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  • CHAPTER5
    FLOORS

    SECTIONR501
    GENERAL

    R501.1 Application.

    The provisions of this chapter shall control the design and construction of the floors for buildings, including the floors of attic spaces used to house mechanical or plumbing fixtures and equipment.

    R501.2 Requirements.

    Floor construction shall be capable of accommodating all loads in accordance with Section R301 and of transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting structural elements.

    SECTIONR502
    WOOD FLOOR FRAMING

    R502.1 General.

    Wood and wood-based products used for load-supporting purposes shall conform to the applicable provisions of this section.

    R502.1.1 Sawn lumber.

    Sawn lumber shall be identified by a grade mark of an accredited lumber grading or inspection agency and have design values certified by an accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu of a grade mark, a certificate of inspection issued by a lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section shall be accepted.

    R502.1.1.1 Preservative-treated lumber.

    Preservative treated dimension lumber shall also be identified as required by Section R317.2.

    R502.1.1.2 End-jointed lumber.

    Approved end-jointed lumber identified by a grade mark conforming to Section R502.1.1 shall be permitted to be used interchangeably with solid-sawn members of the same species and grade. End-jointed lumber used in an assembly required elsewhere in this code to have a fire-resistance rating shall have the designation “Heat Resistant Adhesive” or “HRA” included in its grade mark.

    R502.1.2 Prefabricated wood I-joists.

    Structural capacities and design provisions for prefabricated wood I-joists shall be established and monitored in accordance with ASTM D 5055.

    R502.1.3 Structural glued laminated timbers.

    Glued laminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified as required in ANSI/AITC A190.1 and ASTM D 3737.

    R502.1.4 Structural log members.

    Structural log members shall comply with the provisions of ICC-400.

    R502.1.5 Structural composite lumber.

    Structural capacities for structural composite lumber shall be established and monitored in accordance with ASTM D 5456.

    R502.1.6 Cross-laminated timber.

    Cross-laminated timber shall be manufactured and identified as required by ANSI/APA PRG 320.

    R502.1.7 Engineered wood rim board.

    Engineered wood rim boards shall conform to ANSI/APA PRR 410 or shall be evaluated in accordance with ASTM D 7672. Structural capacities shall be in accordance with ANSI/APA PRR 410 or established in accordance with ASTM D 7672. Rim boards conforming to ANSI/APA PRR 410 shall be marked in accordance with that standard.

    R502.2 Design and construction.

    Floors shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, Figure R502.2 and Sections R317 and R318 or in accordance with ANSI AWC NDS.

    FLOOR CONSTRUCTION

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    FIGURE R502.2

    FLOOR CONSTRUCTION

    R502.2.1 Framing at braced wall lines.

    A load path for lateral forces shall be provided between floor framing and braced wall panels located above or below a floor, as specified in Section R602.10.8.

    R502.2.2 Blocking and subflooring.

    Blocking for fastening panel edges or fixtures shall be a minimum of utility grade lumber. Subflooring shall be a minimum of utility grade lumber, No. 4 common grade boards or wood structural panels as specified in Section R503.2. Fireblocking shall be of any grade lumber.

    R502.3 Allowable joist spans.

    Spans for floor joists shall be in accordance with Tables R502.3.1(1) and R502.3.1(2). For other grades and species and for other loading conditions, refer to the AWC STJR.

    R502.3.1 Sleeping areas and attic joists.

    Table R502.3.1(1) shall be used to determine the maximum allowable span of floor joists that support sleeping areas and attics that are accessed by means of a fixed stairway in accordance with Section R311.7 provided that the design live load does not exceed 30 pounds per square foot (1.44 kPa) and the design dead load does not exceed 20 pounds per square foot (0.96 kPa). The allowable span of ceiling joists that support attics used for limited storage or no storage shall be determined in accordance with Section R802.4.

    TABLE R502.3.1(1)

    FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES (Residential sleeping areas, live load = 30 psf, L/Δ = 360)a

    JOIST SPACING (inches)SPECIES AND GRADEDEAD LOAD = 10 psfDEAD LOAD = 20 psf
    2 × 62 × 82 × 102 × 122 × 62 × 82 × 102 × 12
    Maximum floor joist spans
    (ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)
    12Douglas fir-larchSS12-616-621-025-712-616-621-025-7
    Douglas fir-larch#112-015-1020-324-812-015-719-022-0
    Douglas fir-larch#211-1015-719-1023-411-814-918-020-11
    Douglas fir-larch#39-1112-715-517-108-1111-313-916-0
    Hem-firSS11-1015-719-1024-211-1015-719-1024-2
    Hem-fir#111-715-319-523-711-715-318-921-9
    Hem-fir#211-014-618-622-611-014-417-620-4
    Hem-fir#39-812-415-017-58-811-013-515-7
    Southern pineSS12-316-220-825-112-316-220-825-1
    Southern pine#111-1015-719-1024-211-1015-718-722-0
    Southern pine#211-314-1118-121-410-913-816-219-1
    Southern pine#39-211-614-016-68-210-312-614-9
    Spruce-pine-firSS11-715-319-523-711-715-319-523-7
    Spruce-pine-fir#111-314-1119-023-011-314-717-920-7
    Spruce-pine-fir#211-314-1119-023-011-314-717-920-7
    Spruce-pine-fir#39-812-415-017-58-811-013-515-7
    16Douglas fir-larchSS11-415-019-123-311-415-019-123-3
    Douglas fir-larch#110-1114-518-521-410-813-616-519-1
    Douglas fir-larch#210-914-217-520-310-112-915-718-1
    Douglas fir-larch#38-710-1113-415-57-89-911-1113-10
    Hem-firSS10-914-218-021-1110-914-218-021-11
    Hem-fir#110-613-1017-821-110-613-416-318-10
    Hem-fir#210-013-216-1019-89-1012-515-217-7
    Hem-fir#38-510-813-015-17-69-611-813-6
    Southern pineSS11-214-818-922-1011-214-818-922-10
    Southern pine#110-914-218-021-410-913-916-119-1
    Southern pine#210-313-315-818-69-411-1014-016-6
    Southern pine#37-1110-011-114-47-18-1110-1012-10
    Spruce-pine-firSS10-613-1017-821-610-613-1017-821-4
    Spruce-pine-fir#110-313-617-219-119-1112-715-517-10
    Spruce-pine-fir#210-313-617-219-119-1112-715-517-10
    Spruce-pine-fir#38-510-813-015-17-69-611-813-6
    19.2Douglas fir-larchSS10-814-118-021-1010-814-118-021-4
    Douglas fir-larch#110-413-716-919-69-812-415-017-5
    Douglas fir-larch#210-113-015-1118-69-311-814-316-6
    Douglas fir-larch#37-1010-012-214-17-08-1110-1112-7
    Hem-firSS10-113-417-020-810-113-417-020-7
    Hem-fir#19-1013-016-719-39-712-214-1017-2
    Hem-fir#29-512-515-617-18-1111-413-1016-1
    Hem-fir#37-89-911-1013-96-108-810-712-4
    Southern pineSS10-613-1017-821-610-613-1017-821-6
    Southern pine#110-113-416-519-69-1112-714-817-5
    Southern pine#29-612-114-416-108-610-1012-1015-1
    Southern pine#37-39-111-013-16-58-29-1011-8
    Spruce-pine-firSS9-1013-016-720-29-1013-016-719-6
    Spruce-pine-fir#19-812-915-818-39-111-614-116-3
    Spruce-pine-fir#29-812-915-818-39-111-614-116-3
    Spruce-pine-fir#37-89-911-1013-96-108-810-712-4
    24Douglas fir-larchSS9-1113-116-820-39-1113-116-519-1
    Douglas fir-larch#19-712-415-017-58-811-013-515-7
    Douglas fir-larch#29-311-814-316-68-310-512-914-9
    Douglas fir-larch#37-08-1110-1112-76-38-09-911-3
    Hem-firSS9-412-415-919-29-412-415-918-5
    Hem-fir#19-212-114-1017-28-710-1013-315-5
    Hem-fir#28-911-413-1016-18-010-212-514-4
    Hem-fir#36-108-810-712-46-27-99-611-0
    Southern pineSS9-912-1016-519-119-912-1016-519-8
    Southern pine#19-412-414-817-58-1011-313-115-7
    Southern pine#28-610-1012-1015-17-79-811-513-6
    Southern pine#36-58-29-1011-85-97-38-1010-5
    Spruce-pine-firSS9-212-115-518-99-212-115-017-5
    Spruce-pine-fir#18-1111-614-116-38-110-312-714-7
    Spruce-pine-fir#28-1111-614-116-38-110-312-714-7
    Spruce-pine-fir#36-108-810-712-46-27-99-611-0

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

    Note: Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet.

    1. a.Dead load limits for townhouses in Seismic Design Category C and all structures in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2 shall be determined in accordance with Section R301.2.2.2.1.

    TABLE R502.3.1(2)

    FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES (Residential living areas, live load = 40 psf, L/Δ = 360)b

    JOIST SPACING (inches)SPECIES AND GRADEDEAD LOAD = 10 psfDEAD LOAD = 20 psf
    2 × 62 × 82 × 102 × 122 × 62 × 82 × 102 × 12
    Maximum floor joist spans
    (ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)(ft. - in.)
    12Douglas fir-larchSS11-415-019-123-311-415-019-123-3
    Douglas fir-larch#110-1114-518-522-010-1114-217-420-1
    Douglas fir-larch#210-914-218-020-1110-813-616-519-1
    Douglas fir-larch#38-1111-313-916-08-110-312-714-7
    Hem-firSS10-914-218-021-1110-914-218-021-11
    Hem-fir#110-613-1017-821-610-613-1017-119-10
    Hem-fir#210-013-216-1020-410-013-116-018-6
    Hem-fir#38-811-013-515-77-1110-012-314-3
    Southern pineSS11-214-818-922-1011-214-818-922-10
    Southern pine#110-914-218-021-1110-914-216-1120-1
    Southern pine#210-313-616-219-19-1012-614-917-5
    Southern pine#38-210-312-614-97-59-511-513-6
    Spruce-pine-firSS10-613-1017-821-610-613-1017-821-6
    Spruce-pine-fir#110-313-617-320-710-313-316-318-10
    Spruce-pine-fir#210-313-617-320-710-313-316-318-10
    Spruce-pine-fir#38-811-013-515-77-1110-012-314-3
    16Douglas fir-larchSS10-413-717-421-110-413-717-421-1
    Douglas fir-larch#19-1113-116-519-19-812-415-017-5
    Douglas fir-larch#29-912-915-718-19-311-814-316-6
    Douglas fir-larch#37-89-911-1113-107-08-1110-1112-7
    Hem-firSS9-912-1016-519-119-912-1016-519-11
    Hem-fir#19-612-716-018-109-612-214-1017-2
    Hem-fir#29-112-015-217-78-1111-413-1016-1
    Hem-fir#37-69-611-813-66-108-810-712-4
    Southern pineSS10-213-417-020-910-213-417-020-9
    Southern pine#19-912-1016-119-19-912-714-817-5
    Southern pine#29-411-1014-016-68-610-1012-1015-1
    Southern pine#37-18-1110-1012-106-58-29-1011-8
    Spruce-pine-firSS9-612-716-019-69-612-716-019-6
    Spruce-pine-fir#19-412-315-517-109-111-614-116-3
    Spruce-pine-fir#29-412-315-517-109-111-614-116-3
    Spruce-pine-fir#37-69-611-813-66-108-810-712-4
    19.2Douglas fir-larchSS9-812-1016-419-109-812-1016-419-6
    Douglas fir-larch#19-412-415-017-58-1011-313-815-11
    Douglas fir-larch#29-211-814-316-68-510-813-015-1
    Douglas fir-larch#37-08-1110-1112-76-58-29-1111-6
    Hem-firSS9-212-115-518-99-212-115-518-9
    Hem-fir#19-011-1014-1017-28-911-113-615-8
    Hem-fir#28-711-313-1016-18-210-412-814-8
    Hem-fir#36-108-810-712-46-37-119-811-3
    Southern pineSS9-612-716-019-69-612-716-019-6
    Southern pine#19-212-114-817-59-011-513-515-11
    Southern pine#28-610-1012-1015-17-99-1011-813-9
    Southern pine#36-58-29-1011-85-117-59-010-8
    Spruce-pine-firSS9-011-1015-118-49-011-1015-117-9
    Spruce-pine-fir#18-911-614-116-38-310-612-1014-10
    Spruce-pine-fir#28-911-614-116-38-310-612-1014-10
    Spruce-pine-fir#36-108-810-712-46-37-119-811-3
    24Douglas fir-larchSS9-011-1115-218-59-011-1115-017-5
    Douglas fir-larch#18-811-013-515-77-1110-012-314-3
    Douglas fir-larch#28-310-512-914-97-69-611-813-6
    Douglas fir-larch#36-38-09-911-35-97-38-1110-4
    Hem-firSS8-611-314-417-58-611-314-416-10a
    Hem-fir#18-410-1013-315-57-109-1112-114-0
    Hem-fir#27-1110-212-514-47-49-311-413-1
    Hem-fir#36-27-99-611-05-77-18-810-1
    Southern pineSS8-1011-814-1118-18-1011-814-1118-0
    Southern pine#18-611-313-115-78-110-312-014-3
    Southern pine#27-79-811-513-67-08-1010-512-4
    Southern pine#35-97-38-1010-55-36-88-19-6
    Spruce-pine-firSS8-411-014-017-08-411-013-815-11
    Spruce-pine-fir#18-110-312-714-77-59-511-613-4
    Spruce-pine-fir#28-110-312-714-77-59-511-613-4
    Spruce-pine-fir#36-27-99-611-05-77-18-810-1

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

    Note: Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet.

    1. a.End bearing length shall be increased to 2 inches.

    2. b.Dead load limits for townhouses in Seismic Design Category C and all structures in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1, and D2 shall be determined in accordance with Section R301.2.2.2.1.

    R502.3.2 Other floor joists.

    Table R502.3.1(2) shall be used to determine the maximum allowable span of floor joists that support other areas of the building, other than sleeping rooms and attics, provided that the design live load does not exceed 40 pounds per square foot (1.92 kPa) and the design dead load does not exceed 20 pounds per square foot (0.96 kPa).

    R502.3.3 Floor cantilevers.

    Floor cantilever spans shall not exceed the nominal depth of the wood floor joist. Floor cantilevers constructed in accordance with Table R502.3.3(1) shall be permitted where supporting a light-frame bearing wall and roof only. Floor cantilevers supporting an exterior balcony are permitted to be constructed in accordance with Table R502.3.3(2).

    TABLE R502.3.3(1)

    CANTILEVER SPANS FOR FLOOR JOISTS SUPPORTING LIGHT-FRAME EXTERIOR BEARING WALL AND ROOF ONLYa, b, c, f, g, h (Floor Live Load ≤ 40 psf, Roof Live Load ≤ 20 psf)

    MEMBER & SPACINGMAXIMUM CANTILEVER SPAN (uplift force at backspan support in lbs.)d, e
    Ground Snow Load
    ≤ 20 psf30 psf50 psf70 psf
    Roof WidthRoof WidthRoof WidthRoof Width
    24 ft32 ft40 ft24 ft32 ft40 ft24 ft32 ft40 ft24 ft32 ft40 ft
    2 × 8 @ 12″20″ (177)15″ (227)18″ (209)
    2 × 10 @ 16″29″ (228)21″ (297)16″ (364)26″ (271)18″ (354)20″ (375)
    2 × 10 @ 12″36″ (166)26″ (219)20″ (270)34″ (198)22″ (263)16″ (324)26″ (277)19″ (356)
    2 × 12 @ 16″32″ (287)25″ (356)36″ (263)29″ (345)21″ (428)29″ (367)20″ (484)23″ (471)
    2 × 12 @ 12″42″ (209)31″ (263)37″ (253)27″ (317)36″ (271)27″ (358)17″ (447)31″ (348)19″ (462)
    2 × 12 @ 8″48″ (136)45″ (169)48″ (164)38″ (206)40″ (233)26″ (294)36″ (230)29″ (304)18″ (379)

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

    1. a.Tabulated values are for clear-span roof supported solely by exterior bearing walls.

    2. b.Spans are based on No. 2 Grade lumber of Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, and spruce-pine-fir for repetitive (three or more) members. No.1 or better shall be used for southern pine.

    3. c.Ratio of backspan to cantilever span shall be not less than 3:1.

    4. d.Connections capable of resisting the indicated uplift force shall be provided at the backspan support.

    5. e.Uplift force is for a backspan to cantilever span ratio of 3:1. Tabulated uplift values are permitted to be reduced by multiplying by a factor equal to 3 divided by the actual backspan ratio provided (3/backspan ratio).

    6. f.See Section R301.2.2.2.5, Item 1, for additional limitations on cantilevered floor joists for detached one- and two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Category D0, D1, or D2 and townhouses in Seismic Design Category C, D0, D1 or D2.

    7. g.A full-depth rim joist shall be provided at the unsupported end of the cantilever joists. Solid blocking shall be provided at the supported end. Where the cantilever length is 24 inches or less and the building is assigned to Seismic Design Category A, B or C, solid blocking at the support for the cantilever shall not be required.

    8. h.Linear interpolation shall be permitted for building widths and ground snow loads other than shown.

    TABLE R502.3.3(2)

    CANTILEVER SPANS FOR FLOOR JOISTS SUPPORTING EXTERIOR BALCONYa, b, e, f

    MEMBER SIZESPACINGMAXIMUM CANTILEVER SPAN (uplift force at backspan support in lbs.)c, d
    Ground Snow Load
    ≤ 30 psf50 psf70 psf
    2 × 812″42″ (139)39″ (156)34″ (165)
    2 × 816″36″ (151)34″ (171)29″ (180)
    2 × 1012″61″ (164)57″ (189)49″ (201)
    2 × 1016″53″ (180)49″ (208)42″ (220)
    2 × 1024″43″ (212)40″ (241)34″ (255)
    2 × 1216″72″ (228)67″ (260)57″ (268)
    2 × 1224″58″ (279)54″ (319)47″ (330)

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

    1. a.Spans are based on No. 2 Grade lumber of Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, and spruce-pine-fir for repetitive (three or more) members. No.1 or better shall be used for southern pine.

    2. b.Ratio of backspan to cantilever span shall be not less than 2:1.

    3. c.Connections capable of resisting the indicated uplift force shall be provided at the backspan support.

    4. d.Uplift force is for a backspan to cantilever span ratio of 2:1. Tabulated uplift values are permitted to be reduced by multiplying by a factor equal to 2 divided by the actual backspan ratio provided (2/backspan ratio).

    5. e.A full-depth rim joist shall be provided at the unsupported end of the cantilever joists. Solid blocking shall be provided at the supported end. Where the cantilever length is 24 inches or less and the building is assigned to Seismic Design Category A, B or C, solid blocking at the support for the cantilever shall not be required.

    6. f.Linear interpolation shall be permitted for ground snow loads other than shown.

    R502.4 Joists under bearing partitions.

    Joists under parallel bearing partitions shall be of adequate size to support the load. Double joists, sized to adequately support the load, that are separated to permit the installation of piping or vents shall be full depth solid blocked with lumber not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in nominal thickness spaced not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center. Bearing partitions perpendicular to joists shall not be offset from supporting girders, walls or partitions more than the joist depth unless such joists are of sufficient size to carry the additional load.

    R502.5 Allowable girder and header spans.

    The allowable spans of girders and headers fabricated of dimension lumber shall not exceed the values set forth in Tables R602.7(1), R602.7(2) and R602.7(3).

    R502.6 Bearing.

    The ends of each joist, beam or girder shall have not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) of bearing on wood or metal and not less than 3 inches (76 mm) on masonry or concrete except where supported on a 1-inch by 4-inch (25 mm by 102 mm) ribbon strip and nailed to the adjacent stud or by the use of approved joist hangers. The bearing on masonry or concrete shall be direct, or a sill plate of 2-inch-minimum (51 mm) nominal thickness shall be provided under the joist, beam or girder. The sill plate shall provide a minimum nominal bearing area of 48 square inches (30 865 square mm).

    R502.6.1 Floor systems.

    Joists framing from opposite sides over a bearing support shall lap not less than 3 inches (76 mm) and shall be nailed together with a minimum three 10d face nails. A wood or metal splice with strength equal to or greater than that provided by the nailed lap is permitted.

    R502.6.2 Joist framing.

    Joists framing into the side of a wood girder shall be supported by approved framing anchors or on ledger strips not less than nominal 2 inches by 2 inches (51 mm by 51 mm).

    R502.7 Lateral restraint at supports.

    Joists shall be supported laterally at the ends by full-depth solid blocking not less than 2 inches (51 mm) nominal in thickness; or by attachment to a full-depth header, band or rim joist, or to an adjoining stud or shall be otherwise provided with lateral support to prevent rotation.

    Exceptions:

    1. 1.Trusses, structural composite lumber, structural glued-laminated members and I-joists shall be supported laterally as required by the manufacturer’s recommendations.

    2. 2.In Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2, lateral restraint shall be provided at each intermediate support.

    R502.7.1 Bridging.

    Joists exceeding a nominal 2 inches by 12 inches (51 mm by 305 mm) shall be supported laterally by solid blocking, diagonal bridging (wood or metal), or a continuous 1 inch by 3 inch (25.4 mm by 76 mm) strip nailed across the bottom of joists perpendicular to joists at intervals not exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm).

    Exception: Trusses, structural composite lumber, structural glued-laminated members and I-joists shall be supported laterally as required by the manufacturer’s recommendations.

    R502.8 Cutting, drilling and notching.

    Structural floor members shall not be cut, bored or notched in excess of the limitations specified in this section. See Figure R502.8.

    CUTTING, NOTCHING AND DRILLING

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE R502.8

    CUTTING, NOTCHING AND DRILLING

    R502.8.1 Sawn lumber.

    Notches in solid lumber joists, rafters and beams shall not exceed one-sixth of the depth of the member, shall not be longer than one-third of the depth of the member and shall not be located in the middle one-third of the span. Notches at the ends of the member shall not exceed one-fourth the depth of the member. The tension side of members 4 inches (102 mm) or greater in nominal thickness shall not be notched except at the ends of the members. The diameter of holes bored or cut into members shall not exceed one-third the depth of the member. Holes shall not be closer than 2 inches (51 mm) to the top or bottom of the member, or to any other hole located in the member. Where the member is also notched, the hole shall not be closer than 2 inches (51 mm) to the notch.

    R502.8.2 Engineered wood products.

    Cuts, notches and holes bored in trusses, structural composite lumber, structural glue-laminated members, cross-laminated timber members or I-joists are prohibited except where permitted by the manufacturer’s recommendations or where the effects of such alterations are specifically considered in the design of the member by a registered design professional.

    R502.9 Fastening.

    Floor framing shall be nailed in accordance with Table R602.3(1). Where posts and beam or girder construction is used to support floor framing, positive connections shall be provided to ensure against uplift and lateral displacement.

    R502.10 Framing of openings.

    Openings in floor framing shall be framed with a header and trimmer joists. Where the header joist span does not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm), the header joist shall be a single member the same size as the floor joist. Single trimmer joists shall be used to carry a single header joist that is located within 3 feet (914 mm) of the trimmer joist bearing. Where the header joist span exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm), the trimmer joists and the header joist shall be doubled and of sufficient cross section to support the floor joists framing into the header.

    R502.11 Wood trusses.

    R502.11.1 Design.

    Wood trusses shall be designed in accordance with approved engineering practice. The design and manufacture of metal-plate-connected wood trusses shall comply with ANSI/TPI 1. The truss design drawings shall be prepared by a registered professional where required by the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed in accordance with Section R106.1.

    R502.11.2 Bracing.

    Trusses shall be braced to prevent rotation and provide lateral stability in accordance with the requirements specified in the construction documents for the building and on the individual truss design drawings. In the absence of specific bracing requirements, trusses shall be braced in accordance with accepted industry practices, such as, the SBCA Building Component Safety Information (BCSI) Guide to Good Practice for Handling, Installing & Bracing of Metal Plate Connected Wood Trusses.

    R502.11.3 Alterations to trusses.

    Truss members and components shall not be cut, notched, spliced or otherwise altered in any way without the approval of a registered design professional. Alterations resulting in the addition of load that exceed the design load for the truss, shall not be permitted without verification that the truss is capable of supporting the additional loading.

    R502.11.4 Truss design drawings.

    Truss design drawings, prepared in compliance with Section R502.11.1, shall be submitted to the building official and approved prior to installation. Truss design drawings shall be provided with the shipment of trusses delivered to the job site. Truss design drawings shall include, at a minimum, the information specified as follows:

    1. 1.Slope or depth, span and spacing.

    2. 2.Location of all joints.

    3. 3.Required bearing widths.

    4. 4.Design loads as applicable:

      1. 4.1.Top chord live load.

      2. 4.2.Top chord dead load.

      3. 4.3.Bottom chord live load.

      4. 4.4.Bottom chord dead load.

      5. 4.5.Concentrated loads and their points of application.

      6. 4.6.Controlling wind and earthquake loads.

    5. 5.Adjustments to lumber and joint connector design values for conditions of use.

    6. 6.Each reaction force and direction.

    7. 7.Joint connector type and description, such as size, thickness or gage, and the dimensioned location of each joint connector except where symmetrically located relative to the joint interface.

    8. 8.Lumber size, species and grade for each member.

    9. 9.Connection requirements for:

      1. 9.1.Truss-to-girder-truss.

      2. 9.2.Truss ply-to-ply.

      3. 9.3.Field splices.

    10. 10.Calculated deflection ratio and/or maximum description for live and total load.

    11. 11.Maximum axial compression forces in the truss members to enable the building designer to design the size, connections and anchorage of the permanent continuous lateral bracing. Forces shall be shown on the truss drawing or on supplemental documents.

    12. 12.Required permanent truss member bracing location.

    R502.12 Draftstopping required.

    Draftstopping shall be provided in accordance with Section R302.12.

    R502.13 Fireblocking required.

    Fireblocking shall be provided in accordance with Section R302.11.

    SECTIONR503
    FLOOR SHEATHING

    R503.1 Lumber sheathing.

    Maximum allowable spans for lumber used as floor sheathing shall conform to Tables R503.1, R503.2.1.1(1) and R503.2.1.1(2).

    TABLE R503.1

    MINIMUM THICKNESS OF LUMBER FLOOR SHEATHING

    JOIST OR BEAM SPACING (inches)MINIMUM NET THICKNESS
    Perpendicular to joistDiagonal to joist
    2411/163/4
    165/85/8
    48a11/2 T & GN/A
    54b
    60c

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.

    N/A = Not applicable.

    1. a.For this support spacing, lumber sheathing shall have a minimum Fb of 675 and minimum E of 1,100,000 (see ANSI AWC NDS).

    2. b.For this support spacing, lumber sheathing shall have a minimum Fb of 765 and minimum E of 1,400,000 (see ANSI AWC NDS).

    3. c.For this support spacing, lumber sheathing shall have a minimum Fb of 855 and minimum E of 1,700,000 (see ANSI AWC NDS).

    R503.1.1 End joints.

    End joints in lumber used as sub-flooring shall occur over supports unless end-matched lumber is used, in which case each piece shall bear on not less than two joists. Subflooring shall be permitted to be omitted where joist spacing does not exceed 16 inches (406 mm) and a 1-inch (25 mm) nominal tongue-and-groove wood strip flooring is applied perpendicular to the joists.

    R503.2 Wood structural panel sheathing.

    R503.2.1 Identification and grade.

    Wood structural panel sheathing used for structural purposes shall conform to DOC PS 1, DOC PS 2, CSA O437 or CSA O325. Panels shall be identified for grade, bond classification and Performance Category by a grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency. The Performance Category value shall be used as the “nominal panel thickness” or “panel thickness” wherever referenced in this code

    R503.2.1.1 Subfloor and combined subfloor underlayment.

    Where used as subflooring or combination subfloor underlayment, wood structural panels shall be of one of the grades specified in Table R503.2.1.1(1). Where sanded plywood is used as combination subfloor underlayment, the grade, bond classification, and Performance Category shall be as specified in Table R503.2.1.1(2).

    TABLE R503.2.1.1(1)

    ALLOWABLE SPANS AND LOADS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANELS FOR ROOF AND SUBFLOOR SHEATHING AND COMBINATION SUBFLOOR UNDERLAYMENTa, b, c

    SPAN RATINGMINIMUM NOMINAL PANEL THICKNESS (inch)ALLOWABLE LIVE LOAD (psf)h, IMAXIMUM SPAN (inches)LOAD (pounds per square foot, at maximum span)MAXIMUM SPAN (inches)
    SPAN @ 16″ o.c.SPAN @ 24″ o.c.With edge supportdWithout edge supportTotal loadLive load
    SheathingeRooffSubfloorj
    16/03/830161640300
    20/03/850202040300
    24/03/8100302420g40300
    24/167/16100402424504016
    32/1615/32, 1/2180703228403016h
    40/2019/32, 5/83051304032403020h, i
    48/2423/32, 3/41754836453524
    60/327/83056048453532
    Underlayment, C-C plugged, single flooreRooffCombination subfloor underlaymentk
    16 o.c.19/32, 5/8100402424504016i
    20 o.c.19/32, 5/8150603232403020i, j
    24 o.c.23/32, 3/42401004836352524
    32 o.c.7/81854840504032
    48 o.c.13/32, 11/82906048504048

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

    1. a.The allowable total loads were determined using a dead load of 10 psf. If the dead load exceeds 10 psf, then the live load shall be reduced accordingly.

    2. b.Panels continuous over two or more spans with long dimension (strength axis) perpendicular to supports. Spans shall be limited to values shown because of possible effect of concentrated loads.

    3. c.Applies to panels 24 inches or wider.

    4. d.Lumber blocking, panel edge clips (one midway between each support, except two equally spaced between supports where span is 48 inches), tongue-and-groove panel edges, or other approved type of edge support.

    5. e.Includes Structural I panels in these grades.

    6. f.Uniform load deflection limitation: 1/180 of span under live load plus dead load, 1/240 of span under live load only.

    7. g.Maximum span 24 inches for 15/32-and 1/2-inch panels.

    8. h.Maximum span 24 inches where 3/4-inch wood finish flooring is installed at right angles to joists.

    9. i.Maximum span 24 inches where 1.5 inches of lightweight concrete or approved cellular concrete is placed over the subfloor.

    10. j.Unsupported edges shall have tongue-and-groove joints or shall be supported with blocking unless minimum nominal 1/4-inch-thick wood panel-type underlayment, fiber-cement underlayment with end and edge joints offset not less than 2 inches or 11/2 inches of lightweight concrete or approved cellular concrete is placed over the subfloor, or 3/4-inch wood finish flooring is installed at right angles to the supports. Fiber-cement underlayment shall comply with ASTM C1288 or ISO 8336 Category C. Allowable uniform live load at maximum span, based on deflection of 1/360 of span, is 100 psf.

    11. k.Unsupported edges shall have tongue-and-groove joints or shall be supported by blocking unless nominal 1/4-inch-thick wood panel-type underlayment, fiber-cement underlayment with end and edge joints offset not less than 2 inches or 3/4-inch wood finish flooring is installed at right angles to the supports. Fiber-cement underlayment shall comply with ASTM C1288 or ISO 8336 Category C. Allowable uniform live load at maximum span, based on deflection of 1/360 of span, is 100 psf, except panels with a span rating of 48 on center are limited to 65 psf total uniform load at maximum span.

    12. l.Allowable live load values at spans of 16 inches on center and 24 inches on center taken from reference standard APA E30, APA Engineered Wood Construction Guide. Refer to reference standard for allowable spans not listed in the table.

    TABLE R503.2.1.1(2)

    ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR SANDED PLYWOOD COMBINATION SUBFLOOR UNDERLAYMENTa

    IDENTIFICATIONSPACING OF JOISTS (inches)
    162024
    Species groupb
    11/25/83/4
    2, 35/83/47/8
    43/47/81

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

    1. a.Plywood continuous over two or more spans and face grain perpendicular to supports. Unsupported edges shall be tongue-and-groove or blocked except where nominal 1/4-inch-thick wood panel-type underlayment, fiber-cement underlayment or 3/4-inch wood finish floor is used. Fiber-cement underlayment shall comply with ASTM C 1288 or ISO 8336 Category C. Allowable uniform live load at maximum span based on deflection of 1/360 of span is 100 psf.

    2. b.Applicable to all grades of sanded exterior-type plywood.

    R503.2.2 Allowable spans.

    The maximum allowable span for wood structural panels used as subfloor or combination subfloor underlayment shall be as set forth in Table R503.2.1.1(1), or APA E30. The maximum span for sanded plywood combination subfloor underlayment shall be as set forth in Table R503.2.1.1(2).

    R503.2.3 Installation.

    Wood structural panels used as subfloor or combination subfloor underlayment shall be attached to wood framing in accordance with Table R602.3(1) and shall be attached to cold-formed steel framing in accordance with Table R505.3.1(2).

    R503.3 Particleboard.

    R503.3.1 Identification and grade.

    Particleboard shall conform to ANSI A208.1 and shall be so identified by a grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency.

    R503.3.2 Floor underlayment.

    Particleboard floor underlayment shall conform to Type PBU and shall be not less than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) in thickness.

    R503.3.3 Installation.

    Particleboard underlayment shall be installed in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer and attached to framing in accordance with Table R602.3(1).

    SECTIONR504
    PRESSURE PRESERVATIVE-TREATED WOOD FLOORS (ON GROUND)

    R504.1 General.

    Pressure preservative treated-wood basement floors and floors on ground shall be designed to withstand axial forces and bending moments resulting from lateral soil pressures at the base of the exterior walls and floor live and dead loads. Floor framing shall be designed to meet joist deflection requirements in accordance with Section R301.

    R504.1.1 Unbalanced soil loads.

    Unless special provision is made to resist sliding caused by unbalanced lateral soil loads, wood basement floors shall be limited to applications where the differential depth of fill on opposite exterior foundation walls is 2 feet (610 mm) or less.

    R504.1.2 Construction.

    Joists in wood basement floors shall bear tightly against the narrow face of studs in the foundation wall or directly against a band joist that bears on the studs. Plywood subfloor shall be continuous over lapped joists or over butt joints between in-line joists. Sufficient blocking shall be provided between joists to transfer lateral forces at the base of the end walls into the floor system.

    R504.1.3 Uplift and buckling.

    Where required, resistance to uplift or restraint against buckling shall be provided by interior bearing walls or properly designed stub walls anchored in the supporting soil below.

    R504.2 Site preparation.

    The area within the foundation walls shall have all vegetation, topsoil and foreign material removed, and any fill material that is added shall be free of vegetation and foreign material. The fill shall be compacted to ensure uniform support of the pressure preservative treated-wood floor sleepers.

    R504.2.1 Base.

    A minimum 4-inch-thick (102 mm) granular base of gravel having a maximum size of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) or crushed stone having a maximum size of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) shall be placed over the compacted earth.

    R504.2.2 Moisture barrier.

    Polyethylene sheeting of minimum 6-mil (0.15 mm) thickness shall be placed over the granular base. Joints shall be lapped 6 inches (152 mm) and left unsealed. The polyethylene membrane shall be placed over the pressure preservative treated-wood sleepers and shall not extend beneath the footing plates of the exterior walls.

    R504.3 Materials.

    Framing materials, including sleepers, joists, blocking and plywood subflooring, shall be pressure-preservative treated and dried after treatment in accordance with AWPA U1 (Commodity Specification A, Use Category 4B and Section 5.2), and shall bear the label of an accredited agency.

    SECTIONR505
    COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR FRAMING

    R505.1 Cold-formed steel floor framing.

    Elements shall be straight and free of any defects that would significantly affect structural performance. Cold-formed steel floor framing members shall be in accordance with the requirements of this section.

    R505.1.1 Applicability limits.

    The provisions of this section shall control the construction of cold-formed steel floor framing for buildings not greater than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in length perpendicular to the joist span, not greater than 40 feet (12 192 mm) in width parallel to the joist span and less than or equal to three stories above grade plane. Cold-formed steel floor framing constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be limited to sites where the ultimate design wind speed is less than 139 miles per hour (62 m/s), Exposure Category B or C, and the ground snow load is less than or equal to 70 pounds per square foot (3.35 kPa).

    R505.1.2 In-line framing.

    Where supported by cold-formed steel framed walls in accordance with Section R603, cold-formed steel floor framing shall be constructed with floor joists located in-line with load-bearing studs located below the joists in accordance with Figure R505.1.2 and the tolerances specified as follows:

    1. 1.The maximum tolerance shall be 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) between the centerline of the horizontal framing member and the centerline of the vertical framing member.

    2. 2.Where the centerline of the horizontal framing member and bearing stiffener are located to one side of the centerline of the vertical framing member, the maximum tolerance shall be 1/8 inch (3 mm) between the web of the horizontal framing member and the edge of the vertical framing member.

    IN-LINE FRAMING

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE R505.1.2

    IN-LINE FRAMING

    R505.1.3 Floor trusses.

    Cold-formed steel trusses shall be designed, braced and installed in accordance with AISI S100, Section D4. In the absence of specific bracing requirements, trusses shall be braced in accordance with accepted industry practices, such as the SBCA Cold-Formed Steel Building Component Safety Information (CFSBCSI), Guide to Good Practice for Handling, Installing & Bracing of Cold-Formed Steel Trusses. Truss members shall not be notched, cut or altered in any manner without an approved design.

    R505.2 Structural framing.

    Load-bearing cold-formed steel floor framing members shall be in accordance with this section.

    R505.2.1 Material.

    Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing members shall be cold formed to shape from structural quality sheet steel complying with the requirements of ASTM A 1003: Structural Grades 33 Type H and 50 Type H.

    R505.2.2 Corrosion protection.

    Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing shall have a metallic coating complying with ASTM A 1003 and one of the following:

    1. 1.A minimum of G 60 in accordance with ASTM A 653.

    2. 2.A minimum of AZ 50 in accordance with ASTM A 792.

    R505.2.3 Dimension, thickness and material grade.

    Load-bearing cold-formed steel floor framing members shall comply with Figure R505.2.3(1) and with the dimensional and thickness requirements specified in Table R505.2.3. Additionally, all C-shaped sections shall have a minimum flange width of 1.625 inches (41 mm) and a maximum flange width of 2 inches (51 mm). The minimum lip size for C-shaped sections shall be 1/2 inch (12.7 mm). Track sections shall comply with Figure R505.2.3(2) and shall have a minimum flange width of 11/4 inch (32 mm). Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used wherever 33 mil and 43 mil thicknesses are specified. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used wherever 54 and 68 mil thicknesses are specified.

    C-SHAPED SECTION

    FIGURE R505.2.3(1)

    C-SHAPED SECTION

    TRACK SECTION

    FIGURE R505.2.3(2)

    TRACK SECTION

    TABLE R505.2.3

    COLD-FORMED STEEL JOIST SIZES AND THICKNESS

    MEMBER DESIGNATIONaWEB DEPTH (inches)MINIMUM BASE STEEL THICKNESS mil (inches)
    550S162-t5.533 (0.0329), 43 (0.0428), 54 (0.0538), 68 (0.0677)
    800S162-t833 (0.0329), 43 (0.0428), 54 (0.0538), 68 (0.0677)
    1000S162-t1043 (0.0428), 54 (0.0538), 68 (0.0677)
    1200S162-t1243 (0.0428), 54 (0.0538), 68 (0.0677)

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm.

    1. a.The member designation is defined by the first number representing the member depth in 0.01 inch, the letter “S” representing a stud or joist member, the second number representing the flange width in 0.01 inch, and the letter “t” shall be a number representing the minimum base metal thickness in mils.

    R505.2.4 Identification.

    Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing members shall have a legible label, stencil, stamp or embossment with the following information as a minimum:

    1. 1.Manufacturer’s identification.

    2. 2.Minimum base steel thickness in inches (mm).

    3. 3.Minimum coating designation.

    4. 4.Minimum yield strength, in kips per square inch (ksi) (MPa).

    R505.2.5 Fastening.

    Screws for steel-to-steel connections shall be installed with a minimum edge distance and center-to-center spacing of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm), shall be self-drilling tapping, and shall conform to ASTM C 1513. Floor sheathing shall be attached to cold-formed steel joists with minimum No. 8 self-drilling tapping screws that conform to ASTM C 1513. Screws attaching floor sheathing to cold-formed steel joists shall have a minimum head diameter of 0.292 inch (7.4 mm) with countersunk heads and shall be installed with a minimum edge distance of 3/8 inch (9.5 mm). Gypsum board ceilings shall be attached to cold-formed steel joists with minimum No. 6 screws conforming to ASTM C 954 or ASTM C 1513 with a bugle head style and shall be installed in accordance with Section R702. For all connections, screws shall extend through the steel a minimum of three exposed threads. All fasteners shall have rust-inhibitive coating suitable for the installation in which they are being used, or be manufactured from material not susceptible to corrosion.

    R505.2.6 Web holes, web hole reinforcing and web hole patching.

    Web holes, web hole reinforcing, and web hole patching shall be in accordance with this section.

    R505.2.6.1 Web holes.

    Web holes in floor joists shall comply with all of the following conditions:

    1. 1.Holes shall conform to Figure R505.2.6.1.

    2. 2.Holes shall be permitted only along the centerline of the web of the framing member.

    3. 3.Holes shall have a center-to-center spacing of not less than 24 inches (610 mm).

    4. 4.Holes shall have a web hole width not greater than 0.5 times the member depth, or 21/2 inches (64.5 mm).

    5. 5.Holes shall have a web hole length not exceeding 41/2 inches (114 mm).

    6. 6.Holes shall have a minimum distance between the edge of the bearing surface and the edge of the web hole of not less than 10 inches (254 mm).

    Framing members with web holes not conforming to the above requirements shall be reinforced in accordance with Section R505.2.6.2, patched in accordance with Section R505.2.6.3 or designed in accordance with accepted engineering practices.

    FLOOR JOIST WEB HOLES

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE R505.2.6.1

    FLOOR JOIST WEB HOLES

    R505.2.6.2 Web hole reinforcing.

    Reinforcement of web holes in floor joists not conforming to the requirements of Section R505.2.6.1 shall be permitted if the hole is located fully within the center 40 percent of the span and the depth and length of the hole does not exceed 65 percent of the flat width of the web. The reinforcing shall be a steel plate or C-shape section with a hole that does not exceed the web hole size limitations of Section R505.2.6.1 for the member being reinforced. The steel reinforcing shall be the same thickness as the receiving member and shall extend not less than 1 inch (25 mm) beyond all edges of the hole. The steel reinforcing shall be fastened to the web of the receiving member with No. 8 screws spaced not more than 1 inch (25 mm) center-to-center along the edges of the patch with minimum edge distance of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).

    R505.2.6.3 Hole patching.

    Patching of web holes in floor joists not conforming to the requirements in Section R505.2.6.1 shall be permitted in accordance with either of the following methods:

    1. 1.Framing members shall be replaced or designed in accordance with accepted engineering practices where web holes exceed the following size limits:

      1. 1.1.The depth of the hole, measured across the web, exceeds 70 percent of the flat width of the web.

      2. 1.2.The length of the hole, measured along the web, exceeds 10 inches (254 mm) or the depth of the web, whichever is greater.

    2. 2.Web holes not exceeding the dimensional requirements in Section R505.2.6.3, Item 1, shall be patched with a solid steel plate, stud section or track section in accordance with Figure R505.2.6.3. The steel patch shall, as a minimum, be of the same thickness as the receiving member and shall extend not less than 1 inch (25 mm) beyond all edges of the hole. The steel patch shall be fastened to the web of the receiving member with No. 8 screws spaced not more than 1 inch (25 mm) center-to-center along the edges of the patch with minimum edge distance of 1/2 inch (12.7 mm).

    FLOOR JOIST WEB HOLE PATCH

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE R505.2.6.3

    FLOOR JOIST WEB HOLE PATCH

    R505.3 Floor construction.

    Cold-formed steel floors shall be constructed in accordance with this section.

    R505.3.1 Floor to foundation or load-bearing wall connections.

    Cold-formed steel framed floors shall be anchored to foundations, wood sills or load-bearing walls in accordance with Table R505.3.1(1) and Figure R505.3.1(1), R505.3.1(2), R505.3.1(3), R505.3.1(4), R505.3.1(5) or R505.3.1(6). Anchor bolts shall be located not more than 12 inches (305 mm) from corners or the termination of bottom tracks. Continuous cold-formed steel joists supported by interior load-bearing walls shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R505.3.1(7). Lapped cold-formed steel joists shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R505.3.1(8). End floor joists constructed on foundation walls parallel to the joist span shall be doubled unless a C-shaped bearing stiffener, sized in accordance with Section R505.3.4, is installed web-to-web with the floor joist beneath each supported wall stud, as shown in Figure R505.3.1(9). Fastening of cold-formed steel joists to other framing members shall be in accordance with Section R505.2.5 and Table R505.3.1(2).

    TABLE R505.3.1(1)

    FLOOR TO FOUNDATION OR BEARING WALL CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa, b

    FRAMING CONDITIONBASIC ULTIMATE WIND SPEED (mph) AND EXPOSURE
    110 mph Exposure Category C or less than 139 mph Exposure Category BLess than 139 mph Exposure Category C
    Floor joist to wall track of exterior wall in accordance with Figure R505.3.1(1)2-No. 8 screws3-No. 8 screws
    Rim track or end joist to load-bearing wall top track in accordance with Figure R505.3.1(1)1-No. 8 screw at 24 inches o.c.1-No. 8 screw at 24 inches o.c.
    Rim track or end joist to wood sill in accordance with Figure R505.3.1(2)Steel plate spaced at 4 feet o.c. with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nailsSteel plate spaced at 2 feet o.c. with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails
    Rim track or end joist to foundation in accordance with Figure R505.3.1(3)1/2 inch minimum diameter anchor bolt and clip angle spaced at 6 feet o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws1/2 inch minimum diameter anchor bolt and clip angle spaced at 4 feet o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws
    Cantilevered joist to foundation in accordance with Figure R505.3.1(4)1/2 inch minimum diameter anchor bolt and clip angle spaced at 6 feet o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws1/2 inch minimum diameter anchor bolt and clip angle spaced at 4 feet o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws
    Cantilevered joist to wood sill in accordance with Figure R505.3.1(5)Steel plate spaced at 4 feet o.c. with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nailsSteel plate spaced at 2 feet o.c. with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails
    Cantilevered joist to exterior load-bearing wall track in accordance with Figure R505.3.1(6)2-No. 8 screws3-No. 8 screws

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    1. a.Anchor bolts are to be located not more than 12 inches from corners or the termination of bottom tracks such as at door openings or corners. Bolts extend a minimum of 15 inches into masonry or 7 inches into concrete. Anchor bolts connecting cold-formed steel framing to the foundation structure are to be installed so that the distance from the center of the bolt hole to the edge of the connected member is not less than one and one-half bolt diameters.

    2. b.All screw sizes shown are minimum.

    TABLE R505.3.1(2)

    FLOOR FASTENING SCHEDULEa

    DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENTSNUMBER AND SIZE OF FASTENERSSPACING OF FASTENERS
    Floor joist to track of an interior load-bearing wall in accordance with Figures R505.3.1(7) and R505.3.1(8)2 No. 8 screwsEach joist
    Floor joist to track at end of joist2 No. 8 screwsOne per flange or two per bearing stiffener
    Subfloor to floor joistsNo. 8 screws6 in. o.c. on edges and 12 in. o.c. at intermediate supports

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    1. a.All screw sizes shown are minimum.

    FLOOR TO EXTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL STUD CONNECTION

    For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE 505.3.1(1)

    FLOOR TO EXTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL STUD CONNECTION

    FLOOR TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION

    For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE R505.3.1(2)

    FLOOR TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION

    FLOOR TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION

    For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE R505.3.1(3)

    FLOOR TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION

    CANTILEVERED FLOOR TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION

    For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm.

    FIGURE R505.3.1(4)

    CANTILEVERED FLOOR TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION

    CANTILEVERED FLOOR TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION

    For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE R505.3.1(5)

    CANTILEVERED FLOOR TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION

    CANTILEVERED FLOOR TO EXTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL CONNECTION

    For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm.

    FIGURE R505.3.1(6)

    CANTILEVERED FLOOR TO EXTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL CONNECTION

    CONTINUOUS SPAN JOIST SUPPORTED ON INTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL

    For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE R505.3.1(7)

    CONTINUOUS SPAN JOIST SUPPORTED ON INTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL

    LAPPED JOISTS SUPPORTED ON INTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE R505.3.1(8)

    LAPPED JOISTS SUPPORTED ON INTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL

    BEARING STIFFENERS FOR END JOISTS

    FIGURE R505.3.1(9)

    BEARING STIFFENERS FOR END JOISTS

    R505.3.2 Minimum floor joist sizes.

    Floor joist size and thickness shall be determined in accordance with the limits set forth in Table R505.3.2 for single or continuous spans. Where continuous joist members are used, the interior bearing supports shall be located within 2 feet (610 mm) of midspan of the cold-formed steel joists, and the individual spans shall not exceed the spans in Table R505.3.2. Floor joists shall have a bearing support length of not less than 1 1/2 inches (38 mm) for exterior wall supports and 31/2 inches (89 mm) for interior wall supports. Tracks shall be not less than 33 mils (0.84 mm) thick except when used as part of a floor header or trimmer in accordance with Section R505.3.8. Bearing stiffeners shall be installed in accordance with Section R505.3.4.

    TABLE R505.3.2

    ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR COLD-FORMED STEEL JOISTS—SINGLE OR CONTINUOUS SPANSa, b, c, d, e

    JOIST DESIGNATION30 PSF LIVE LOAD40 PSF LIVE LOAD
    Spacing (inches)Spacing (inches)
    121619.224121619.224
    550S162-3311′-7″10′-7″9′-6″8′-6″10′-7″9′-3″8′-6″7′-6″
    550S162-4312′-8″11′-6″10′-10″10′-2″11′-6″10′-5″9′-10″9′-l″
    550S162-5413′-7″12′-4″11′-7″10′-9″12′-4″11′-2″10′-6″9′-9″
    550S162-6814′-7″13′-3″12′-6″11′-7″13′-3″12′-0″11′-4″10′-6″
    800S162-3315′-8″13′-11″12′-9″11′-5″14′-3″12′-5″11′-3″9′-0″
    800S162-4317′-1″15′-6″14′-7″13′-7″15′-6″14′-1″13′-3″12′-4″
    800S162-5418′-4″16′-8″15′-8″14′-7″16′-8″15′-2″14′-3″13′-3″
    800S162-6819′-9″17′-11″16′-10″15′-8″17′-11″16′-3″15′-4″14′-2″
    1000S162-4320′-6″18′-8″17′-6″15′-8″18′-8″16′-11″15′-6″13′-11″
    1000S162-5422′-1″20′-0″18′-10″17′-6″20′-0″18′-2″17′-2″15′-11″
    1000S162-6823′-9″21′-7″20′-3″18′-10″21′-7″19′-7″18′-5″17′-1″
    1200S162-4323′-9″20′-10″19′-0″16′-8″21′-5″18′-6″16′-6″13′-2″
    1200S162-5425′-9″23′-4″22′-0″20′-1″23′-4″21′-3″20′-0″17′-10″
    1200S162-6827′-8″25′-1″23′-8″21′-11″25′-1″22′-10″21′-6″21′-1″

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm.

    1. a.Deflection criteria: L/480 for live loads, L/240 for total loads.

    2. b.Floor dead load = 10 psf.

    3. c.Table provides the maximum clear span in feet and inches.

    4. d.Bearing stiffeners are to be installed at all support points and concentrated loads.

    5. e.Minimum Grade 33 ksi steel shall be used for 33 mil and 43 mil thickness. Minimum Grade 50 ksi steel shall be used for 54 and 68 mil thickness.

    R505.3.3 Joist bracing and blocking.

    Joist bracing and blocking shall be in accordance with this section.

    R505.3.3.1 Joist top flange bracing.

    The top flanges of cold-formed steel joists shall be laterally braced by the application of floor sheathing fastened to the joists in accordance with Section R505.2.5 and Table R505.3.1(2).

    R505.3.3.2 Joist bottom flange bracing/blocking.

    Floor joists with spans that exceed 12 feet (3658 mm) shall have the bottom flanges laterally braced in accordance with one of the following:

    1. 1.Gypsum board installed with minimum No. 6 screws in accordance with Section R702.

    2. 2.Continuous steel straps installed in accordance with Figure R505.3.3.2(1). Steel straps shall be spaced at a maximum of 12 feet (3658 mm) on center and shall be at least 11/2 inches (38 mm) in width and 33 mils (0.84 mm) in thickness. Straps shall be fastened to the bottom flange of each joist with one No. 8 screw, fastened to blocking with two No. 8 screws, and fastened at each end (of strap) with two No. 8 screws. Blocking in accordance with Figure R505.3.3.2(1) or R505.3.3.2(2) shall be installed between joists at each end of the continuous strapping and at a maximum spacing of 12 feet (3658 mm) measured along the continuous strapping (perpendicular to the joist run). Blocking shall also be located at the termination of all straps. As an alternative to blocking at the ends, anchoring the strap to a stable building component with two No. 8 screws shall be permitted.

    JOIST BLOCKING (SOLID)

    For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254, 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE R505.3.3.2(1)

    JOIST BLOCKING (SOLID)

    JOIST BLOCKING (STRAP)

    For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254, 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE R505.3.3.2(2)

    JOIST BLOCKING (STRAP)

    R505.3.3.3 Blocking at interior bearing supports.

    Blocking is not required for continuous back-to-back floor joists at bearing supports. Blocking shall be installed between every other joist for single continuous floor joists across bearing supports in accordance with Figure R505.3.1(7). Blocking shall consist of C-shape or track section with a minimum thickness of 33 mils (0.84 mm). Blocking shall be fastened to each adjacent joist through a 33-mil (0.84 mm) clip angle, bent web of blocking or flanges of web stiffeners with two No. 8 screws on each side. The minimum depth of the blocking shall be equal to the depth of the joist minus 2 inches (51 mm). The minimum length of the angle shall be equal to the depth of the joist minus 2 inches (51 mm).

    R505.3.3.4 Blocking at cantilevers.

    Blocking shall be installed between every other joist over cantilever bearing supports in accordance with Figure R505.3.1(4), R505.3.1(5) or R505.3.1(6). Blocking shall consist of C-shape or track section with minimum thickness of 33 mils (0.84 mm). Blocking shall be fastened to each adjacent joist through bent web of blocking, 33 mil clip angle or flange of web stiffener with two No. 8 screws at each end. The depth of the blocking shall be equal to the depth of the joist. The minimum length of the angle shall be equal to the depth of the joist minus 2 inches (51 mm). Blocking shall be fastened through the floor sheathing and to the support with three No. 8 screws (top and bottom).

    R505.3.4 Bearing stiffeners.

    Bearing stiffeners shall be installed at each joist bearing location in accordance with this section, except for joists lapped over an interior support not carrying a load-bearing wall above. Floor joists supporting jamb studs with multiple members shall have two bearing stiffeners in accordance with Figure R505.3.4(1). Bearing stiffeners shall be fabricated from a C-shaped, track or clip angle member in accordance with the one of following:

    1. 1.C-shaped bearing stiffeners:

      1. 1.1.Where the joist is not carrying a load-bearing wall above, the bearing stiffener shall be a minimum 33 mil (0.84 mm) thickness.

      2. 1.2.Where the joist is carrying a load-bearing wall above, the bearing stiffener shall be not less than the same designation thickness as the wall stud above.

    2. 2.Track bearing stiffeners:

      1. 2.1.Where the joist is not carrying a load-bearing wall above, the bearing stiffener shall be a minimum 43 mil (1.09 mm) thickness.

      2. 2.2.Where the joist is carrying a load-bearing wall above, the bearing stiffener shall be not less than one designation thickness greater than the wall stud above.

    The minimum length of a bearing stiffener shall be the depth of member being stiffened minus 3/8 inch (9.5 mm). Each bearing stiffener shall be fastened to the web of the member it is stiffening as shown in Figure R505.3.4(2).

    BEARING STIFFENERS UNDER JAMB STUDS

    FIGURE R505.3.4(1)

    BEARING STIFFENERS UNDER JAMB STUDS

    BEARING STIFFENER

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE R505.3.4(2)

    BEARING STIFFENER

    R505.3.5 Cutting and notching.

    Flanges and lips of load-bearing cold-formed steel floor framing members shall not be cut or notched.

    R505.3.6 Floor cantilevers.

    Floor cantilevers for the top floor of a two- or three-story building or the first floor of a one-story building shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm). Cantilevers, not exceeding 24 inches (610 mm) and supporting two stories and roof (first floor of a two-story building), shall be permitted provided that all cantilevered joists are doubled (nested or back-to-back). The doubled cantilevered joists shall extend not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) toward the inside and shall be fastened with not less than two No. 8 screws spaced at 24 inches (610 mm) on center through the webs (for back-to-back) or flanges (for nested joists).

    R505.3.7 Splicing.

    Joists and other structural members shall not be spliced. Splicing of tracks shall conform to Figure R505.3.7.

    TRACK SPLICE

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE R505.3.7

    TRACK SPLICE

    R505.3.8 Framing of floor openings.

    Openings in floors shall be framed with header and trimmer joists. Header joist spans shall not exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) or 8 feet (2438 mm) in length in accordance with Figure R505.3.8(1) or R505.3.8(2), respectively. Header and trimmer joists shall be fabricated from joist and track members, having a minimum size and thickness at least equivalent to the adjacent floor joists, and shall be installed in accordance with Figures R505.3.8(1), R505.3.8(2), R505.3.8(3) and R505.3.8(4). Each header joist shall be connected to trimmer joists with four 2-inch by 2-inch (51-mm by 51-mm) clip angles. Each clip angle shall be fastened to both the header and trimmer joists with four No. 8 screws, evenly spaced, through each leg of the clip angle. The clip angles shall have a thickness not less than that of the floor joist. Each track section for a built-up header or trimmer joist shall extend the full length of the joist (continuous).

    COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION—6-FOOT FLOOR OPENING

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    FIGURE R505.3.8(1)

    COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION—6-FOOT FLOOR OPENING

    COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION—8-FOOT FLOOR OPENING

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    FIGURE R505.3.8(2)

    COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION—8-FOOT FLOOR OPENING

    COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: FLOOR HEADER TO TRIMMER CONNECTION—6-FOOT OPENING

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    FIGURE R505.3.8(3)

    COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: FLOOR HEADER TO TRIMMER CONNECTION—6-FOOT OPENING

    COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: FLOOR HEADER TO TRIMMER CONNECTION—8-FOOT OPENING

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    FIGURE R505.3.8(4)

    COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: FLOOR HEADER TO TRIMMER CONNECTION—8-FOOT OPENING

    SECTIONR506
    CONCRETE FLOORS (ON GROUND)

    R506.1 General.

    Concrete slab-on-ground floors shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section or ACI 332. Floors shall be a minimum 31/2 inches (89 mm) thick (for expansive soils, see Section R403.1.8). The specified compressive strength of concrete shall be as set forth in Section R402.2.

    R506.2 Site preparation.

    The area within the foundation walls shall have all vegetation, top soil and foreign material removed.

    R506.2.1 Fill.

    Fill material shall be free of vegetation and foreign material. The fill shall be compacted to ensure uniform support of the slab, and except where approved, the fill depths shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) for clean sand or gravel and 8 inches (203 mm) for earth.

    R506.2.2 Base.

    A 4-inch-thick (102 mm) base course consisting of clean graded sand, gravel, crushed stone, crushed concrete or crushed blast-furnace slag passing a 2-inch (51 mm) sieve shall be placed on the prepared sub-grade where the slab is below grade.

    Exception: A base course is not required where the concrete slab is installed on well-drained or sand-gravel mixture soils classified as Group I according to the United Soil Classification System in accordance with Table R405.1.

    R506.2.3 Vapor retarder.

    A 6-mil (0.006 inch; 152 µm) polyethylene or approved vapor retarder with joints lapped not less than 6 inches (152 mm) shall be placed between the concrete floor slab and the base course or the prepared subgrade where no base course exists.

    Exception: The vapor retarder is not required for the following:

    1. 1.Garages, utility buildings and other unheated accessory structures.

    2. 2.For unheated storage rooms having an area of less than 70 square feet (6.5 m2) and carports.

    3. 3.Driveways, walks, patios and other flatwork not likely to be enclosed and heated at a later date.

    4. 4.Where approved by the building official, based on local site conditions.

    R506.2.4 Reinforcement support.

    Where provided in slabs-on-ground, reinforcement shall be supported to remain in place from the center to upper one-third of the slab for the duration of the concrete placement.

    SECTIONR507
    EXTERIOR DECKS

    R507.1 Decks.

    Wood-framed decks shall be in accordance with this section or Section R301 for materials and conditions not prescribed herein. Where supported by attachment to an exterior wall, decks shall be positively anchored to the primary structure and designed for both vertical and lateral loads.

    Such attachment shall not be accomplished by the use of toenails or nails subject to withdrawal. Where positive connection to the primary building structure cannot be verified during inspection, decks shall be self-supporting. For decks with cantilevered framing members connections to exterior walls or other framing members shall be designed and constructed to resist uplift resulting from the full live load specified in Table R301.5 acting on the cantilevered portion of the deck.

    R507.2 Deck ledger connection to band joist.

    Deck ledger connections to band joists shall be in accordance with this section, Tables R507.2 and R507.2.1, and Figures R507.2.1(1) and R507.2.1(2). For other grades, species, connection details and loading conditions, deck ledger connections shall be designed in accordance with Section R301.

    TABLE R507.2

    DECK LEDGER CONNECTION TO BAND JOISTa, b (Deck live load = 40 psf, deck dead load = 10 psf, snow load ≤ 40 psf)

    CONNECTION DETAILSJOIST SPAN
    6′ and less6′1″ to 8′8′1″ to 10′10′1″ to 12′12′1″ to 14′14′1″ to 16′16′1″ to 18′
    On-center spacing of fasteners
    1/2-inch diameter lag screw with 1/2-inch maximum sheathingc, d30231815131110
    1/2-inch diameter bolt with 1/2-inch maximum sheathingd36363429242119
    1/2-inch diameter bolt with 1-inch maximum sheathinge36362924211816

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.

    1. a.Ledgers shall be flashed in accordance with Section R703.4 to prevent water from contacting the house band joist.

    2. b.Snow load shall not be assumed to act concurrently with live load.

    3. c.The tip of the lag screw shall fully extend beyond the inside face of the band joist.

    4. d.Sheathing shall be wood structural panel or solid sawn lumber.

    5. e.Sheathing shall be permitted to be wood structural panel, gypsum board, fiberboard, lumber or foam sheathing. Up to 1/2-inch thickness of stacked washers shall be permitted to substitute for up to 1/2 inch of allowable sheathing thickness where combined with wood structural panel or lumber sheathing.

    R507.2.1 Ledger details.

    Deck ledgers installed in accordance with Section R507.2 shall be a minimum 2-inch by 8-inch (51 mm by 203 mm) nominal, pressure-preservative-treated southern pine, incised pressure-preservative-treated Hem-fir, or approved, naturally durable, No. 2 grade or better lumber. Deck ledgers installed in accordance with Section R507.2 shall not support concentrated loads from beams or girders. Deck ledgers shall not be supported on stone or masonry veneer.

    TABLE R507.2.1

    PLACEMENT OF LAG SCREWS AND BOLTS IN DECK LEDGERS AND BAND JOISTS

    MINIMUM END AND EDGE DISTANCES AND SPACING BETWEEN ROWS
    TOP EDGEBOTTOM EDGEENDSROW SPACING
    Ledgera2 inchesd3/4 inch2 inchesb15/8 inchesb
    Band Joistc3/4 inch2 inches2 inchesb15/8 inchesb

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    1. a.Lag screws or bolts shall be staggered from the top to the bottom along the horizontal run of the deck ledger in accordance with Figure R507.2.1(1).

    2. b.Maximum 5 inches.

    3. c.For engineered rim joists, the manufacturer’s recommendations shall govern.

    4. d.The minimum distance from bottom row of lag screws or bolts to the top edge of the ledger shall be in accordance with Figure R507.2.1(1).

    PLACEMENT OF LAG SCREWS AND BOLTS IN LEDGERS

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE R507.2.1(1)

    PLACEMENT OF LAG SCREWS AND BOLTS IN LEDGERS

    PLACEMENT OF LAG SCREWS AND BOLTS IN BAND JOISTS

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE R507.2.1(2)

    PLACEMENT OF LAG SCREWS AND BOLTS IN BAND JOISTS

    R507.2.2 Band joist details.

    Band joists attached by a ledger in accordance with Section R507.2 shall be a minimum 2-inch-nominal (51 mm), solid-sawn, spruce-pine-fir lumber or a minimum 1-inch by 91/2-inch (25 mm × 241 mm) dimensional, Douglas fir, laminated veneer lumber. Band joists attached by a ledger in accordance with Section R507.2 shall be fully supported by a wall or sill plate below.

    R507.2.3 Ledger to band joist fastener details.

    Fasteners used in deck ledger connections in accordance with Table R507.2 shall be hot-dipped galvanized or stainless steel and shall be installed in accordance with Table R507.2.1 and Figures R507.2.1(1) and R507.2.1(2).

    DECK ATTACHMENT FOR LATERAL LOADS

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE 507.2.3(1)

    DECK ATTACHMENT FOR LATERAL LOADS

    DECK ATTACHMENT FOR LATERAL LOADS

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    FIGURE R507.2.3(2)

    DECK ATTACHMENT FOR LATERAL LOADS

    R507.2.4 Deck lateral load connection.

    The lateral load connection required by Section R507.1 shall be permitted to be in accordance with Figure R507.2.3(1) or R507.2.3(2). Where the lateral load connection is provided in accordance with Figure R507.2.3(1), hold-down tension devices shall be installed in not less than two locations per deck, within 24 inches of each end of the deck. Each device shall have an allowable stress design capacity of not less than 1,500 pounds (6672 N). Where the lateral load connections are provided in accordance with Figure R507.2.3(2), the hold-down tension devices shall be installed in not less than four locations per deck, and each device shall have an allowable stress design capacity of not less than 750 pounds (3336 N).

    R507.3 Plastic composite deck boards, stair treads, guards, or handrails.

    Plastic composite exterior deck boards, stair treads, guards and handrails shall comply with the requirements of ASTM D 7032 and the requirements of Section 507.3.

    R507.3.1 Labeling.

    Plastic composite deck boards and stair treads, or their packaging, shall bear a label that indicates compliance to ASTM D 7032 and includes the allowable load and maximum allowable span determined in accordance with ASTM D 7032. Plastic or composite handrails and guards, or their packaging, shall bear a label that indicates compliance to ASTM D 7032 and includes the maximum allowable span determined in accordance with ASTM D 7032.

    R507.3.2 Flame spread index.

    Plastic composite deck boards, stair treads, guards, and handrails shall exhibit a flame spread index not exceeding 200 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723 with the test specimen remaining in place during the test.

    Exception: Plastic composites determined to be non-combustible.

    R507.3.3 Decay resistance.

    Plastic composite deck boards, stair treads, guards and handrails containing wood, cellulosic or other biodegradable materials shall be decay resistant in accordance with ASTM D 7032.

    R507.3.4 Termite resistance.

    Where required by Section 318, plastic composite deck boards, stair treads, guards and handrails containing wood, cellulosic or other biodegradable materials shall be termite resistant in accordance with ASTM D 7032.

    507.3.5 Installation of plastic composites.

    Plastic composite deck boards, stair treads, guards and handrails shall be installed in accordance with this code and the manufacturer’s instructions.

    R507.4 Decking.

    Maximum allowable spacing for joists supporting decking shall be in accordance with Table R507.4. Wood decking shall be attached to each supporting member with not less than (2) 8d threaded nails or (2) No. 8 wood screws.

    TABLE R507.4

    MAXIMUM JOIST SPACING

    MATERIAL TYPE AND NOMINAL SIZEMAXIMUM ON-CENTER JOIST SPACING
    Perpendicular to joistDiagonal to joista
    11/4-inch-thick wood16 inches12 inches
    2-inch-thick wood24 inches16 inches
    Plastic compositeIn accordance with Section R507.3In accordance with Section R507.3

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 degree = 0.01745 rad.

    1. a.Maximum angle of 45 degrees from perpendicular for wood deck boards

    R507.5 Deck joists.

    Maximum allowable spans for wood deck joists, as shown in Figure R507.5, shall be in accordance with Table R507.5. Deck joists shall be permitted to cantilever not greater than one-fourth of the actual, adjacent joist span.

    TABLE R507.5

    DECK JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIESf (ft. - in.)

    SPECIESaSIZESPACING OF DECK JOISTS WITH NO CANTILEVERb (inches)SPACING OF DECK JOISTS WITH CANTILEVERSc (inches)
    121624121624
    Southern pine2 × 69-119-07-76-86-86-8
    2 × 813-111-109-810-110-19-8
    2 × 1016-214-011-514-614-011-5
    2 × 1218-016-613-618-016-613-6
    Douglas fir-larchd, hem-fird spruce-pine-fird2 × 69-68-87-26-36-36-3
    2 × 812-611-19-19-59-59-1
    2 × 1015-813-711-113-713-711-1
    2 × 1218-015-912-1018-015-912-10
    Redwood, western cedars, ponderosa pinee, red pinee2 × 68-108-07-05-75-75-7
    2 × 811-810-78-88-68-68-6
    2 × 1014-1113-010-712-312-310-7
    2 × 1217-515-112-416-515-112-4

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.

    1. a.No. 2 grade with wet service factor.

    2. b.Ground snow load, live load = 40 psf, dead load = 10 psf, L/Δ = 360.

    3. c.Ground snow load, live load = 40 psf, dead load = 10 psf, L/Δ = 360 at main span, L/Δ = 180 at cantilever with a 220-pound point load applied to end.

    4. d.Includes incising factor.

    5. e.Northern species with no incising factor

    6. f.Cantilevered spans not exceeding the nominal depth of the joist are permitted.

    TYPICAL DECK JOIST SPANS

    FIGURE R507.5

    TYPICAL DECK JOIST SPANS

    R507.5.1 Lateral restraint at supports.

    Joist ends and bearing locations shall be provided with lateral restraint to prevent rotation. Where lateral restraint is provided by joist hangers or blocking between joists, their depth shall equal not less than 60 percent of the joist depth. Where lateral restraint is provided by rim joists, they shall be secured to the end of each joist with not less than (3) 10d (3-inch × 0.128-inch) nails or (3) No. 10 × 3-inch (76 mm) long wood screws.

    R507.6 Deck Beams.

    Maximum allowable spans for wood deck beams, as shown in Figure R507.6, shall be in accordance with Table R507.6. Beam plies shall be fastened with two rows of 10d (3-inch × 0.128-inch) nails minimum at 16 inches (406 mm) on center along each edge. Beams shall be permitted to cantilever at each end up to one-fourth of the actual beam span. Splices of multispan beams shall be located at interior post locations.

    TABLE R507.6

    DECK BEAM SPAN LENGTHSa, b (ft. - in.)

    SPECIEScSIZEdDECK JOIST SPAN LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO: (feet)
    681012141618
    Southern pine2 − 2 × 66-115-115-44-104-64-34-0
    2 − 2 × 88-97-76-96-25-95-45-0
    2 − 2 × 1010-49-08-07-46-96-46-0
    2 − 2 × 1212-210-79-58-78-07-67-0
    3 − 2 × 68-27-56-86-15-85-35-0
    3 − 2 × 810-109-68-67-97-26-86-4
    3 − 2 × 1013-011-310-09-28-67-117-6
    3 − 2 × 1215-313-311-1010-910-09-48-10
    Douglas fir-larche, hem-fire, spruce-pine-fire, redwood, western cedars, ponderosa pinef, red pinef3 × 6 or 2 − 2 × 65-54-84-23-103-63-12-9
    3 × 8 or 2 − 2 × 86-105-115-44-104-64-13-8
    3 × 10 or 2 − 2 × 108-47-36-65-115-65-14-8
    3 × 12 or 2 − 2 × 129-88-57-66-106-45-115-7
    4 × 66-55-64-114-64-23-113-8
    4 × 88-57-36-65-115-65-24-10
    4 × 109-118-77-87-06-66-15-8
    4 × 1211-59-118-108-17-67-06-7
    3 − 2 × 67-46-86-05-65-14-94-6
    3 − 2 × 89-88-67-76-116-56-05-8
    3 − 2 × 1012-010-59-48-67-107-46-11
    3 − 2 × 1213-1112-110-99-109-18-68-1

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.

    1. a.Ground snow load, live load = 40 psf, dead load = 10 psf, L/Δ = 360 at main span, L/Δ = 180 at cantilever with a 220-pound point load applied at the end.

    2. b.Beams supporting deck joists from one side only.

    3. c.No. 2 grade, wet service factor.

    4. d.Beam depth shall be greater than or equal to depth of joists with a flush beam condition.

    5. e.Includes incising factor.

    6. f.Northern species. Incising factor not included.

    TYPICAL DECK BEAM SPANS

    FIGURE R507.6

    TYPICAL DECK BEAM SPANS

    R507.7 Deck joist and deck beam bearing.

    The ends of each joist and beam shall have not less than 11/2 inches (38 mm) of bearing on wood or metal and not less than 3 inches (76 mm) on concrete or masonry for the entire width of the beam. Joist framing into the side of a ledger board or beam shall be supported by approved joist hangers. Joists bearing on a beam shall be connected to the beam to resist lateral displacement.

    R507.7.1 Deck post to deck beam.

    Deck beams shall be attached to deck posts in accordance with Figure R507.7.1 or by other equivalent means capable to resist lateral displacement. Manufactured post-to-beam connectors shall be sized for the post and beam sizes. All bolts shall have washers under the head and nut.

    Exception: Where deck beams bear directly on footings in accordance with Section R507.8.1.

    DECK BEAM TO DECK POST

    For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

    FIGURE R507.7.1

    DECK BEAM TO DECK POST

    R507.8 Deck posts.

    For single-level wood-framed decks with beams sized in accordance with Table R507.6, deck post size shall be in accordance with Table R507.8.

    TABLE R507.8

    DECK POST HEIGHTa

    DECK POST SIZEMAXIMUM HEIGHTa
    4 × 48′
    4 × 68′
    6 × 614′

    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

    1. a.Measured to the underside of the beam.

    R507.8.1 Deck post to deck footing.

    Posts shall bear on footings in accordance with Section R403 and Figure R507.8.1. Posts shall be restrained to prevent lateral displacement at the bottom support. Such lateral restraint shall be provided by manufactured connectors installed in accordance with Section R507 and the manufacturers’ instructions or a minimum post embedment of 12 inches (305 mm) in surrounding soils or concrete piers.

    TYPICAL DECK POSTS TO DECK FOOTINGS

    FIGURE R507.8.1

    TYPICAL DECK POSTS TO DECK FOOTINGS

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