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  • CHAPTER13
    FUEL OIL PIPING AND STORAGE

    SECTION1301
    GENERAL

    1301.1 Scope.

    This chapter shall govern the design, installation, construction and repair of fuel-oil storage and piping systems. The storage of fuel oil and flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Chapters 6 and 57 of the International Fire Code.

    1301.2 Storage and piping systems.

    Fuel-oil storage systems shall comply with Section 603.3 of the International Fire Code. Fuel-oil piping systems shall comply with the requirements of this code.

    1301.3 Fuel type.

    An appliance shall be designed for use with the type of fuel to which it will be connected. Such appliance shall not be converted from the fuel specified on the rating plate for use with a different fuel without securing reapproval from the code official.

    1301.4 Fuel tanks, piping and valves.

    The tank, piping and valves for appliances burning oil shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of this chapter. Where an oil burner is served by a tank, any part of which is above the level of the burner inlet connection and where the fuel supply line is taken from the top of the tank, an approved antisiphon valve or other siphon-breaking device shall be installed in lieu of the shutoff valve.

    1301.5 Tanks abandoned or removed.

    All exterior above-grade fill piping shall be removed when tanks are abandoned or removed. Tank abandonment and removal shall be in accordance with Section 5704.2.13 of the International Fire Code.

    SECTION1302
    MATERIAL

    1302.1 General.

    Piping materials shall conform to the standards cited in this section.

    1302.2 Rated for system.

    All materials shall be rated for the operating temperatures and pressures of the system, and shall be compatible with the type of liquid.

    1302.3 Pipe standards.

    Fuel oil pipe shall comply with one of the standards listed in Table 1302.3.

    TABLE 1302.3

    FUEL OIL PIPING

    MATERIALSTANDARD (see Chapter 15)

    Copper or copper-alloy pipeASTM B 42; ASTM B 43; ASTM B 302
    Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K, L or M)ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 280; ASME B 16.51
    Labeled pipe(See Section 1302.4)
    Nonmetallic pipeASTM D 2996
    Steel pipeASTM A 53; ASTM A 106
    Steel tubingASTM A 254; ASTM A 539

    1302.4 Nonmetallic pipe.

    Nonmetallic pipe shall be listed and labeled as being acceptable for the intended application for flammable and combustible liquids. Nonmetallic pipe shall be installed only outside, underground.

    1302.5 Fittings and valves.

    Fittings and valves shall be approved for the piping systems, and shall be compatible with, or shall be of the same material as, the pipe or tubing.

    1302.6 Bending of pipe.

    Pipe shall be approved for bending. Pipe bends shall be made with approved equipment. The bend shall not exceed the structural limitations of the pipe.

    1302.7 Pumps.

    Pumps that are not part of an appliance shall be of a positive-displacement type. The pump shall automatically shut off the supply when not in operation. Pumps shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 343.

    1302.8 Flexible connectors and hoses.

    Flexible connectors and hoses shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 536.

    SECTION1303
    JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS

    1303.1 Approval.

    Joints and connections shall be approved and of a type approved for fuel-oil piping systems. Threaded joints and connections shall be made tight with suitable lubricant or pipe compound. Unions requiring gaskets or packings, right or left couplings, and sweat fittings employing solder having a melting point of less than 1,000°F (538°C) shall not be used in oil lines. Cast-iron fittings shall not be used. Joints and connections shall be tight for the pressure required by test.

    1303.1.1 Joints between different piping materials.

    Joints between different piping materials shall be made with approved adapter fittings. Joints between different metallic piping materials shall be made with approved dielectric fittings or brass converter fittings.

    1303.2 Preparation of pipe ends.

    Pipe shall be cut square, reamed and chamfered and be free from all burrs and obstructions. Pipe ends shall have full-bore openings and shall not be undercut.

    1303.3 Joint preparation and installation.

    Where required by Sections 1303.4 through 1303.10, the preparation and installation of brazed, mechanical, threaded and welded joints shall comply with Sections 1303.3.1 through 1303.3.4.

    1303.3.1 Brazed joints.

    All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joints shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5.8.

    1303.3.2 Mechanical joints.

    Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Press connect joints shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table 1302.3.

    1303.3.3 Threaded joints.

    Threads shall conform to ASME B1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on the male threads only.

    1303.3.4 Welded joints.

    All joint surfaces shall be cleaned by an approved procedure. The joint shall be welded with an approved filler metal.

    1303.4 Brass pipe.

    Joints between brass pipe or fittings shall be brazed, mechanical, threaded or welded joints complying with Section 1303.3.

    1303.5 Brass tubing.

    Joints between brass tubing or fittings shall be brazed or mechanical joints complying with Section 1303.3.

    1303.6 Copper or copper-alloy pipe.

    Joints between copper or copper-alloy pipe or fittings shall be brazed, mechanical, threaded or welded joints complying with Section 1303.3.

    1303.7 Copper or copper-alloy tubing.

    Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing or fittings shall be brazed, mechanical joints complying with Section 1303.3, press connect joints that conform to one of the standards in Table 1302.3 or flared joints. Flared joints shall be made by a tool designed for that operation.

    1303.8 Nonmetallic pipe.

    Joints between nonmetallic pipe or fittings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions for the labeled pipe and fittings.

    1303.9 Steel pipe.

    Joints between steel pipe or fittings shall be threaded or welded joints complying with Section 1303.3 or mechanical joints complying with Section 1303.9.1.

    1303.9.1 Mechanical joints.

    Joints shall be made with an approved elastomeric seal. Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Mechanical joints shall be installed outside, underground, unless otherwise approved.

    1303.10 Steel tubing.

    Joints between steel tubing or fittings shall be mechanical or welded joints complying with Section 1303.3.

    1303.11 Piping protection.

    Proper allowance shall be made for expansion, contraction, jarring and vibration. Piping other than tubing, connected to underground tanks, except straight fill lines and test wells, shall be provided with flexible connectors, or otherwise arranged to permit the tanks to settle without impairing the tightness of the piping connections.

    SECTION1304
    PIPING SUPPORT

    1304.1 General.

    Pipe supports shall be in accordance with Section 305.

    SECTION1305
    FUEL OIL SYSTEM INSTALLATION

    1305.1 Size.

    The fuel oil system shall be sized for the maximum capacity of fuel oil required. The minimum size of a supply line shall be 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) inside diameter nominal pipe or 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) od tubing. The minimum size of a return line shall be 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) inside diameter nominal pipe or 5/16-inch (7.9 mm) outside diameter tubing. Copper tubing shall have 0.035-inch (0.9 mm) nominal and 0.032-inch (0.8 mm) minimum wall thickness.

    1305.2 Protection of pipe, equipment and appliances.

    Fuel oil pipe, equipment and appliances shall be protected from physical damage.

    1305.2.1 Flood hazard.

    Fuel oil pipe, equipment and appliances located in flood hazard areas shall be located above the elevation required by Section 1612 of the International Building Code for utilities and attendant equipment or shall be capable of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and stresses, including the effects of buoyancy, during the occurrence of flooding up to such elevation.

    1305.3 Supply piping.

    Supply piping shall connect to the top of the fuel oil tank. Fuel oil shall be supplied by a transfer pump or automatic pump or by other approved means.

    Exception: This section shall not apply to inside or aboveground fuel oil tanks.

    1305.4 Return piping.

    Return piping shall connect to the top of the fuel oil tank. Valves shall not be installed on return piping.

    1305.5 System pressure.

    The system shall be designed for the maximum pressure required by the fuel-oil-burning appliance. Air or other gases shall not be used to pressurize tanks.

    1305.6 Fill piping.

    A fill pipe shall terminate outside of a building at a point not less than 2 feet (610 mm) from any building opening at the same or lower level. A fill pipe shall terminate in a manner designed to minimize spilling when the filling hose is disconnected. Fill opening shall be equipped with a tight metal cover designed to discourage tampering.

    1305.7 Vent piping.

    Liquid fuel vent pipes shall terminate outside of buildings at a point not less than 2 feet (610 mm) measured vertically or horizontally from any building opening. Outer ends of vent pipes shall terminate in a weather-proof vent cap or fitting or be provided with a weatherproof hood. Vent caps shall have a minimum free open area equal to the cross-sectional area of the vent pipe and shall not employ screens finer than No. 4 mesh. Vent pipes shall terminate sufficiently above the ground to avoid being obstructed with snow or ice. Vent pipes from tanks containing heaters shall be extended to a location where oil vapors discharging from the vent will be readily diffused. If the static head with a vent pipe filled with oil exceeds 10 pounds per square inch (psi) (69 kPa), the tank shall be designed for the maximum static head that will be imposed.

    Liquid fuel vent pipes shall not be cross connected with fill pipes, lines from burners or overflow lines from auxiliary tanks.

    SECTION1306
    OIL GAUGING

    1306.1 Level indication.

    Tanks in which a constant oil level is not maintained by an automatic pump shall be equipped with a method of determining the oil level.

    1306.2 Test wells.

    Test wells shall not be installed inside buildings. For outside service, test wells shall be equipped with a tight metal cover designed to discourage tampering.

    1306.3 Inside tanks.

    The gauging of inside tanks by means of measuring sticks shall not be permitted. An inside tank provided with fill and vent pipes shall be provided with a device to indicate either visually or audibly at the fill point when the oil in the tank has reached a predetermined safe level.

    1306.4 Gauging devices.

    Gauging devices such as liquid level indicators or signals shall be designed and installed so that oil vapor will not be discharged into a building from the liquid fuel supply system. Liquid-level indicating gauges shall comply with UL 180.

    1306.5 Gauge glass.

    A tank used in connection with any oil burner shall not be equipped with a glass gauge or any gauge which, when broken, will permit the escape of oil from the tank.

    SECTION1307
    FUEL OIL VALVES

    1307.1 Building shutoff.

    A shutoff valve shall be installed on the fuel-oil supply line at the entrance to the building. Inside or above-ground tanks are permitted to have valves installed at the tank. The valve shall be capable of stopping the flow of fuel oil to the building or to the appliance served where the valve is installed at a tank inside the building. Valves shall comply with UL 842.

    1307.2 Appliance shutoff.

    A shutoff valve shall be installed at the connection to each appliance where more than one fuel-oil-burning appliance is installed.

    1307.3 Pump relief valve.

    A relief valve shall be installed on the pump discharge line where a valve is located downstream of the pump and the pump is capable of exceeding the pressure limitations of the fuel oil system.

    1307.4 Fuel-oil heater relief valve.

    A relief valve shall be installed on the discharge line of fuel-oil-heating appliances.

    1307.5 Relief valve operation.

    The relief valve shall discharge fuel oil when the pressure exceeds the limitations of the system. The discharge line shall connect to the fuel oil tank.

    SECTION1308
    TESTING

    1308.1 Testing required.

    Fuel oil piping shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 31.

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