCHARGE SITE.

    DISPLAY SITE.

    EXPLOSIVE.

     High explosive.

     Low explosive.

     Mass-detonating explosives.

     UN/DOTn Class 1 explosives.

      Division 1.1.

      Division 1.2.

      Division 1.3.

      Division 1.4.

      Division 1.5.

      Division 1.6.

    EXPLOSIVE MATERIAL.

    FALLOUT AREA.

    FIREWORKS.

     Fireworks, 1.4G.

     Fireworks, 1.3G.

    FIREWORKS DISPLAY.

    HIGHWAY.

    INHABITED BUILDING.

    MAGAZINE.

     Indoor.

     Type 1.

     Type 2.

     Type 3.

     Type 4.

     Type 5.

    MORTAR.

    NET EXPLOSIVE WEIGHT (net weight).

    OPERATING BUILDING.

    OPERATING LINE.

    PLOSOPHORIC MATERIAL.

    PROXIMATE AUDIENCE.

    PUBLIC TRAFFIC ROUTE (PTR).

    PYROTECHNIC ARTICLE.

    PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION.

    PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL EFFECT.

    PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL-EFFECT MATERIAL.

    PYROTECHNICS.

    QUANTITY-DISTANCE (Q-D).

     Inhabited building distance (IBD).

     Intermagazine distance (IMD).

     Intraline distance (ILD) or Intraplant distance (IPD).

     Minimum separation distance (Do).

    RAILWAY.

    READY BOX.

    SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION.

    SMALL ARMS PRIMERS.

    SMOKELESS PROPELLANTS.

    SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL EXPLOSIVE DEVICE.

    THEFT RESISTANT.

    SECTION5603
    RECORD KEEPING AND REPORTING

    5603.1 General.

    Records of the receipt, handling, use or disposal of explosive materials, and reports of any accidents, thefts or unauthorized activities involving explosive materials shall conform to the requirements of this section.

    5603.2 Transaction record.

    The permittee shall maintain a record of all transactions involving receipt, removal, use or disposal of explosive materials. Such records shall be maintained for a period of 5 years.

    Exception: Where only Division 1.4G (consumer fireworks) are handled, records need only be maintained for a period of 3 years.

    5603.3 Loss, theft or unauthorized removal.

    The loss, theft or unauthorized removal of explosive materials from a magazine or permitted facility shall be reported to the fire code official, local law enforcement authorities and the U.S. Department of Treasury, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives within 24 hours.

    Exception: Loss of Division 1.4G (consumer fireworks) need not be reported to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives.

    5603.4 Accidents.

    Accidents involving the use of explosives, explosive materials and fireworks that result in injuries or property damage shall be reported to the fire code official immediately.

    5603.5 Misfires.

    The pyrotechnic display operator or blaster in charge shall keep a record of all aerial shells that fail to fire or charges that fail to detonate.

    5603.6 Hazard communication.

    Manufacturers of explosive materials and fireworks shall maintain records of chemicals, chemical compounds and mixtures required by DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1200, and Section 407.

    5603.7 Safety rules.

    Current safety rules covering the operation of magazines, as described in Section 5604.7, shall be posted on the interior of the magazine in a visible location.

    SECTION5604
    EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS
    STORAGE AND HANDLING

    5604.1 General.

    Storage of explosives and explosive materials, small arms ammunition, small arms primers, propellant-actuated cartridges and smokeless propellants in magazines shall comply with the provisions of this section.

    5604.2 Magazine required.

    Explosives and explosive materials, and Division 1.3G fireworks shall be stored in magazines constructed, located, operated and maintained in accordance with the provisions of Section 5604 and NFPA 495 or NFPA 1124.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Storage of fireworks at display sites in accordance with Section 5608.5 and NFPA 1123 or NFPA 1126.

    2. 2.Portable or mobile magazines not exceeding 120 square feet (11 m2) in area shall not be required to comply with the requirements of the International Building Code.

    5604.3 Magazines.

    The storage of explosives and explosive materials in magazines shall comply with Table 5604.3.

    TABLE 5604.3

    STORAGE AMOUNTS AND MAGAZINE REQUIREMENTS FOR EXPLOSIVES, EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS AND FIREWORKS, 1.3G MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA

    NEW UN/DOTn DIVISIONOLD DOTn CLASSATF/OSHA CLASSINDOORa (pounds)OUTDOOR (pounds)MAGAZINE TYPE REQUIRED
    UnprotectedCabinetSprinklersSprinklers & cabinet12345
    1.1bAHigh00121XXX
    1.2AHigh00121XXX
    1.2BLow00111XXXX
    1.3BLow005101XXXX
    1.4cBLow00501001XXXX
    1.5CLow00121XXXX
    1.5Blasting AgentBlasting Agent00121XXXXX
    1.6Not ApplicableNot Applicable00121XXXXX

    For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 pound per gallon = 0.12 kg per liter, 1 ounce = 28.35 g.

    1. a.A factor of 10 pounds per gallon shall be used for converting pounds (solid) to gallons (liquid) in accordance with Section 5003.1.2.

    2. b.Black powder shall be stored in a Type 1, 2, 3 or 4 magazine as provided for in Section 5604.3.1.

    3. c.This table shall not apply to consumer fireworks, 1.4G.

    5604.3.1 High explosives.

    Explosive materials classified as Division 1.1 or 1.2 or formerly classified as Class A by the U.S. Department of Transportation shall be stored in Type 1, 2 or 3 magazines.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Black powder shall be stored in a Type 1, 2, 3 or 4 magazine.

    2. 2.Cap-sensitive explosive material that is demonstrated not to be bullet sensitive shall be stored in a Type 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 magazine.

    5604.3.2 Low explosives.

    Explosive materials that are not cap sensitive shall be stored in a Type 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 magazine.

    5604.3.3 Detonating cord.

    For quantity and distance purposes, detonating cord of 50 grains per foot shall be calculated as equivalent to 8 pounds (4 kg) of high explosives per 1,000 feet (305 m). Heavier or lighter core loads shall be rated proportionally.

    5604.4 Prohibited storage.

    Detonators shall be stored in a separate magazine for blasting supplies and shall not be stored in a magazine with other explosive materials.

    5604.5 Location.

    The use of magazines for storage of explosives and explosive materials shall comply with Sections 5604.5.1 through 5604.5.3.3.

    5604.5.1 Indoor magazines.

    The use of indoor magazines for storage of explosives and explosive materials shall comply with the requirements of Sections 5604.5.1.1 through 5604.5.1.7.

    5604.5.1.1 Use.

    The use of indoor magazines for storage of explosives and explosive materials shall be limited to occupancies of Group F, H, M or S, and research and development laboratories.

    5604.5.1.2 Construction.

    Indoor magazines shall comply with the following construction requirements:

    1. 1.Construction shall be fire resistant and theft resistant.

    2. 2.Exterior shall be painted red.

    3. 3.Base shall be fitted with wheels, casters or rollers to facilitate removal from the building in an emergency.

    4. 4.Lid or door shall be marked with conspicuous white lettering not less than 3 inches (76 mm) high and minimum 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) stroke, reading EXPLOSIVES—KEEP FIRE AWAY.

    5. 5.The least horizontal dimension shall not exceed the clear width of the entrance door.

    5604.5.1.3 Quantity limit.

    Not more than 50 pounds (23 kg) of explosives or explosive materials shall be stored within an indoor magazine.

    Exception: Day boxes used for the storage of in-process material in accordance with Section 5605.6.4.1.

    5604.5.1.4 Prohibited use.

    Indoor magazines shall not be used within buildings containing Group R occupancies.

    5604.5.1.5 Location.

    Indoor magazines shall be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of an entrance and only on floors at or having ramp access to the exterior grade level.

    5604.5.1.6 Number.

    Not more than two indoor magazines shall be located in the same building. Where two such magazines are located in the same building, one magazine shall be used solely for the storage of not more than 5,000 detonators.

    5604.5.1.7 Separation distance.

    Where two magazines are located in the same building, they shall be separated by a distance of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm).

    5604.5.2 Outdoor magazines.

    Outdoor magazines other than Type 3 shall be located so as to comply with Table 5604.5.2(2) or 5604.5.2(3) as set forth in Tables 5601.8.1(1) through 5601.8.1(3). Where a magazine or group of magazines, as described in Section 5604.5.2.2, contains different classes of explosive materials, and Division 1.1 materials are present, the required separations for the magazine or magazine group as a whole shall comply with Table 5604.5.2(2).

    TABLE 5604.5.2(1)

    AMERICAN TABLE OF DISTANCES FOR STORAGE OF EXPLOSIVES AS APPROVED BY THE INSTITUTE OF MAKERS OF EXPLOSIVES AND REVISED JUNE 1991a

    QUANTITY OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIALScDISTANCES IN FEET
    Inhabited buildingsPublic highways with traffic volume less than 3,000 vehicles per dayPublic highways with traffic volume greater than 3,000 vehicles per day and passenger railwaysSeparation of magazinesd
    Pounds overPounds not overBarricadedUnbarricadedBarricadedUnbarricadedBarricadedUnbarricadedBarricadedUnbarricaded
    0570140306051102612
    51090180357064128816
    10201102204590811621020
    203012525050100931861122
    3040140280551101032061224
    4050150300601201102201428
    5075170340701401272541530
    75100190380751501392781632
    100125200400801601503001836
    125150215430851701593181938
    150200235470951901753502142
    2002502555101052101893782346
    2503002705401102202014022448
    3004002955901202402214422754
    4005003206401302602384762958
    5006003406801352702535063162
    6007003557101452902665323264
    7008003757501503002785563366
    8009003907801553102895783570
    9001,0004008001603203006003672
    1,0001,2004258501653303186363978
    1,2001,4004509001703403366724182
    1,4001,6004709401753503517024386
    1,6001,8004909801803603667324488
    1,8002,0005051,0101853703787564590
    2,0002,5005451,0901903804088164998
    2,5003,0005801,16019539043286452104
    3,0004,0006351,27021042047494858116
    4,0005,0006851,3702254505131,02661122
    5,0006,0007301,4602354705461,09265130
    6,0007,0007701,5402454905731,14668136
    7,0008,0008001,6002505006001,20072144
    8,0009,0008351,6702555106241,24875150
    9,00010,0008651,7302605206451,29078156
    10,00012,0008751,7502705406871,37482164
    12,00014,0008851,7702755507231,44687174
    14,00016,0009001,8002805607561,51290180
    16,00018,0009401,8802855707861,57294188
    18,00020,0009751,9502905808131,62698196
    20,00025,0001,0552,0003156308761,752105210
    25,00030,0001,1302,0003406809331,866112224
    30,00035,0001,2052,0003607209811,962119238
    35,00040,0001,2752,0003807601,0262,000124248
    40,00045,0001,3402,0004008001,0682,000129258
    45,00050,0001,4002,0004208401,1042,000135270
    50,00055,0001,4602,0004408801,1402,000140280
    55,00060,0001,5152,0004559101,1732,000145290
    60,00065,0001,5652,0004709401,2062,000150300
    65,00070,0001,6102,0004859701,2362,000155310
    70,00075,0001,6552,0005001,0001,2632,000160320
    75,00080,0001,6952,0005101,0201,2932,000165330
    80,00085,0001,7302,0005201,0401,3172,000170340
    85,00090,0001,7602,0005301,0601,3442,000175350
    90,00095,0001,7902,0005401,0801,3682,000180360
    95,000100,0001,8152,0005451,0901,3922,000185370
    100,000110,0001,8352,0005501,1001,4372,000195390
    110,000120,0001,8552,0005551,1101,4792,000205410
    120,000130,0001,8752,0005601,1201,5212,000215430
    130,000140,0001,8902,0005651,1301,5572,000225450
    140,000150,0001,9002,0005701,1401,5932,000235470
    150,000160,0001,9352,0005801,1601,6292,000245490
    160,000170,0001,9652,0005901,1801,6622,000255510
    170,000180,0001,9902,0006001,2001,6952,000265530
    180,000190,0002,0102,0106051,2101,7252,000275550
    190,000200,0002,0302,0306101,2201,7552,000285570
    200,000210,0002,0552,0556201,2401,7822,000295590
    210,000230,0002,1002,1006351,2701,8362,000315630
    230,000250,0002,1552,1556501,3001,8902,000335670
    250,000275,0002,2152,2156701,3401,9502,000360720
    275,000300,000b2,2752,2756901,3802,0002,000385770

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.

    1. a.This table applies only to the manufacture and permanent storage of commercial explosive materials. It is not applicable to transportation of explosives or any handling or temporary storage necessary or incident thereto. It is not intended to apply to bombs, projectiles or other heavily encased explosives.

    2. b.Storage in excess of 300,000 pounds of explosive materials in one magazine is not allowed.

    3. c.Where a manufacturing building on an explosive materials plant site is designed to contain explosive materials, such building shall be located with respect to its proximity to inhabited buildings, public highways and passenger railways based on the maximum quantity of explosive materials permitted to be in the building at one time.

    4. d.Where two or more storage magazines are located on the same property, each magazine shall comply with the minimum distances specified from inhabited buildings, railways and highways, and, in addition, they should be separated from each other by not less than the distances shown for separation of magazines, except that the quantity of explosives in detonator magazines shall govern in regard to the spacing of said detonator magazines from magazines containing other explosive materials. Where any two or more magazines are separated from each other by less than the specified separation of magazines distances, then two or more such magazines, as a group, shall be considered as one magazine, and the total quantity of explosive materials stored in such group shall be treated as if stored in a single magazine located on the site of any magazine in the group and shall comply with the minimum distances specified from other magazines, inhabited buildings, railways and highways.

    TABLE 5604.5.2(2)

    TABLE OF DISTANCES (Q-D) FOR BUILDINGS AND MAGAZINES CONTAINING EXPLOSIVES—DIVISION 1.3 MASS-FIRE HAZARDa, b, c

    QUANTITY OF DIVISION 1.3 EXPLOSIVES (NET EXPLOSIVES WEIGHT)DISTANCES IN FEET
    Pounds overPounds not overInhabited Building Distance (IBD)Distance to Public Traffic Route (PTR)Intermagazine Distance (IMD)Intraline Distance (ILD) or Intraplant Distance (IPD)
    01,00075755050
    1,0005,0001151157575
    5,00010,000150150100100
    10,00020,000190190125125
    20,00030,000215215145145
    30,00040,000235235155155
    40,00050,000250250165165
    50,00060,000260260175175
    60,00070,000270270185185
    70,00080,000280280190190
    80,00090,000295295195195
    90,000100,000300300200200
    100,000200,000375375250250
    200,000300,000450450300300

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg

    1. a.Black powder, where stored in magazines, is defined as low explosive by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATF).

    2. b.For quantities less than 1,000 pounds, the required distances are those specified for 1,000 pounds. The use of lesser distances is allowed where supported by approved test data and/or analysis.

    3. c.Linear interpolation of explosive quantities between table entries is allowed.

    TABLE 5604.5.2(3)

    TABLE OF DISTANCES (Q-D) FOR BUILDINGS AND MAGAZINES CONTAINING EXPLOSIVES—DIVISION 1.4c

    QUANTITY OF DIVISION 1.4 EXPLOSIVES (NET EXPLOSIVES WEIGHT)DISTANCES IN FEET
    Pounds overPounds not overInhabited Building Distance (IBD)Distance to Public Traffic Route (PTR)Intermagazine Distancea, b (IMD)Intraline Distance (ILD) or Intraplant Distancea (IPD)
    50Not Limited1001005050

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.

    1. a.A separation distance of 100 feet is required for buildings of other than Type I or Type II construction as defined in the International Building Code.

    2. b.For earth-covered magazines, specific separation is not required.

      1. 1. Earth cover material used for magazines shall be relatively cohesive. Solid or wet clay and similar types of soil are too cohesive and shall not be used. Soil shall be free from unsanitary organic matter, trash, debris and stones heavier than 10 pounds or larger than 6 inches in diameter. Compaction and surface preparation shall be provided, as necessary, to maintain structural integrity and avoid erosion. Where cohesive material cannot be used, as in sandy soil, the earth cover over magazines shall be finished with a suitable material to ensure structural integrity.

      2. 2. The earth fill or earth cover between earth-covered magazines shall be either solid or sloped, in accordance with the requirements of other construction features, but not less than 2 feet of earth cover shall be maintained over the top of each magazines. To reduce erosion and facilitate maintenance operations, the cover shall have a slope of 2 horizontal to 1 vertical.

    3. c.Restricted to articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives regulations, or unpacked articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles. This table shall not apply to consumer fireworks, 1.4G.

    5604.5.2.1 Separation.

    Where two or more storage magazines are located on the same property, each magazine shall comply with the minimum distances specified from inhabited buildings, public transportation routes and operating buildings. Magazines shall be separated from each other by not less than the intermagazine distances (IMD) shown for the separation of magazines.

    5604.5.2.2 Grouped magazines.

    Where two or more magazines are separated from each other by less than the intermagazine distances (IMD), such magazines as a group shall be considered as one magazine and the total quantity of explosive materials stored in the group shall be treated as if stored in a single magazine. The location of the group of magazines shall comply with the intermagazine distances (IMD) specified from other magazines or magazine groups, inhabited buildings (IBD), public transportation routes (PTR) and operating buildings (ILD or IPD) as required.

    5604.5.3 Special requirements for Type 3 magazines.

    Type 3 magazines shall comply with Sections 5604.5.3.1 through 5604.5.3.3.

    5604.5.3.1 Location.

    Wherever practicable, Type 3 magazines shall be located away from neighboring inhabited buildings, railways, highways and other magazines in accordance with Table 5604.5.2(2) or 5604.5.2(3) as applicable.

    5604.5.3.2 Supervision.

    Type 3 magazines shall be attended when explosive materials are stored within. Explosive materials shall be removed to appropriate storage magazines for unattended storage at the end of the work day.

    5604.5.3.3 Use.

    Not more than two Type 3 magazines shall be located at the same blasting site. Where two Type 3 magazines are located at the same blasting site, one magazine shall used solely for the storage of detonators.

    5604.6 Construction.

    Magazines shall be constructed in accordance with Sections 5604.6.1 through 5604.6.5.2.

    5604.6.1 Drainage.

    The ground around a magazine shall be graded so that water drains away from the magazine.

    5604.6.2 Heating.

    Magazines requiring heat shall be heated as prescribed in NFPA 495 by either hot water radiant heating within the magazine or by indirect warm air heating.

    5604.6.3 Lighting.

    Where lighting is necessary within a magazine, electric safety flashlights or electric safety lanterns shall be used, except as provided in NFPA 495.

    5604.6.4 Nonsparking materials.

    In other than Type 5 magazines, there shall not be exposed ferrous metal on the interior of a magazine containing packages of explosives.

    5604.6.5 Signs and placards.

    Property upon which Type 1 magazines and outdoor magazines of Types 2, 4 and 5 are located shall be posted with signs stating: EXPLOSIVES—KEEP OFF. These signs shall be of contrasting colors with a minimum letter height of 3 inches (76 mm) with a minimum brush stroke of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm). The signs shall be located to minimize the possibility of a bullet shot at the sign hitting the magazine.

    5604.6.5.1 Access road signs.

    At the entrance to explosive material manufacturing and storage sites, all access roads shall be posted with the following warning sign or other approved sign:

    DANGER!
    NEVER FIGHT EXPLOSIVE FIRES.
    EXPLOSIVES ARE STORED ON THIS SITE
    CALL _______.

    The sign shall be weather-resistant with a reflective surface and have lettering not less than 2 inches (51 mm) high.

    5604.6.5.2 Placards.

    Type 5 magazines containing Division 1.5 blasting agents shall be prominently placarded as required during transportation by DOTn 49 CFR Part 172 and DOTy 27 CFR Part 55.

    5604.7 Operation.

    Magazines shall be operated in accordance with Sections 5604.7.1 through 5604.7.9.

    5604.7.1 Security.

    Magazines shall be kept locked in the manner prescribed in NFPA 495 at all times except during placement or removal of explosives or inspection.

    5604.7.2 Open flames and lights.

    Smoking, matches, flame-producing devices, open flames, firearms and firearms cartridges shall not be allowed inside of or within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of magazines.

    5604.7.3 Brush.

    The area located around a magazine shall be kept clear of brush, dried grass, leaves, trash, debris and similar combustible materials for a distance of 25 feet (7620 mm).

    5604.7.4 Combustible storage.

    Combustible materials shall not be stored within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of magazines.

    5604.7.5 Unpacking and repacking explosive materials.

    Containers of explosive materials, except fiberboard containers, and packages of damaged or deteriorated explosive materials or fireworks shall not be unpacked or repacked inside or within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of a magazine or in close proximity to other explosive materials.

    5604.7.5.1 Storage of opened packages.

    Packages of explosive materials that have been opened shall be closed before being placed in a magazine.

    5604.7.5.2 Nonsparking tools.

    Tools used for the opening and closing of packages of explosive materials, other than metal slitters for opening paper, plastic or fiberboard containers, shall be made of nonsparking materials.

    5604.7.5.3 Disposal of packaging.

    Empty containers and paper and fiber packaging materials that previously contained explosive materials shall be disposed of or reused in a approved manner.

    5604.7.6 Tools and equipment.

    Metal tools, other than nonferrous transfer conveyors and ferrous metal conveyor stands protected by a coat of paint, shall not be stored in a magazine containing explosive materials or detonators.

    5604.7.7 Contents.

    Magazines shall be used exclusively for the storage of explosive materials, blasting materials and blasting accessories.

    5604.7.8 Compatibility.

    Corresponding grades and brands of explosive materials shall be stored together and in such a manner that the grade and brand marks are visible. Stocks shall be stored so as to be easily counted and checked. Packages of explosive materials shall be stacked in a stable manner not exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) in height.

    5604.7.9 Stock rotation.

    When explosive material is removed from a magazine for use, the oldest usable stocks shall be removed first.

    5604.8 Maintenance.

    Maintenance of magazines shall comply with Sections 5604.8.1 through 5604.8.3.

    5604.8.1 Housekeeping.

    Magazine floors shall be regularly swept and be kept clean, dry and free of grit, paper, empty packages and rubbish. Brooms and other cleaning utensils shall not have any spark-producing metal parts. Sweepings from magazine floors shall be disposed of in accordance with the manufacturers’ approved instructions.

    5604.8.2 Repairs.

    Explosive materials shall be removed from the magazine before making repairs to the interior of a magazine. Explosive materials shall be removed from the magazine before making repairs to the exterior of the magazine where there is a possibility of causing a fire. Explosive materials removed from a magazine under repair shall either be placed in another magazine or placed a safe distance from the magazine, where they shall be properly guarded and protected until repairs have been completed. Upon completion of repairs, the explosive materials shall be promptly returned to the magazine. Floors shall be cleaned before and after repairs.

    5604.8.3 Floors.

    Magazine floors stained with liquid shall be dealt with in accordance with instructions obtained from the manufacturer of the explosive material stored in the magazine.

    5604.9 Inspection.

    Magazines containing explosive materials shall be opened and inspected at maximum seven-day intervals. The inspection shall determine whether there has been an unauthorized or attempted entry into a magazine or an unauthorized removal of a magazine or its contents.

    5604.10 Disposal of explosive materials.

    Explosive materials shall be disposed of in accordance with Sections 5604.10.1 through 5604.10.7.

    5604.10.1 Notification.

    The fire code official shall be notified immediately where deteriorated or leaking explosive materials are determined to be dangerous or unstable and in need of disposal.

    5604.10.2 Deteriorated materials.

    Where an explosive material has deteriorated to an extent that it is in an unstable or dangerous condition, or when a liquid has leaked from an explosive material, the person in possession of such material shall immediately contact the material’s manufacturer to obtain disposal and handling instructions.

    5604.10.3 Qualified person.

    The work of destroying explosive materials shall be directed by persons experienced in the destruction of explosive materials.

    5604.10.4 Storage of misfires.

    Explosive materials and fireworks recovered from blasting or display misfires shall be placed in a magazine until an experienced person has determined the proper method for disposal.

    5604.10.5 Disposal sites.

    Sites for the destruction of explosive materials and fireworks shall be approved and located at the maximum practicable safe distance from inhabited buildings, public highways, operating buildings and all other exposures to ensure keeping air blast and ground vibration to a minimum. The location of disposal sites shall not be closer to magazines, inhabited buildings, railways, highways and other rights-of-way than is allowed by Tables 5604.5.2(1), 5604.5.2(2) and 5604.5.2(3). Where possible, barricades shall be utilized between the destruction site and inhabited buildings. Areas where explosives are detonated or burned shall be posted with adequate warning signs.

    5604.10.6 Reuse of site.

    Unless an approved burning site has been thoroughly saturated with water and has passed a safety inspection, 48 hours shall elapse between the completion of a burn and the placement of scrap explosive materials for a subsequent burn.

    5604.10.7 Personnel safeguards.

    Once an explosive burn operation has been started, personnel shall relocate to a safe location where adequate protection from air blast and flying debris is provided. Personnel shall not return to the burn area until the person in charge has inspected the burn site and determined that it is safe for personnel to return.

    SECTION5605
    MANUFACTURE, ASSEMBLY AND
    TESTING OF EXPLOSIVES, EXPLOSIVE
    MATERIALS AND FIREWORKS

    5605.1 General.

    The manufacture, assembly and testing of explosives, ammunition, blasting agents and fireworks shall comply with the requirements of this section and NFPA 495 or NFPA 1124.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.The hand loading of small arms ammunition prepared for personal use and not offered for resale.

    2. 2.The mixing and loading of blasting agents at blasting sites in accordance with NFPA 495.

    3. 3.The use of binary explosives or plosophoric materials in blasting or pyrotechnic special effects applications in accordance with NFPA 495 or NFPA 1126.

    5605.2 Emergency planning and preparedness.

    Emergency plans, emergency drills, employee training and hazard communication shall conform to the provisions of this section and Sections 404, 405, 406 and 407.

    5605.2.1 Hazardous Materials Management Plans and Inventory Statements required.

    Detailed Hazardous Materials Management Plans (HMMP) and Hazardous Materials Inventory Statements (HMIS) complying with the requirements of Section 407 shall be prepared and submitted to the local emergency planning committee, the fire code official and the local fire department.

    5605.2.2 Maintenance of plans.

    A copy of the required HMMP and HMIS shall be maintained on site and furnished to the fire code official on request.

    5605.2.3 Employee training.

    Workers who handle explosives or explosive charges or dispose of explosives shall be trained in the hazards of the materials and processes in which they are to be engaged and with the safety rules governing such materials and processes.

    5605.2.4 Emergency procedures.

    Approved emergency procedures shall be formulated for each plant and shall include personal instruction in any anticipated emergency. Personnel shall be made aware of an emergency warning signal.

    5605.3 Intraplant separation of operating buildings.

    Explosives manufacturing buildings and fireworks manufacturing buildings, including those where explosive charges are assembled, manufactured, prepared or loaded utilizing Division 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 or 1.5 explosives, shall be separated from all other buildings, including magazines, within the confines of the manufacturing plant, at a distance not less than those shown in Table 5605.3 or 5604.5.2(3), as appropriate.

    Exception: Fireworks manufacturing buildings separated in accordance with NFPA 1124.

    The quantity of explosives in an operating building shall be the net weight of all explosives contained therein. Distances shall be based on the hazard division requiring the greatest separation, unless the aggregate explosive weight is divided by approved walls or shields designed for that purpose. Where dividing a quantity of explosives into smaller stacks, a suitable barrier or adequate separation distance shall be provided to prevent propagation from one stack to another.

    Where distance is used as the sole means of separation within a building, such distance shall be established by testing. Testing shall demonstrate that propagation between stacks will not result. Barriers provided to protect against explosive effects shall be designed and installed in accordance with approved standards.

    TABLE 5605.3

    MINIMUM INTRALINE (INTRAPLANT) SEPARATION DISTANCES (ILD OR IPD) BETWEEN BARRICADED OPERATING BUILDINGS CONTAINING EXPLOSIVES—DIVISION 1.1, 1.2 OR 1.5 MASS-EXPLOSION HAZARDa

    NET EXPLOSIVE WEIGHT
    Pounds overPounds not overIntraline Distance (ILD) or Intraplant Distance (IPD) (feet)
    05030
    5010040
    10020050
    20030060
    30040065
    40050070
    50060075
    60070080
    70080085
    80090090
    9001,00095
    1,0001,500105
    1,5002,000115
    2,0003,000130
    3,0004,000140
    4,0005,000150
    5,0006,000160
    6,0007,000170
    7,0008,000180
    8,0009,000190
    9,00010,000200
    10,00015,000225
    15,00020,000245
    20,00025,000265
    25,00030,000280
    30,00035,000295
    35,00040,000310
    40,00045,000320
    45,00050,000330
    50,00055,000340
    55,00060,000350
    60,00065,000360
    65,00070,000370
    70,00075,000385
    75,00080,000390
    80,00085,000395
    85,00090,000400
    90,00095,000410
    95,000100,000415
    100,000125,000450
    125,000150,000475
    150,000175,000500
    175,000200,000525
    200,000225,000550
    225,000250,000575
    250,000275,000600
    275,000300,000635

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.

    1. a.Where a building or magazine containing explosives is not barricaded, the intraline distances shown in this table shall be doubled.

    5605.4 Separation of manufacturing operating buildings from inhabited buildings, public traffic routes and magazines.

    Where an operating building on an explosive materials plant site is designed to contain explosive materials, such a building shall be located away from inhabited buildings, public traffic routes and magazines in accordance with Table 5604.5.2(2) or 5604.5.2(3) as appropriate, based on the maximum quantity of explosive materials permitted to be in the building at one time (see Section 5601.8).

    Exception: Fireworks manufacturing buildings constructed and operated in accordance with NFPA 1124.

    5605.4.1 Determination of net explosive weight for operating buildings.

    In addition to the requirements of Section 5601.8 to determine the net explosive weight for materials stored or used in operating buildings, quantities of explosive materials stored in magazines located at distances less than intraline distances from the operating building shall be added to the contents of the operating building to determine the net explosive weight for the operating building.

    5605.4.1.1 Indoor magazines.

    The storage of explosive materials located in indoor magazines in operating buildings shall be limited to a net explosive weight not to exceed 50 pounds (23 kg).

    5605.4.1.2 Outdoor magazines with a net explosive weight less than 50 pounds.

    The storage of explosive materials in outdoor magazines located at less than intraline distances from operating buildings shall be limited to a net explosive weight not to exceed 50 pounds (23 kg).

    5605.4.1.3 Outdoor magazines with a net explosive weight greater than 50 pounds.

    The storage of explosive materials in outdoor magazines in quantities exceeding 50 pounds (23 kg) net explosive weight shall be limited to storage in outdoor magazines located not less than intraline distances from the operating building in accordance with Section 5604.5.2.

    5605.4.1.4 Net explosive weight of materials stored in combination indoor and outdoor magazines.

    The aggregate quantity of explosive materials stored in any combination of indoor magazines or outdoor magazines located at less than the intraline distances from an operating building shall not exceed 50 pounds (23 kg).

    5605.5 Buildings and equipment.

    Buildings or rooms that exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area of explosive materials shall be operated in accordance with this section and constructed in accordance with the requirements of the International Building Code for Group H occupancies.

    Exception: Fireworks manufacturing buildings constructed and operated in accordance with NFPA 1124.

    5605.5.1 Explosives dust.

    Explosives dust shall not be exhausted to the atmosphere.

    5605.5.1.1 Wet collector.

    When collecting explosives dust, a wet collector system shall be used. Wetting agents shall be compatible with the explosives. Collector systems shall be interlocked with process power supplies so that the process cannot continue without the collector systems also operating.

    5605.5.1.2 Waste disposal and maintenance.

    Explosives dust shall be removed from the collection chamber as often as necessary to prevent overloading. The entire system shall be cleaned at a frequency that will eliminate hazardous concentrations of explosives dust in pipes, tubing and ducts.

    5605.5.2 Exhaust fans.

    Squirrel cage blowers shall not be used for exhausting hazardous fumes, vapors or gases. Only nonferrous fan blades shall be used for fans located within the ductwork and through which hazardous materials are exhausted. Motors shall be located outside the duct.

    5605.5.3 Work stations.

    Work stations shall be separated by distance, barrier or other approved alternatives so that fire in one station will not ignite material in another work station. Where necessary, the operator shall be protected by a personnel shield located between the operator and the explosive device or explosive material being processed. This shield and its support shall be capable of withstanding a blast from the maximum amount of explosives allowed behind it.

    5605.6 Operations.

    Operations involving explosives shall comply with Sections 5605.6.1 through 5605.6.10.

    5605.6.1 Isolation of operations.

    Where the type of material and processing warrants, mechanical operations involving explosives in excess of 1 pound (0.454 kg) shall be carried on at isolated stations or at intraplant distances, and machinery shall be controlled from remote locations behind barricades or at separations so that workers will be at a safe distance while machinery is operating.

    5605.6.2 Static controls.

    The work area where the screening, grinding, blending and other processing of static-sensitive explosives or pyrotechnic materials is done shall be provided with approved static controls.

    5605.6.3 Approved containers.

    Bulk explosives shall be kept in approved, nonsparking containers when not being used or processed. Explosives shall not be stored or transported in open containers.

    5605.6.4 Quantity limits.

    The quantity of explosives at any particular work station shall be limited to that posted on the load limit signs for the individual work station. The total quantity of explosives for multiple workstations shall not exceed that established by the intraplant distances in Table 5605.3 or 5604.5.2(3), as appropriate.

    5605.6.4.1 Magazines.

    Magazines used for storage in processing areas shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section 5604.5.1. Explosive materials shall be removed to appropriate storage magazines for unattended storage at the end of the work day. The contents of indoor magazines shall be added to the quantity of explosives contained at individual workstations and the total quantity of material stored, processed or used shall be utilized to establish the intraplant separation distances indicated by Table 5605.3 or 5604.5.2(3), as appropriate.

    5605.6.5 Waste disposal.

    Approved receptacles with covers shall be provided for each location for disposing of waste material and debris. These waste receptacles shall be emptied and cleaned as often as necessary but not less than once each day or at the end of each shift.

    5605.6.6 Safety rules.

    General safety rules and operating instructions governing the particular operation or process conducted at that location shall be available at each location.

    5605.6.7 Personnel limits.

    The number of occupants in each process building and in each magazine shall not exceed the number necessary for proper conduct of production operations.

    5605.6.8 Pyrotechnic and explosive composition quantity limits.

    Not more than 500 pounds (227 kg) of pyrotechnic or explosive composition, including not more than 10 pounds (5 kg) of salute powder shall be allowed at one time in any process building or area. Compositions not in current use shall be kept in covered nonferrous containers.

    Exception: Composition that has been loaded or pressed into tubes or other containers as consumer fireworks.

    5605.6.9 Posting limits.

    The maximum number of occupants and maximum weight of pyrotechnic and explosive composition permitted in each process building shall be posted in a conspicuous location in each process building or magazine.

    5605.6.10 Heat sources.

    Fireworks, explosives or explosive charges in explosive materials manufacturing, assembly or testing shall not be stored near any source of heat.

    Exception: Approved drying or curing operations.

    5605.7 Maintenance.

    Maintenance and repair of explosives-manufacturing facilities and areas shall comply with Section 5604.8.

    5605.8 Explosive materials testing sites.

    Detonation of explosive materials or ignition of fireworks for testing purposes shall be done only in isolated areas at sites where distance, protection from missiles, shrapnel or flyrock, and other safeguards provides protection against injury to personnel or damage to property.

    5605.8.1 Protective clothing and equipment.

    Protective clothing and equipment shall be provided to protect persons engaged in the testing, ignition or detonation of explosive materials.

    5605.8.2 Site security.

    Where tests are being conducted or explosives are being detonated, only authorized persons shall be present. Areas where explosives are regularly or frequently detonated or burned shall be approved and posted with adequate warning signs. Warning devices shall be activated before burning or detonating explosives to alert persons approaching from any direction that they are approaching a danger zone.

    5605.9 Waste disposal.

    Disposal of explosive materials waste from manufacturing, assembly or testing operations shall be in accordance with Section 5604.10.

    SECTION5606
    SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION AND
    SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION COMPONENTS

    5606.1 General.

    Indoor storage and display of black powder, smokeless propellants, small arms primers and small arms ammunition shall comply with this section and NFPA 495.

    5606.2 Prohibited storage.

    Small arms ammunition shall not be stored together with Division 1.1, Division 1.2 or Division 1.3 explosives unless the storage facility is suitable for the storage of explosive materials.

    5606.3 Packages.

    Smokeless propellants shall be stored in approved shipping containers conforming to DOTn 49 CFR Part 173.

    5606.3.1 Repackaging.

    The bulk repackaging of smokeless propellants, black powder and small arms primers shall not be performed in retail establishments.

    5606.3.2 Damaged packages.

    Damaged containers shall not be repackaged.

    Exception: Approved repackaging of damaged containers of smokeless propellant into containers of the same type and size as the original container.

    5606.4 Storage in Group R occupancies.

    The storage of small arms ammunition components in Group R occupancies shall comply with Sections 5606.4.1 through 5606.4.3.

    5606.4.1 Black powder.

    Black powder for personal use in quantities not exceeding 20 pounds (9 kg) shall be stored in original containers in occupancies limited to Group R-3. Quantities exceeding 20 pounds (9 kg) shall not be stored in any Group R occupancy.

    5606.4.2 Smokeless propellants.

    Smokeless propellants for personal use in quantities not exceeding 20 pounds (9 kg) shall be stored in original containers in occupancies limited to Group R-3. Smokeless propellants in quantities exceeding 20 pounds (9 kg) but not exceeding 50 pounds (23 kg) and kept in a wooden box or cabinet having walls of not less than 1 inch (25 mm) nominal thickness shall be allowed to be stored in occupancies limited to Group R-3. Quantities exceeding these amounts shall not be stored in any Group R occupancy.

    5606.4.3 Small arms primers.

    Not more than 10,000 small arms primers shall be stored in occupancies limited to Group R-3.

    5606.5 Display and storage in Group M occupancies.

    The display and storage of small arms ammunition components in Group M occupancies shall comply with Sections 5606.5.1 through 5606.5.2.3.

    5606.5.1 Display.

    Display of small arms ammunition components in Group M occupancies shall comply with Sections 5606.5.1.1 through 5606.5.1.3.

    5606.5.1.1 Smokeless propellant.

    Not more than 20 pounds (9 kg) of smokeless propellants, in containers of 1 pound (0.454 kg) or less capacity each, shall be displayed in Group M occupancies.

    5606.5.1.2 Black powder.

    Not more than 1 pound (0.454 kg) of black powder shall be displayed in Group M occupancies.

    5606.5.1.3 Small arms primers.

    Not more than 10,000 small arms primers shall be displayed in Group M occupancies.

    5606.5.2 Storage.

    Storage of small arms ammunition components shall comply with Sections 5606.5.2.1 through 5606.5.2.3.

    5606.5.2.1 Smokeless propellant.

    Commercial stocks of smokeless propellants shall be stored as follows:

    1. 1.Quantities exceeding 20 pounds (9 kg), but not exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg) shall be stored in portable wooden boxes having walls of not less than 1 inch (25 mm) nominal thickness.

    2. 2.Quantities exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg), but not exceeding 800 pounds (363 kg), shall be stored in nonportable storage cabinets having walls not less than 1 inch (25 mm) nominal thickness. Not more than 400 pounds (182 kg) shall be stored in any one cabinet, and cabinets shall be separated by a distance of not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) or by a fire partition having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour.

    3. 3.Storage of quantities exceeding 800 pounds (363 kg), but not exceeding 5,000 pounds (2270 kg) in a building shall comply with all of the following:

      1. 3.1. The warehouse or storage room is unaccessible to unauthorized personnel.

      2. 3.2. Smokeless propellant shall be stored in nonportable storage cabinets having wood walls not less than 1 inch (25 mm) nominal thickness and having shelves with not more than 3 feet (914 mm) of separation between shelves.

      3. 3.3. Not more than 400 pounds (182 kg) is stored in any one cabinet.

      4. 3.4. Cabinets shall be located against walls of the storage room or warehouse with not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm) between cabinets.

      5. 3.5. The minimum required separation between cabinets shall be 20 feet (6096 mm) provided that barricades twice the height of the cabinets are attached to the wall, midway between each cabinet. The barricades must extend not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) outward, be firmly attached to the wall and be constructed of steel not less than 1/4 inch thick (6.4 mm), 2-inch (51 mm) nominal thickness wood, brick or concrete block.

      6. 3.6. Smokeless propellant shall be separated from materials classified as combustible liquids, flammable liquids, flammable solids or oxidizing materials by a distance of 25 feet (7620 mm) or by a fire partition having a fire-resistance rating of 1 hour.

      7. 3.7. The building shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    4. 4.Smokeless propellants not stored in accordance with Item 1, 2, or 3 above shall be stored in a Type 2 or 4 magazine in accordance with Section 5604 and NFPA 495.

    5606.5.2.2 Black powder.

    Commercial stocks of black powder in quantities less than 50 pounds (23 kg) shall be allowed to be stored in Type 2 or 4 indoor or outdoor magazines. Quantities greater than 50 pounds (23 kg) shall be stored in outdoor Type 2 or 4 magazines. Where black powder and smokeless propellants are stored together in the same magazine, the total quantity shall not exceed that permitted for black powder.

    5606.5.2.3 Small arms primers.

    Commercial stocks of small arms primers shall be stored as follows:

    1. 1.Quantities not to exceed 750,000 small arms primers stored in a building shall be arranged such that not more than 100,000 small arms primers are stored in any one pile and piles are not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) apart.

    2. 2.Quantities exceeding 750,000 small arms primers stored in a building shall comply with all of the following:

      1. 2.1.The warehouse or storage building shall not be accessible to unauthorized personnel.

      2. 2.2.Small arms primers shall be stored in cabinets. Not more than 200,000 small arms primers shall be stored in any one cabinet.

      3. 2.3.Shelves in cabinets shall have vertical separation of not less than 2 feet (610 mm).

      4. 2.4.Cabinets shall be located against walls of the warehouse or storage room with not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm) between cabinets. The minimum required separation between cabinets shall be allowed to be reduced to 20 feet (6096 mm) provided that barricades twice the height of the cabinets are attached to the wall, midway between each cabinet. The barricades shall be firmly attached to the wall and shall be constructed of steel not less than 1/4 inch thick (6.4 mm), 2-inch (51 mm) nominal thickness wood, brick or concrete block.

      5. 2.5.Small arms primers shall be separated from materials classified as combustible liquids, flammable liquids, flammable solids or oxidizing materials by a distance of 25 feet (7620 mm) by a fire partitionhaving a fire-resistance rating of 1 hour.

      6. 2.6.The building shall be protected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

    3. 3.Small arms primers not stored in accordance with Item 1 or 2 of this section shall be stored in a magazine meeting the requirements of Section 5604 and NFPA 495.

    SECTION5607
    BLASTING

    5607.1 General.

    Blasting operations shall be conducted only by approved, competent operators familiar with the required safety precautions and the hazards involved and in accordance with the provisions of NFPA 495.

    5607.2 Manufacturer’s instructions.

    Blasting operations shall be performed in accordance with the instructions of the manufacturer of the explosive materials being used.

    5607.3 Blasting in congested areas.

    Where blasting is done in a congested area or in close proximity to a structure, railway or highway, or any other installation, precautions shall be taken to minimize earth vibrations and air blast effects. Blasting mats or other protective means shall be used to prevent fragments from being thrown.

    5607.4 Restricted hours.

    Surface-blasting operations shall only be conducted during daylight hours between sunrise and sunset. Other blasting shall be performed during daylight hours unless otherwise approved by the fire code official.

    5607.5 Utility notification.

    Where blasting is being conducted in the vicinity of utility lines or rights-of-way, the blaster shall notify the appropriate representatives of the utilities not less than 24 hours in advance of blasting, specifying the location and intended time of such blasting. Verbal notices shall be confirmed with written notice.

    Exception: In an emergency situation, the time limit shall not apply where approved.

    5607.6 Electric detonator precautions.

    Precautions shall be taken to prevent accidental discharge of electric detonators from currents induced by radar and radio transmitters, lightning, adjacent power lines, dust and snow storms, or other sources of extraneous electricity.

    5607.7 Nonelectric detonator precautions.

    Precautions shall be taken to prevent accidental initiation of nonelectric detonators from stray currents induced by lightning or static electricity.

    5607.8 Blasting area security.

    During the time that holes are being loaded or are loaded with explosive materials, blasting agents or detonators, only authorized persons engaged in drilling and loading operations or otherwise authorized to enter the site shall be allowed at the blast site. The blast site shall be guarded or barricaded and posted. Blast site security shall be maintained until after the post-blast inspection has been completed.

    5607.9 Drill holes.

    Holes drilled for the loading of explosive charges shall be made and loaded in accordance with NFPA 495.

    5607.10 Removal of excess explosive materials.

    After loading for a blast is completed and before firing, excess explosive materials shall be removed from the area and returned to the proper storage facilities.

    5607.11 Initiation means.

    The initiation of blasts shall be by means conforming to the provisions of NFPA 495.

    5607.12 Connections.

    The blaster shall supervise the connecting of the blastholes and the connection of the loadline to the power source or initiation point. Connections shall be made progressively from the blasthole back to the initiation point.

    Blasting lead lines shall remain shunted (shorted) and shall not be connected to the blasting machine or other source of current until the blast is to be fired.

    5607.13 Firing control.

    A blast shall not be fired until the blaster has made certain that all surplus explosive materials are in a safe place in accordance with Section 5607.10, all persons and equipment are at a safe distance or under sufficient cover and that an adequate warning signal has been given.

    5607.14 Post-blast procedures.

    After the blast, the following procedures shall be observed.

    1. 1.No person shall return to the blast area until allowed to do so by the blaster in charge.

    2. 2.The blaster shall allow sufficient time for smoke and fumes to dissipate and for dust to settle before returning to or approaching the blast area.

    3. 3.The blaster shall inspect the entire blast site for misfires before allowing other personnel to return to the blast area.

    5607.15 Misfires.

    Where a misfire is suspected, all initiating circuits shall be traced and a search made for unexploded charges. Where a misfire is found, the blaster shall provide proper safeguards for excluding all personnel from the blast area. Misfires shall be reported to the blasting supervisor immediately. Misfires shall be handled under the direction of the person in charge of the blasting operation in accordance with NFPA 495.

    SECTION5608
    FIREWORKS DISPLAY

    5608.1 General.

    Outdoor fireworks displays, use of pyrotechnics before a proximate audience and pyrotechnic special effects in motion picture, television, theatrical and group entertainment productions shall comply with Sections 5608.2 through 5608.10 and NFPA 1123 or NFPA 1126.

    5608.2 Permit application.

    Prior to issuing permits for a fireworks display, plans for the fireworks display, inspections of the display site and demonstrations of the display operations shall be approved. A plan establishing procedures to follow and actions to be taken in the event that a shell fails to ignite in, or discharge from, a mortar or fails to function over the fallout area or other malfunctions shall be provided to the fire code official.

    5608.2.1 Outdoor fireworks displays.

    In addition to the requirements of Section 403, permit applications for outdoor fireworks displays using Division 1.3G fireworks shall include a diagram of the location at which the fireworks display will be conducted, including the site from which fireworks will be discharged; the location of buildings, highways, overhead obstructions and utilities; and the lines behind which the audience will be restrained.

    5608.2.2 Use of pyrotechnics before a proximate audience.

    Where the separation distances required in Section 5608.4 and NFPA 1123 are unavailable or cannot be secured, fireworks displays shall be conducted in accordance with NFPA 1126 for proximate audiences. Applications for use of pyrotechnics before a proximate audience shall include plans indicating the required clearances for spectators and combustibles, crowd control measures, smoke control measures and requirements for standby personnel and equipment where provision of such personnel or equipment is required by the fire code official.

    5608.3 Approved fireworks displays.

    Approved fireworks displays shall include only the approved fireworks 1.3G, fireworks 1.4G, fireworks 1.4S and pyrotechnic articles, 1.4G, which shall be handled by an approved, competent operator. The approved fireworks shall be arranged, located, discharged and fired in a manner that will not pose a hazard to property or endanger any person.

    5608.4 Clearance.

    Spectators, spectator parking areas, and dwellings, buildings or structures shall not be located within the display site.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.This provision shall not apply to pyrotechnic special effects and fireworks displays using Division 1.4G materials before a proximate audience in accordance with NFPA 1126.

    2. 2.This provision shall not apply to unoccupied dwellings, buildings and structures with the approval of the building owner and the fire code official.

    5608.5 Storage of fireworks at display site.

    The storage of fireworks at the display site shall comply with the requirements of this section and NFPA 1123 or NFPA 1126.

    5608.5.1 Supervision and weather protection.

    Beginning as soon as fireworks have been delivered to the display site, they shall not be left unattended.

    5608.5.2 Weather protection.

    Fireworks shall be kept dry after delivery to the display site.

    5608.5.3 Inspection.

    Shells shall be inspected by the operator or assistants after delivery to the display site. Shells having tears, leaks, broken fuses or signs of having been wet shall be set aside and shall not be fired. Aerial shells shall be checked for proper fit in mortars prior to discharge. Aerial shells that do not fit properly shall not be fired. After the fireworks display, damaged, deteriorated or dud shells shall either be returned to the supplier or destroyed in accordance with the supplier’s instructions and Section 5604.10.

    Exception: Minor repairs to fuses shall be allowed. For electrically ignited displays, attachment of electric matches and similar tasks shall be allowed.

    5608.5.4 Sorting and separation.

    After delivery to the display site and prior to the fireworks display, all shells shall be separated according to their size and their designation as salutes.

    Exception: For electrically fired displays, or displays where all shells are loaded into mortars prior to the show, there is no requirement for separation of shells according to their size or their designation as salutes.

    5608.5.5 Ready boxes.

    Display fireworks, 1.3G, that will be temporarily stored at the site during the fireworks display shall be stored in ready boxes located upwind and not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from the mortar placement and separated according to their size and their designation as salutes.

    Exception: For electrically fired fireworks displays, or fireworks displays where all shells are loaded into mortars prior to the show, there is no requirement for separation of shells according to their size, their designation as salutes or for the use of ready boxes.

    5608.6 Installation of mortars.

    Mortars for firing fireworks shells shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 1123 and shall be positioned so that shells are propelled away from spectators and over the fallout area. Under no circumstances shall mortars be angled toward the spectator viewing area. Prior to placement, mortars shall be inspected for defects, such as dents, bent ends, damaged interiors and damaged plugs. Defective mortars shall not be used.

    5608.7 Handling.

    Aerial shells shall be carried to mortars by the shell body. For the purpose of loading mortars, aerial shells shall be held by the thick portion of the fuse and carefully loaded into mortars.

    5608.8 Fireworks display supervision.

    Whenever in the opinion of the fire code official or the operator a hazardous condition exists, the fireworks display shall be discontinued immediately until such time as the dangerous situation is corrected.

    5608.9 Post-fireworks display inspection.

    After the fireworks display, the firing crew shall conduct an inspection of the fallout area for the purpose of locating unexploded aerial shells or live components. This inspection shall be conducted before public access to the site shall be allowed. Where fireworks are displayed at night and it is not possible to inspect the site thoroughly, the operator or designated assistant shall inspect the entire site at first light.

    A report identifying any shells that fail to ignite in, or discharge from, a mortar or fail to function over the fallout area or otherwise malfunction, shall be filed with the fire code official.

    5608.10 Disposal.

    Any shells found during the inspection required in Section 5608.9 shall not be handled until not less than 15 minutes have elapsed from the time the shells were fired. The fireworks shall then be doused with water and allowed to remain for not less than 5 additional minutes before being placed in a plastic bucket or fiberboard box. The disposal instructions of the manufacturer as provided by the fireworks supplier shall then be followed in disposing of the fireworks in accordance with Section 5604.10.

    SECTION5609
    TEMPORARY STORAGE OF
    CONSUMER FIREWORKS

    5609.1 General.

    Where the temporary storage of consumer fireworks, 1.4G is allowed by Section 5601.1.3, Exception 4, such storage shall comply with the applicable requirements of NFPA 1124.

    CHAPTER57
    FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS

    SECTION5701
    GENERAL

    5701.1 Scope and application.

    Prevention, control and mitigation of dangerous conditions related to storage, use, dispensing, mixing and handling of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 50 and this chapter.

    5701.2 Nonapplicability.

    This chapter shall not apply to liquids as otherwise provided in other laws or regulations or chapters of this code, including:

    1. 1.Specific provisions for flammable liquids in motor fuel-dispensing facilities, repair garages, airports and marinas in Chapter 23.

    2. 2.Medicines, foodstuffs, cosmetics and commercial or institutional products containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids and with the remainder of the solution not being flammable, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 L).

    3. 3.Quantities of alcoholic beverages in retail or wholesale sales or storage occupancies, providied that the liquids are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons (5 L).

    4. 4.Storage and use of fuel oil in tanks and containers connected to oil-burning equipment. Such storage and use shall be in accordance with Section 603. For abandonment of fuel oil tanks, this chapter applies.

    5. 5.Refrigerant liquids and oils in refrigeration systems (see Section 606).

    6. 6.Storage and display of aerosol products complying with Chapter 51.

    7. 7.Storage and use of liquids that do not have a fire point when tested in accordance with ASTM D 92.

    8. 8.Liquids with a flash point greater than 95°F (35°C) in a water-miscible solution or dispersion with a water and inert (noncombustible) solids content of more than 80 percent by weight, which do not sustain combustion.

    9. 9.Liquids without flash points that can be flammable under some conditions, such as certain halogenated hydrocarbons and mixtures containing halogenated hydrocarbons.

    10. 10.The storage of distilled spirits and wines in wooden barrels and casks.

    11. 11.Commercial cooking oil storage tank systems located within a building and designed and installed in accordance with Section 610 and NFPA 30.

    5701.3 Referenced documents.

    The applicable requirements of Chapter 50, other chapters of this code, the International Building Code and the International Mechanical Code pertaining to flammable liquids shall apply.

    5701.4 Permits.

    Permits shall be required as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7.

    5701.5 Material classification.

    Flammable and combustible liquids shall be classified in accordance with the definitions in Chapter 2.

    When mixed with lower flash-point liquids, Class II or III liquids are capable of assuming the characteristics of the lower flash-point liquids. Under such conditions, the appropriate provisions of this chapter for the actual flash point of the mixed liquid shall apply.

    When heated above their flash points, Class II and III liquids assume the characteristics of Class I liquids. Under such conditions, the appropriate provisions of this chapter for flammable liquids shall apply.

    SECTION5702
    DEFINITIONS

    5702.1 Definitions.

    The following terms are defined in Chapter 2:

    ALCOHOL-BASED HAND RUB.

    BULK PLANT OR TERMINAL.

    BULK TRANSFER.

    COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID.

     Class II.

     Class IIIA.

     Class IIIB.

    FIRE POINT.

    FLAMMABLE LIQUID.

     Class IA.

     Class IB.

     Class IC.

    FLASH POINT.

    FUEL LIMIT SWITCH.

    LIQUID STORAGE ROOM.

    LIQUID STORAGE WAREHOUSE.

    MOBILE FUELING.

    PROCESS TRANSFER.

    REFINERY.

    REMOTE EMERGENCY SHUTOFF DEVICE.

    REMOTE SOLVENT RESERVOIR.

    SOLVENT DISTILLATION UNIT.

    TANK, PRIMARY.

    SECTION5703
    GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

    5703.1 Electrical.

    Electrical wiring and equipment shall be installed and maintained in accordance with Section 605 and NFPA 70.

    5703.1.1 Classified locations for flammable liquids.

    Areas where flammable liquids are stored, handled, dispensed or mixed shall be in accordance with Table 5703.1.1. A classified area shall not extend beyond an unpierced floor, roof or other solid partition.

    The extent of the classified area is allowed to be reduced, or eliminated, where sufficient technical justification is provided to the fire code official that a concentration in the area in excess of 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL) cannot be generated.

    TABLE 5703.1.1

    CLASS I ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT LOCATIONSa

    LOCATIONGROUP D DIVISIONEXTENT OF CLASSIFIED AREA
    Underground tank fill opening1Pits, boxes or spaces below grade level, any part of which is within the Division 1 or 2  classified area.
    2Up to 18 inches above grade level within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from a loose-fill  connection and within a horizontal radius of 5 feet from a tight-fill connection.
    Vent—Discharging upward1Within 3 feet of open end of vent, extending in all directions.
    2Area between 3 feet and 5 feet of open end of vent, extending in all directions.
    Drum and container filling
     Outdoor or indoor with adequate ventilation1Within 3 feet of vent and fill opening, extending in all directions.
    2Area between 3 feet and 5 feet from vent of fill opening, extending in all directions. Also up  to 18 inches above floor or grade level within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from vent or fill  opening.
    Pumps, bleeders, withdrawal fittings, meters and similar devices
     Indoor2Within 5 feet of any edge of such devices, extending in all directions, and up to 3 feet above  floor or grade level within 25 feet horizontally from any edge of such devices.
     Outdoor2Within 3 feet of any edge of such devices, extending in all directions, and up to 18 inches  above floor or grade level within 10 feet horizontally from an edge of such devices.
    Pits
     Without mechanical ventilation1Entire area within pit if any part is within a Division 1 or 2 classified area.
     With mechanical ventilation2Entire area within pit if any part is within a Division 1 or 2 classified area.
     Containing valves, fittings or piping, and not within a Division   1 or 2 classified area2Entire pit.
    Drainage ditches, separators, impounding basins
    1 or 2Same as pits.
     Indoor
    2Area up to 18 inches above ditch, separator or basin, and up to 18 inches above grade  within 15 feet horizontal from any edge.
     Outdoor
    Tank vehicle and tank carb
     Loading through open dome1Within 3 feet of edge of dome, extending in all directions.
    2Area between 3 feet and 15 feet from edge of dome, extending in all directions.
     Loading through bottom connections with atmospheric venting1Within 3 feet of point of venting to atmosphere, extending in all directions.
    2Area between 3 feet and 15 feet from point of venting to atmosphere, extending in all  directions. Also up to 18 inches above grade within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from point of  loading connection.
    Tank vehicle and tank carb—continued
     Loading through closed dome with atmospheric venting1Within 3 feet of open end of vent, extending in all directions.
    2Area between 3 feet and 15 feet from open end of vent, extending in all directions, and within 3  feet of edge of dome, extending in all directions.
     Loading through closed dome with vapor control2Within 3 feet of point of connection of both fill and vapor lines, extending in all directions.
     Bottom loading with vapor control or any bottom unloading2Within 3 feet of point of connection, extending in all directions, and up to 18 inches above  grade within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from point of connection.
    Storage and repair garage for tank vehicles1Pits or spaces below floor level.
    2Area up to 18 inches above floor or grade level for entire storage or repair garage.
    Garages for other than tank vehiclesOrdinaryWhere there is an opening to these rooms within the extent of an outdoor classified area, the entire  room shall be classified the same as the area classification at the point of the opening.
    Outdoor drum storageOrdinary
    Indoor warehousing where there is no flammable liquid  transferOrdinaryWhere there is an opening to these rooms within the extent of an indoor classified area, the room  shall be classified the same as if the wall, curb or partition did not exist.
    1Area within 5 feet of any edge of such equipment, extending in all directions.
    Indoor equipment where flammable vapor/air mixtures  could exist under normal operations2Area between 5 feet and 8 feet of any edge of such equipment, extending in all directions, and the  area up to 3 feet above floor or grade level within 5 feet to 25 feet horizontally from any edge of  such equipment.c
    1Area within 3 feet of any edge of such equipment, extending in all directions.
    Outdoor equipment where flammable vapor/air mixtures  could exist under normal operations2Area between 3 feet and 8 feet of any edge of such equipment extending in all directions, and the  area up to 3 feet above floor or grade level within 3 feet to 10 feet horizontally from any edge of  such equipment.
    Tank—Above ground
     Shell, ends or roof and dike area1Area inside dike where dike height is greater than the distance from the tank to the dike for  more than 50 percent of the tank circumference.
    2Area within 10 feet from shell, ends or roof of tank. Area inside dikes to level of top of dike.
     Vent1Area within 5 feet of open end of vent, extending in all directions.
    2Area between 5 feet and 10 feet from open end of vent, extending in all directions.
     Floating roof1Area above the roof and within the shell.
    Office and restroomsOrdinaryWhere there is an opening to these rooms within the extent of an indoor classified location, the  room shall be classified the same as if the wall, curb or partition did not exist.

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    1. a.Locations as classified in NFPA 70.

    2. b.When classifying extent of area, consideration shall be given to the fact that tank cars or tank vehicles can be spotted at varying points. Therefore, the extremities of the loading or unloading positions shall be used.

    3. c.The release of Class I liquids can generate vapors to the extent that the entire building, and possibly a zone surrounding it, are considered a Class I, Division 2 location.

    5703.1.2 Classified locations for combustible liquids.

    Areas where Class II or III liquids are heated above their flash points shall have electrical installations in accordance with Section 5703.1.1.

    Exception: Solvent distillation units in accordance with Section 5705.4.

    5703.1.3 Other applications.

    The fire code official is authorized to determine the extent of the Class I electrical equipment and wiring location where a condition is not specifically covered by these requirements or NFPA 70.

    5703.2 Fire protection.

    Fire protection for the storage, use, dispensing, mixing, handling and on-site transportation of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with this chapter and applicable sections of Chapter 9.

    5703.2.1 Portable fire extinguishers and hose lines.

    Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with Section 906. Hose lines shall be provided in accordance with Section 905.

    5703.3 Site assessment.

    In the event of a spill, leak or discharge from a tank system, a site assessment shall be completed by the owner or operator of such tank system if the fire code official determines that a potential fire or explosion hazard exists. Such site assessments shall be conducted to ascertain potential fire hazards and shall be completed and submitted to the fire department within a time period established by the fire code official, not to exceed 60 days.

    5703.4 Spill control and secondary containment.

    Where the maximum allowable quantity per control area is exceeded, and where required by Section 5004.2, rooms, buildings or areas used for storage, dispensing, use, mixing or handling of Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall be provided with spill control and secondary containment in accordance with Section 5004.2.

    5703.5 Labeling and signage.

    The fire code official is authorized to require warning signs for the purpose of identifying the hazards of storing or using flammable liquids. Signage for identification and warning such as for the inherent hazard of flammable liquids or smoking shall be provided in accordance with this chapter and Sections 5003.5 and 5003.6.

    5703.5.1 Style.

    Warning signs shall be of a durable material. Signs warning of the hazard of flammable liquids shall have white lettering on a red background and shall read: DANGER—FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS. Letters shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in height and 1/2 inch
    (12.7 mm) in stroke.

    5703.5.2 Location.

    Signs shall be posted in locations as required by the fire code official. Piping containing flammable liquids shall be identified in accordance with ASME A13.1.

    5703.5.3 Warning labels.

    Individual containers, packages and cartons shall be identified, marked, labeled and placarded in accordance with federal regulations and applicable state laws.

    5703.5.4 Identification.

    Color coding or other approved identification means shall be provided on each loading and unloading riser for flammable or combustible liquids to identify the contents of the tank served by the riser.

    5703.6 Piping systems.

    Piping systems, and their component parts, for flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Sections 5703.6.1 through 5703.6.11.

    5703.6.1 Nonapplicability.

    The provisions of Section 5703.6 shall not apply to gas or oil well installations; piping that is integral to stationary or portable engines, including aircraft, watercraft and motor vehicles; and piping in connection with boilers and pressure vessels regulated by the International Mechanical Code.

    5703.6.2 Design and fabrication of piping systems and components.

    Piping system components shall be designed and fabricated in accordance with the applicable standard listed in Table 5703.6.2 and Chapter 27 of NFPA 30, except as modified by Section 5703.6.2.1.

    TABLE 5703.6.2

    PIPING STANDARDS

    PIPING USESTANDARD
    Power PipingASME B31.1
    Process PipingASME B31.3
    Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other LiquidsASME B31.4
    Building Services PipingASME B31.9

    5703.6.2.1 Special materials.

    Low-melting-point materials (such as aluminum, copper or brass), materials that soften on fire exposure (such as nonmetallic materials) and nonductile material (such as cast iron) shall be acceptable for use underground in accordance with the applicable standard listed in Table 5703.6.2. Where such materials are used outdoors in aboveground piping systems or within buildings, they shall be in accordance with the applicable standard listed in Table 5703.6.2 and one of the following:

    1. 1.Suitably protected against fire exposure.

    2. 2.Located where leakage from failure would not unduly expose people or structures.

    3. 3.Located where leakage can be readily controlled by operation of accessible remotely located valves.

    In all cases, nonmetallic piping shall be used in accordance with Section 27.4.6 of NFPA 30.

    5703.6.3 Testing.

    Unless tested in accordance with the applicable section of ASME B31.9, piping, before being covered, enclosed or placed in use, shall be hydrostatically tested to 150 percent of the maximum anticipated pressure of the system, or pneumatically tested to 110 percent of the maximum anticipated pressure of the system, but not less than 5 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (34.47 kPa) at the highest point of the system. This test shall be maintained for a sufficient time period to complete visual inspection of joints and connections. For not less than 10 minutes, there shall be no leakage or permanent distortion. Care shall be exercised to ensure that these pressures are not applied to vented storage tanks. Such storage tanks shall be tested independently from the piping.

    5703.6.3.1 Existing piping.

    Existing piping shall be tested in accordance with this section where the fire code official has reasonable cause to believe that a leak exists. Piping that could contain flammable or combustible liquids shall not be tested pneumatically. Such tests shall be at the expense of the owner or operator.

    Exception: Vapor-recovery piping is allowed to be tested using an inert gas.

    5703.6.4 Protection from vehicles.

    Guard posts or other approved means shall be provided to protect piping, valves or fittings subject to vehicular damage in accordance with Section 312.

    5703.6.5 Protection from external corrosion and galvanic action.

    Where subject to external corrosion, piping, related fluid-handling components and supports for both underground and above-ground applications shall be fabricated from noncorrosive materials, and coated or provided with corrosion protection. Dissimilar metallic parts that promote galvanic action shall not be joined.

    5703.6.6 Valves.

    Piping systems shall contain a sufficient number of manual control valves and check valves to operate the system properly and to protect the plant under both normal and emergency conditions. Piping systems in connection with pumps shall contain a sufficient number of such valves to control properly the flow of liquids in normal operation and in the event of physical damage or fire exposure.

    5703.6.6.1 Backflow protections.

    Connections to pipelines or piping by which equipment (such as tank cars, tank vehicles or marine vessels) discharges liquids into storage tanks shall be provided with check valves or block valves for automatic protection against back-flow where the piping arrangement is such that back-flow from the system is possible. Where loading and unloading is done through a common pipe system, a check valve is not required. However, a block valve, located so as to be readily accessible or remotely operable, shall be provided.

    5703.6.6.2 Manual drainage.

    Manual drainage-control valves shall be located at approved locations remote from the tanks, diked area, drainage system and impounding basin to ensure their operation in a fire condition.

    5703.6.7 Connections.

    Above-ground tanks with connections located below normal liquid level shall be provided with internal or external isolation valves located as close as practical to the shell of the tank. Except for liquids whose chemical characteristics are incompatible with steel, such valves, where external, and their connections to the tank shall be of steel.

    5703.6.8 Piping supports.

    Piping systems shall be substantially supported and protected against physical damage and excessive stresses arising from settlement, vibration, expansion, contraction or exposure to fire. The supports shall be protected against exposure to fire by one of the following:

    1. 1.Draining liquid away from the piping system at a minimum slope of not less than 1 percent.

    2. 2.Providing protection with a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours.

    3. 3.Other approved methods.

    5703.6.9 Flexible joints.

    Flexible joints shall be listed and approved and shall be installed on underground liquid, vapor and vent piping at all of the following locations:

    1. 1.Where piping connects to underground tanks.

    2. 2.Where piping ends at pump islands and vent risers.

    3. 3.At points where differential movement in the piping can occur.

    5703.6.9.1 Fiberglass-reinforced plastic piping.

    Fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) piping is not required to be provided with flexible joints in locations where both of the following conditions are present:

    1. 1.Piping does not exceed 4 inches (102 mm) in diameter.

    2. 2.Piping has a straight run of not less than 4 feet (1219 mm) on one side of the connection where such connections result in a change of direction.

    In lieu of the minimum 4-foot (1219 mm) straight run length, approved and listed flexible joints are allowed to be used under dispensers and suction pumps, at submerged pumps and tanks, and where vents extend above ground.

    5703.6.10 Pipe joints.

    Joints shall be liquid tight and shall be welded, flanged or threaded except that listed flexible connectors are allowed in accordance with Section 5703.6.9. Threaded or flanged joints shall fit tightly by using approved methods and materials for the type of joint. Joints in piping systems used for Class I liquids shall be welded where located in concealed spaces within buildings.

    Nonmetallic joints shall be approved and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

    Pipe joints that are dependent on the friction characteristics or resiliency of combustible materials for liquid tightness of piping shall not be used in buildings. Piping shall be secured to prevent disengagement at the fitting.

    5703.6.11 Bends.

    Pipe and tubing shall be bent in accordance with ASME B31.9.

    SECTION5704
    STORAGE

    5704.1 General.

    The storage of flammable and combustible liquids in containers and tanks shall be in accordance with this section and the applicable sections of Chapter 50.

    5704.2 Tank storage.

    The provisions of this section shall apply to:

    1. 1.The storage of flammable and combustible liquids in fixed above-ground and underground tanks.

    2. 2.The storage of flammable and combustible liquids in fixed above-ground tanks inside of buildings.

    3. 3.The storage of flammable and combustible liquids in portable tanks whose capacity exceeds 660 gallons (2498 L).

    4. 4.The installation of such tanks and portable tanks.

    5704.2.1 Change of tank contents.

    Tanks subject to change in contents shall be in accordance with Section 5704.2.7. Prior to a change in contents, the fire code official is authorized to require testing of a tank.

    Tanks that have previously contained Class I liquids shall not be loaded with Class II or Class III liquids until such tanks and all piping, pumps, hoses and meters connected thereto have been completely drained and flushed.

    5704.2.2 Use of tank vehicles and tank cars as storage tanks.

    Tank cars and tank vehicles shall not be used as storage tanks.

    5704.2.3 Labeling and signs.

    Labeling and signs for storage tanks and storage tank areas shall comply with Sections 5704.2.3.1 and 5704.2.3.2.

    5704.2.3.1 Smoking and open flame.

    Signs shall be posted in storage areas prohibiting open flames and smoking. Signs shall comply with Section 5703.5.

    5704.2.3.2 Label or placard.

    Tanks more than 100 gallons (379 L) in capacity, which are permanently installed or mounted and used for the storage of Class I, II or III liquids, shall bear a label and placard identifying the material therein. Placards shall be in accordance with NFPA 704.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Tanks of 300-gallon (1136 L) capacity or less located on private property and used for heating and cooking fuels in single-family dwellings.

    2. 2.Tanks located underground.

    5704.2.4 Sources of ignition.

    Smoking and open flames are prohibited in storage areas in accordance with Section 5003.7.

    Exception: Areas designated as smoking and hot work areas, and areas where hot work permits have been issued in accordance with this code.

    5704.2.5 Explosion control.

    Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with Section 911 for indoor tanks.

    5704.2.6 Separation from incompatible materials.

    Storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall be separated from incompatible materials in accordance with Section 5003.9.8.

    Grass, weeds, combustible materials and waste Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall not be accumulated in an unsafe manner at a storage site.

    5704.2.7 Design, fabrication and construction requirements for tanks.

    The design, fabrication and construction of tanks shall comply with NFPA 30. Each tank shall bear a permanent nameplate or marking indicating the standard used as the basis of design.

    5704.2.7.1 Materials used in tank construction.

    The materials used in tank construction shall be in accordance with NFPA 30. The materials of construction for tanks and their appurtenances shall be compatible with the liquids to be stored.

    5704.2.7.2 Pressure limitations for tanks.

    Tanks shall be designed for the pressures to which they will be subjected in accordance with NFPA 30.

    5704.2.7.3 Tank vents for normal venting.

    Tank vents for normal venting shall be installed and maintained in accordance with Sections 5704.2.7.3.1 through 5704.2.7.3.5.3.

    5704.2.7.3.1 Vent lines.

    Vent lines from tanks shall not be used for purposes other than venting unless approved.

    5704.2.7.3.2 Vent-line flame arresters and pressure-vacuum vents.

    Listed or approved flame arresters or pressure-vacuum (PV) vents that remain closed unless venting under pressure or vacuum conditions shall be installed in normal vents of tanks containing Class IB and IC liquids.

    Exception: Where determined by the fire code official that the use of such devices can result in damage to the tank.

    Vent-line flame arresters shall be installed in accordance with their listing or API 2000 and maintained in accordance with Section 21.8.6 of NFPA 30 or API 2000. In-line flame arresters in piping systems shall be installed and maintained in accordance with their listing or API 2028. Pressure-vacuum vents shall be installed in accordance with Section 21.4.3 of NFPA 30 or API 2000 and maintained in accordance with Section 21.8.6 of NFPA 30 or API 2000.

    5704.2.7.3.3 Vent pipe outlets.

    Vent pipe outlets for tanks storing Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall be located such that the vapors are released at a safe point outside of buildings and not less than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground level. Vapors shall be discharged upward or horizontally away from adjacent walls to assist in vapor dispersion. Vent outlets shall be located such that flammable vapors will not be trapped by eaves or other obstructions and shall be not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) from building openings or lot lines of properties that can be built upon. Vent outlets on atmospheric tanks storing Class IIIB liquids are allowed to discharge inside a building where the vent is a normally closed vent.

    Exception: Vent pipe outlets on tanks storing Class IIIB liquid inside buildings and connected to fuel-burning equipment shall be located such that the vapors are released to a safe location outside of buildings.

    5704.2.7.3.4 Installation of vent piping.

    Vent piping shall be designed, sized, constructed and installed in accordance with Section 5703.6. Vent pipes shall be installed such that they will drain toward the tank without sags or traps in which liquid can collect. Vent pipes shall be installed in such a manner so as not to be subject to physical damage or vibration.

    5704.2.7.3.5 Manifolding.

    Tank vent piping shall not be manifolded unless required for special purposes such as vapor recovery, vapor conservation or air pollution control.

    5704.2.7.3.5.1 Above-ground tanks.

    For aboveground tanks, manifolded vent pipes shall be adequately sized to prevent system pressure limits from being exceeded where manifolded tanks are subject to the same fire exposure.

    5704.2.7.3.5.2 Underground tanks.

    For underground tanks, manifolded vent pipes shall be sized to prevent system pressure limits from being exceeded when manifolded tanks are filled simultaneously.

    5704.2.7.3.5.3 Tanks storing Class I liquids.

    Vent piping for tanks storing Class I liquids shall not be manifolded with vent piping for tanks storing Class II and III liquids unless positive means are provided to prevent the vapors from Class I liquids from entering tanks storing Class II and III liquids, to prevent contamination and possible change in classification of less volatile liquid.

    5704.2.7.4 Emergency venting.

    Stationary, aboveground tanks shall be equipped with additional venting that will relieve excessive internal pressure caused by exposure to fires. Emergency vents for Class I, II and IIIA liquids shall not discharge inside buildings. The venting shall be installed and maintained in accordance with Section 22.7 of NFPA 30.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Tanks larger than 12,000 gallons (45 420 L) in capacity storing Class IIIB liquids that are not within the diked area or the drainage path of Class I or II liquids do not require emergency relief venting.

    2. 2.Emergency vents on protected above-ground tanks complying with UL 2085 containing Class II or IIIA liquids are allowed to discharge inside the building.

    5704.2.7.5 Tank openings other than vents.

    Tank openings for other than vents shall comply with Sections 5704.2.7.5.1 through 5704.2.7.5.8.

    5704.2.7.5.1 Connections below liquid level.

    Connections for tank openings below the liquid level shall be liquid tight.

    5704.2.7.5.2 Filling, emptying and vapor recovery connections.

    Filling, emptying and vapor recovery connections to tanks containing Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall be located outside of buildings in accordance with Section 5704.2.7.5.6 at a location free from sources of ignition and not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) away from building openings or lot lines of property that can be built upon. Such openings shall be properly identified and provided with a liquid-tight cap that shall be closed when not in use.

    Filling and emptying connections to indoor tanks containing Class IIIB liquids and connected to fuel-burning equipment shall be located at a finished ground level location outside of buildings. Such openings shall be provided with a liquid-tight cap that shall be closed when not in use. A sign in accordance with Section 5003.6 that displays the following warning shall be permanently attached at the filling location:

    TRANSFERRING FUEL OTHER THAN
    CLASS IIIB COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID TO
    THIS TANK CONNECTION IS A VIOLATION
    OF THE FIRE CODE AND IS STRICTLY
    PROHIBITED

    5704.2.7.5.3 Piping, connections and fittings.

    Piping, connections, fittings and other appurtenances shall be installed in accordance with Section 5703.6.

    5704.2.7.5.4 Manual gauging.

    Openings for manual gauging, if independent of the fill pipe, shall be provided with a liquid-tight cap or cover. Covers shall be kept closed when not gauging. If inside a building, such openings shall be protected against liquid overflow and possible vapor release by means of a spring-loaded check valve or other approved device.

    5704.2.7.5.5 Fill pipes and discharge lines.

    For top-loaded tanks, a metallic fill pipe shall be designed and installed to minimize the generation of static electricity by terminating the pipe within 6 inches (152 mm) of the bottom of the tank, and it shall be installed in a manner that avoids excessive vibration.

    5704.2.7.5.5.1 Class I liquids.

    For Class I liquids other than crude oil, gasoline and asphalt, the fill pipe shall be designed and installed in a manner that will minimize the possibility of generating static electricity by terminating within 6 inches (152 mm) of the bottom of the tank.

    5704.2.7.5.5.2 Underground tanks.

    For underground tanks, fill pipe and discharge lines shall enter only through the top. Fill lines shall be sloped toward the tank. Underground tanks for Class I liquids having a capacity greater than 1,000 gallons (3785 L) shall be equipped with a tight fill device for connecting the fill hose to the tank.

    5704.2.7.5.6 Location of connections that are made or broken.

    Filling, withdrawal and vapor-recovery connections for Class I, II and IIIA liquids that are made and broken shall be located outside of buildings, not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the finished ground level, in an approved location in close proximity to the parked delivery vehicle. Such location shall be away from sources of ignition and not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) away from building openings. Such connections shall be closed and liquid tight when not in use and shall be properly identified.

    5704.2.7.5.7 Protection against vapor release.

    Tank openings provided for purposes of vapor recovery shall be protected against possible vapor release by means of a spring-loaded check valve or dry-break connections, or other approved device, unless the opening is a pipe connected to a vapor processing system. Openings designed for combined fill and vapor recovery shall also be protected against vapor release unless connection of the liquid delivery line to the fill pipe simultaneously connects the vapor recovery line. Connections shall be vapor tight.

    5704.2.7.5.8 Overfill prevention.

    An approved means or method in accordance with Section 5704.2.9.7.5 shall be provided to prevent the overfill of all Class I, II and IIIA liquid storage tanks. Storage tanks in refineries, bulk plants or terminals regulated by Section 5706.4 or 5706.7 shall have overfill protection in accordance with API 2350.

    An approved means or method in accordance with Section 5704.2.9.7.5 shall be provided to prevent the overfilling of Class IIIB liquid storage tanks connected to fuel-burning equipment inside buildings.

    Exception: Outside above-ground tanks with a capacity of 1,320 gallons (5000 L) or less.

    5704.2.7.6 Repair, alteration or reconstruction of tanks and piping.

    The repair, alteration or reconstruction, including welding, cutting and hot tapping of storage tanks and piping that have been placed in service, shall be in accordance with NFPA 30. Hot work, as defined in Section 202, on such tanks shall be conducted in accordance with Section 3510.

    5704.2.7.7 Design of supports.

    The design of the supporting structure for tanks shall be in accordance with the International Building Code and NFPA 30.

    5704.2.7.8 Locations subject to flooding.

    Where a tank is located in an area where it is subject to buoyancy because of a rise in the water table, flooding or accumulation of water from fire suppression operations, uplift protection shall be provided in accordance with Sections 22.14 and 23.14 of NFPA 30.

    5704.2.7.9 Corrosion protection.

    Where subject to external corrosion, tanks shall be fabricated from corrosion-resistant materials, coated or provided with corrosion protection in accordance with Section 23.3.5 of NFPA 30.

    5704.2.7.10 Leak reporting.

    A consistent or accidental loss of liquid, or other indication of a leak from a tank system, shall be reported immediately to the fire department, the fire code official and other authorities having jurisdiction.

    5704.2.7.10.1 Leaking tank disposition.

    Leaking tanks shall be promptly emptied, repaired and returned to service, abandoned or removed in accordance with Section 5704.2.13 or 5704.2.14.

    5704.2.7.11 Tank lining.

    Steel tanks are allowed to be lined only for the purpose of protecting the interior from corrosion or providing compatibility with a material to be stored. Only those liquids tested for compatibility with the lining material are allowed to be stored in lined tanks.

    5704.2.8 Vaults.

    Vaults shall be allowed to be either above or below grade and shall comply with Sections 5704.2.8.1 through 5704.2.8.18.

    5704.2.8.1 Listing required.

    Vaults shall be listed in accordance with UL 2245.

    Exception: Where approved by the fire code official, below-grade vaults are allowed to be constructed on site, provided that the design is in accordance with the International Building Code and that special inspections are conducted to verify structural strength and compliance of the installation with the approved design in accordance with Section 1707 of the International Building Code. Installation plans for below-grade vaults that are constructed on site shall be prepared by, and the design shall bear the stamp of, a professional engineer. Consideration shall be given to soil and hydrostatic loading on the floors, walls and lid; anticipated seismic forces; uplifting by groundwater or flooding; and to loads imposed from above such as traffic and equipment loading on the vault lid.

    5704.2.8.2